WorldWideScience

Sample records for water vapour profile

  1. Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vaughan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an investigation of upper tropospheric humidity profiles measured with a standard radiosonde, the Vaisala RS80-A, and a commercial frost-point hygrometer, the Snow White. Modifications to the Snow White, to enable the mirror reflectivity and Peltier cooling current to be monitored during flight, were found to be necessary to determine when the instrument was functioning correctly; a further modification to prevent hydrometeors entering the inlet was also implemented. From 23 combined flights of an ozonesonde, radiosonde and Snow White between September 2001 and July 2002, clear agreement was found between the two humidity sensors, with a mean difference of <2% in relative humidity from 2 to 10km, and 2.2% between 10 and 13km. This agreement required a correction to the radiosonde humidity, as described by Miloshevich et al. (2001. Using this result, the dataset of 324 ozonesonde/RS80-A profiles measured from Aberystwyth between 1991 and 2002 was examined to derive statistics for the distribution of water vapour and ozone. Supersaturation with respect to ice was frequently seen at the higher levels - 24% of the time in winter between 8 and 10km. The fairly uniform distribution of relative humidity persisted to 120% in winter, but decreased rapidly above 100% in summer.

  2. Remote sensing of water vapour profiles in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that the near infrared solar absorption spectra recorded in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON can be used to derive the vertical distribution of tropospheric water vapour. The resolution of the TCCON spectra of 0.02 cm−1 is sufficient for retrieving lower and middle/upper tropospheric water vapour concentrations with a vertical resolution of about 3 and 8 km, respectively. We document the good quality of the remotely-sensed profiles by comparisons with coincident in-situ Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements. Due to the high measurement frequency, the TCCON water vapour profile data offer novel opportunities for estimating the water vapour variability at different timescales and altitudes.

  3. Long-term series of tropospheric water vapour amounts and HDO/H2O ratio profiles above Jungfraujoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, B.; Mahieu, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Servais, C.; Demoulin, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water vapour is a crucial climate variable involved in many processes which widely determine the energy budget of our planet. In particular, water vapour is the dominant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and its radiative forcing is maximum in the middle and upper troposphere. Because of the extremely high variability of water vapour concentration in time and space, it is challenging for the available relevant measurement techniques to provide a consistent data set useful for trend analyses and climate studies. Schneider et al. (2006a) showed that ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, performed from mountain observatories, allows for the detection of H2O variabilities up to the tropopause. Furthermore, the FTIR measurements allow the retrieval of HDO amounts and therefore the monitoring of HDO/H2O ratio profiles whose variations act as markers for the source and history of the atmospheric water vapour. In the framework of the MUSICA European project (Multi-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, http://www.imk-asf.kit.edu/english/musica.php), a new approach has been developed and optimized by M. Schneider and F. Hase, using the PROFFIT algorithm, to consistently retrieve tropospheric water vapour profiles from high-resolution ground-based infrared solar spectra and so taking benefit from available long-term data sets of ground-based observations. The retrieval of the water isotopologues is performed on a logarithmic scale from 14 micro-windows located in the 2600-3100 cm-1 region. Other important features of this new retrieval strategy are: a speed dependant Voigt line shape model, a joint temperature profile retrieval and an interspecies constraint for the HDO/H2O profiles. In this contribution, we will combine the quality of the MUSICA strategy and of our observations, which are recorded on a regular basis with FTIR spectrometers, under clear-sky conditions, at the NDACC site

  4. Retrieving mesospheric water vapour from observations of volume scattering radiances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vergados

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possibility for a theoretical approach in the estimation of water vapour mixing ratios in the vicinity of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC using satellite observations of Volume Scattering Radiances (VSR obtained at the wavelength of 553 nm. The PMC scattering properties perturb the underlying molecular Rayleigh scattered solar radiance of the background atmosphere. As a result, the presence of PMC leads to an enhancement in the observed VSR at the altitude of the layer; the PMC VSRs are superimposed on the exponentially decreasing with height Rayleigh VSR, of the PMC-free atmosphere. The ratio between the observed and the Rayleigh VSR of the background atmosphere is used to simulate the environment in which the cloud layer is formed. In addition, a microphysical model of ice particle formation is employed to predict the PMC VSRs. The initial water vapour profile is perturbed until the modelled VSRs match the observed, at which point the corresponding temperature and water vapour profiles can be considered as a first approximation of those describing the atmosphere at the time of the observations. The role of temperature and water vapour in the cloud formation is examined by a number of sensitivity tests suggesting that the water vapour plays a dominant role in the cloud formation in agreement with experimental results. The estimated water vapour profiles are compared with independent observations to examine the model capability in the context of this study. The results obtained are in a good agreement at the peak of the PMC layer although the radiance rapidly decreases with height below the peak. This simplified scenario indicates that the technique employed can give a first approximation estimate of the water vapour mixing ratio, giving rise to the VSR observed in the presence of PMC.

  5. Mean ozone and water vapour height profiles for Southern hemisphere region using radiosonde or ozonesonde and haloe satelite data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available obtained from HALOE datasets 6 3.3. SHADOZ mean Ozone The mean ozone obtained from SHADOZ ozonesonde insitu measurement; from Nairobi located at 1.27°S and 36.8°E, Malindi at 2.99°S and 40.2°E and Irene at 25.9°S and 28.22°E, stations are displayed... - 2090. 8 2. Lohmann, M.S., et al., Water vapor profile using LEO - LEO Intersatellite Links. Danish Metereological Institute. Atmospheric Ionosphere Research. 3. Jones, R.L. and Mitchell,J.F.B., (1991) Climate change - is water vapor...

  6. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  7. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  8. Validation of water vapour profiles (version 13 retrieved by the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor based on full resolution spectra measured by MIPAS on board Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of stratospheric water vapour measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS with the full resolution mode between September 2002 and March 2004 and retrieved with the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor were compared to a number of independent measurements in order to estimate the bias and to validate the existing precision estimates of the MIPAS data. The estimated precision for MIPAS is 5 to 10% in the stratosphere, depending on altitude, latitude, and season. The independent instruments were: the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instrument, the Middle Atmospheric Water Vapour Radiometer (MIAWARA, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, balloon-borne version (MIPAS-B, the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System (AMSOS, the Fluorescent Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon (FLASH-B, the NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, and the Fast In Situ Hygrometer (FISH. For the in-situ measurements and the ground based, air- and balloon borne remote sensing instruments, the measurements are restricted to central and northern Europe. The comparisons to satellite-borne instruments are predominantly at mid- to high latitudes on both hemispheres. In the stratosphere there is no clear indication of a bias in MIPAS data, because the independent measurements in some cases are drier and in some cases are moister than the MIPAS measurements. Compared to the infrared measurements of MIPAS, measurements in the ultraviolet and visible have a tendency to be high, whereas microwave measurements have a tendency to be low. The results of χ2-based precision validation are somewhat controversial among the comparison estimates. However, for comparison instruments whose error budget also includes

  9. The impact of water vapour on climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zittel, W.; Altmann, M.

    1994-01-01

    Do water vapour emissions from a solar hydrogen system affect the climate? This question was investigated by the authors. They state: The comparison with natural emissions by evaporation shows that emissions caused by energy generation, regardless of whether they stem from fossil, nuclear or regenerative energy systems, are negligible with a proportion of 0.005%. On the other hand, carbon dioxide emissions with a proportion of 4%, constitute a factor which already impedes the natural cycle. (orig.) [de

  10. ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Funke, Bernd; Raspollini, Piera; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric limb sounders, ACE-FTS on the SCISAT satellite, MIPAS on ESA's Envisat satellite, and MLS on NASA's Aura satellite, take measurements used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of O3, N2O, H2O, HNO3, and CO. Each was taking measurements between February 2004 and April 2012 (ACE-FTS and MLS are currently operational), providing hundreds of profile coincidences in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and during local morning and evening. Focusing on determining diurnal and hemispheric biases in the ACE-FTS data, this study compares ACE-FTS version 3.5 profiles that are collocated with MIPAS and MLS, and analyzes the differences between instrument retrievals for Northern and Southern hemispheres and for local morning and evening data. For O3, ACE-FTS is typically within ±5% of mid-stratospheric MIPAS and MLS data and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere. For H2O, ACE-FTS exhibits an average bias of -5% between 20 and 60 km. For N2O, ACE-FTS agrees with MIPAS and MLS within -20 to +10% up to 45 km and 35 km, respectively. For HNO3, ACE-FTS typically agrees within ±10% below 30 km, and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% above 30 km. With respect to MIPAS CO, ACE-FTS exhibits an average -11% bias between 28 and 50 km, and at higher altitudes a positive bias on the order of 10% (>100%) in the winter (summer). With respect to winter MLS CO, ACE-FTS is typically within ±10% between 25 and 40 km, and has an average bias of -11% above 40 km.

  11. Water vapour measurements during POLINAT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovarlez, J.; Ovarlez, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor)1 experiment has been performed within the framework of the Environment Programme of the Commission of the European Community. It was devoted to the study of the pollution from aircraft in the North Atlantic flight corridor, in order to investigate the impact of pollutants emitted by aircraft on the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. For that experiment the water vapour content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board of the DLR Falcon research aircraft. This instrument is described, and some selected results are given. (author) 19 refs.

  12. Water vapour measurements during POLINAT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovarlez, J; Ovarlez, H [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1998-12-31

    The POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor)1 experiment has been performed within the framework of the Environment Programme of the Commission of the European Community. It was devoted to the study of the pollution from aircraft in the North Atlantic flight corridor, in order to investigate the impact of pollutants emitted by aircraft on the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. For that experiment the water vapour content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board of the DLR Falcon research aircraft. This instrument is described, and some selected results are given. (author) 19 refs.

  13. GPS Tomography: Water Vapour Monitoring for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Michael; Dick, Galina; Wickert, Jens; Raabe, Armin

    2010-05-01

    Ground based GPS atmosphere sounding provides numerous atmospheric quantities with a high temporal resolution for all weather conditions. The spatial resolution of the GPS observations is mainly given by the number of GNSS satellites and GPS ground stations. The latter could considerably be increased in the last few years leading to more reliable and better resolved GPS products. New techniques such as the GPS water vapour tomography gain increased significance as data from large and dense GPS networks become available. The GPS tomography has the potential to provide spatially resolved fields of different quantities operationally, i. e. the humidity or wet refractivity as required for meteorological applications or the refraction index which is important for several space based observations or for precise positioning. The number of German GPS stations operationally processed by the GFZ in Potsdam was recently enlarged to more than 300. About 28000 IWV observations and more than 1.4 millions of slant total delay data are now available per day with a temporal resolution of 15 min and 2.5 min, respectively. The extended network leads not only to a higher spatial resolution of the tomographically reconstructed 3D fields but also to a much higher stability of the inversion process and with that to an increased quality of the results. Under these improved conditions the GPS tomography can operate continuously over several days or weeks without applying too tight constraints. Time series of tomographically reconstructed humidity fields will be shown and different initialisation strategies will be discussed: Initialisation with a simple exponential profile, with a 3D humidity field extrapolated from synoptic observations and with the result of the preceeding reconstruction. The results are compared to tomographic reconstructions initialised with COSMO-DE analyses and to the corresponding model fields. The inversion can be further stabilised by making use of independent

  14. The thermotidal exciting function for water vapour absorption of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BONAFEDE

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermotidal exciting function J is considered, for
    the absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, according to the model
    derived by Siebert. The Mugge-Moller formula for water vapour absorption
    is integrated numerically, using experimental data for the water vapour
    concentration in the troposphere and the stratosphere. It appears that
    Siebort's formula is a reasonable approximation at low tropospheric levels
    but it dramatically overestimates the water vapour thermotidal heating
    in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. It seems thus possible
    that, if the correct vertical profile is employed for J , the amplitudes and
    phases of the diurnal temperature oscillations and of the tidal wind speeds
    may suffer significant changes from those previously calculated and possibly explain the three hours delay of the observed phases from the computed values.

  15. Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the ... seasonal and annual variations in the CO2 bal- ance. Hence, it is .... motion below produced by shear stress near the.

  16. Discovery of water vapour in the carbon star V Cygni from observations with Herschel/HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neufeld, D. A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Melnick, G.; Pulecka, M.; Schmidt, M.; Szczerba, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Decin, L.; Dominik, C.; Justtanont, K.; de Koter, A.; Marston, A. P.; Menten, K.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Schoier, F. L.; Teyssier, D.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Edwards, K.; McCoey, C.; Shipman, R.; Jellema, W.; de Graauw, T.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schieder, R.; Philipp, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of water vapour toward the carbon star V Cygni. We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 1(11)-0(00) para-water transition at 1113.3430 GHz in the upper sideband of the Band 4b receiver. The observed spectral line profile is nearly

  17. Atomic origins of water-vapour-promoted alloy oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Langli; Su, Mao; Yan, Pengfei; Zou, Lianfeng; Schreiber, Daniel K; Baer, Donald R; Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Guangwen; Wang, Yanting; Bruemmer, Stephen M; Xu, Zhijie; Wang, Chongmin

    2018-05-07

    The presence of water vapour, intentional or unavoidable, is crucial to many materials applications, such as in steam generators, turbine engines, fuel cells, catalysts and corrosion 1-4 . Phenomenologically, water vapour has been noted to accelerate oxidation of metals and alloys 5,6 . However, the atomistic mechanisms behind such oxidation remain elusive. Through direct in situ atomic-scale transmission electron microscopy observations and density functional theory calculations, we reveal that water-vapour-enhanced oxidation of a nickel-chromium alloy is associated with proton-dissolution-promoted formation, migration, and clustering of both cation and anion vacancies. Protons derived from water dissociation can occupy interstitial positions in the oxide lattice, consequently lowering vacancy formation energy and decreasing the diffusion barrier of both cations and anions, which leads to enhanced oxidation in moist environments at elevated temperatures. This work provides insights into water-vapour-enhanced alloy oxidation and has significant implications in other material and chemical processes involving water vapour, such as corrosion, heterogeneous catalysis and ionic conduction.

  18. Water vapour and methane coupling in the stratosphere observed using SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noël

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An improved stratospheric water vapour data set has been retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT solar occultation measurements. It is similar to that successfully applied to methane and carbon dioxide. There is now a consistent set of data products for the three constituents covering the altitudes 17–45 km, the latitude range between about 50 and 70° N, and the period August 2002 to April 2012. The new water vapour concentration profiles agree with collocated results from ACE-FTS and MLS/Aura to within  ∼  5 %. A significant positive linear change in water vapour for the time 2003–2011 is observed at lower stratospheric altitudes with a value of about 0.015 ± 0.008 ppmv year−1 around 17 km. Between 30 and 37 km the changes become significantly negative (about −0.01 ± 0.008 ppmv year−1; all errors are 2σ values. The combined analysis of the SCIAMACHY methane and water vapour time series shows the expected anti-correlation between stratospheric methane and water vapour and a clear temporal variation related to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO. Above about 20 km most of the additional water vapour is attributed to the oxidation of methane. In addition short-term fluctuations and longer-term variations on a timescale of 5–6 years are observed. The SCIAMACHY data confirm that at lower altitudes the amount of water vapour and methane are transported from the tropics to higher latitudes via the shallow branch of the Brewer–Dobson circulation.

  19. Water vapour retrieval using the Precision Solar Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Panagiotis-Ioannis; Kazadzis, Stelios; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Doppler, Lionel; Becker, Ralf; Helmis, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    The Precision Solar Spectroradiometer (PSR) is a new spectroradiometer developed at Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos - World Radiation Center (PMOD-WRC), Davos, measuring direct solar irradiance at the surface, in the 300-1020 nm spectral range and at high temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is to investigate the instrument's potential to retrieve integrated water vapour (IWV) using its spectral measurements. Two different approaches were developed in order to retrieve IWV: the first one uses single-channel and wavelength measurements, following a theoretical water vapour high absorption wavelength, and the second one uses direct sun irradiance integrated at a certain spectral region. IWV results have been validated using a 2-year data set, consisting of an AERONET sun-photometer Cimel CE318, a Global Positioning System (GPS), a microwave radiometer profiler (MWP) and radiosonde retrievals recorded at Meteorological Observatorium Lindenberg, Germany. For the monochromatic approach, better agreement with retrievals from other methods and instruments was achieved using the 946 nm channel, while for the spectral approach the 934-948 nm window was used. Compared to other instruments' retrievals, the monochromatic approach leads to mean relative differences up to 3.3 % with the coefficient of determination (R2) being in the region of 0.87-0.95, while for the spectral approach mean relative differences up to 0.7 % were recorded with R2 in the region of 0.96-0.98. Uncertainties related to IWV retrieval methods were investigated and found to be less than 0.28 cm for both methods. Absolute IWV deviations of differences between PSR and other instruments were determined the range of 0.08-0.30 cm and only in extreme cases would reach up to 15 %.

  20. Intercomparison of TCCON and MUSICA Water Vapour Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Strong, K.; Deutscher, N. M.; Schneider, M.; Blumenstock, T.; Robinson, J.; Notholt, J.; Sherlock, V.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Barthlott, S.; García, O. E.; Smale, D.; Palm, M.; Jones, N. B.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Ramos, Y. G.; Yoshimura, K.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gómez-Peláez, Á. J.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Warneke, T.; Dohe, S.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present an intercomparison between the water vapour products from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA), two datasets from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometers with good global representation. Where possible, comparisons to radiosondes are also included. The near-infrared TCCON measurements are optimized to provide precise monitoring of greenhouse gases for carbon cycle studies; however, TCCON's retrievals also produce water vapour products. The mid-infrared MUSICA products result from retrievals optimized to give precise and accurate information about H2O, HDO, and δD. The MUSICA water vapour products have been validated by extensive intercomparisons with H2O and δD in-situ measurements made from ground, radiosonde, and aircraft (Schneider et al. 2012, 2014), as well as by intercomparisons with satellite-based H2O and δD remote sensing measurements (Wiegele et al., 2014). This dataset provides a valuable reference point for other measurements of water vapour. This study is motivated by the limited intercomparisons performed for TCCON water vapour products and limited characterisation of their uncertainties. We compare MUSICA and TCCON products to assess the potential for TCCON measurements to contribute to studies of the water cycle, water vapour's role in climate and use as a tracer for atmospheric dynamics, and to evaluate the performance of climate models. The TCCON and MUSICA products result from measurements taken using the same FTIR instruments, enabling a comparison with constant instrumentation. The retrieval techniques differ, however, in their method and a priori information. We assess the impact of these differences and characterize the comparability of the TCCON and MUSICA datasets.

  1. Diffusion and flow of water vapours in chromatographic Alumina gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Shah, H. U.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of sorption of water vapours in chromatographic alumina gel was studied. Water vapours are adsorbed on the gel at temperature (15 degree C) at different constant relative pressure from 0.1-0.93 p/p. Rate constant, Effective diffusivities, Knudsen diffusivities and bulk diffusivities were determined through Fick type equation. Total pore volume is 0.498 cc g-1 and specific surface area comes to be 465 m2 g-1 as obtained by Gurvitsch rule and Kieselve's quantities respectively. An average pore radius (hydraulic) is 1.1x10/sub -7/ cm. The study of these quantities provide a strong basis for evaluating surface properties. (author)

  2. Vertical distribution of deuterium in atmospheric water vapour: problems in application to assess atmospheric condensation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    The paper assesses the use of the author's data by Rozanski and Sonntag to support a multi-box model of the vertical distribution of deuterium in atmospheric water vapour, in which exchange between vapour and falling precipitation produces a steeper deuterium concentration profile than simpler condensation models. The mean deuterium/altitude profile adopted by Rozanski and Sonntag for this purpose is only one of several very different mean profiles obtainable from the data by arbitrary selection and weighting procedures; although it can be made to match the specified multi-box model calculations for deuterium, there is a wide discrepancy between the actual and model mean mixing ratio profiles which cannot be ignored. Taken together, the mixing ratio and deuterium profiles indicate that mean vapour of the middle troposphere has been subjected to condensation at greater heights and lower temperatures than those considered in the model calculations. When this is taken into account, the data actually fit much better to the simpler condensation models. But the vapour samples represent meteorological situations too remote in time from primary precipitation events to permit definite conclusions on cloud system mechanisms. (Auth.)

  3. Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolot

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process. As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  4. Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolot, M.; Legras, B.; Moyer, E. J.

    2013-08-01

    The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process). As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  5. Modelling and intepreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolot, M.; Legras, B.; Moyer, E. J.

    2012-08-01

    The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process). As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, droplet size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  6. Water vapour and carbon dioxide decrease nitric oxide readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMark, TW; Kort, E; Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH

    Measurement of nitric oxide levels in exhaled ah-is commonly performed using a chemiluminescence detector. However, water vapour and carbon dioxide affect the chemiluminescence process, The influence of these gases at the concentrations present in exhaled air has not vet been studied. For this in

  7. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Löffler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry–climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg – Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  8. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  9. Middle atmospheric water vapour and dynamics in the vicinity of the polar vortex during the Hygrosonde-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lossow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hygrosonde-2 campaign took place on 16 December 2001 at Esrange/Sweden (68° N, 21° E with the aim to investigate the small scale distribution of water vapour in the middle atmosphere in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex. In situ balloon and rocket-borne measurements of water vapour were performed by means of OH fluorescence hygrometry. The combined measurements yielded a high resolution water vapour profile up to an altitude of 75 km. Using the characteristic of water vapour being a dynamical tracer it was possible to directly relate the water vapour data to the location of the polar vortex edge, which separates air masses of different character inside and outside the polar vortex. The measurements probed extra-vortex air in the altitude range between 45 km and 60 km and vortex air elsewhere. Transitions between vortex and extra-vortex usually coincided with wind shears caused by gravity waves which advect air masses with different water vapour volume mixing ratios.

    From the combination of the results from the Hygrosonde-2 campaign and the first flight of the optical hygrometer in 1994 (Hygrosonde-1 a clear picture of the characteristic water vapour distribution inside and outside the polar vortex can be drawn. Systematic differences in the water vapour concentration between the inside and outside of the polar vortex can be observed all the way up into the mesosphere. It is also evident that in situ measurements with high spatial resolution are needed to fully account for the small-scale exchange processes in the polar winter middle atmosphere.

  10. Venera 15: Water vapour in the middle atmosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.; Zasova, L. V.; Khatuntsev, I. V.

    1999-01-01

    In 1983, spectra of Venus in the region of 6-40 μm were measured by means of the Fourier Spectrometer aboard the Venera 15 orbiter. It covered local solar times from 4 a.m. to 10 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 10 p.m. in the latitude range from -65° up to 87°. The results of an extended processing and analysis of these data are presented. Time and spatial variations of the water vapour were found. Most of the measurements fall in the range of 5-15 ppm, which is close to the early results. The effective altitude of sounding is approximately equal to the altitude where the optical depth τ = 1. Two latitude regions can be distinguished: (A) 20° 60°, which are characterised by different altitudes of the level of τ = 1: 62 and 55 km respectively. Mean mixing ratios near this level in the two regions are almost the same, but the partial pressures and mass densities in region (B) are 2-4 times greater than those in region (A). In region (A) a weak dayside maximum and a nightside minimum were observed. Region (B) is of inhomogeneous structure, and the retrieved mixing ratio has greater uncertainty and may probably change from the detection limit of 1 ppm up to 30 ppm. Although the retrieval of H2O mixing ratio altitude profile from the Venera 15 data appeared to be impossible, indirect indications were found that at least in region (A) the mixing ratio decreases with altitude.

  11. A miniature discriminating monitor for tritiated water vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.A.H.; Ravazzani, A.; Pacenti, P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Campi, F. [Nuclear Engineering Dept., Polytechnic of Milan (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    In detecting tritium in air (or other gas) for worker safety, it is important to discriminate between tritiated water vapour and elemental tritium, because the first is much more easily absorbed in the lungs. We haveinvented (patent pending) an innovative discriminating monitor which works better than existing designs, and is much smaller. The air (or other sample gas) passes over a large surface area of solid scintillator, which is surface-treated to make it hygroscopic. Tritiated water vapour in the air exchanges continuously, rapidly and reversibly with the water in the thin hygroscopic layer; which is of the order of 1 micron thick. The beta-emissions from tritium in the hygroscopic layer hit the solid scintillator, causing flashes of light that are detected by a photomultiplier. The new discriminating monitor for tritiated species in air offers superior performance to existing discriminating monitors, and is much smaller. It is planned to develop a portable version which could serve as a personal tritium monitor. (authors)

  12. Study of water vapour adsorption kinetics on aluminium oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanova, Alesya; Meshcheryakov, Evgeniy; Reshetnikov, Sergey; Kurzina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Adsorbents on the basis of active aluminum oxide are still of demand on the adsorbent-driers market. Despite comprehensive research of alumina adsorbents, and currently is an urgent task to improve their various characteristics, and especially the task of increasing the sorption capacity. In the present work kinetics of the processes of water vapours' adsorption at room temperature on the surface of desiccant samples has been studied. It was obtained on the basis of bayerite and pseudoboehmite experimentally. The samples of pseudoboehmite modified with sodium and potassium ions were taken as study objects. The influence of an adsorbent's grain size on the kinetics of water vapours' adsorption was studied. The 0.125-0.25 mm and 0.5-1.0 mm fractions of this sample were used. It has been revealed that the saturation water vapor fine powder (0.125-0.25 mm) is almost twofold faster in comparison with the sample of fraction 0.5-1.0 mm due to the decrease in diffusion resistance in the pores of the samples when moving from the sample of larger fraction to the fine-dispersed sample. It has been established that the adsorption capacity of the pseudoboehmite samples, modified by alkaline ions, is higher by ˜40 %, than for the original samples on the basis of bayerite and pseudoboehmite.

  13. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Volkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo, was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔHkJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Trona salt, Wegscheider’s salt, Enthalpy, Relative humidity, Pyrolytic decarboxylation

  14. The Seasonal Cycle of Water Vapour on Mars from Assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Liam J.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, Francois; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time an assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) water vapour column data into a Mars global climate model (MGCM). We discuss the seasonal cycle of water vapour, the processes responsible for the observed water vapour distribution, and the cross-hemispheric water transport. The assimilation scheme is shown to be robust in producing consistent reanalyses, and the global water vapour column error is reduced to around 2-4 pr micron depending on season. Wave activity is shown to play an important role in the water vapour distribution, with topographically steered flows around the Hellas and Argyre basins acting to increase transport in these regions in all seasons. At high northern latitudes, zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 stationary waves during northern summer are responsible for spreading the sublimed water vapour away from the pole. Transport by the zonal wavenumber 2 waves occurs primarily to the west of Tharsis and Arabia Terra and, combined with the effects of western boundary currents, this leads to peak water vapour column abundances here as observed by numerous spacecraft. A net transport of water to the northern hemisphere over the course of one Mars year is calculated, primarily because of the large northwards flux of water vapour which occurs during the local dust storm around L(sub S) = 240-260deg. Finally, outlying frost deposits that surround the north polar cap are shown to be important in creating the peak water vapour column abundances observed during northern summer.

  15. UTLS water vapour from SCIAMACHY limb measurementsV3.01 (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K; Rozanov, A; Azam, F; Bramstedt, K; Damadeo, R; Eichmann, K-U; Gebhardt, C; Hurst, D; Kraemer, M; Lossow, S; Read, W; Spelten, N; Stiller, G P; Walker, K A; Weber, M; Bovensmann, H; Burrows, J P

    2016-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements from August 2002 until April 2012. SCIAMACHY measured the scattered or direct sunlight using different observation geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour at about 10-25 km height from the near-infrared spectral range (1353-1410 nm). These data cover the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), a region in the atmosphere which is of special interest for a variety of dynamical and chemical processes as well as for the radiative forcing. Here, the latest data version of water vapour (V3.01) from SCIAMACHY limb measurements is presented and validated by comparisons with data sets from other satellite and in situ measurements. Considering retrieval tests and the results of these comparisons, the V3.01 data are reliable from about 11 to 23 km and the best results are found in the middle of the profiles between about 14 and 20 km. Above 20 km in the extra tropics V3.01 is drier than all other data sets. Additionally, for altitudes above about 19 km, the vertical resolution of the retrieved profile is not sufficient to resolve signals with a short vertical structure like the tape recorder. Below 14 km, SCIAMACHY water vapour V3.01 is wetter than most collocated data sets, but the high variability of water vapour in the troposphere complicates the comparison. For 14-20 km height, the expected errors from the retrieval and simulations and the mean differences to collocated data sets are usually smaller than 10 % when the resolution of the SCIAMACHY data is taken into account. In general, the temporal changes agree well with collocated data sets except for the Northern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, where larger differences are observed. This indicates a possible drift in V3.01 most probably caused by the incomplete treatment of volcanic aerosols in the retrieval. In all other regions a

  16. Multiscale network model for simulating liquid water and water vapour transfer properties of porous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmeliet, J.; Descamps, F.; Houvenaghel, G.

    1999-01-01

    A multiscale network model is presented to model unsaturated moisture transfer in hygroscopic capillary-porous materials showing a broad pore-size distribution. Both capillary effects and water sorption phenomena, water vapour and liquid water transfer are considered. The multiscale approach is

  17. Analysing the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone of the extremely arid region of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chaoyang; Yu, Jingjie; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yichi

    2018-03-01

    The transport of water and vapour in the desert vadose zone plays a critical role in the overall water and energy balances of near-surface environments in arid regions. However, field measurements in extremely dry environments face many difficulties and challenges, so few studies have examined water and vapour transport processes in the desert vadose zone. The main objective of this study is to analyse the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone (depth of ∼350 cm) by using measured and modelled data in an extremely arid environment. The field experiments are implemented in an area of the Gobi desert in northwestern China to measure the soil properties, daily soil moisture and temperature, daily water-table depth and temperature, and daily meteorological records from DOYs (Days of Year) 114-212 in 2014 (growing season). The Hydrus-1D model, which simulates the coupled transport of water, vapour and heat in the vadose zone, is employed to simulate the layered soil moisture and temperature regimes and analyse the transport processes of soil water and vapour. The measured results show that the soil water and temperatures near the land surface have visible daily fluctuations across the entire soil profile. Thermal vapour movement is the most important component of the total water flux and the soil temperature gradient is the major driving factor that affects vapour transport in the desert vadose zone. The most active water and heat exchange occurs in the upper soil layer (depths of 0-25 cm). The matric potential change from the precipitation mainly re-draws the spatio-temporal distribution of the isothermal liquid water in the soil near the land surface. The matric potential has little effect on the isothermal vapour and thermal liquid water flux. These findings offer new insights into the liquid water and vapour movement processes in the extremely arid environment.

  18. Utility of DMSP-SSM/I for integrated water vapour over the Indian seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Recent algorithms for Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP-SSM/I) satellite data are used for estimating integrated water vapour over the Indian seas. Integrated water vapour obtained from these algorithms is compared with that derived from radiosonde observations at Minicoy and Port. Blair islands. Algorithm-3 of ...

  19. Influence of water vapour on the height distribution of positive ions, effective recombination coefficient and ionisation balance in the quiet lower ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barabash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesospheric water vapour concentration effects on the ion composition and electron density in the lower ionosphere under quiet geophysical conditions were examined. Water vapour is an important compound in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere that affects ion composition due to hydrogen radical production and consequently modifies the electron number density. Recent lower-ionosphere investigations have primarily concentrated on the geomagnetic disturbance periods. Meanwhile, studies on the electron density under quiet conditions are quite rare. The goal of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the ionospheric parameter responses to water vapour variability in the quiet lower ionosphere. By applying a numerical D region ion chemistry model, we evaluated efficiencies for the channels forming hydrated cluster ions from the NO+ and O2+ primary ions (i.e. NO+.H2O and O2+.H2O, respectively, and the channel forming H+(H2On proton hydrates from water clusters at different altitudes using profiles with low and high water vapour concentrations. Profiles for positive ions, effective recombination coefficients and electrons were modelled for three particular cases using electron density measurements obtained during rocket campaigns. It was found that the water vapour concentration variations in the mesosphere affect the position of both the Cl2+ proton hydrate layer upper border, comprising the NO+(H2On and O2+(H2On hydrated cluster ions, and the Cl1+ hydrate cluster layer lower border, comprising the H+(H2On pure proton hydrates, as well as the numerical cluster densities. The water variations caused large changes in the effective recombination coefficient and electron density between altitudes of 75 and 87 km. However, the effective recombination coefficient, αeff, and electron number density did not respond even to large water vapour concentration variations occurring at other altitudes in the mesosphere. We determined the water

  20. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  1. Adsorption Of Water And Benzene Vapour In Mesoporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Taba

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous materials have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the potential applications promised by the materials. This article discusses adsorption of water and benzene vapour in mesoporous materials (mesoporous silica: MCM-41, MCM-48 and their modification. MCM-41 and MCM-48 were synthesized hydrothermally at 100 oC using cethyltrimethylammonium chloride or dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for MCM-41 (C16 or MCM-41 (C12 respectively and a mixture of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide and Triton X-100 for MCM-48 as templates. Their modifications were conducted by silylation of MCM-41 (C16 and MCM-48 with trimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TMCS and MCM48-TMCS and t-butyldimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TBDMCS and MCM48-TBDMCS. Results showed that MCM-41 and MCM-48 materials had hydrophobic features which were shown in the small amount of water adsorption at low P/P0. The hydrophobicity of samples used in this study decrease in the sequence: MCM-41 (C16 > MCM-48 > MCM-41 (C12. The hydrophobicity increased when MCM-41 and MCM-48 were silylated with TMCS or TBDMCS. All unsilylated MCM materials show higher affinity to benzene at low P/P0 than the silylated samples. The results of water and benzene adsorption showed that silylated samples are promising candidates as selective adsorbents for organic compounds.

  2. Vapour and air bubble collapse analysis in viscous compressible water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bazanini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the collapse of bubbles (or cavities are shown, using the finite difference method, taking into account the compressibility of the liquid, expected to occur in the final stages of the collapse process. Results are compared with experimental and theoretical data for incompressible liquids, to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the bubble collapse. Pressure fields values are calculated in an area of 800 x 800 mm, for the case of one bubble under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry. Results are shown as radius versus time curves for the collapse (to compare collapse times, and pressure curves in the plane, for pressure fields. Such calculations are new because of their general point of view, since the existing works do not take into account the existence of vapour in the bubble, neither show the pressure fields seen here. It is also expected to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the collapse time, and in the pressure field, when comparing pressure values.

  3. Modelling water vapour permeability through atomic layer deposition coated photovoltaic barrier defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrawemi, Mohamed, E-mail: Mohamed.elrawemi@hud.ac.uk [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Blunt, Liam; Fleming, Leigh [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Bird, David, E-mail: David.Bird@uk-cpi.com [Centre for Process Innovation Limited, Sedgefield, County Durham (United Kingdom); Robbins, David [Centre for Process Innovation Limited, Sedgefield, County Durham (United Kingdom); Sweeney, Francis [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Transparent barrier films such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} used for prevention of oxygen and/or water vapour permeation are the subject of increasing research interest when used for the encapsulation of flexible photovoltaic modules. However, the existence of micro-scale defects in the barrier surface topography has been shown to have the potential to facilitate water vapour ingress, thereby reducing cell efficiency and causing internal electrical shorts. Previous work has shown that small defects (≤ 3 μm lateral dimension) were less significant in determining water vapour ingress. In contrast, larger defects (≥ 3 μm lateral dimension) seem to be more detrimental to the barrier functionality. Experimental results based on surface topography segmentation analysis and a model presented in this paper will be used to test the hypothesis that the major contributing defects to water vapour transmission rate are small numbers of large defects. The model highlighted in this study has the potential to be used for gaining a better understanding of photovoltaic module efficiency and performance. - Highlights: • A model of water vapour permeation through barrier defects is presented. • The effect of the defects on the water vapour permeability is investigated. • Defect density correlates with water vapour permeability. • Large defects may dominate the permeation properties of the barrier film.

  4. Global distributions of water vapour isotopologues retrieved from IMG/ADEOS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herbin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The isotopologic composition of water vapour in the atmosphere provides valuable information on many climate, chemical and dynamical processes. The accurate measurements of the water isotopologues by remote-sensing techniques remains a challenge, due to the large spatial and temporal variations. Simultaneous profile retrievals of the main water isotopologues (i.e. H216O, H218O and HDO and their ratios are presented here for the first time, along their retrieved global distributions. The results are obtained by exploiting the high resolution infrared spectra recorded by the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse gases (IMG instrument, which has operated in the nadir geometry onboard the ADEOS satellite between 1996 and 1997. The retrievals are performed on cloud-free radiances, measured during ten days of April 1997, considering two atmospheric windows (1205–1228 cm−1; 2004–2032 cm−1 and using a line-by-line radiative transfer model and an inversion procedure based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM. Characterizations in terms of vertical sensitivity and error budget are provided. We show that a relatively high vertical resolution is achieved for H216O (~4–5 km, and that the retrieved profiles are in fair agreement with local sonde measurements, at different latitudes. The retrieved global distributions of H216O, H218O, HDO and their ratios are presented and found to be consistent with previous experimental studies and models. The Ocean-Continent difference, the latitudinal and vertical dependence of the water vapour amount and the isotopologic depletion are notably well reproduced. Others trends, possibly related to small-scale variations in the vertical profiles are also discussed. Despite the difficulties encountered for computing accurately the isotopologic ratios, our results demonstrate the ability

  5. Thermalisation of high energy electrons and positrons in water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, A.; Blanco, F.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Thorn, P. A.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.

    2008-07-01

    In this study we describe a method to simulate single electron tracks of electrons in molecular gases, particularly in water vapour, from relatively high energies, where Born (Inokuti 1971) approximation is supposed to be valid, down to thermal energies paying special attention to the low energy secondary electrons which are abundantly generated along the energy degradation procedure. Experimental electron scattering cross sections (Munoz et al. 2007) and energy loss spectra (Thorn et al. 2007) have been determined, where possible, to be used as input parameters of the simulating program. These experimental data have been complemented with optical potential calculation (Blanco and Garcia 2003) providing a complete set of interaction probability functions for each type of collision which could take place in the considered energy range: elastic, ionization, electronic excitation, vibrational and rotational excitation. From the simulated track structure (Munoz et al. 2005) information about energy deposition and radiation damage at the molecular level can be derived. A similar procedure is proposed to the study of single positron tracks in gases. Due to the lack of experimental data for positron interaction with molecules, especially for those related to energy loss and excitation cross sections, some distribution probability data have been derived from those of electron scattering by introducing positron characteristics as positroniun formation. Preliminary results for argon are presented discussing also the utility of the model to biomedical applications based on positron emitters.

  6. Density profiles and collective excitations of a trapped two-component Fermi vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoruso, M.; Meccoli, I.; Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    We discuss the ground state and the small-amplitude excitations of a degenerate vapour of fermionic atoms placed in two hyperfine states inside a spherical harmonic trap. An equations-of-motion approach is set up to discuss the hydrodynamic dissipation processes from the interactions between the two components of the fluid beyond mean-field theory and to emphasize analogies with spin dynamics and spin diffusion in a homogeneous Fermi liquid. The conditions for the establishment of a collisional regime via scattering against cold-atom impurities are analyzed. The equilibrium density profiles are then calculated for a two-component vapour of 40 K atoms: they are little modified by the interactions for presently relevant values of the system parameters, but spatial separation of the two components will spontaneously arise as the number of atoms in the trap is increased. The eigenmodes of collective oscillation in both the total particle number density and the concentration density are evaluated analytically in the special case of a symmetric two-component vapour in the collisional regime. The dispersion relation of the surface modes for the total particle density reduces in this case to that of a one-component Fermi vapour, whereas the frequencies of all other modes are shifted by the interactions. (author)

  7. Measurement of water vapour transport through a porous non-hygroscopic material in a temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Padfield, Tim; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    This was an experiment to identify the driving potential for water vapour diffusion through porous materials in a temperature gradient. The specimen of mineral fibre insulation was placed between a space with controlled temperature and relative humidity and a space with a controlled, higher...... temperature, and a measured but not controlled relative humidity (RH). This assembly was allowed to reach equilibrium with no vapour movement between the spaces, as tested by a constant RH on each side and by zero flux of water vapour measured in the cold side chamber. The RH and temperature values were...

  8. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom). Lews Castle College

    2013-10-15

    The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the 'Swiss box') to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup 7} kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the Swiss box 'import' more water vapour than it 'exports', but the amount gained remains only a small fraction (1% to 5%) of the total available water vapour passing by. High inward water vapour fluxes are not necessarily linked to high precipitation episodes. The water vapour flux during the August 2005 floods, which caused severe damage in central Switzerland, is examined and an assessment is made of the computed water vapour fluxes compared to high spatio-temporal rain gauge and radar observations. About 25% of the incoming water vapour flux was stored in Switzerland. The computed water vapour fluxes from ECMWF data compare well with the mean rain gauge observations and the combined rain-gauge radar precipitation products. (orig.)

  9. PFS/Mars Express first results: water vapour and carbon monoxide global distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, N. I.; Titov, D. V.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V. I.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; Fouchet, T.; Grassi, D.; Giuranna, M.; Atreya, S.; Pfs Team

    Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express, with its wide spectral range (1.2--45 um) and high spectral resolution (1.4 cm-1), makes it possible to study in a self-consistent manner the Martian atmosphere by means of simultaneous analysis of spectral features in several spectral regions. As concerned small species, we observe 30--50, 6.3, 2.56, 1.87 and 1.38 μ m H2O bands, and 4.7 and 2.35 μ m CO bands. The most favourable, with respect to the instrument performance, 2.56 μ m H2O and 4.7 μ m CO bands, are used to study the variations of column abundance of water vapour and carbon monoxide on a global scale from pole to pole. All necessary atmospheric parameters, namely temperature profiles, surface pressure, and dust density are obtained from the same spectra, whenever possible.

  10. The millennium water vapour drop in chemistry–climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brinkop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 (the "millennium water vapour drop" and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions by means of various simulations with the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry Model. The model simulations differ with respect to the prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs and whether nudging is applied or not. The CCM EMAC is able to most closely reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour drop in agreement with those derived from satellite observations if the model is nudged. Model results confirm that this extraordinary water vapour decline is particularly obvious in the tropical lower stratosphere and is related to a large decrease in cold point temperature. The drop signal propagates under dilution to the higher stratosphere and to the poles via the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC. We found that the driving forces for this significant decline in water vapour mixing ratios are tropical sea surface temperature (SST changes due to a coincidence with a preceding strong El Niño–Southern Oscillation event (1997/1998 followed by a strong La Niña event (1999/2000 and supported by the change of the westerly to the easterly phase of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO in 2000. Correct (observed SSTs are important for triggering the strong decline in water vapour. There are indications that, at least partly, SSTs contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006. For this period, the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere (overall atmospheric large-scale wind and temperature distribution is important as well, as it causes the observed persistent low cold point temperatures. These are induced by a period of increased upwelling, which, however, has no corresponding pronounced signature in SSTs anomalies in the tropics

  11. Sampling system of atmospheric water vapour for analysis of the γ sub(D) relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foloni, L.L.; Villa Nova, N.A.; Salati, E.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a system to water vapour air, for natural isotopic composition analysis of hydrogen is presented. The system uses molecular sieve, type '4A', without cooling agent and permits the choice of a sampling time, variyng from a few minutes to many hours, through the control of the admission of vapour flux. The system has good performance in field conditions, with errors of the order of + -3,0 0 /00 in the γ sub(D)( 0 /00) measurements [pt

  12. Continuous measurements of isotopic composition of water vapour on the East Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in central Antarctic ice cores are critical to quantify past temperature changes. Accurate temperature reconstructions require one to understand the processes controlling surface snow isotopic composition. Isotopic fractionation processes occurring in the atmosphere and controlling snowfall isotopic composition are well understood theoretically and implemented in atmospheric models. However, post-deposition processes are poorly documented and understood. To quantitatively interpret the isotopic composition of water archived in ice cores, it is thus essential to study the continuum between surface water vapour, precipitation, surface snow and buried snow. Here, we target the isotopic composition of water vapour at Concordia Station, where the oldest EPICA Dome C ice cores have been retrieved. While snowfall and surface snow sampling is routinely performed, accurate measurements of surface water vapour are challenging in such cold and dry conditions. New developments in infrared spectroscopy enable now the measurement of isotopic composition in water vapour traces. Two infrared spectrometers have been deployed at Concordia, allowing continuous, in situ measurements for 1 month in December 2014–January 2015. Comparison of the results from infrared spectroscopy with laboratory measurements of discrete samples trapped using cryogenic sampling validates the relevance of the method to measure isotopic composition in dry conditions. We observe very large diurnal cycles in isotopic composition well correlated with temperature diurnal cycles. Identification of different behaviours of isotopic composition in the water vapour associated with turbulent or stratified regime indicates a strong impact of meteorological processes in local vapour/snow interaction. Even if the vapour isotopic composition seems to be, at least part of the time, at equilibrium with the local snow, the slope of δD against δ18O prevents us from identifying

  13. Dew-point measurements at high water vapour pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomperski, S.; Dreier, J.

    1996-05-01

    A dew-point meter capable of measuring humidity at high vapour pressure and high temperature has been constructed and tested. Humidity measurements in pure steam were made over the temperature range 100 - 1500957-0233/7/5/003/img1C and a vapour pressure range of 1 - 4 bar. The dew-point meter performance was assessed by comparing measurements with a pressure transmitter and agreement between the two was within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity. Humidity measurements in steam - air mixtures were also made and the dew-point meter readings were compared to those of a zirconia oxygen sensor. For these tests the dew-point meter readings were generally within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity of the oxygen sensor measurements.

  14. Steam/water separation device for drying a wet vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundheimer, P.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the present invention is to dry a wet vapour which flows up to the device. The device has at least a group of steam dryer elements in a zone in which there is a vertical apertured panel; this vertical apertured panel is a metal grille with baffles the inlet steam flow to make it horizontal or slightly inclined to the bottom. The invention applies more particularly, to PWR steam generators [fr

  15. A simple passive method of collecting water vapour for environmental tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Fukuda, H.; Ikebe, Y.; Yokoyama, S.

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the average behaviour of tritium in an atmospheric environment, it is necessary to collect water vapour in air over a long period at numerous locations. For the purpose of the study, the passive method was developed: this is handy, low-priced and could collect water vapour in air without motive power. This paper describes the characteristics of the passive collecting method, the performance of water collection in outdoor air and the measurements of tritium concentrations in water samples collected by the passive method. (author)

  16. MEDUSA: The ExoMars experiment for in-situ monitoring of dust and water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Nørnberg, P.; Della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Merrison, J.; Molfese, C.; Palumbo, P.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J. F.; Rotundi, A.; Visconti, G.; Zarnecki, J. C.; The International Medusa Team

    2009-07-01

    Dust and water vapour are fundamental components of the Martian atmosphere. In view of tracing the past environmental conditions on Mars, that possibly favoured the appearing of life forms, it is important to study the present climate and its evolution. Here dust and water vapour have (and have had) strong influence. Of major scientific interest is the quantity and physical, chemical and electrical properties of dust and the abundance of water vapour dispersed in the atmosphere and their exchange with the surface. Moreover, in view of the exploration of the planet with automated systems and in the future by manned missions, it is of primary importance to analyse the hazards linked to these environmental factors. The Martian Environmental Dust Systematic Analyser (MEDUSA) experiment, included in the scientific payload of the ESA ExoMars mission, accommodates a complement of sensors, based on optical detection and cumulative mass deposition, that aims to study dust and water vapour in the lower Martian atmosphere. The goals are to study, for the first time, in-situ and quantitatively, physical properties of the airborne dust, including the cumulative dust mass flux, the dust deposition rate, the physical and electrification properties, the size distribution of sampled particles and the atmospheric water vapour abundance versus time.

  17. SPATIO-TEMPORAL ESTIMATION OF INTEGRATED WATER VAPOUR OVER THE MALAYSIAN PENINSULA DURING MONSOON SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salihin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the precise information on spatial-temporal distribution of water vapour that was retrieved from Zenith Path Delay (ZPD which was estimated by Global Positioning System (GPS processing over the Malaysian Peninsular. A time series analysis of these ZPD and Integrated Water Vapor (IWV values was done to capture the characteristic on their seasonal variation during monsoon seasons. This study was found that the pattern and distribution of atmospheric water vapour over Malaysian Peninsular in whole four years periods were influenced by two inter-monsoon and two monsoon seasons which are First Inter-monsoon, Second Inter-monsoon, Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon.

  18. Heat and water mass transfer in unsaturated swelling clay based buffer: discussion on the effect of the thermal gradient and on the diffusion of water vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinet, J.O. [Euro-Geomat-Consulting (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 35 - Rennes (France); Plas, F. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2005-07-01

    on (i) the effect of the temperature and the gradient of temperature o n the water transfer and (ii) the diffusion of water vapour, in unsaturated compacted swelling clays. This discussion is based on experimental data and modelling data. Simulations using Soret effect and low values of water vapour diffusion coefficient give profiles of water saturation similar to those obtained with classical approach. (author)

  19. Intercomparison of atmospheric water vapour measurements at a Canadian High Arctic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Dan; Strong, Kimberly; Schneider, Matthias; Rowe, Penny M.; Sioris, Chris; Walker, Kaley A.; Mariani, Zen; Uttal, Taneil; McElroy, C. Thomas; Vömel, Holger; Spassiani, Alessio; Drummond, James R.

    2017-08-01

    Water vapour is a critical component of the Earth system. Techniques to acquire and improve measurements of atmospheric water vapour and its isotopes are under active development. This work presents a detailed intercomparison of water vapour total column measurements taken between 2006 and 2014 at a Canadian High Arctic research site (Eureka, Nunavut). Instruments include radiosondes, sun photometers, a microwave radiometer, and emission and solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. Close agreement is observed between all combination of datasets, with mean differences ≤ 1.0 kg m-2 and correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98. The one exception in the observed high correlation is the comparison between the microwave radiometer and a radiosonde product, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.92.A variety of biases affecting Eureka instruments are revealed and discussed. A subset of Eureka radiosonde measurements was processed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) for this study. Comparisons reveal a small dry bias in the standard radiosonde measurement water vapour total columns of approximately 4 %. A recently produced solar absorption FTIR spectrometer dataset resulting from the MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) retrieval technique is shown to offer accurate measurements of water vapour total columns (e.g. average agreement within -5.2 % of GRUAN and -6.5 % of a co-located emission FTIR spectrometer). However, comparisons show a small wet bias of approximately 6 % at the high-latitude Eureka site. In addition, a new dataset derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements is shown to provide accurate water vapour measurements (e.g. average agreement was within 4 % of GRUAN), which usefully enables measurements to be taken during day and night (especially valuable during polar night).

  20. Effect of water vapour absorption on hydroxyl temperatures measured from Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chadney

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We model absorption by atmospheric water vapour of hydroxyl airglow emission using the HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption database (HITRAN2012. Transmission coefficients are provided as a function of water vapour column density for the strongest OH Meinel emission lines in the (8–3, (5–1, (9–4, (8–4, and (6–2 vibrational bands. These coefficients are used to determine precise OH(8–3 rotational temperatures from spectra measured by the High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES, installed at the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO, Svalbard. The method described in this paper also allows us to estimate atmospheric water vapour content using the HiTIES instrument.

  1. Distribution of tritium in water vapour and precipitation around Wolsung nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jung-Seok; Lee, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Jung-Min; Cho, Heung-Joon; Cho, Yong-Woo; Yun, Ju-Yong

    2011-07-01

    The distribution of tritium in water vapour and precipitation with discharge of tritiated water vapour and meteorological factors was studied around the Wolsung nuclear power plant (NPP) site during the period 2004-2008. The tritium concentrations in atmospheric water vapour and precipitation had a temporal variation with relatively high values in the early summer. Spatial distribution of tritium concentrations was affected by various factors such as distance from the NPP site, wind direction, tritium discharge into the atmosphere and atmospheric dispersion factor. The annual mean concentrations of atmospheric HTO and precipitation were correlated with the amount of gaseous tritium released from the Wolsung NPP. The tritium concentrations in precipitation decrease exponentially with an increase of the distance from the Wolsung NPP site.

  2. WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF CELLULAR WOOD MATERIAL AND CONDENSATION RISK OF COMPOSITE PANEL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis IEJAVS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invention of light weight cellular wood material (CWM with a trade mark of Dendrolight is one of innovations in wood industry of the last decade. The aim of the research was to define the water vapour permeability properties of CWM and to analyse the condensation risk of various wall envelopes where solid wood cellular material is used. To determine the water vapour permeability of CWM, test samples were produced in the factory using routine production technology and tested according to the standard EN 12086:2014. Water vapour permeability factor (μ and other properties of six different configurations of CWM samples were determined. Using the experimental data the indicative influence of geometrical parameters such as lamella thickness, number of lamellas and material direction were investigated and evaluated. To study the condensation risk within the wall envelope containing CWM calculation method given in LVS EN ISO 13788:2012 was used. To ease the calculation process previously developed JavaScript calculation software that had only capability to calculate thermal transmittance was extended so that condensation risk in multi-layer composite walls can be analysed. Water vapour permeability factor in CWM is highly direction dependant. If parallel and perpendicular direction of CWM is compared the value of water vapour permeability factor can differentiate more than two times. Another significant factor for condensation risk analysis is overall thickness of CWM since it directly influences the equivalent air layer thickness. The influence of other factors such as lamella thickness, or groove depth is minor when water vapour permeability properties are compared. From the analysis of CWM performance in building envelope it can be concluded that uninsulated CWM panels used during winter months will pose the risk of condensation damage to structure, but the risk can be reduced or prevented if insulation layer is applied to the CWM panel wall

  3. Microwave measurements of the absolute values of absorption by water vapour in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D C; Guiraud, F O

    1979-05-31

    MEASUREMENT of the absolute value of absorption by water vapour at microwave frequencies is difficult because the effect is so small. Far in the wings of the absorption lines, in the so-called 'windows' of the spectrum, it is especially difficult to achieve high accuracy in the free atmosphere. But it is in these windows that the behaviour of the absorption is important from both applied and scientific points of view. Satellite communications, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and radioastronomy, are all influenced by this behaviour. Measurements on an Earth-space path are reported here; the results indicate a nonlinear relationship between absorption and water-vapour content.

  4. Water vapour tomography using GPS phase observations: Results from the ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, T.; Gradinarsky, L.; Elgered, G.

    2007-10-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) tomography is a technique for estimating the 3-D structure of the atmospheric water vapour using data from a dense local network of GPS receivers. Several current methods utilize estimates of slant wet delays between the GPS satellites and the receivers on the ground, which are difficult to obtain with millimetre accuracy from the GPS observations. We present results of applying a new tomographic method to GPS data from the Expériance sur site pour contraindre les modèles de pollution atmosphérique et de transport d'emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment in southern France. This method does not rely on any slant wet delay estimates, instead it uses the GPS phase observations directly. We show that the estimated wet refractivity profiles estimated by this method is on the same accuracy level or better compared to other tomographic methods. The results are in agreement with earlier simulations, for example the profile information is limited above 4 km.

  5. Partitioning understory evapotranspiration in semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia using the isotopic composition of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Gaj, Marcel; Holtorf, Kim-Kirsten; Gröngröft, Alexander; Brokate, Ralph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Eschenbach, Annette

    2016-04-01

    In dry environments with a sparse vegetation cover, understory evapotranspiration is a major component of the ecosystem water balance. Consequently, knowledge on the size of evapotranspiration fluxes and the driving factors is important for our understanding of the hydrological cycle. Understory evapotranspiration is made up of soil evaporation and plant transpiration. Soil evaporation can be measured directly from patches free of vegetation. However, when understory vegetation is present distinguishing between soil evaporation and plant transpiration is challenging. In this study, we aim to partition understory evapotranspiration based on an approach that combines the measurements of water-vapour fluxes using the closed chamber method with measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour. The measurements were done in the framework of SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management). The study sites were located in three different semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia: thornbush savanna, Baikiaea woodland and shrubland. At each site measurements were done under tree canopies as well as at unshaded areas between the canopies. We measured evaporation from the bare soil and evapotranspiration from patches covered with herbaceous species and shrubs using a transparent chamber connected with an infrared gas analyser (LI-8100A, LICOR Inc.). The stable isotope composition of water vapour inside the chamber and depth profiles of soil water stable isotopes were determined in-situ using a tuneable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscope (OA-ICOS, Los Gatos Research, DLT 100). Xylem samples were extracted using the cryogenic vacuum extraction method and the isotopic composition of the extracted water was measured subsequently with a cavity-ring-down spectrometer (CRDS L2120-i, Picarro Inc.). We will present the quantified fluxes of understory evapotranspiration measured in the three different ecosystems, show the

  6. Thermal diffusion of water vapour in porous materials: fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    diffusion. Thermal diffusion opponents, on the other hand, assert that these thermal transports are negligibly small. This paper resolves that contradiction. A critical analysis of the investigations supporting the occurrence of thermal diffusion reveals that all are flawed. A correct reinterpretation...... its negligible magnitude. It can in conclusion be stated that thermal diffusion is of no importance for building science applications, leaving vapour pressure as the sole significant transport potential for the diffusion of water vapour in porous materials. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere to 8 km (in the upper troposphere and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model. We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  8. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; González, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Robinson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere) to 8 km (in the upper troposphere) and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model). We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  9. Reaction of soda-lime-silica glass melt with water vapour at melting temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vernerová, Miroslava; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAY 15 (2015), s. 21-30 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * sulfate * water vapour * bubble nucleation * melt foaming * glass melting Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  10. Water vapour trends at several tropospheric levels over South America between 1973 and 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.; Mattar, C.; Da-Silva, L.; Abarca, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper water vapour trends were analyzed at several tropospheric levels over South America between 1973 and 2003. It was carried out using in situ values retrieved by 15 radiosonde stations and NCEP NCAR Reanalysis data (NNR). NNR and radiosonde water vapour data were linked to Koeppen-Geiger climatic zones to calculate anomalies, trends, and the non-parametric statistical significance for each mandatory level. A methodology used to process radiosonde data is shown. Water vapour trends in tropical climates presented positive decadal trends. This is statistically significant for the first mandatory levels retrieved by radiosonde. The highest values are presented in average with NNR; the decadal magnitude for climate Af being 0.15 g kg -1 for 1000 and 925 h Pa, and for climate As 0.27 g kg -1 for 925 and 850 h Pa. For non-tropical climates the magnitude trends of specific humidity are affected by the spatial resolution of NNR, which is seen when comparing the results received by the radiosondes. Finally, this paper shows the initial results of water vapour content trends in the last three decades over South America. Strong climatic events and synoptic oscillations were not commented upon.

  11. Water vapour rises from the cooling towers for the ATLAS detector at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Electronics on the ATLAS detector produce heat when the experiment is running. An elaborate cooling system keeps the detector from overheating. On the surface, the warm water vapour that rises from the detector 100metres underground is clearly visible from the ATLAS cooling towers on the CERN Meyrin site in Switzerland.

  12. Detection of the contamination of air by tritiated water vapour around the reactor EL3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouleux, P.; Ardellier, A.; Valero, S.

    1968-01-01

    The authors describe the apparatus used for the detection of the tritiated water vapour contamination in the air around the reactor EL 3. The apparatus consists of two air-circulation ionisation chambers; the air in one of these is dried by passage through a silica-gel column. By carrying out a differential measurement of the ionization currents, it is possible to measure the tritiated water vapour concentration. A theoretical study of the response of the chambers is carried out for two types of emission of the tritiated water vapour: continuous, or in bursts. The experimental work comprises: calibration in the measurement range employed; study of the selectivity for other active gases; study of typical accidents; the interpretation of the results in the case of discontinuous emission, taking into account the desorption from the walls of the measurement chamber, a phenomenon which is observed during the emptying process. The authors give finally actual examples of how to use the results. The apparatus built makes it possible to detect, in less than ten minutes, contamination by tritiated water vapour in the presence of other active gases, in a measurement range of between 3 and 2200 MPC, and with an accuracy of about 25 per cent. A transposition to calculations of the risk to workers should be made with the utmost caution; an envelope of this risk can be drawn up more or less accurately depending on particular cases. (authors) [fr

  13. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  14. Leidenfrost vapour layer moderation of the drag crisis and trajectories of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic effects of a Leidenfrost vapour layer sustained on the surface of heated steel spheres during free fall in water. We find that a stable vapour layer sustained on the textured superhydrophobic surface of spheres falling through 95 °C water can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by up to 75% and stabilize the sphere trajectory for the Reynolds number between 104 and 106, spanning the drag crisis in the absence of the vapour layer. For hydrophilic spheres under the same conditions, the transition to drag reduction and trajectory stability occurs abruptly at a temperature different from the static Leidenfrost point. The observed drag reduction effects are attributed to the disruption of the viscous boundary layer by the vapour layer whose thickness depends on the water temperature. Both the drag reduction and the trajectory stabilization effects are expected to have significant implications for development of sustainable vapour layer based technologies. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  15. The Investigation of Isotopic Composition of Precipitation and water vapour by Using Air Mass Trajectories and Meteorological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirican, A.; Acar, Y.; Demircan, M.

    2002-01-01

    In last century there are so many studies were carried out about stable isotopes of precipitation. The Researchers, study in this field directed to examine origin and transport of water vapour. To investigate the conditions of precipitation formation parallel with climatic changes, stable isotopes using as a powerful tool. So that a project coordinated by IAEA. In this presentation we will give some parts of this project which was carried out in Turkey. First results were obtained for 2001 year. The one of the first result which was obtained in this project is the relation between air temperature and isotopic composition of precipitation collected in Ankara Antalya and Adana station. Second was the observation of temporal variation of stable isotope composition in precipitation and water vapour in relation with water vapour transport. δD and δ 18 O content of atmospheric water vapour examined for January - December 2001 time interval. 27 precipitation event had been examined, starting from endengered place and following to trajectories until to reach Turkey, by using ground level and 500mbar synoptic charts. The observed δD and δ 18 O variations of water vapour is related with the endengered place (Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, etc.) of water vapour. The isotopic composition of local precipitation forms by regional meteorological factors. In this study δD and δ 18 O relation of event, daily precipitation and water vapour were defined

  16. Low pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, F; Kylian, O; Amato, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can...... be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) from water vapour discharge are measured by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe under several...... operating conditions. Analysis of particle fluxes and removal rates measurements illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, governing the removal rates of organic matter. Auxiliary role of hydroxyl radicals is discussed on the basis of experimental data. The advantages of a water...

  17. GPS water vapour tomography: preliminary results from the ESCOMPTE field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champollion, C.; Masson, F.; Bouin, M.-N.; Walpersdorf, A.; Doerflinger, E.; Bock, O.; Van Baelen, J.

    2005-03-01

    Water vapour plays a major role in atmospheric processes but remains difficult to quantify due to its high variability in time and space and the sparse set of available measurements. The GPS has proved its capacity to measure the integrated water vapour at zenith with the same accuracy as other methods. Recent studies show that it is possible to quantify the integrated water vapour in the line of sight of the GPS satellite. These observations can be used to study the 3D heterogeneity of the troposphere using tomographic techniques. We develop three-dimensional tomographic software to model the three-dimensional distribution of the tropospheric water vapour from GPS data. First, the tomographic software is validated by simulations based on the realistic ESCOMPTE GPS network configuration. Without a priori information, the absolute value of water vapour is less resolved as opposed to relative horizontal variations. During the ESCOMPTE field experiment, a dense network of 17 dual frequency GPS receivers was operated for 2 weeks within a 20×20-km area around Marseille (southern France). The network extends from sea level to the top of the Etoile chain (˜700 m high). Optimal results have been obtained with time windows of 30-min intervals and input data evaluation every 15 min. The optimal grid for the ESCOMTE geometrical configuration has a horizontal step size of 0.05°×0.05° and 500 m vertical step size. Second, we have compared the results of real data inversions with independent observations. Three inversions have been compared to three successive radiosonde launches and shown to be consistent. A good resolution compared to the a priori information is obtained up to heights of 3000 m. A humidity spike at 4000-m altitude remains unresolved. The reason is probably that the signal is spread homogeneously over the whole network and that such a feature is not resolvable by tomographic techniques. The results of our pure GPS inversion show a correlation with

  18. Absorption by water vapour in the 1 to 2 μm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.M.; Ptashnik, I.; Newnham, D.A.; Shine, K.P.

    2004-01-01

    The near-IR (in the range 5000-10 000 cm -1 , 1-2 μm) bands of water vapour have been measured in absorption in the laboratory at sub-Doppler spectral resolution (up to 0.0054 cm -1 after numerical apodisation) by Fourier transform spectroscopy. Measurements have been made at 296 K on pure water vapour (at pressures between 2 and 20 hPa) and mixtures of water and air (at total pressures of 100 and 1000 hPa), at optical path lengths in the range 0.26-9.75 m. Measured absorption intensities have been compared with values calculated using the HITRAN 2000 molecular database. These comparisons indicate that the intensities of the 2ν(1.4 μm) and 2ν+δ(1.14 μm) bands are underestimated in HITRAN 2000 by approximately 15% and 20%, respectively, for pure water vapour measurements, and 12% for both bands in the case of water-air mixtures. The ν+δ (1.86 μm) band is in good agreement (0.4% for pure water vapour and less than 6% for mixtures with air) with HITRAN 2000. For typical atmospheric conditions, these absorption bands are sufficiently strong that radiation is fully absorbed at wavelengths in the region of the band centres. Hence the extra absorption that has been identified has only a modest impact (0.16 W m -2 or about 0.2%) on the global-mean clear-sky absorption of solar radiation. The impact in the upper troposphere is several times larger

  19. The role of water-vapour photodissociation on the formation of a deep minimum in mesopause ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Vardavas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional atmospheric photochemical model with an altitude grid of about 1.5 km was used to examine the structure of the global mean vertical ozone profile and its night-time-to-daytime variation in the upper atmosphere. Two distinct ozone layers are predicted, separated by a sharp drop in the ozone concentration near the mesopause. This naturally occurring mesopause ozone deep minimum is primarily produced by the rapid increase in the destruction of water vapour, and hence increase in HOx, at altitudes between 80 and 85 km, a region where water-vapour photodissociation by ultraviolet radiation of the solar Lyman-alpha line is significant, and where the supply of water vapour is maintained by methane oxidation even for very dry conditions at the tropospheric-stratospheric exchange region. The model indicates that the depth of the mesopause ozone minimum is limited by the efficiency with which inactive molecular hydrogen is produced, either by the conversion of atomic hydrogen to molecular hydrogen via one of the reaction channels of H with HO2, or by Lyman-alpha photodissociation of water vapour via the channel that leads to the production of molecular hydrogen. The ozone concentration rapidly recovers above 85 km due to the rapid increase in O produced by the photodissociation of O2 by absorption of ultraviolet solar radiation in the Schumann-Runge bands and continuum. Above 90 km, there is a decrease in ozone due to photolysis as the production of ozone through the three-body recombination of O2 and O becomes slower with decreasing pressure. The model also predicts two peaks in the night-time/daytime ozone ratio, one near 75 km and the other near 110 km, plus a strong peak in the night-time/daytime ratio of OH near 110 km. Recent observational evidence supports the predictions of the model.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Middle atmosphere · Thermosphere · Transmission and scattering of radiation

  20. Prediction of water vapour sorption isotherms and microstructure of hardened Portland cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgh, James M. de; Foster, Stephen J.; Valipour, Hamid R.

    2016-01-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms of cementitious materials reflect the multi-scale physical microstructure through its interaction with moisture. Our ability to understand and predict adsorption and desorption behaviour is essential in the application of modern performance-based approaches to durability analysis, along with many other areas of hygro-mechanical and hygro-chemo-mechanical behaviour. In this paper, a new physically based model for predicting water vapour sorption isotherms of arbitrary hardened Portland cement pastes is presented. Established thermodynamic principles, applied to a microstructure model that develops with hydration, provide a rational basis for predictions. Closed-form differentiable equations, along with a rational consideration of hysteresis and scanning phenomena, makes the model suitable for use in numerical moisture simulations. The microstructure model is reconciled with recently published 1 H NMR and mercury intrusion porosimetry results.

  1. Study of the Quantum Efficiency of CsI Photocathodes Exposed to Oxygen and Water Vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Piuz, François; Schyns, E M; Van Beelen, J B; Williams, T D

    2000-01-01

    The operation of CsI photocathodes in gaseous detectors requires special attention to the purity of the applied gas mixtures.We have studied the influence of oxygen and water vapour contaminations on the performance of CsI photocathodes for theALICE HMPID RICH prototype. Measurements were done through comparison of Cherenkov rings obtained from beamtests. Increased levels of oxygen and water vapour did not show any effect on the performance. The results of this studyfound a direct application in the way of storing CsI photocathodes over long periods nad in particular in the shipment of theHMPID prototype from CERN to the STAR experiment at BNL. (Abstract only available,full text to follow)

  2. A Raman lidar at La Reunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E for monitoring water vapour and cirrus distributions in the subtropical upper troposphere: preliminary analyses and description of a future system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoareau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based Rayleigh lidar has provided continuous observations of tropospheric water vapour profiles and cirrus cloud using a preliminary Raman channels setup on an existing Rayleigh lidar above La Reunion over the period 2002–2005. With this instrument, we performed a first measurement campaign of 350 independent water vapour profiles. A statistical study of the distribution of water vapour profiles is presented and some investigations concerning the calibration are discussed. Analysis regarding the cirrus clouds is presented and a classification has been performed showing 3 distinct classes. Based on these results, the characteristics and the design of a future lidar system, to be implemented at the new Reunion Island altitude observatory (2200 m for long-term monitoring, is presented and numerical simulations of system performance have been realised to compare both instruments.

  3. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoux, N.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Lefèvre, F.; Durry, G.; Jones, R. L.; Rozanov, A.; Dhomse, S.; Burrows, J. P.; Morel, B.; Bencherif, H.

    2009-07-01

    Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February-March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (μSDLA), a surface acoustic wave (SAW) and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ) on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances of satellite borne remote water vapour instruments available at the same latitude and measurement period. In the stratosphere, HALOE displays the best precision (2.5%), followed by SAGE II (7%), MIPAS (10%), SAOZ (20-25%) and SCIAMACHY (35%), all of which show approximately constant H2O mixing ratios between 20-25 km. Compared to HALOE of ±10% accuracy between 0.1-100 hPa, SAGE II and SAOZ show insignificant biases, MIPAS is wetter by 10% and SCIAMACHY dryer by 20%. The currently available GOMOS profiles of 25% precision show a positive vertical gradient in error for identified reasons. Compared to these, the water vapour of the Reprobus Chemistry Transport Model, forced at pressures higher than 95 hPa by the ECMWF analyses, is dryer by about 1 ppmv (20%). In the lower stratosphere between 16-20 km, most notable features are the steep degradation of MIPAS precision below 18 km, and the appearance of biases between instruments far larger than their quoted total uncertainty. HALOE and SAGE II (after spectral adjustment for reducing the bias with HALOE at northern mid-latitudes) both show decreases of water vapour with a minimum at the tropopause not seen by other instruments or the model, possibly attributable to an increasing error in the HALOE altitude registration. Between 16-18 km where the water vapour concentration shows little horizontal variability, and where the μSDLA balloon measurements are not perturbed by outgassing, the average mixing ratios reported by the remote sensing instruments are substantially lower than the 4-5 ppmv observed by the μSDLA. Differences

  4. Annealing of polycrystalline thin film silicon solar cells in water vapour at sub-atmospheric pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Píč, Vlastimil; Benda, V.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2014), s. 341-347 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101216 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation * water vapour * thin film solar cell * polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) * multicrys- talline silicon (m-Si) * Suns-VOC Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  5. The influence of heat pre-treatment on the sorption of water vapour on bentonite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrejš, P.; Zikánová, Arlette; Hradil, David; Štulík, K.; Pacáková, V.; Kočiřík, Milan; Eić, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2005), s. 57-63 ISSN 0929-5607 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/02/1464; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : adsorption * bentonite * montmorillonite * water vapour Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.323, year: 2005

  6. The effect of coherent stirring on the advection?condensation of water vapour

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. Key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. In order to investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls the moisture...

  7. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  8. Ozone and water vapour in the austral polar stratospheric vortex and sub-vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ozone and water vapour, in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, were made as part of the APE-GAIA mission in September and October 1999. The measurements show a distinct difference above and below the 415K isentrope. Above 415K, the chemically perturbed region of low ozone and water vapour is clearly evident. Below 415K, but still above the tropopause, no sharp meridional gradients in ozone and water vapour were observed. The observations are consistent with analyses of potential vorticity from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, which show smaller radial gradients at 380K than at 450K potential temperature. Ozone loss in the chemically perturbed region above 415K averages 5ppbv per day for mid-September to mid-October. Apparent ozone loss rates in the sub-vortex region are greater, at 7ppbv per day. The data support, therefore, the existence of a sub-vortex region in which meridional transport is more efficient than in the vortex above. The low ozone mixing ratios in the sub-vortex region may be due to in-situ chemical destruction of ozone or transport of ozone-poor air out of the bottom of the vortex. The aircraft data we use cannot distinguish between these two processes. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics polar meteorology – Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere–composition and chemistry

  9. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T L; Coe, C; Bagot, P A J; Morrall, P; Smith, G D W; Scott, T; Moody, M P

    2016-07-12

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour.

  10. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. L.; Coe, C.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Morrall, P.; Smith, G. D. W.; Scott, T.; Moody, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour.

  11. Energetics and dynamics of the neutralization of clustered ions in ammonia and water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennhauser, E.S.; Armstrong, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The energetics and dynamics of neutralization reactions of clustered ions in ammonia and water vapour have been analysed. Neutralization rate coefficients were calculated for the ions in ammonia and for H + .(H 2 O)sub(n) combining with various clustered anions in water vapour up to densities of 4 x 10 19 molecule cm -3 at 390 K. In the case of ammonia, calculations were also performed at 298 K. For all systems, fractional contributions of the neutralization coefficients for specific cluster sizes to the overall coefficient αsub(eff) were evaluated. The computed value of αsub(eff) for NH 3 was in reasonable agreement with experimental data in the [NH 3 ] range 0.3 to 4 x 10 19 molecule cm -3 , and general trends stemming from the effects of increasing ion mass were pointed out. Calculations of energies of individual cluster sizes indicate possible neutralization reaction mechanisms. With some exception, proton transfer is the only possible path and no H atoms should be formed. This is in general agreement with literature results for water vapour at approximately 390 K and with [H 2 O] >= 2 x 10 x 10 19 molecule cm -3 . (author)

  12. Adsorption of water vapour and the specific surface area of arctic zone soils (Spitsbergen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jolanta; Sokołowska, Zofia; Witkowska-Walczak, Barbara; Skic, Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Water vapour/nitrogen adsorption were investigated and calculated the specific surface areas of arctic-zone soil samples (Turbic Cryosols) originating from different micro-relief forms (mud boils, cell forms and sorted circles) and from different depths. For the characterisation of the isotherms obtained for arctic soils, the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model was then compared with the two other models (Aranovich-Donohue and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) which were developed from Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. Specific surface area was calculated using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model at p p0-1 range of 0.05-0.35 for the water vapour desorption and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The values of total specific surface area were the highest in Cryosols on mud boils, lower on cell forms, and the lowest on sorted circles. Such tendency was observed for the results obtained by both the water vapour and nitrogen adsorption. The differences in the values of specific surface area at two investigated layers were small. High determination coefficients were obtained for relationships between the specific surface areas and contents of clay and silt fraction in Cryosols. No statistically significant correlation between the total carbon amount and the values of specific surface area in Cryosols has been found.

  13. Characterization of sorption properties of selected soils from Lublin region by using water vapour adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    *The studies were carried out within the framework of a research project. The project was financed from funds of National Science Center on the base of decision number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ9/02545 Among many methods proposed to study sorption properties of soils an analysis of adsorption/ desorption isotherm is probably the easiest and most convenient one. It characterizes both quantity and quality of mineral and organic components and also their physical and physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study is comparison of sorption properties of selected Polish soils by using water vapour adsorption method. Samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 cm, from the Lublin region, eastern Poland. Soils were selected on the basis of their different physicochemical properties and were classified as: Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem, Mollic Gleysol, Rendzic Phaeozem, Stagnic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol (WG WRB 2006). Data taken from experimental adsorption isotherms were used to determine parameters of monolayer capacity, specific surface area and the total amount of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure of 0.974. Obtained adsorption and desorption isotherms reviled that adsorbate molecules interacted with the soil particles in different extent. Similar monolayer capacity was observed for Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem and Stagnic Luvisol, while for Mollic Gleysol was more than 4 times higher. Mollic Gleysol was also characterized by highest values of specific surface area as well as quantity of adsorbed vapour at relative pressure of 0.974. Higher sorption was caused by presence of soil colloids which contains functional groups of a polar nature (mainly hydroxyls, phenolic and carboxyls). These groups similarly to silicates, oxides, hydratable cations as well as electric charge form adsorption centres for water vapour molecules.

  14. The exchange reaction between deuterium and water vapour on platinum deposited over a hydrophobic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsuo, Iida; Junko, Kato; Kenzi, Tamuru

    1977-01-01

    Isotope exchange reaction between deuterium gas and water vapour at room temperature and below on platinum deposited on hydrophobic supports such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Porapak Q (copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene) was studied and the results were compared with those of the exchange reaction on platinum over hydrophilic support such as alumina. It was demonstrated that the exchange reaction at temperatures below the boiling point of water is markedly retarded by the multilayer adsorption of water over the platinum catalyst deposited on hydrophilic support, whereas the platinum catalyst on hydrophobic support exhibited a high catalytic activity, being not retarded by the water, forming no multilayer of adsorbed water over platinum surface. Therefore in the case of the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction on platinum over hydrophobic support, the chemical exchange rate can be measured even under a saturated vapour pressure of water. The surface area of platinum was estimated by hydrogen chemisorption and hydrogen titration and specific activities of the catalyst were calculated at both room temperature and freezing point of water, which revealed that the specific rate of this reaction does not differ so much over various supports. (orig.) [de

  15. Electron drift velocities in He and water mixtures: Measurements and an assessment of the water vapour cross-section sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, J. de; Juárez, A. M.; Basurto, E.; Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The drift velocity of electrons in mixtures of gaseous water and helium is measured over the range of reduced electric fields 0.1–300 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. Admixtures of 1% and 2% water to helium are found to produce negative differential conductivity (NDC), despite NDC being absent from the pure gases. The measured drift velocities are used as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-water vapour cross-sections [K. F. Ness, R. E. Robson, M. J. Brunger, and R. D. White, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024318 (2012)]. A refinement of the momentum transfer cross-section for electron-water vapour scattering is presented, which ensures self-consistency with the measured drift velocities in mixtures with helium to within approximately 5% over the range of reduced fields considered

  16. Stable isotope characterization of pan-derived and directly sampled atmospheric water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maric, R.; St. Amour, N.A.; Gibson, J.J.; Edwards, T.W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic characterization of atmospheric water vapour, δ A , and its temporal variability are important prerequisites for quantifying water balance of surface reservoirs and partitioning of evaporation and transpiration fluxes using isotope techniques. Here we present results from a detailed comparison of several methods for determining δ A in field situations, (i) by back-calculation from isotopic and micrometeorological monitoring of a steady-state terminal reservoir (standard Class-A evaporation pan) using boundary-layer mass transfer models [1], (ii) through direct (cryogenic) sampling of ambient atmospheric moisture, and (iii) using the precipitation-equilibrium approximation (i.e., δ A =δ P - ε*)

  17. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2018-06-01

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Seasonally-Active Water on Mars: Vapour, Ice, Adsorbate, and the Possibility of Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    Seasonally-active water can be defined to include any water reservoir that communicates with other reservoirs on time scales of a year or shorter. It is the interaction of these water reservoirs, under the influence of varying solar radiation and in conjunction with surface and atmospheric temperatures, that determines the phase-stability field for water at the surface, and the distribution of water in various forms below, on, and above the surface. The atmosphere is the critical, dynamical link in this cycling system, and also (fortunately) one of the easiest to observe. Viking and Mars Global Surveyor observations paint a strongly asymmetric picture of the global seasonal water cycle, tied proximately to planetary eccentricity, and the existence of residual ice caps of different composition at the two poles. The northern summer experiences the largest water vapour columns, and is associated with sublimation from the northern residual water ice cap. The southern summer residual carbon dioxide ice cap is cold trap for water. Asymmetry in the water cycle is an unsolved problem. Possible solutions may involve the current timing of perihelion (the water cap resides at the pole experiencing the longer but cooler summer), the trapping of water ice in the northern hemisphere by tropical water ice clouds, and the bias in the annual-average, zonal-mean atmospheric circulation resulting from the zonal-mean difference in the elevation of the northern and southern hemispheres. Adsorbed and frozen water have proven harder to constrain. Recent Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer results suggest substantial ground ice in the mid- and high-latitudes, but this water is likely below the seasonal skin depth for two reasons: the GRS results are best fit with such a model, and GCM models of the water cycle produce dramatically unrealistic atmospheric vapour distributions when such a very near surface, GRS-like distribution is initialized - ultimately removing the water to the northern and

  19. The ratio DT/μ for electrons in water vapour at 294 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elford, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    The ratio D T /μ for electrons in water vapour (294 K) has been measured by the Townsend-Huxley method as a function of E/N (where E is the electric field strength and N the gas number density) at vapour pressures ranging from 0.103 to 0.413 kPa. For E/N ≤ 30 Td, where attachment and ionisation may be neglected, the values are found to be independent of vapour pressure and of the current ratio relation used to derive D T /μ values from the measured current ratios. The uncertainty of these D T /μ values is estimated to be T /μ measured at E/N > 30 Td were found to be strongly pressure dependent, the strength and sign of the dependence depending on E/N and the current ratio relation used. Since extrapolation to infinite pressure at each E/N value did not give the same value of D T /μ, it has not been possible to derive reliable D T /μ values for this higher E/N range. Possible causes of the observed pressure dependences are discussed. The present data are in good agreement with the values predicted by Ness and Robson for values of E/N ≤ 24 Td. 17 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  20. Dynamic behaviour of bubbles of water vapour at a temperature lower than the boiling temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Franz

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the theoretical movement of the wall of vapour water bubbles in a sub-saturated boiling regime, i.e. with an average water temperature lower than the boiling temperature. While assuming that bubbles have an initial translational speed at the beginning of their condensation, the author shows that their shrinkage should result in an accelerated displacement in a direction normal to the wall and inward the liquid. Layers of hot water initially close to the wall would therefore be quickly transported towards cold water areas. Experiments allowed, in some cases, the acceleration of bubbles during their condensation to be noticed: for low sub-saturations in still water and for high sub-saturations in water in forced convection, even though, in this last case, the determination of accelerations is more delicate [fr

  1. The early summertime Saharan heat low: sensitivity of the radiation budget and atmospheric heating to water vapour and dust aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamirew, Netsanet K.; Todd, Martin C.; Ryder, Claire L.; Marsham, John H.; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The Saharan heat low (SHL) is a key component of the west African climate system and an important driver of the west African monsoon across a range of timescales of variability. The physical mechanisms driving the variability in the SHL remain uncertain, although water vapour has been implicated as of primary importance. Here, we quantify the independent effects of variability in dust and water vapour on the radiation budget and atmospheric heating of the region using a radiative transfer model configured with observational input data from the Fennec field campaign at the location of Bordj Badji Mokhtar (BBM) in southern Algeria (21.4° N, 0.9° E), close to the SHL core for June 2011. Overall, we find dust aerosol and water vapour to be of similar importance in driving variability in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget and therefore the column-integrated heating over the SHL (˜ 7 W m-2 per standard deviation of dust aerosol optical depth - AOD). As such, we infer that SHL intensity is likely to be similarly enhanced by the effects of dust and water vapour surge events. However, the details of the processes differ. Dust generates substantial radiative cooling at the surface (˜ 11 W m-2 per standard deviation of dust AOD), presumably leading to reduced sensible heat flux in the boundary layer, which is more than compensated by direct radiative heating from shortwave (SW) absorption by dust in the dusty boundary layer. In contrast, water vapour invokes a radiative warming at the surface of ˜ 6 W m-2 per standard deviation of column-integrated water vapour in kg m-2. Net effects involve a pronounced net atmospheric radiative convergence with heating rates on average of 0.5 K day-1 and up to 6 K day-1 during synoptic/mesoscale dust events from monsoon surges and convective cold-pool outflows (haboobs). On this basis, we make inferences on the processes driving variability in the SHL associated with radiative and advective heating/cooling. Depending on the

  2. Sorption of water vapour by the Na+-exchanged clay-sized fractions of some tropical soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yormah, T.B.R.; Hayes, M.H.B.

    1993-09-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms at 299K for the Na + -exchanged clay-sized (≤ 2μm e.s.d.) fraction of two sets of samples taken at three different depths from a tropical soil profile have been studied. One set of samples was treated (with H 2 O 2 ) for the removal of much of the organic matter (OM); the other set (of the same samples) was not so treated. The isotherms obtained were all of type II and analyses by the BET method yielded values for the Specific Surface Areas (SSA) and for the average energy of adsorption of the first layer of adsorbate (E a ). OM content and SSA for the untreated samples were found to decrease with depth. Whereas removal of organic matter made negligible difference to the SSA of the top/surface soil, the same treatment produced a significant increase in the SSA of the samples taken from the middle and from the lower depths in the profile; the resulting increase was more pronounced for the subsoil. It has been deduced from these results that OM in the surface soil was less involved with the inorganic soil colloids than that in the subsoil. The increase in surface area which resulted from the removal of OM from the subsoil was most probably due to disaggregation. Values of E a obtained show that for all the samples the adsorption of water vapour became more energetic after the oxidative removal of organic matter; the resulting ΔE a also increased with depth. This suggests that in the dry state, the ''cleaned'' surface of the inorganic soil colloids was more energetic than the ''organic-matter-coater surface''. These data provide strong support for the deduction that OM in the subsoil was in a more ''combined'' state than that in the surface soil. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air. A model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapour pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGillivray, G.W. (Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom)); Geeson, D.A. (Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom)); Greenwood, R.C. (Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of uranium metal by moist air has been measured at temperatures from 115 to 350 C and water vapour pressures from 0 to 47 kPa (350 Torr). From this and from previously reported data, a model has been developed which allows the rate of uranium oxidation to be calculated at any particular combination of temperature and water vapour pressure of interest, in the range 0-350 C and 0-101.3 kPa (760 Torr). The model is based on the assumption that the surface concentration of water determines the rate of reaction and that the adsorption of water onto the oxide follows a Langmuir type isotherm. Theoretical plots of rate as a function of water vapour pressure and Arrhenius plots derived from the model have been shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. The model assumes separate contributions to the overall observed rate from oxygen and water vapour. Surface studies have been carried out using SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry). Depth profiling of the oxide produced by isotopically labelled reagents ([sup 18]O[sub 2] and H[sup 18][sub 2]O), has shown that oxygen from both reactants is incorporated into the oxide layer in the ratio predicted by the kinetic model. This supports a mechanism in which oxygen and water vapour produce separate diffusing species (possibly O[sup 2-] and OH[sup -]). (orig.)

  4. Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air A model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapour pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, G. W.; Geeson, D. A.; Greenwood, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of uranium metal by moist air has been measured at temperatures from 115 to 350°C and water vapour pressures from 0 to 47 kPa (350 Torr). From this and from previously reported data, a model has been developed which allows the rate of uranium oxidation to be calculated at any particular combination of temperature and water vapour pressure of interest, in the range 0-350°C and 0-101.3 kPa (760 Torr). The model is based on the assumption that the surface concentration of water determines the rate of reaction and that the adsorption of water onto the oxide follows a Langmuir type isotherm. Theoretical plots of rate as a function of water vapour pressure and Arrhenius plots derived from the model have been shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. The model assumes separate contributions to the overall observed rate from oxygen and water vapour. Surface studies have been carried out using SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry). Depth profiling of the oxide produced by isotopically labelled reagents ( 18O 2 and H 218O), has shown that oxygen from both reactants is incorporated into the oxide layer in the ratio predicted by the kinetic model. This supports a mechanism in which oxygen and water vapour produce separate diffusing species (possibly O 2- and OH -).

  5. Water vapour and wind measurements by a two micron space lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibaudo, J.-B.; Labandibar, J.-Y.

    2018-04-01

    AEROSPATIALE presents the main results of the feasibility study under ESA contract on a coherent 2μm lidar instrument capable of measuring water vapour and wind velocity in the planetary boundary layer. The selected instrument configuration and the associated performance are provided, and the main critical subsystems identified (laser configuration, coherent receiver chain architecture, frequency locking and offsetting architecture. The second phase of this study is dedicated to breadboard the most critical elements of such an instrument in order to technologically consolidate its feasibility.

  6. Passivation effect of water vapour on thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Müller, Martin; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 7 (2016), s. 1969-1975 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-27 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation, * plasma hydrogenation * silicon * solar cells * thin films * water vapour Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  7. Water vapour flux divergence over the Arabian Sea during 1987 summer monsoon using satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    the AS or the southern Indian Ocean. Another question which remains unanswered is whether all the NFD over AS is utilized only for precipitation over the Indian subcontinent or part of it is utilized for precipitation over the other southeast Asian countries. Only a... detailed and systematic surface and upper air data collection programme over the tropical Indian Ocean can throw light on the above questions. WATER VAPOUR FLUX DIVERGENCE OVER THE ARABIAN SEA 207 500 60’ 700 80” 500 60” 70” 500 60’ 70” 60” 700 Fig. 7...

  8. Competition for water vapour results in suppression of ice formation in mixed-phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Simpson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ice in clouds can initiate precipitation and influence a cloud's reflectivity and lifetime, affecting climate to a highly uncertain degree. Nucleation of ice at elevated temperatures requires an ice nucleating particle (INP, which results in so-called heterogeneous freezing. Previously reported measurements for the ability of a particle to nucleate ice have been made in the absence of other aerosol which will act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Here we show that CCN can outcompete INPs for available water vapour thus suppressing ice formation, which has the potential to significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget. The magnitude of this suppression is shown to be dependent on the mass of condensed water required for freezing. Here we show that ice formation in a state-of-the-art cloud parcel model is strongly dependent on the criteria for heterogeneous freezing selected from those previously hypothesised. We have developed an alternative criteria which agrees well with observations from cloud chamber experiments. This study demonstrates the dominant role that competition for water vapour can play in ice formation, highlighting both a need for clarity in the requirements for heterogeneous freezing and for measurements under atmospherically appropriate conditions.

  9. Electrical Behaviour of Chitosan-Silver Nanocomposite in Presence of Water Vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Yadav

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, characterization of the nanocomposite of silver and chitosan polymer composite reinforced by cellulose fibre and its electrical behaviour in presence of water vapour. The coated paper has been characterized by XRD, IR, SEM and EDX techniques. The size of silver nanoparticles is found to be around 9 nm and deposited uniformly. Chitosan, as well as cellulose, contain a hydrogen attached to electronegative nitrogen and oxygen. This gives a favourable environment for the formation of hydrogen bonds. IR peaks of the composite infer the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the two constituents. The SEM pictures show that the coating of the fibres with nanoparticles is quite uniform. EDX analysis shows that the coated filter paper has sufficient amount of silver along with carbon and oxygen. The coated paper shows good sensitivity towards humidity. It gives excellent linearity in response with a concentration of water vapour after heat treatment of composite at 130 °C. The sensitivity of the sensor is 0.8 MΩ per unit of relative humidity. Sensing properties originate from protonic conductivity from adsorbed water molecule.

  10. Competition for water vapour results in suppression of ice formation in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma L.; Connolly, Paul J.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2018-05-01

    The formation of ice in clouds can initiate precipitation and influence a cloud's reflectivity and lifetime, affecting climate to a highly uncertain degree. Nucleation of ice at elevated temperatures requires an ice nucleating particle (INP), which results in so-called heterogeneous freezing. Previously reported measurements for the ability of a particle to nucleate ice have been made in the absence of other aerosol which will act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Here we show that CCN can outcompete INPs for available water vapour thus suppressing ice formation, which has the potential to significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget. The magnitude of this suppression is shown to be dependent on the mass of condensed water required for freezing. Here we show that ice formation in a state-of-the-art cloud parcel model is strongly dependent on the criteria for heterogeneous freezing selected from those previously hypothesised. We have developed an alternative criteria which agrees well with observations from cloud chamber experiments. This study demonstrates the dominant role that competition for water vapour can play in ice formation, highlighting both a need for clarity in the requirements for heterogeneous freezing and for measurements under atmospherically appropriate conditions.

  11. Retrieval of total water vapour in the Arctic using microwave humidity sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Scarlat, Raul; Melsheimer, Christian; Heygster, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative retrievals of atmospheric water vapour in the Arctic present numerous challenges because of the particular climate characteristics of this area. Here, we attempt to build upon the work of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008) to retrieve total atmospheric water vapour (TWV) in the Arctic from satellite microwave radiometers. While the above-mentioned algorithm deals primarily with the ice-covered central Arctic, with this work we aim to extend the coverage to partially ice-covered and ice-free areas. By using modelled values for the microwave emissivity of the ice-free sea surface, we develop two sub-algorithms using different sets of channels that deal solely with open-ocean areas. The new algorithm extends the spatial coverage of the retrieval throughout the year but especially in the warmer months when higher TWV values are frequent. The high TWV measurements over both sea-ice and open-water surfaces are, however, connected to larger uncertainties as the retrieval values are close to the instrument saturation limits.This approach allows us to apply the algorithm to regions where previously no data were available and ensures a more consistent physical analysis of the satellite measurements by taking into account the contribution of the surface emissivity to the measured signal.

  12. Airborne hygrometer calibration inter-comparison against a metrological water vapour standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgon, Denis; Boese, Norbert; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Water vapour is the most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, which causes a major feedback to warming and other changes in the climate system. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapour and its climate induced changes is especially important in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) where vapour plays a critical role in atmospheric radiative balance, cirrus cloud formation, and photochemistry. But, our understanding of water in the UT/LS is limited by significant uncertainties in current UT/LS water measurements. One of the most comprehensive inter-comparison campaigns for airborne hygrometers, termed AQUAVIT (AV1) [1], took place in 2007 at the AIDA chamber at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany. AV1 was a well-defined, referred, blind inter-comparison of 22 airborne field instruments from 17 international research groups. One major metrological deficit of AV1, however, was, that no traceable reference instrument participated in the inter-comparison experiments and that the calibration procedures of the participating instruments were not monitored or interrogated. Consequently a follow-up inter-comparison was organized in April 2013, which for the first time also provides a traceable link to the international humidity scale. This AQUAVIT2 (AV2) campaign (details see: http://www.imk-aaf.kit.edu/aquavit/index.php/Main_Page) was again located at KIT/AIDA and organised by an international organizing committee including KIT, PTB, FZJ and others. Generally AV2 is divided in two parallel comparisons: 1) AV2-A uses the AIDA chamber for a simultaneous comparison of all instruments (incl. sampling and in-situ instruments) over a broad range of conditions characteristic for the UT/LS; 2) AV2-B, about which this paper is reporting, is a sequential comparison of selected hygrometers and (when possible) their reference calibration infrastructures by means of a chilled mirror hygrometer traced back to the primary National humidity standard

  13. The oxidation of stainless steels in water vapour-oxygen mixtures. Design and development of an original equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uller, Leonardo.

    1981-02-01

    A device including a thermobalance placed in a tight housing has been conceived and built. This apparatus is suitable to submit metallic samples to the action of dry oxygen, deoxygenated water vapour or mixtures of water vapour and oxygen. The first results obtained with this device, at 600 0 C, and for a 18-10 stainless steel are: - in the presence of deoxygenated water vapour, one observes very fast oxidation kinetics, with a roughly parabolic law (K approximately equal to 3x10 -2 mg 2 .cm -4 .h -1 ); - the addition of oxygen from about 10 vpm onwards, induces an important initial slowing down of the kinetics; - the duration of this 'induction' period rises with increasing the oxygen content of the water vapour, but the protection of the alloy due to the action of oxygen remains temporary; - in another way, experiments begun with water vapour, were continued with pure oxygen, and reciprocally. During these 'mixed' experiments, the weight increases were continually recorded. A swift slowing down has been observed in the first case and an important acceleration in the second one [fr

  14. Data on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a cementitious mortar containing end-of-waste plastic aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maio, Luciano; Coppola, Bartolomeo; Courard, Luc; Michel, Frédéric; Incarnato, Loredana; Scarfato, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Hygro-thermal and durability properties of a lightweight mortar made with foamed plastic waste aggregates ” (Coppola et al., 2018). This article focuses the attention on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a lightweight cementitious mortar containing foamed end-of-waste plastic aggregates, produced via foam extrusion process. Thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability ...

  15. Swelling behaviour of Early Jurassic shales when exposed to water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Peach, Colin; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    The presence of water in mudrocks has a largely negative impact on production of gas, due to the fact that water causes swelling of the rock. Removing the water from the mudrock on the other hand could potentially shrink the rock and increase the matrix permeability. Investigation of the swelling/shrinkage behaviour of the rock during exposure to water vapour is of key importance in designing and optimizing unconventional production strategies. We have used outcrop samples of the Whitby Mudstone and the Posidonia shale [1], potential unconventional sources for gas in North-western Europe, to measure the swelling and shrinkage behaviour. Subsamples, 1 mm cubes, were prepared by the Glass Workshop at Utrecht University using a high precision digitally controlled diamond wafering saw cooled by air. The mm cubes were then exposed to atmospheres with different relative humidities either in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) or in a 3D dilatometer. So that the sample responses to exposure of water vapour could be measured. Parallel to the bedding we found a swelling strain between 0.5 and 1.5 %, perpendicular to the bedding though swelling strain varied between 1 and 3.5%. Volumetric swelling strain varied between 1 and 2% at a maximum relative humidity of 95%. Volumetric swelling strains measured in the Early Toarcian Shales are similar to the ones found in coal [2], where the results suggest that it might be possible to increase permeability in the reservoir by decreasing the in-situ water activity due to shrinkage of the matrix. [1] M.E. Houben, A. Barnhoorn, L. Wasch, J. Trabucho-Alexandre, C. J. Peach, M.R. Drury (2016). Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe, International Journal of Coal Geology, 165, 76-89. [2] Jinfeng Liu, Colin J. Peach, Christopher J. Spiers (2016). Anisotropic swelling behaviour of coal matrix cubes exposed to water vapour: Effects of relative humidity and sample size, International Journal of

  16. Intercomparison of in-situ and remote sensing δD signals in tropospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; González, Yenny; Dyroff, Christoph; Christner, Emanuel; García, Omaira; Wiegele, Andreas; Andrey, Javier; Barthlott, Sabine; Blumenstock, Thomas; Guirado, Carmen; Hase, Frank; Ramos, Ramon; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sepúveda, Eliezer

    2014-05-01

    The main mission of the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi-global tropospheric water vapour isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. We present a first empirical validation of MUSICA's remote sensing δD products (ground-based FTIR within NDACC, Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, and space-based with IASI, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, flown on METOP). As reference we use in-situ measurements made on the island of Tenerife at two different altitudes (2370 and 3550 m a.s.l., using two Picarro L2120-i water isotopologue analyzers) and aboard an aircraft (between 200 and 6800 m a.s.l., using the homemade ISOWAT instrument).

  17. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  18. The effect of coherent stirring on the advection–condensation of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. The key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. To investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls moisture distribution, we develop simple kinematic models which combine a single circulating flow with a Brownian-motion representation of turbulence. We first study the drying mechanism of a water-vapour anomaly released inside a vortex at an initial time. Next, we consider a cellular flow with a moisture source at a boundary. The statistically steady state attained shows features reminiscent of the Hadley cell such as boundary layers, a region of intense precipitation and a relative humidity minimum. Explicit results provide a detailed characterization of these features in the limit of strong flow. PMID:28690417

  19. The effect of coherent stirring on the advection-condensation of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. The key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. To investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls moisture distribution, we develop simple kinematic models which combine a single circulating flow with a Brownian-motion representation of turbulence. We first study the drying mechanism of a water-vapour anomaly released inside a vortex at an initial time. Next, we consider a cellular flow with a moisture source at a boundary. The statistically steady state attained shows features reminiscent of the Hadley cell such as boundary layers, a region of intense precipitation and a relative humidity minimum. Explicit results provide a detailed characterization of these features in the limit of strong flow.

  20. Intercomparison of radiative forcing calculations of stratospheric water vapour and contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Gunnar [Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), Oslo (Norway); Kvalevaag, Maria [Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Raedel, Gaby; Cook, Jolene; Shine, Keith P. [Dept. of Meteorology, Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Clark, Hannah [CNRM/GAME Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Lab. d' Aerologie, Univ. de Toulouse (France); Karcher, Fernand [CNRM/GAME Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Markowicz, Krzysztof; Kardas, Aleksandra; Wolkenberg, Paulina [Inst. of Geophysics, Univ. of Warsaw (Poland); Balkanski, Yves [LSCE/IPSL, Lab. CEA-CNRS-UVSQ (France); Ponater, Michael [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru [School of Earth and Environment, Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Leon, Ruben Rodriguez de [Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Seven groups have participated in an intercomparison study of calculations of radiative forcing (RF) due to stratospheric water vapour (SWV) and contrails. a combination of detailed radiative transfer schemes and codes for global-scale calculations have been used, as well as a combination of idealized simulations and more realistic global-scale changes in stratospheric water vapour and contrails. Detailed line-by-line codes agree within about 15% for longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) RF, except in one case where the difference is 30%. Since the LW and SW RF due to contrails and SWV changes are of opposite sign, the differences between the models seen in the individual LW and SW components can be either compensated or strengthened in the net RF. and thus in relative terms uncertainties are much larger for the net RF. Some of the models used for global-scale simulations of changes in SWV and contrails differ substantially in RF from the more detailed radiative transfer schemes. For the global-scale calculations we use a method of weighting the results to calculate a best estimate based on their performance compared to the more detailed radiative transfer schemes in the idealized simulations. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of the sorption properties of different soils using water vapour adsorption and potentiometric titration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-07-01

    Parameters of specific surface area as well as surface charge were used to determine and compare sorption properties of soils with different physicochemical characteristics. The gravimetric method was used to obtain water vapour isotherms and then specific surface areas, whereas surface charge was estimated from potentiometric titration curves. The specific surface area varied from 12.55 to 132.69 m2 g-1 for Haplic Cambisol and Mollic Gleysol soil, respectively, and generally decreased with pH (R=0.835; α = 0.05) and when bulk density (R=-0.736; α = 0.05) as well as ash content (R=-0.751; α = 0.05) increased. In the case of surface charge, the values ranged from 63.00 to 844.67 μmol g-1 Haplic Fluvisol and Mollic Gleysol, respecively. Organic matter gave significant contributions to the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity due to the large surface area and numerous surface functional groups, containing adsorption sites for water vapour molecules and for ions. The values of cation exchange capacity and specific surface area correlated linearly at the level of R=0.985; α = 0.05.

  2. High mean water vapour pressure promotes the transmission of bacillary dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Zheng Li

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery is an infectious disease caused by Shigella dysenteriae, which has a seasonal distribution. External environmental factors, including climate, play a significant role in its transmission. This paper identifies climate-related risk factors and their role in bacillary dysentery transmission. Harbin, in northeast China, with a temperate climate, and Quzhou, in southern China, with a subtropical climate, are chosen as the study locations. The least absolute shrinkage and selectionator operator is applied to select relevant climate factors involved in the transmission of bacillary dysentery. Based on the selected relevant climate factors and incidence rates, an AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA model is established successfully as a time series prediction model. The numerical results demonstrate that the mean water vapour pressure over the previous month results in a high relative risk for bacillary dysentery transmission in both cities, and the ARIMA model can successfully perform such a prediction. These results provide better explanations for the relationship between climate factors and bacillary dysentery transmission than those put forth in other studies that use only correlation coefficients or fitting models. The findings in this paper demonstrate that the mean water vapour pressure over the previous month is an important predictor for the transmission of bacillary dysentery.

  3. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. An increase in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over the South American domain, with small decreases simulated over Asia. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  4. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Antonio de; Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH 3 COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH 3 CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH 3 COOK) or (LiBr + CH 3 CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H 2 O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion

  5. Strong low-pass filtering effects on water vapour flux measurements with closed-path eddy correlation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba; Flyvbjerg, Henrik K.

    2007-01-01

    datasets for this substantial measurement error. In contrast to earlier studies, a large number of spectra and raw data have been used in the analysis to define the low-pass filtering characteristic of the EC system. This revealed that the cut-off frequency of the closed-path EC system for water vapour......Turbulent water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy correlation (EC) systems are unintentionally low-pass filtered by the system in a manner that varies with environmental conditions. Why and how is described here. So is the practical method that systematically corrects long-term flux...... concentration measurements decreases exponentially with increasing relative humidity. After correction for this unintended filtering, the fluxes are consistent with CO2 and H2O fluxes that were measured with an open-path sensor at the same time. The correction of water vapour flux measurements over a Beech...

  6. Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour time series studied with satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jones

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The long term evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour has been investigated by extending satellite time series to April 2008. For ozone, we examine monthly average ozone values from various satellite data sets for nine latitude and altitude bins covering 60° S to 60° N and 20–45 km and covering the time period of 1979–2008. Data are from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE I+II, the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Solar BackscatterUltraViolet-2 (SBUV/2 instrument, the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR, the Optical Spectrograph InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS, and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartograpY (SCIAMACHY. Monthly ozone anomalies are calculated by utilising a linear regression model, which also models the solar, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, and seasonal cycle contributions. Individual instrument ozone anomalies are combined producing an all instrument average. Assuming a turning point of 1997 and that the all instrument average is represented by good instrumental long term stability, the largest statistically significant ozone declines (at two sigma from 1979–1997 are seen at the mid-latitudes between 35 and 45 km, namely −7.2%±0.9%/decade in the Northern Hemisphere and −7.1%±0.9%/in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, for the period 1997 to 2008 we find that the same locations show the largest ozone recovery (+1.4% and +0.8%/decade respectively compared to other global regions, although the estimated trend model errors indicate that the trend estimates are not significantly different from a zero trend at the 2 sigma level. An all instrument average is also constructed from water vapour anomalies during 1991–2008, using the SAGE II, HALOE, SMR, and the Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS measurements. We report that the decrease in water vapour values after 2001 slows down around 2004–2005 in the lower tropical stratosphere (20–25 km and has even

  7. Near-infrared water vapour self-continuum at close to room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptashnik, I.V.; Petrova, T.M.; Ponomarev, Yu.N.; Shine, K.P.; Solodov, A.A.; Solodov, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The gaseous absorption of solar radiation within near-infrared atmospheric windows in the Earth's atmosphere is dominated by the water vapour continuum. Recent measurements by Baranov et al. (2011) [17] in 2500 cm −1 (4 μm) window and by Ptashnik et al. (2011) [18] in a few near-infrared windows revealed that the self-continuum absorption is typically an order of magnitude stronger than given by the MT C KD continuum model prior to version 2.5. Most of these measurements, however, were made at elevated temperatures, which makes their application to atmospheric conditions difficult. Here we report new laboratory measurements of the self-continuum absorption at 289 and 318 K in the near-infrared spectral region 1300–8000 cm −1 , using a multipass 30 m base cell with total optical path 612 m. Our results confirm the main conclusions of the previous measurements both within bands and in windows. Of particular note is that we present what we believe to be the first near-room temperature measurement using Fourier Transform Spectrometry of the self-continuum in the 6200 cm −1 (1.6 μm) window, which provides tentative evidence that, at such temperatures, the water vapour continuum absorption may be as strong as it is in 2.1 μm and 4 μm windows and up to 2 orders of magnitude stronger than the MT C KD-2.5 continuum. We note that alternative methods of measuring the continuum in this window have yielded widely differing assessment of its strength, which emphasises the need for further measurements. -- Highlights: ► New lab measurements of the near-infrared water vapour self-continuum absorption. ► First room-temperature data on the self-continuum in the 1.6 μm window. ► In the 1.6 μm window the new data exceed MT C KD-2.5 model by 2 orders of magnitude

  8. The oxidative corrosion of carbide inclusions at the surface of uranium metal during exposure to water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.B.; Petherbridge, J.R.; Harker, N.J.; Ball, R.J.; Heard, P.J.; Glascott, J.; Allen, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → High resolution imagery (FIB, SEM and SIMS) of carbide inclusions in uranium metal. → Real time images following the reaction of the carbide inclusions with water vapour. → Shown preferential consumption of carbide over that of the bulk metal. → Quantity of impurities in the metal therefore seriously influence reaction rate. → Metal purity must be considered when storing uranium in air or moist conditions. - Abstract: The reaction between uranium and water vapour has been well investigated, however discrepancies exist between the described kinetic laws, pressure dependence of the reaction rate constant and activation energies. Here this problem is looked at by examining the influence of impurities in the form of carbide inclusions on the reaction. Samples of uranium containing 600 ppm carbon were analysed during and after exposure to water vapour at 19 mbar pressure, in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) system. After water exposure, samples were analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), focused ion beam (FIB) imaging and sectioning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD). The results of the current study indicate that carbide particles on the surface of uranium readily react with water vapour to form voluminous UO 3 .xH 2 O growths at rates significantly faster than that of the metal. The observation may also have implications for previous experimental studies of uranium-water interactions, where the presence of differing levels of undetected carbide may partly account for the discrepancies observed between datasets.

  9. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment - special observation period (hymex-sop1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Donato; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; De Rosa, Benedetto; Cacciani, Marco; Stelitano, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL), an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2), a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  10. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment – special observation period (hymex-sop1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summa Donato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL, an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2, a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  11. Validation for a new apparatus measuring water vapour enhancement factors up to 6 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sairanen, H; Heinonen, M

    2014-01-01

    High accuracy dew-point measurements require a water vapour enhancement factor to correct the effects of pressure drop in a sampling line. The enhancement factor is also needed when a humidity quantity value is converted to another. In this paper a new apparatus for traceable measurements of the enhancement factor is presented along with the results of validation measurements with air and methane. The apparatus is designed for dew-point temperatures from −50 to +15 °C and the pressure range from atmospheric pressure up to 6 MPa. The performance of the apparatus was investigated by comparing measurement results to the literature data for air and the data calculated from published thermodynamic measurement results for methane. It is shown that the experimental results agree with the reference data within the estimated uncertainties. (paper)

  12. The drift velocity of electrons in water vapour at low values of E/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, B.; Elford, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    The drift velocity of electrons in water vapour at 294 K has been measured over the E/N range 1.4 to 40 Td with an error estimated to be 35 Td. The present data show that μN decreases monotonically with decreasing E/N at low E/N values as observed by Wilson et al. (1975) and does not become independent of E/N as indicated by Lowke and Rees (1963). The present values although lower than those of Lowke and Rees, lie within the combined error limits, except for values below 2 Td. The present data suggested that the momentum transfer cross section at low energies is approximately 10% larger than that obtained by Pack et al. (1962) from their drift velocity measurements. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  13. The assessment of water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes above arable crops - a comparison of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, S.; Daemmgen, U.; Burkart, S. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Inst. of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany); Gruenhage, L. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Inst. for Plant Ecology, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Vertical fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide obtained from gradient, eddy covariance (closed and open path systems) and chamber measurements above arable crops were compared with the directly measured energy balance and the harvested net biomass carbon. The gradient and chamber measurements were in the correct order of magnitude, whereas the closed path eddy covariance system showed unacceptably small fluxes. Correction methods based on power spectra analysis yielded increased fluxes. However, the energy balance could not be closed satisfactorily. The application of the open path system proved to be successful. The SVAT model PLATIN which had been adapted to various arable crops was able to depict the components of the energy balance adequately. Net carbon fluxes determined with the corrected closed path data sets, chamber, and SVAT model equal those of the harvested carbon. (orig.)

  14. Enhanced MODIS Atmospheric Total Water Vapour Content Trends in Response to Arctic Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Alraddawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the strength of the water vapour feedback within Arctic climate change, 15 years of the total column-integrated density of water vapour (TCWV from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS are analysed. Arctic TCWV distribution, trends, and anomalies for the 2001–2015 period, broken down into seasons and months, are analysed. Enhanced local spring TCWV trends above the terrestrial Arctic regions are discussed in relation to land snow cover and vegetation changes. Upward TCWV trends above the oceanic areas are discussed in lien with sea ice extent and sea surface temperature changes. Increased winter TCWV (up to 40% south of the Svalbard archipelago are observed; these trends are probably driven by a local warming and sea ice extent decline. Similarly, the Barents/Kara regions underwent wet trends (up to 40%, also associated with winter/fall local sea ice loss. Positive late summer TCWV trends above the western Greenland and Beaufort seas (about 20% result from enhanced upper ocean warming and thereby a local coastal decline in ice extent. The Mackenzie and Siberia enhanced TCWV trends (about 25% during spring are found to be associated with coincident decreased snow cover and increased vegetation, as a result of the earlier melt onset. Results show drier summers in the Eurasia and western Alaska regions, thought to be affected by changes in albedo from changing vegetation. Other TCWV anomalies are also presented and discussed in relation to the dramatic decline in sea ice extent and the exceptional rise in sea surface temperature.

  15. Influence of water vapour and permanent gases on the atmospheric optical depths and transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.

    1991-05-01

    The influence of the atmospheric state on the extinction of direct solar radiation has been studied by using a four layer atmospheric model. Simple analytical formulae are established for the spectral optical depths of permanent gases and water vapour. These formulae use the ground level values of air pressure, temperature and relative huniidity. An additional parameter, related to the vertical distribution of the hunmidity content, is used for a better estimation of the water vapour optical depth. Good agreement between theory and measurements is found. The paper shows the dependence of the atmospheric spectral transmittance on the above mentioned parameters. L'influence de l'état atmosphérique sur l'extinction de la radiation solaire directe a été étudiée à l'aide d'un modèle atmosphérique développé antérieurement par l'auteur. Des formules simples ont été établies pour l'épaisseur optique spectrale des gaz et de la vapeur d'eau. Ces formules utilisent les valeurs de la pression atmosphérique, de la température et de l'humidité relative, mesurées au niveau du sol. Un paramètre supplémentaire, lié à la distribution verticale du contenu d'humidité, est utilisé pour calculer l'épaisseur optique due à la vapeur d'eau. La théorie est en bon accord avec les résultats des mesures. Le travail montre la dépendance de la transmittance atmosphérique spectrale en fonction des paramètres spécifiés ci-dessus.

  16. Soil-water characteristics of Gaomiaozi bentonite by vapour equilibrium technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-water characteristics of Gaomiaozi (GMZ Ca-bentonite at high suctions (3–287 MPa are measured by vapour equilibrium technique. The soil-water retention curve (SWRC of samples with the same initial compaction states is obtained in drying and wetting process. At high suctions, the hysteresis behaviour is not obvious in relationship between water content and suction, while the opposite holds between degree of saturation and suction. The suction variation can change its water retention behaviour and void ratio. Moreover, changes of void ratio can bring about changes in degree of saturation. Therefore, the total change in degree of saturation includes changes caused by suction and that by void ratio. In the space of degree of saturation and suction, the SWRC at constant void ratio shifts to the direction of higher suctions with decreasing void ratio. However, the relationship between water content and suction is less affected by changes of void ratio. The degree of saturation decreases approximately linearly with increasing void ratio at a constant suction. Moreover, the slope of the line decreases with increasing suction and they show an approximately linear relationship in semi-logarithmical scale. From this linear relationship, the variation of degree of saturation caused by the change in void ratio can be obtained. Correspondingly, SWRC at a constant void ratio can be determined from SWRC at different void ratios.

  17. Transport mechanisms through PE-CVD coatings: influence of temperature, coating properties and defects on permeation of water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheim, Dennis; Jaritz, Montgomery; Hopmann, Christian; Dahlmann, Rainer; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter; Gebhard, Maximilian; Devi, Anjana; Brochhagen, Markus; Böke, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Gas transport mechanisms through plastics are usually described by the temperature-dependent Arrhenius-model and compositions of several plastic layers are represented by the CLT. When it comes to thin films such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) coatings on substrates of polymeric material, a universal model is lacking. While existing models describe diffusion through defects, these models presume that permeation does not occur by other means of transport mechanisms. This paper correlates the existing transport models with data from water vapour transmission experiments. (paper)

  18. Vapour explosions (fuel-coolant interactions) resulting from the sub-surface injection of water into molten metals: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bullen, D.; Davies, D.

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the relationship between the injection mode of contact and the occurrence and magnitude of vapour explosions. Water was injected beneath the surface of molten metals, chiefly tin at 250 to 900 0 C. Vapour explosions occurred in many, but not all, cases. The results are compared with Dullforce's observations (Culham Report (CLM-P424) on the dropping mode of contact and it appears that rather different behaviour is found; in particular, the present results suggest that the Temperature Interaction Zone is different for the two modes of contact. (author)

  19. Application of cylinder symmetry to iron and titanium oxidation by oxygen or hydrogen-water vapour mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, Pierre

    1980-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the oxidation reaction in the case of corrosion of iron by oxygen, hydrogen sulphide or hydrogen-water vapour mixes, and in the case of oxidation of titanium and of titanium nitride by hydrogen-water vapour mixes. It first addresses the corrosion of iron by oxygen with an experiment performed in cylinder symmetry: description of operational conditions, discussion of kinetic curves, development of a law of generation of multiple layers in cylinder symmetry, analytical exploitation of experimental results. The second part addresses the oxidation of iron by hydrogen-water vapour mixes: experimental conditions, influence of temperature on kinetics, micrographic study (oxide morphology, coating morphology, interpretation of differences with the case of plane symmetry), discussion of the influence of cylinder symmetry on oxidation kinetics. The third part addresses the oxidation of titanium by hydrogen-water vapour mixes: global kinetic evolution, reaction products and micrographic examination, morphology and texture studies, discussion of the oxidation mechanism and of cylinder symmetry [fr

  20. Investigating the Interaction of Water Vapour with Aminopropyl Groups on the Surface of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Geo; Musso, Giorgia Elena; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Cossi, Maurizio; Marchese, Leonardo; Berlier, Gloria

    2017-04-05

    The interaction of water molecules with the surface of hybrid silica-based mesoporous materials is studied by 29 Si, 1 H and 13 C solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopy, with the support of ab initio calculations. The surface of aminopropyl-grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticles is studied in the dehydrated state and upon interaction with controlled doses of water vapour. Former investigations described the interactions between aminopropyl and residual SiOH groups; the present study shows the presence of hydrogen-bonded species (SiOH to NH 2 ) and weakly interacting "free" aminopropyl chains with restricted mobility, together with a small amount of protonated NH 3 + groups. The concentration of the last-named species increased upon interaction with water, and this indicates reversible and fast proton exchange from water molecules to a fraction of the amino groups. Herein, this is discussed and explained for the first time, by a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical Vapour Compression Chiller at Elevated Chilled Water Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2017-05-18

    The performance of a Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) chiller is experimentally investigated under operating conditions suitable for sensible cooling. With the emergence of the energy efficient dehumidification systems, it is possible to decouple the latent load from the MVC chillers which can be operated at higher chilled water temperature for handling sensible cooling load. In this article, the performance of the chiller is evaluated at the elevated chilled water outlet temperatures (7 – 17° C) at various coolant temperatures (28 – 32° C) and flow rates (ΔT = 4 and 5° C) for both full- and part-load conditions. Keeping the performance at the AHRI standard as the baseline condition, the efficacy of the chiller in terms of compression ratio, cooling capacity and COP at aforementioned conditions is quantified experimentally. It is observed that for each one-degree Celsius increase in the chilled water temperature, the COP of the chiller improves by about 3.5% whilst the cooling capacity improvement is about 4%. For operation at 17° C chilled water outlet temperature, the improvements in COP and cooling capacity are between 37 – 40% and 40 – 45%, respectively, compared to the performance at the AHRI standards. The performance of the MVC chiller at the abovementioned operation conditions is mapped on the chiller performance characteristic chart.

  2. Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical Vapour Compression Chiller at Elevated Chilled Water Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chua, Kian Jon; Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) chiller is experimentally investigated under operating conditions suitable for sensible cooling. With the emergence of the energy efficient dehumidification systems, it is possible to decouple the latent load from the MVC chillers which can be operated at higher chilled water temperature for handling sensible cooling load. In this article, the performance of the chiller is evaluated at the elevated chilled water outlet temperatures (7 – 17° C) at various coolant temperatures (28 – 32° C) and flow rates (ΔT = 4 and 5° C) for both full- and part-load conditions. Keeping the performance at the AHRI standard as the baseline condition, the efficacy of the chiller in terms of compression ratio, cooling capacity and COP at aforementioned conditions is quantified experimentally. It is observed that for each one-degree Celsius increase in the chilled water temperature, the COP of the chiller improves by about 3.5% whilst the cooling capacity improvement is about 4%. For operation at 17° C chilled water outlet temperature, the improvements in COP and cooling capacity are between 37 – 40% and 40 – 45%, respectively, compared to the performance at the AHRI standards. The performance of the MVC chiller at the abovementioned operation conditions is mapped on the chiller performance characteristic chart.

  3. Water vapour in the middle atmosphere of Venus:. An improved treatment of the Venera 15 ir spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, N. i.; Moroz, V. i.; Zasova, L. V.; Khatuntsev, I. v.

    1999-08-01

    In 1983, spectra of Venus in the region of 6-40 μm were measured by means of the Fourier Spectrometer aboard the Venera 15 orbiter. It covered local solar times from 4 am to 10 am and from 4 pm to 10 pm in the latitude range from 65°S up to 87°N. The results of an extended processing and analysis of these data are presented. Time and spatial variations of the water vapour were found. Most of the measurements fall in the range of 5-15 ppm, which is close to earlier results. The effective altitude of sounding is approximately equal to the altitude where the optical depth τ = 1. In the northern hemisphere, which was mainly covered by the measurements, two latitude regions can be distinguished; (A) 20° 60°, which are characterised by different altitudes of the level of τ = 1, 62 and 55 km respectively. Mean mixing ratios near this level in the two regions are almost the same, but the partial pressures and mass densities in the region (B) are 2-4 times greater than those in region (A). In region (A) a weak maximum was detected near 10 am local solar time (17 ppm at φ = 35°) and a minimum-near 10 pm (2ppm at φ = 30°). Region (B) is of inhomogeneous structure, and the retrieved mixing ratio has greater uncertainty and may probably change from the low values up to 30 ppm. In region (A) the water vapour mass density at the level of τ = 1 is 2-4 times greater than the mean density of the water contained in aerosol particles, while in region (B) this ratio may vary in the limits 0.5-5. Although the retrieval of H2O mixing ratio altitude profile from the Venera 15 data appeared to be impossible, indirect indications were found that at least in region (A) the mixing ratio decreases with altitude.

  4. Daily variations of delta 18O and delta D in daily samplings of air water vapour and rain water in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, E.; Salati, E.; Ribeiro, M.N.G.; Tancredi, A.C.F.N.S.; Reis, C.M. dos

    1984-01-01

    The movement of rain water in the soil from 0 to 120 cm depth using delta 18 O weekly variations is studied. A study of the delta D variability in water vapour and rain water samples during precipitation was also done, the samples being collected a 3 minute intervals from the beginning to the end of precipitation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Response of water vapour D-excess to land-atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2016-06-30

    The stable isotopic composition of water vapour provides information about moisture sources and processes difficult to obtain with traditional measurement techniques. Recently, it has been proposed that the D-excess of water vapour can provide a diagnostic tracer of continental moisture recycling. However, D-excess exhibits a diurnal cycle that has been observed across a variety of ecosystems and may be influenced by a range of processes beyond regional-scale moisture recycling, including local evaporation (ET) fluxes. There is a lack of measurements of D-excess in evaporation (ET) fluxes, which has made it difficult to assess how ET fluxes modify the Dexcess in water vapour (dv). With this in mind, we employed a chamber-based approach to directly measure D-excess in ET (dET) fluxes. We show that ET fluxes imposed a negative forcing on the ambient vapour and could not explain the higher daytime dv values. The low dET observed here was sourced from a soil water pool that had undergone an extended drying period, leading to low D-excess in the soil moisture pool. A strong correlation between daytime dv and locally measured relative humidity was consistent with an oceanic moisture source, suggesting that remote hydrological processes were the major contributor to daytime dv variability. During the early evening, ET fluxes into a shallow nocturnal inversion layer caused a lowering of dv values near the surface. In addition, transient mixing of vapour with a higher D-excess from above the nocturnal inversion modified these values, causing large variability during the night. These results indicate dET can generally be expected to show

  6. Tritium gas and tritiated water vapour behaviour in the environment from releases into the atmosphere from fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, Marta; Perlado, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion of tritium from fusion reactors follows different ways according to the present chemical form, tritium gas or tritiated water vapour. The atmospheric conditions, speed and direction of the wind, rain intensity or stability class, are key factors in the dry and wet deposition. The obtained results demonstrate that the wet deposition is critical for the incorporation of the tritiated water vapour to the natural biological chain. However, the dry deposition is the factor that influences in the tritium gas form. The conversion of HT into HTO in the soil is rapid (1-7 days), and 20% of HT deposited in the soil is reemitted to the atmosphere in the form HTO, while the rest incorporates into the biological cycle. The rain factor accelerates the incorporation of tritium to the ground, the superficial waters and the underground waters

  7. The vapour pressure of water as a function of solute concentration above aqueous solutions of fructose, sucrose, raffinose, erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, S.A.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Westh, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The vapour pressure of water above an aqueous solution of sucrose at T = 298.06 K has been measured for 9 sucrose mole fractions up to 0.12. Vapour pressure measurements have also been made on aqueous solutions of meso-erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, fructose, and raffinose at T = 317.99 K...

  8. Sodium removal from CSRDM lower part by water vapour - CO2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar Raj, S.I.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, K.K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium is the primary and secondary coolant in fast reactors. Primary and secondary circuits components like Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (CSRDM), pumps, heat exchangers etc. handle liquid sodium. Sodium has good affinity to oxygen and reacts vigorously with water. Hence sodium cleaning is the first and important activity in the maintenance of the components. In reactor components this cleaning process also helps in removing a major part of radioactive contaminants after which they are subjected to chemical decontamination. There are several methods available for removing sodium from components. Out of these, the water vapour-CO 2 process is selected for large components such as pumps, heat exchangers etc. while steam cleaning is used for the core sub assemblies. The cleaning processes are to be closely monitored to ensure safety because the release of hydrogen is to be kept below 4 % during the process. This paper discusses the in house facility and the experience in the successful use of the process in the cleaning of CSRDM. (author)

  9. Liquid and vapour water transfer through whey protein/lipid emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoszka, Sabina; Debeaufort, Frederic; Lenart, Andrzej; Voilley, Andree

    2010-08-15

    Edible films and coatings based on protein/lipid combinations are among the new products being developed in order to reduce the use of plastic packaging polymers for food applications. This study was conducted to determine the effect of rapeseed oil on selected physicochemical properties of cast whey protein films. Films were cast from heated (80 degrees C for 30 min) aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI, 100 g kg(-1) of water) containing glycerol (50 g kg(-1) of WPI) as a plasticiser and different levels of added rapeseed oil (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% w/w of WPI). Measurements of film microstructure, laser light-scattering granulometry, differential scanning calorimetry, wetting properties and water vapour permeability (WVP) were made. The emulsion structure in the film suspension changed significantly during drying, with oil creaming and coalescence occurring. Increasing oil concentration led to a 2.5-fold increase in surface hydrophobicity and decreases in WVP and denaturation temperature (T(max)). Film structure and surface properties explain the moisture absorption and film swelling as a function of moisture level and time and consequently the WVP behaviour. Small amounts of rapeseed oil favourably affect the WVP of WPI films, particularly at higher humidities. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Comparison of total water vapour content in the Arctic derived from GNSS, AIRS, MODIS and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraddawi, Dunya; Sarkissian, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Bock, Olivier; Noël, Stefan; Bekki, Slimane; Irbah, Abdenour; Meftah, Mustapha; Claud, Chantal

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric water vapour plays a key role in the Arctic radiation budget, hydrological cycle and hence climate, but its measurement with high accuracy remains an important challenge. Total column water vapour (TCWV) datasets derived from ground-based GNSS measurements are used to assess the quality of different existing satellite TCWV datasets, namely from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). The comparisons between GNSS and satellite data are carried out for three reference Arctic observation sites (Sodankylä, Ny-Ålesund and Thule) where long homogeneous GNSS time series of more than a decade (2001-2014) are available. We select hourly GNSS data that are coincident with overpasses of the different satellites over the three sites and then average them into monthly means that are compared with monthly mean satellite products for different seasons. The agreement between GNSS and satellite time series is generally within 5 % at all sites for most conditions. The weakest correlations are found during summer. Among all the satellite data, AIRS shows the best agreement with GNSS time series, though AIRS TCWV is often slightly too high in drier atmospheres (i.e. high-latitude stations during autumn and winter). SCIAMACHY TCWV data are generally drier than GNSS measurements at all the stations during the summer. This study suggests that these biases are associated with cloud cover, especially at Ny-Ålesund and Thule. The dry biases of MODIS and SCIAMACHY observations are most pronounced at Sodankylä during the snow season (from October to March). Regarding SCIAMACHY, this bias is possibly linked to the fact that the SCIAMACHY TCWV retrieval does not take accurately into account the variations in surface albedo, notably in the presence of snow with a nearby canopy as in Sodankylä. The MODIS bias at Sodankylä is found

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the initial oxidation of uranium metal in oxygen+water-vapour mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, G.C.; Tucker, P.M.; Lewis, R.A. (Central Electricity Generating Board, Berkeley (UK). Berkeley Nuclear Labs.)

    1984-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (X.p.s.) has been used to study the chemical nature of the oxide film initially produced on clean uranium metal in oxygen + water-vapour atmospheres. The rate of reaction has been monitored and the nature of the surface film determined. From a consideration of the O 1s and U 4f X.p. spectra it has been possible to advance a mechanism which explains the complex nature of the surface oxide and the lack of satellite structure in the spectra. This is postulated to be a consequence of the way in which OH/sup -/ is involved in the growth of the oxide and the presence of hydrogen in the surface film. The presence of oxygen retards the water oxidation reaction by inhibiting the decomposition of water vapour at the gas/oxide interface.

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the initial oxidation of uranium metal in oxygen+water-vapour mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Tucker, P.M.; Lewis, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (X.p.s.) has been used to study the chemical nature of the oxide film initially produced on clean uranium metal in oxygen + water-vapour atmospheres. The rate of reaction has been monitored and the nature of the surface film determined. From a consideration of the O 1s and U 4f X.p. spectra it has been possible to advance a mechanism which explains the complex nature of the surface oxide and the lack of satellite structure in the spectra. This is postulated to be a consequence of the way in which OH - is involved in the growth of the oxide and the presence of hydrogen in the surface film. The presence of oxygen retards the water oxidation reaction by inhibiting the decomposition of water vapour at the gas/oxide interface. (author)

  13. The oxidative corrosion of carbide inclusions at the surface of uranium metal during exposure to water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T B; Petherbridge, J R; Harker, N J; Ball, R J; Heard, P J; Glascott, J; Allen, G C

    2011-11-15

    The reaction between uranium and water vapour has been well investigated, however discrepancies exist between the described kinetic laws, pressure dependence of the reaction rate constant and activation energies. Here this problem is looked at by examining the influence of impurities in the form of carbide inclusions on the reaction. Samples of uranium containing 600 ppm carbon were analysed during and after exposure to water vapour at 19 mbar pressure, in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) system. After water exposure, samples were analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), focused ion beam (FIB) imaging and sectioning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD). The results of the current study indicate that carbide particles on the surface of uranium readily react with water vapour to form voluminous UO(3) · xH(2)O growths at rates significantly faster than that of the metal. The observation may also have implications for previous experimental studies of uranium-water interactions, where the presence of differing levels of undetected carbide may partly account for the discrepancies observed between datasets. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of near infrared satellite based algorithms to relative atmospheric water vapour content over land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpolla, A.; Bonafoni, S.; Basili, P.; Biondi, R.; Arino, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the validation results of ENVISAT MERIS and TERRA MODIS retrieval algorithms for atmospheric Water Vapour Content (WVC) estimation in clear sky condition on land. The MERIS algorithms exploits the radiance ratio of the absorbing channel at 900 nm with the almost absorption-free reference at 890 nm, while the MODIS one is based on the ratio of measurements centred at near 0.905, 0.936, and 0.94 μm with atmospheric window reflectance at 0.865 and 1.24 μm. The first test was performed in the Mediterranean area using WVC provided from both ECMWF and AERONET. As a second step, the performances of the algorithms were tested exploiting WVC computed from radio sounding (RAOBs)in the North East Australia. The different comparisons with respect to reference WVC values showed an overestimation of WVC by MODIS (root mean square error percentage greater than 20%) and an acceptable performance of MERIS algorithms (root mean square error percentage around 10%) [it

  15. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  16. Influence of chemisorption products of carbon dioxide and water vapour on radiolysis of tritium breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarins, Arturs, E-mail: arturs.zarins@lu.lv [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia); Kizane, Gunta; Supe, Arnis [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia); Knitter, Regina; Kolb, Matthias H.H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tiliks, Juris; Baumane, Larisa [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Chemisorption products affect formation proceses of radiation-induced defects. • Radiolysis of chemisorption products increase amount of radiation-induced defects. • Irradiation atmosphere influence radiolysis of lithium orthosilicate pebbles. - Abstract: Lithium orthosilicate pebbles with 2.5 wt% excess of silica are the reference tritium breeding material for the European solid breeder test blanket modules. On the surface of the pebbles chemisorption products of carbon dioxide and water vapour (lithium carbonate and hydroxide) may accumulate during the fabrication process. In this study the influence of the chemisorption products on radiolysis of the pebbles was investigated. Using nanosized lithium orthosilicate powders, factors, which can influence the formation and radiolysis of the chemisorption products, were determined and described as well. The formation of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products was studied with electron spin resonance and the method of chemical scavengers. It was found that the radiolysis of the chemisorption products on the surface of the pebbles can increase the concentration of radiation-induced defects and so could affect the tritium diffusion, retention and the released species.

  17. Analysis of global water vapour trends from satellite measurements in the visible spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mieruch

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Global water vapour total column amounts have been retrieved from spectral data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME flying on ERS-2, which was launched in April 1995, and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT launched in March 2002. For this purpose the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS approach has been used. The combination of the data from both instruments provides us with a long-term global data set spanning more than 11 years with the potential of extension up to 2020 by GOME-2 data on MetOp.

    Using linear and non-linear methods from time series analysis and standard statistics the trends of H2O columns and their errors have been calculated. In this study, factors affecting the trend such as the length of the time series, the magnitude of the variability of the noise, and the autocorrelation of the noise are investigated. Special emphasis has been placed on the calculation of the statistical significance of the observed trends, which reveal significant local changes from −5% per year to +5% per year. These significant trends are distributed over the whole globe. Increasing trends have been calculated for Greenland, East Europe, Siberia and Oceania, whereas decreasing trends have been observed for the northwest USA, Central America, Amazonia, Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsular.

  18. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petäjä

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulphur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  19. A lidar for water vapour measurements in daytime at Lampedusa, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marenco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available ENEA is planning to develop a lidar system for measurement of the vertical profi le of water vapour mixing ratio in daytime at a remote site, the Station for Climate Observations located in Lampedusa, Italy. The Raman lidar technique has been retained because of its experimental simplicity with respect to DIAL, and the UV spectral range has been chosen because Raman cross-sections and detector effi ciencies are larger. For a wavelength larger than ~ 300 nm the signal is limited in daytime by sky background, but extinction is acceptable, and the aims of the system can be reached with a strong laser source. The 355 nm wavelength of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser has been retained as this laser source permits to reach a large pulse energy while keeping the system simple to operate. Geometrical form factor calculations need to be performed to evaluate the near-range overlap between the laser beam and the fi eld-of-view of the receiver. Among several options, a dual-receiver system has been retained to account for the several orders of magnitude expected in the backscattered signal intensity: a smaller receiver, with a primary mirror of 200 mm diameter for the 0.2-1 km range, and a larger 500 mm receiver for the 1-3 km range.

  20. RDF gasification with water vapour: influence of process temperature on yield and products composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Russo, A.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Portofino, S.

    2005-01-01

    The opportunity of using RDF (Refused Derived Fuel) to produce fuel gas seems to be promising and particular attention has been focused on alternative process technologies such as pyrolysis and gasification. Within this frame, present work relates to experimental tests and obtained results of a series of experimental surveys on RDF gasification with water vapour, carried out by means of a bench scale rotary kiln plant at different process temperature, using thermogravimetry (TG) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR), in order to characterize the incoming material, and online gas chromatography to qualify the gaseous stream. Experimental data show that gas yield rise with temperature and, with respect to the gas composition, hydrogen content grows up mainly at the expense of the other gaseous compound, pointing out the major extension of secondary cracking reactions into the gaseous fraction at higher temperature. Syngas obtained at process temperature of 950 o C or higher seems to be suitable for fuel cells applications; at lower process temperature, gas composition suggest a final utilisation for feedstock recycling. The low organic content of solid residue does not suggest any other exploitation of the char apart from the land filling [it

  1. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  2. Effect of alkanolammonium formates ionic liquids on vapour liquid equilibria of binary systems containing water, methanol, and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuemei; Shen Chong; Li Chunxi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights ► Vapour pressures for six ternary systems containing an IL were measured. ► Components studied were water, ethanol, methanol, and alkanolammonium formates. ► The isobaric VLE were predicted using the fitted binary NRTL parameters. ► The ILs studied can generate a promising salt effect on VLE of azeotrope. ► [HMEA][HCOO] might be used as a potential entrainer in extractive distillation. - Abstract: Vapour pressures were measured using a quasi-static ebulliometer for the pseudo-binary mixtures of (water + ethanol), (water + methanol), and (methanol + ethanol) containing an alkanolammonium-based ionic liquid (IL), namely, mono-ethanolammonium formate ([HMEA][HCOO]) and di-ethanolammonium formate ([HDEA][HCOO]), respectively, with fixed IL mass fraction of 0.30 and over the temperature ranges of (292.12 to 371.13) K. The vapour pressures of the IL-containing ternary systems were favourably correlated using the NRTL model with an overall average absolute relative deviation (AARD) of 0.0082. Further, the salt effects of [HMEA][HCOO] and [HDEA][HCOO] on isobaric vapour liquid equilibria (VLE) of azeotrope and close boiling mixture, especially for the mixtures of (water + ethanol) and (methanol + ethanol), were investigated and compared with other ILs in terms of the x′–y phase diagrams predicted with the binary NRTL parameters. It is demonstrated that the relative volatilities of ethanol to water and ethanol to methanol are enhanced, and [HMEA][HCOO] might be used as a promising entrainer for the efficient separation of ethanol aqueous solution by special rectification.

  3. Near real-time estimation of water vapour in the troposphere using ground GNSS and the meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bosy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The near real-time (NRT high resolution water vapour distribution models can be constructed based on GNSS observations delivered from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS and ground meteorological data. Since 2008 in the territory of Poland, a GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (Active Geodetic Network has been operating. This paper addresses the problems concerning construction of the NRT model of water vapour distribution in the troposphere near Poland. The first section presents all available GNSS and ground meteorological stations in the area of Poland and neighbouring countries. In this section, data feeding scheme is discussed, together with timeline and time resolution. The high consistency between measured and interpolated temperature value is shown, whereas some discrepancy in the pressure is observed. In the second section, the NRT GNSS data processing strategy of ASG-EUPOS network is discussed. Preliminary results show fine alignment of the obtained Zenith Troposphere Delays (ZTDs with reference data from European Permanent Network (EPN processing center. The validation of NRT troposphere products against daily solution shows 15 mm standard deviation of obtained ZTD differences. The last section presents the first results of 2-D water vapour distribution above the GNSS network and application of the tomographic model to 3-D distribution of water vapour in the atmosphere. The GNSS tomography model, working on the simulated data from numerical forecast model, shows high consistency with the reference data (by means of standard deviation 4 mm km−1 or 4 ppm, however, noise analysis shows high solution sensitivity to errors in observations. The discrepancy for real data preliminary solution (measured as a mean standard deviation between reference NWP data and tomography data was on the level of 9 mm km−1 (or 9 ppm in terms of wet refractivity.

  4. Characterization of simultaneous heat and mass transfer phenomena for water vapour condensation on a solid surface in an abiotic environment--application to bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Akhilesh; Kondjoyan, Alain; Fontaine, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-01

    The phenomenon of heat and mass transfer by condensation of water vapour from humid air involves several key concepts in aerobic bioreactors. The high performance of bioreactors results from optimised interactions between biological processes and multiphase heat and mass transfer. Indeed in various processes such as submerged fermenters and solid-state fermenters, gas/liquid transfer need to be well controlled, as it is involved at the microorganism interface and for the control of the global process. For the theoretical prediction of such phenomena, mathematical models require heat and mass transfer coefficients. To date, very few data have been validated concerning mass transfer coefficients from humid air inflows relevant to those bioprocesses. Our study focussed on the condensation process of water vapour and developed an experimental set-up and protocol to study the velocity profiles and the mass flux on a small size horizontal flat plate in controlled environmental conditions. A closed circuit wind tunnel facility was used to control the temperature, hygrometry and hydrodynamics of the flow. The temperature of the active surface was controlled and kept isothermal below the dew point to induce condensation, by the use of thermoelectricity. The experiments were performed at ambient temperature for a relative humidity between 35-65% and for a velocity of 1.0 ms⁻¹. The obtained data are analysed and compared to available theoretical calculations on condensation mass flux.

  5. Vapour dynamics during magma-water interaction experiments: hydromagmatic origins of submarine volcaniclastic particles (limu o Pele)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, C. Ian; Sonder, Ingo; Schmid, Andrea; White, James D. L.; Dürig, Tobias; Zimanowski, Bernd; Büttner, Ralf

    2013-03-01

    Recent observations have shattered the long-held theory that deep-sea (>500 m) explosive eruptions are impossible; however, determining the dynamics of unobserved eruptions requires interpretation of the deposits they produce. For accurate interpretation to be possible, the relative abilities of explosive magmatic degassing and non-explosive magma-water interaction to produce characteristic submarine volcaniclastic particles such as `limu o Pele' (bubble wall shards of glass) must be established. We experimentally address this problem by pouring remelted basalt (1300 °C, anhydrous) into a transparent, water-filled reservoir, recording the interaction with a high-speed video camera and applying existing heat transfer models. We performed the experiments under moderate to high degrees of water subcooling (˜8 l of water at 58 and 3 °C), with ˜0.1 to 0.15 kg of melt poured at ˜10-2 kg s-1. Videos show the non-explosive, hydromagmatic blowing and bursting of isolated melt bubbles to form limu o Pele particles that are indistinguishable from those found in submarine volcaniclastic deposits. Pool boiling around growing melt bubbles progresses from metastable vapour film insulation, through vapour film retraction/collapse, to direct melt-water contact. These stages are linked to the evolution of melt-water heat transfer to verify the inverse relationship between vapour film stability and the degree of water subcooling. The direct contact stage in particular explains the extremely rapid quench rates determined from glass relaxation speedometry for natural limu. Since our experimentally produced limu is made entirely by the entrapping of ambient water in degassed basaltic melt, we argue that the presence of fast-quenched limu o Pele in natural deposits is not diagnostic of volatile-driven explosive eruptions. This must be taken into account if submarine eruption dynamics are to be accurately inferred from the deposits and particles they produce.

  6. Precipitable water vapour forecasting: a tool for optimizing IR observations at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jordán, G.; Castro-Almazán, J. A.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

    2018-04-01

    We validate the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for precipitable water vapour (PWV) forecasting as a fully operational tool for optimizing astronomical infrared (IR) observations at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (ORM). For the model validation we used GNSS-based (Global Navigation Satellite System) data from the PWV monitor located at the ORM. We have run WRF every 24 h for near two months, with a horizon of 48 hours (hourly forecasts), from 2016 January 11 to 2016 March 4. These runs represent 1296 hourly forecast points. The validation is carried out using different approaches: performance as a function of the forecast range, time horizon accuracy, performance as a function of the PWV value, and performance of the operational WRF time series with 24- and 48-hour horizons. Excellent agreement was found between the model forecasts and observations, with R =0.951 and R =0.904 for the 24- and 48-h forecast time series respectively. The 48-h forecast was further improved by correcting a time lag of 2 h found in the predictions. The final errors, taking into account all the uncertainties involved, are 1.75 mm for the 24-h forecasts and 1.99 mm for 48 h. We found linear trends in both the correlation and RMSE of the residuals (measurements - forecasts) as a function of the forecast range within the horizons analysed (up to 48 h). In summary, the WRF performance is excellent and accurate, thus allowing it to be implemented as an operational tool at the ORM.

  7. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show convincing correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements), the other in central Israel (29 measurements). The correlation between the microwave link measurements and the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD) were 1.8 g/m3 and 3.4 g/m3 for

  8. Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2010-09-01

    We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good correlation with surface station humidity measurements (comparisons were performed for several links, found at different locations, during different time periods, showing correlations in the range of 0.5-0.9).

  9. Response of water vapour D-excess to land–atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen; McCabe, Matthew; Griffiths, Alan D.; Wang, Lixin; Chambers, Scott; Ershadi, Ali; Williams, Alastair G.; Strauss, Josiah; Element, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water vapour provides information about moisture sources and processes difficult to obtain with traditional measurement techniques. Recently, it has been proposed that the D-excess of water vapour (d =δH-8× δO) can provide a diagnostic tracer of continental moisture recycling. However, D-excess exhibits a diurnal cycle that has been observed across a variety of ecosystems and may be influenced by a range of processes beyond regional-scale moisture recycling, including local evaporation (ET) fluxes. There is a lack of measurements of D-excess in evaporation (ET) fluxes, which has made it difficult to assess how ET fluxes modify the Dexcess in water vapour (d). With this in mind, we employed a chamber-based approach to directly measure D-excess in ET (d) fluxes. We show that ET fluxes imposed a negative forcing on the ambient vapour and could not explain the higher daytime d values. The low d observed here was sourced from a soil water pool that had undergone an extended drying period, leading to low D-excess in the soil moisture pool. A strong correlation between daytime d and locally measured relative humidity was consistent with an oceanic moisture source, suggesting that remote hydrological processes were the major contributor to daytime d variability. During the early evening, ET fluxes into a shallow nocturnal inversion layer caused a lowering of d values near the surface. In addition, transient mixing of vapour with a higher D-excess from above the nocturnal inversion modified these values, causing large variability during the night. These results indicate d can generally be expected to show large spatial and temporal variability and to depend on the soil moisture state. For long periods between rain events, common in semi-arid environments, ET would be expected to impose negative forcing on the surface d. Spatial and temporal variability of D-excess in ET fluxes therefore needs to be considered when using d to study

  10. Response of water vapour D-excess to land–atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2017-01-27

    The stable isotopic composition of water vapour provides information about moisture sources and processes difficult to obtain with traditional measurement techniques. Recently, it has been proposed that the D-excess of water vapour (d =δH-8× δO) can provide a diagnostic tracer of continental moisture recycling. However, D-excess exhibits a diurnal cycle that has been observed across a variety of ecosystems and may be influenced by a range of processes beyond regional-scale moisture recycling, including local evaporation (ET) fluxes. There is a lack of measurements of D-excess in evaporation (ET) fluxes, which has made it difficult to assess how ET fluxes modify the Dexcess in water vapour (d). With this in mind, we employed a chamber-based approach to directly measure D-excess in ET (d) fluxes. We show that ET fluxes imposed a negative forcing on the ambient vapour and could not explain the higher daytime d values. The low d observed here was sourced from a soil water pool that had undergone an extended drying period, leading to low D-excess in the soil moisture pool. A strong correlation between daytime d and locally measured relative humidity was consistent with an oceanic moisture source, suggesting that remote hydrological processes were the major contributor to daytime d variability. During the early evening, ET fluxes into a shallow nocturnal inversion layer caused a lowering of d values near the surface. In addition, transient mixing of vapour with a higher D-excess from above the nocturnal inversion modified these values, causing large variability during the night. These results indicate d can generally be expected to show large spatial and temporal variability and to depend on the soil moisture state. For long periods between rain events, common in semi-arid environments, ET would be expected to impose negative forcing on the surface d. Spatial and temporal variability of D-excess in ET fluxes therefore needs to be considered when using d to study

  11. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  12. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. David

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks.

    Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition – many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements.

    We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show convincing correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements, the other in central Israel (29 measurements. The correlation between the microwave link measurements and the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The Root Mean Square Differences

  13. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.

    2015-03-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  14. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The possibility separating the contributions of the atmospheric state and ice clouds by using spectral infrared measurements is a fundamental step to quantifying the cloud effect in climate models. A simultaneous retrieval of cloud and atmospheric parameters from infrared wideband spectra will allow the disentanglement of the spectral interference between these variables. In this paper, we describe the development of a code for the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric state and ice cloud parameters, and its application to the analysis of the spectral measurements acquired by the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared - Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) spectroradiometer, which has been in operation at Concordia Station on the Antarctic Plateau since 2012. The code performs the retrieval with a computational time that is comparable with the instrument acquisition time. Water vapour and temperature profiles and the cloud optical and microphysical properties, such as the generalised effective diameter and the ice water path, are retrieved by exploiting the 230-980 cm-1 spectral band. To simulate atmospheric radiative transfer, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) has been integrated with a specifically developed subroutine based on the δ-Eddington two-stream approximation, whereas the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds have been derived from a database for hexagonal column habits. In order to detect ice clouds, a backscattering and depolarisation lidar, co-located with REFIR-PAD has been used, allowing us to infer the position and the cloud thickness to be used in the retrieval. A climatology of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature has been performed by using the daily radiosounding available at the station at 12:00 UTC. The climatology has been used to build an a priori profile correlation to constrain the fitting procedure. An optimal estimation method with the Levenberg-Marquardt approach has been

  15. Automated calibration of laser spectrometer measurements of δ18 O and δ2 H values in water vapour using a Dew Point Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munksgaard, Niels C; Cheesman, Alexander W; Gray-Spence, Andrew; Cernusak, Lucas A; Bird, Michael I

    2018-06-30

    Continuous measurement of stable O and H isotope compositions in water vapour requires automated calibration for remote field deployments. We developed a new low-cost device for calibration of both water vapour mole fraction and isotope composition. We coupled a commercially available dew point generator (DPG) to a laser spectrometer and developed hardware for water and air handling along with software for automated operation and data processing. We characterised isotopic fractionation in the DPG, conducted a field test and assessed the influence of critical parameters on the performance of the device. An analysis time of 1 hour was sufficient to achieve memory-free analysis of two water vapour standards and the δ 18 O and δ 2 H values were found to be independent of water vapour concentration over a range of ≈20,000-33,000 ppm. The reproducibility of the standard vapours over a 10-day period was better than 0.14 ‰ and 0.75 ‰ for δ 18 O and δ 2 H values, respectively (1 σ, n = 11) prior to drift correction and calibration. The analytical accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of a third independent vapour standard. The DPG distillation process requires that isotope calibration takes account of DPG temperature, analysis time, injected water volume and air flow rate. The automated calibration system provides high accuracy and precision and is a robust, cost-effective option for long-term field measurements of water vapour isotopes. The necessary modifications to the DPG are minor and easily reversible. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The water vapour continuum in near-infrared windows - Current understanding and prospects for its inclusion in spectroscopic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Keith P.; Campargue, Alain; Mondelain, Didier; McPheat, Robert A.; Ptashnik, Igor V.; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-09-01

    Spectroscopic catalogues, such as GEISA and HITRAN, do not yet include information on the water vapour continuum that pervades visible, infrared and microwave spectral regions. This is partly because, in some spectral regions, there are rather few laboratory measurements in conditions close to those in the Earth's atmosphere; hence understanding of the characteristics of the continuum absorption is still emerging. This is particularly so in the near-infrared and visible, where there has been renewed interest and activity in recent years. In this paper we present a critical review focusing on recent laboratory measurements in two near-infrared window regions (centred on 4700 and 6300 cm-1) and include reference to the window centred on 2600 cm-1 where more measurements have been reported. The rather few available measurements, have used Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS), cavity ring down spectroscopy, optical-feedback - cavity enhanced laser spectroscopy and, in very narrow regions, calorimetric interferometry. These systems have different advantages and disadvantages. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy can measure the continuum across both these and neighbouring windows; by contrast, the cavity laser techniques are limited to fewer wavenumbers, but have a much higher inherent sensitivity. The available results present a diverse view of the characteristics of continuum absorption, with differences in continuum strength exceeding a factor of 10 in the cores of these windows. In individual windows, the temperature dependence of the water vapour self-continuum differs significantly in the few sets of measurements that allow an analysis. The available data also indicate that the temperature dependence differs significantly between different near-infrared windows. These pioneering measurements provide an impetus for further measurements. Improvements and/or extensions in existing techniques would aid progress to a full characterisation of the continuum - as an example, we

  17. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-12-01

    Bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for water vapour (H 2 O, D 2 O and HDO). About 1200 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1915 through 2000 for H 2 O. Finally, author's comments for electron collision cross sections and photodissociation processes of H 2 O are given. (author)

  18. Applicability of the Guggenheim–Anderson–Boer water vapour sorption model for estimation of soil specific surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per

    2018-01-01

    Soil specific surface area (SA) controls fundamental soil processes such as retention of water, ion exchange, and adsorption and release of plant nutrients and contaminants. Conventional methods for determining SA include adsorption of polar or non‐polar fluid molecules with associated advantages...... parameters varied depending on the water activity or relative humidity range of measured data (0.03–0.93 compared with 0.10–0.80), whereas the variation for desorption was minimal. For desorption isotherms, the average water activity value at which the GAB monolayer parameter was obtained was 0......‐based modelling approaches to determine SA. Measured water vapour adsorption and desorption isotherms for 321 soil samples were used to parameterize the GAB model, the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) equation and a film adsorption Tuller–Or (TO) model to estimate SA. For adsorption isotherms, the values of the GAB...

  19. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  20. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the water vapour permeability and mechanical properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, C E; Ariahu, C C; Alakali, J S

    2015-04-01

    The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate (SPC) based edible films containing 20 % glycerol level were studied. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of edible films increased with increase in temperature and decreased with increase in relative humidity, while elongation at break decreased. Water vapour permeability of the films increased (2.6-4.3 g.mm/m(2).day.kPa) with increase in temperature and relative humidity. The temperature dependence of water vapour permeation of cassava starch-soy protein concentrate films followed Arrhenius relationship. Activation energy (Ea) of water vapour permeation of cassava starch-soy protein concentrate edible films ranged from 1.9 to 5.3 kJ/mol (R (2)  ≥ 0.93) and increased with increase in SPC addition. The Ea values were lower for the bio-films than for polyvinylidene chloride, polypropylene and polyethylene which are an indication of low water vapour permeability of the developed biofilms compared to those synthetic films.

  1. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  2. Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) systems at 100 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladosa, Estela; Monton, Juan B.; Burguet, MaCruz; Torre, Javier de la

    2008-01-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria were measured for the (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) system at 100 kPa. The apparatus used for the determination of (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data was an all-glass dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer couple to the boiling flask. The experimental data demonstrated the existence of a heterogeneous ternary azeotrope for both ternary systems. The (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria data were found to be thermodynamically consistent for both systems. The experimental data were compared with the estimation using UNIQUAC and NRTL models and the prediction of UNIFAC model

  3. Tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data (H216O, H218O, and HD16O) as obtained from NDACC/FTIR solar absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlott, Sabine; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Kiel, Matthäus; Dubravica, Darko; García, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Grutter, Michel; Plaza-Medina, Eddy F.; Stremme, Wolfgang; Strong, Kim; Weaver, Dan; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten; Notholt, Justus; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Servais, Christian; Jones, Nicholas; Griffith, David W. T.; Smale, Dan; Robinson, John

    2017-01-01

    We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change; MUSICA/" target="_blank">ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ndacc/MUSICA/) and via doi:10.5281/zenodo.48902. Currently, data are available for 12 globally distributed stations. They have been centrally retrieved and quality-filtered in the framework of the MUSICA project (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water). We explain particularities of retrieving the water vapour isotopologue state (vertical distribution of H216O, H218O, and HD16O) and reveal the need for a new metadata template for archiving FTIR isotopologue data. We describe the format of different data components and give recommendations for correct data usage. Data are provided as two data types. The first type is best-suited for tropospheric water vapour distribution studies disregarding different isotopologues (comparison with radiosonde data, analyses of water vapour variability and trends, etc.). The second type is needed for analysing moisture pathways by means of H2O, δD-pair distributions.

  4. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  5. New approach for sustaining energetic, efficient and scalable non-equilibrium plasma in water vapours at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2012-01-01

    Energetic and scalable non-equilibrium plasma was formed in pure water vapour at atmospheric pressure between wire-to-strip electrodes on a dielectric surface with one of the electrodes extended forming a conductive plane on the back side of the dielectric surface. The energy deposition increased by an order of magnitude compared with the conventional pulsed corona discharges under the same conditions. The scalability was demonstrated by operating two electrode assemblies with a common conductive plane between two dielectric layers. The energy yields for hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide generation were measured as ∼1.2 g H 2 /kWh and ∼4 g H 2 O 2 /kWh. (fast track communication)

  6. Experimental study to distinguish the effects of methanol slip and water vapour on a high temperature PEM fuel cell at different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Sobi; Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Araya, Samuel Simon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to separate out the effects of methanol and water vapour on a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell under different temperatures (160°C and 180°C) and current densities (0.2Acm-2, 0.4Acm-2 and 0.6Acm-2). The degradation rates at the different curre...

  7. Continuous measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide and water vapour in an urban atmosphere: isotopic variations associated with meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Tomoki; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Takanashi, Satoru; Kodama, Naomi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO 2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO 2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively. During the passage of the stationary front, δ 13 C-CO 2 and δ 18 O-CO 2 increased, while δ 2 H-H 2 Ov and δ 18 O-H 2 Ov decreased. These changes can be attributed to the air coming from rural areas and the air surrounding the observational site changing from a subtropical air mass to a subpolar air mass during the passage of the stationary front. A clear relationship was observed between the isotopic CO 2 and water vapour and the meteorological phenomena. Therefore, isotopic information of CO 2 and H 2 Ov could be used as a tracer of meteorological information.

  8. Lidar observations of low-level wind reversals over the Gulf of Lion and characterization of their impact on the water vapour variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Richard, Evelyne; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrie, Nadia; Said, Frédérique

    2017-02-01

    Water vapour measurements from a ground-based Raman lidar and an airborne differential absorption lidar, complemented by high resolution numerical simulations from two mesoscale models (Arome-WMED and MESO-NH), are considered to investigate transition events from Mistral/Tramontane to southerly marine flow taking place over the Gulf of Lion in Southern France in the time frame September-October 2012, during the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) Special Observation Period 1 (SOP1). Low-level wind reversals associated with these transitions are found to have a strong impact on water vapour transport, leading to a large variability of the water vapour vertical and horizontal distribution. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the lidar data allow to monitor the time evolution of the three-dimensional water vapour field during these transitions from predominantly northerly Mistral/Tramontane flow to a predominantly southerly flow, allowing to identify the quite sharp separation between these flows, which is also quite well captured by the mesoscale models.

  9. Properties of alumina films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure in hte presence of small amounts of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van Corbach, H.D.; Rem, J.B.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Thin alumina films were deposited on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The deposition process was carried out in nitrogen with low partial pressures of water (0–2.6 × 10−2 kPa (0−0.20 mmHg)) by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide (ATSB) as the precursor.

  10. Relationships of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit with photosynthesis and water relations in dry-land pigeon pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.B.; Venkateswarlu, S.; Maheswari, M.; Sankar, G.R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to compare the relationships of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) with carbon assimilation and water relations of dry-land pigeon pea at the vegetative and reproductive phases. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (T), leaf water potential (wL), and stomatal conductance (gs) were measured at 7- to 10-day intervals from 1 month after seedling until a fortnight before harvest during two seasons. Generally, Pn, T, and gs were higher and wL was lower during the reproductive than during the vegetative phase. At high PAR and VPD, Pn, T, wL, and gs decreased. The decrease in the T at high PAR was smaller during the reproductive phase. Growth of dry-land pigeon pea was affected not only during periods of water stress which was associated with high PAR and high VPD but also under conditions of favourable plant water status which were associated with less than optimal levels of PAR. It also showed transpiration efficiency (TE) was lower during the pod-filling than during the vegetative phase, when PAR was optimum

  11. Airborne differential absorption lidar for water vapour measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the spectral region around 940 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poberaj, G.

    2000-07-01

    Two all-solid-state laser systems were developed and studied in detail to optimise their performance for an airborne water vapour differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Their special features are high average output powers and excellent spectral properties in the 940-nm spectral region relevant for monitoring very low water vapour contents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. One system is an injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire ring laser with a spectral bandwidth of 105 MHz and an average power of 1.1 W. The other system is an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in a ring configuration. Using KTP as nonlinear crystal, a signal output with a spectral bandwidth of 140 MHz and an average power of 1.2 W was achieved. Both systems, the Ti:sapphire ring laser and the KTP OPO, possess spectral purity values higher than 99%. The pump source for these systems is a frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The KTP OPO system has been used as a transmitter in a new airborne water vapour DIAL instrument. For the first time, measurements of two-dimensional water vapour distributions with a high vertical (500 m) and horizontal (20 km) resolution across several potential vorticity streamers were performed. Very low water vapour mixing ratios (10-50 ppmv) and strong gradients were observed in the tropopause region. The sensitivity of the DIAL instrument in the centre of a stratospheric intrusion ranges from 3% in the near field to 12% in the far field (4 km). The first comparison experiments with in situ measuring instruments show a good agreement. Considerable differences are found between DIAL measurements and data obtained from the ECMWF operational analyses and a mesoscale numerical model. (orig.)

  12. The stable isotopic composition of water vapour above Corsica during the HyMeX SOP1 campaign: insight into vertical mixing processes from lower-tropospheric survey flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Harald; Aemisegger, Franziska; Pfahl, Stephan; Bitter, Mark; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Feuerle, Thomas; Graf, Pascal; Hankers, Rolf; Hsiao, Gregor; Schulz, Helmut; Wieser, Andreas; Wernli, Heini

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotopes of water vapour are powerful indicators of meteorological processes on a broad range of scales, reflecting evaporation, condensation, and air mass mixing processes. With the recent advent of fast laser-based spectroscopic methods, it has become possible to measure the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapour in situ at a high temporal resolution. Here we present results from such comprehensive airborne spectroscopic isotope measurements in water vapour over the western Mediterranean at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements have been acquired by a customized Picarro L2130-i cavity-ring down spectrometer deployed onboard the Dornier 128 D-IBUF aircraft together with a meteorological flux measurement package during the HyMeX SOP1 (Hydrological cycle in Mediterranean Experiment special observation period 1) field campaign in Corsica, France, during September and October 2012. Taking into account memory effects of the air inlet pipe, the typical time resolution of the measurements was about 15-30 s, resulting in an average horizontal resolution of about 1-2 km. Cross-calibration of the water vapour measurements from all humidity sensors showed good agreement under most flight conditions but the most turbulent ones. In total 21 successful stable isotope flights with 59 flight hours have been performed. Our data provide quasi-climatological autumn average conditions and vertical profiles of the stable isotope parameters δD, δ18O, and d-excess during the study period. A d-excess minimum in the overall average profile is reached in the region of the boundary-layer top, possibly caused by precipitation evaporation. This minimum is bracketed by higher d-excess values near the surface caused by non-equilibrium fractionation, and a maximum above the boundary layer related to the increasing d-excess in very depleted and dry high-altitude air masses. Repeated flights along the same pattern reveal pronounced day-to-day variability

  13. Water vapour solubility and conductivity study of the proton conductor BaCe(0.9 − x)ZrxY0.1O(3 − δ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Caboche, G:

    2009-01-01

    The perovskite BaCe(0.9 − x)ZrxY0.1O(3 − δ) has been prepared by solid state reaction at 1400 °C and conventional sintering at 1700 °C. Water uptake experiments performed between 400 and 600 °C, at a water vapour pressure of 0.02 atm, provide data on the concentration of protons incorporated in t...

  14. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  15. Gravimetric phenotyping of whole plant transpiration responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit identifies genotypic variation in water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Annette C; Dodd, Ian C; Rothwell, Shane A; Jones, Ros; Tardieu, Francois; Draye, Xavier; Davies, William J

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in rapidly identifying genotypes with improved water use efficiency, exemplified by the development of whole plant phenotyping platforms that automatically measure plant growth and water use. Transpirational responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and whole plant water use efficiency (WUE, defined as the accumulation of above ground biomass per unit of water used) were measured in 100 maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Using a glasshouse based phenotyping platform with naturally varying VPD (1.5-3.8kPa), a 2-fold variation in WUE was identified in well-watered plants. Regression analysis of transpiration versus VPD under these conditions, and subsequent whole plant gas exchange at imposed VPDs (0.8-3.4kPa) showed identical responses in specific genotypes. Genotype response of transpiration versus VPD fell into two categories: 1) a linear increase in transpiration rate with VPD with low (high WUE) or high (low WUE) transpiration rate at all VPDs, 2) a non-linear response with a pronounced change point at low VPD (high WUE) or high VPD (low WUE). In the latter group, high WUE genotypes required a significantly lower VPD before transpiration was restricted, and had a significantly lower rate of transpiration in response to VPD after this point, when compared to low WUE genotypes. Change point values were significantly positively correlated with stomatal sensitivity to VPD. A change point in stomatal response to VPD may explain why some genotypes show contradictory WUE rankings according to whether they are measured under glasshouse or field conditions. Furthermore, this novel use of a high throughput phenotyping platform successfully reproduced the gas exchange responses of individuals measured in whole plant chambers, accelerating the identification of plants with high WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2014-09-01

    A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.

  17. Effect of surface albedo, water vapour, and atmospheric aerosols on the cloud-free shortwave radiative budget in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Biagio, C. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Earth Science, Siena (Italy); Di Sarra, A. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); Eriksen, P. [Danish Climate Centre, DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ascanius, S.E. [DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Qaanaaq (Greenland); Muscari, G. [INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Holben, B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This study is based on ground-based measurements of downward surface shortwave irradiance (SW), columnar water vapour (wv), and aerosol optical depth ({tau}) obtained at Thule Air Base (Greenland) in 2007-2010, together with MODIS observations of the surface shortwave albedo (A). Radiative transfer model calculations are used in combination with measurements to separate the radiative effect of A ({Delta}SW{sub A}), wv ({Delta}SW{sub wv}), and aerosols ({Delta}SW{sub {tau}}) in modulating SW in cloud-free conditions. The shortwave radiation at the surface is mainly affected by water vapour absorption, which produces a reduction of SW as low as -100 Wm{sup -2} (-18%). The seasonal change of A produces an increase of SW by up to +25 Wm{sup -2} (+4.5%). The annual mean radiative effect is estimated to be -(21-22) Wm{sup -2} for wv, and +(2-3) Wm{sup -2} for A. An increase by +0.065 cm in the annual mean wv, to which corresponds an absolute increase in {Delta}SW{sub wv} by 0.93 Wm{sup -2} (4.3%), has been observed to occur between 2007 and 2010. In the same period, the annual mean A has decreased by -0.027, with a corresponding decrease in {Delta}SW{sub A} by 0.41 Wm{sup -2} (-14.9%). Atmospheric aerosols produce a reduction of SW as low as -32 Wm{sup -2} (-6.7%). The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing (RF{sub {tau}}) reaches values of -28 Wm{sup -2} and shows a strong dependency on surface albedo. The derived radiative forcing efficiency (FE{sub {tau}}) for solar zenith angles between 55 and 70 is estimated to be (-120.6 {+-} 4.3) for 0.1 < A < 0.2, and (-41.2 {+-} 1.6) Wm{sup -2} for 0.5 < A < 0.6. (orig.)

  18. Accuracy assessment of water vapour measurements from in situ and remote sensing techniques during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign at OHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bock

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement (DEMEVAP project aims at assessing and improving humidity sounding techniques and establishing a reference system based on the combination of Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. Such a system may be used for climate monitoring, radiosonde bias detection and correction, satellite measurement calibration/validation, and mm-level geodetic positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems. A field experiment was conducted in September–October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP. Two Raman lidars (IGN mobile lidar and OHP NDACC lidar, a stellar spectrometer (SOPHIE, a differential absorption spectrometer (SAOZ, a sun photometer (AERONET, 5 GPS receivers and 4 types of radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow White participated in the campaign. A total of 26 balloons with multiple radiosondes were flown during 16 clear nights. This paper presents preliminary findings from the analysis of all these data sets. Several classical Raman lidar calibration methods are evaluated which use either Vaisala RS92 measurements, point capacitive humidity measurements, or GPS integrated water vapour (IWV measurements. A novel method proposed by Bosser et al. (2010 is also tested. It consists in calibrating the lidar measurements during the GPS data processing. The methods achieve a repeatability of 4–5%. Changes in the calibration factor of IGN Raman lidar are evidenced which are attributed to frequent optical re-alignments. When modelling and correcting the changes as a linear function of time, the precision of the calibration factors improves to 2–3%. However, the variations in the calibration factor, and hence the absolute accuracy, between methods and types of reference data remain at the level of 7%. The intercomparison of radiosonde measurements shows good agreement between RS92 and Snow White measurements up to 12 km. An overall dry bias is found

  19. Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from a high altitude aircraft: Modelling and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, J. A.; Letros, D.; Zawada, D.; Bourassa, A.; Degenstein, D.; Solheim, B.

    2018-04-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has been developed to measure the vertical distribution of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere with a high vertical resolution (∼500 m). The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) instrument combines an imaging system with a monolithic field-widened SHS to observe limb scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm-1366 nm). The instrument has been optimized for observations from NASA's ER-2 aircraft as a proof-of-concept for a future low earth orbit satellite deployment. A robust model has been developed to simulate SHOW ER-2 limb measurements and retrievals. This paper presents the simulation of the SHOW ER-2 limb measurements along a hypothetical flight track and examines the sensitivity of the measurement and retrieval approach. Water vapour fields from an Environment and Climate Change Canada forecast model are used to represent realistic spatial variability along the flight path. High spectral resolution limb scattered radiances are simulated using the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model. It is shown that the SHOW instrument onboard the ER-2 is capable of resolving the water vapour variability in the UTLS from approximately 12 km - 18 km with ±1 ppm accuracy. Vertical resolutions between 500 m and 1 km are feasible. The along track sampling capability of the instrument is also discussed.

  20. Developing a western Siberia reference site for tropospheric water vapour isotopologue observations obtained by different techniques (in situ and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gribanov

    2014-06-01

    water cycle, affected by changes in air mass origin, non-convective and convective processes and continental recycling. Novel remote sensing and in situ measuring techniques have recently offered opportunities for monitoring atmospheric water vapour isotopic composition. Recently developed infrared laser spectrometers allow for continuous in situ measurements of surface water vapour δDv and δ18Ov. So far, very few intercomparisons of measurements conducted using different techniques have been achieved at a given location, due to difficulties intrinsic to the comparison of integrated with local measurements. Nudged simulations conducted with high-resolution isotopically enabled general circulation models (GCMs provide a consistent framework for comparison with the different types of observations. Here, we compare simulations conducted with the ECHAM5-wiso model with two types of water vapour isotopic data obtained during summer 2012 at the forest site of Kourovka, western Siberia: hourly ground-based FTIR total atmospheric columnar δDv amounts, and in situ hourly Picarro δDv measurements. There is an excellent correlation between observed and predicted δDv at surface while the comparison between water column values derived from the model compares well with FTIR estimates.

  1. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  2. Development of a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product by sodium replacement using water vapour permeable bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Arantxa; Fuentes, Ana; Barat, José M; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel

    2018-05-01

    Food manufacturers need to reduce sodium content to meet consumer and public health demands. In the present study, the use of sodium-free (SF) salt and KCl to develop a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product with reduced sodium content was evaluated. Fifty percent of NaCl was replaced with 50% of SF salt or 50% KCl in the salmon smoke-flavouring process, which was carried out using water vapour permeable bags. Triangle tests showed that samples with either SF salt or KCl were statistically similar to the control samples (100% NaCl). Because no sensorial advantage in using SF salt was found compared to KCl and given the lower price of KCl, the KCl-NaCl samples were selected for the next phase. The changes of physicochemical and microbial parameters in smoke-flavoured salmon during 42 days showed that partial replacement of NaCl with KCl did not significantly affect the quality and shelf-life of smoke-flavoured salmon, which was over 42 days. Smoke-flavoured salmon with 37% sodium reduction was developed without affecting the sensory features and shelf-life. This is an interesting option for reducing the sodium content in such products to help meet the needs set by both health authorities and consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Comparison of Lyman-alpha and LI-COR infrared hygrometers for airborne measurement of turbulent fluctuations of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Astrid; Hartmann, Jörg; Pätzold, Falk; Lobitz, Lennart; Hecker, Peter; Kohnert, Katrin; Larmanou, Eric; Serafimovich, Andrei; Sachs, Torsten

    2018-05-01

    To investigate if the LI-COR humidity sensor can be used as a replacement of the Lyman-alpha sensor for airborne applications, the measurement data of the Lyman-alpha and several LI-COR sensors are analysed in direct intercomparison flights on different airborne platforms. One vibration isolated closed-path and two non-isolated open-path LI-COR sensors were installed on a Dornier 128 twin engine turbo-prop aircraft. The closed-path sensor provided absolute values and fluctuations of the water vapour mixing ratio in good agreement with the Lyman-alpha. The signals of the two open-path sensors showed considerable high-frequency noise, and the absolute value of the mixing ratio was observed to drift with time in this vibrational environment. On the helicopter-towed sensor system Helipod, with very low vibration levels, the open-path LI-COR sensor agreed very well with the Lyman-alpha sensor over the entire frequency range up to 3 Hz. The results show that the LI-COR sensors are well suited for airborne measurements of humidity fluctuations, provided that a vibrationless environment is given, and this turns out to be more important than close sensor spacing.

  4. Water, vapour and heat transport in concrete cells for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme Chaparro, M.; W. Saaltink, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Water is collected from a drain situated at the centre of a concrete cell that stores radioactive waste at 'El Cabril', which is the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility of Spain. This indicates flow of water within the cell. 2D numerical models have been made in order to reproduce and understand the processes that take place inside the cell. Temperature and relative humidity measured by sensors in the cells and thermo-hydraulic parameters from laboratory test have been used. Results show that this phenomenon is caused by capillary rise from the phreatic level, evaporation and condensation within the cell produced by temperature gradients caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations outside. At the centre of the cell, flow of gas and convection also play a role. Three remedial actions have been studied that may avoid the leakage of water from the drain.

  5. Thickness and structure of the water film deposited from vapour on calcite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Wogelius, Roy A.; Morris, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from......Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from...

  6. Online analytical investigations on solvent-, temperature- and water vapour-induced phase transformations of citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmdach, L.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaft, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Feth, M.P. [Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Chemical and Process Development Frankfurt Chemistry, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    It was demonstrated exemplarily for the crystallization of citric acid that the usage of an ultrasound device as well as Raman spectroscopy enables the inline measurement and the control of phase transitions. The influence of different solvent compositions (water and ethanol-water) on the crystallization of citric acid was investigated. By increasing the ethanol content the transformation point was shifted towards higher temperatures. In addition, a strong impact on the nucleation point as well as on the crystal habit was detected in ethanol-water mixtures. The results lead to the assumption that a citric acid solvate exists, which is, however, highly unstable upon isolation from mother liquor and converts fast into the known anhydrate or monohydrate forms of citric acid. The presence of such a solvate, however, could not be proven during this study. Furthermore, factors such as temperature and humidity which might influence the phase transition of the solid product were analyzed by Hotstage-Raman Spectroscopy and Water Vapor Sorption Gravimetry-Dispersive Raman Spectroscopy. Both, temperature as well as humidity show a strong influence on the behaviour of CAM. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Oxidation of X20 in Water Vapour: The Effect of Temperature and Oxygen Partial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Montgomery, Melanie; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of X20 in various mixtures of water, oxygen and hydrogen was investigated at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C (time: 336 h). The samples were characterised using reflected light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy...

  8. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from understory species in boreal forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Although recent eddy covariance measurements in boreal forests provide CO2 and energy exchange data for the whole ecosystem, very little is known about the role of the understory vegetation. We conducted chamber flux measurements in an Alaskan black spruce forest in order to compare CO2 and water

  9. Detection of chemical substances in water using an oxide nanowire transistor covered with a hydrophobic nanoparticle thin film as a liquid-vapour separation filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method to detect the presence of small amounts of chemical substances in water, using a Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film covered with phosphonic acid (HDF-PA self-assembled monolayer. The HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film acts as a liquid-vapour separation filter, allowing the passage of chemical vapour while blocking liquids. Prevention of the liquid from contacting the SnO2 nanowire and source-drain electrodes is required in order to avoid abnormal operation. Using this characteristic, the concentration of chemical substances in water could be evaluated by measuring the current changes in the SnO2 nanowire transistor covered with the HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film.

  10. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  11. Action of the chlorine trifluoride on water vapour. Analysis of reaction products. Technical report - 589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, R.

    1961-06-01

    As the separation of uranium 235 from uranium 238 by gaseous diffusion under the form of uranium hexa-fluoride requires the use of materials which may contain some impurities retained by chemical or physical bounds, this report addresses the use of a reactant which would allow these impurities to be removed. Due to its properties (inert with respect to UF 6 ; transforms most of impurities into volatile compounds, and different UF compounds into UF 6 ; strongly reacts on water; all its degradation products are volatile), chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) has been chosen. It is used for the preprocessing of materials for their passivation with respect to UF 6 , and for a post-processing for the regeneration of porous materials by transformation of UF 4 , UO 2 F 2 and UF x into UF 6 . The authors more particularly studied the reaction between ClF 3 and water

  12. Influence of capillary forces on water injection into hot rock, saturated with superheated vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsypkin, G.G. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, RAS, Vernadskogo Ave. 101, 119420 Moscow (Russian Federation); Calore, C. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse - CNR, Sezione di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    The results of a theoretical study and numerical analysis of the role of capillary pressure of cold water injection into depleted geothermal reservoirs are presented. A simplified 1-D mathematical model is developed, that describes the motion of a sharp vaporization front. Some asymptotic estimates for a wide range of parameters are given and a similarity solution is derived. Analytical results are then compared with those obtained from the numerical reservoir simulator TOUGH2, showing a good agreement between the two. (author)

  13. Hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of water vapour and nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Pierre Py; Alain Capitaine

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents hydrogen production by a nuclear reactor (High Temperature Reactor, HTR or Pressurized Water Reactor, PWR) coupled to a High Temperature Electrolyser (HTE) plant. With respect to the coupling of a HTR with a HTE plant, EDF and AREVA NP had previously selected a combined cycle HTR scheme to convert the reactor heat into electricity. In that case, the steam required for the electrolyser plant is provided either directly from the steam turbine cycle or from a heat exchanger connected with such cycle. Hydrogen efficiency production is valued using high temperature electrolysis. Electrolysis production of hydrogen can be performed with significantly higher thermal efficiencies by operating in the steam phase than in the water phase. The electrolysis performance is assessed with solid oxide and solid proton electrolysis cells. The efficiency from the three operating conditions (endo-thermal, auto-thermal and thermo-neutral) of a high temperature electrolysis process is evaluated. The technical difficulties to use the gases enthalpy to heat the water are analyzed, taking into account efficiency and technological challenges. EDF and AREVA NP have performed an analysis to select an optimized process giving consideration to plant efficiency, plant operation, investment and production costs. The paper provides pathways and identifies R and D actions to reach hydrogen production costs competitive with those of other hydrogen production processes. (authors)

  14. High-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria for ternary systems composed by {(E)-2-hexenal or hexanal + carbon dioxide + water}: Partition coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; López, Pablo I.; Valle, José M. del; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new apparatus based on a static–analytic method was assembled in this work. • This work reports high-pressure VLE data of (E)-2-hexenal or hexanal + CO 2 + water. • Data includes (CO 2 + water) partition coefficients of (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal. • High separation factors from water (∼10 4 ) were found especially for (E)-2-hexenal. • The data were obtained at T = (313, 323, and 333) K and pressures from (8 to 19) MPa. - Abstract: A new apparatus based on a static–analytic method assembled in this work was utilised to perform high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements of aqueous ternary systems. This work includes values of isothermal partition coefficients between CO 2 and water of two apple aroma constituents, (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal. Additionally, this work reports new experimental (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements for the ternary systems (CO 2 + (E)-2-hexenal + water) and (CO 2 + hexanal + water), at fixed liquid phase composition (600 mg · kg −1 ), at temperatures of (313, 323 and 333) K and at pressures from (8 to 19) MPa. Vapour liquid interphase was checked and monitored visually for all the systems studied in this work. No liquid immiscibility was observed at the composition, temperatures and pressures studied. In order to suggest reasonable operation conditions for fractionation of aromas with dense carbon dioxide, partition coefficients of the aroma compounds between CO 2 and water along with their separation factors from water were calculated. Partition coefficients of (E)-2-hexenal between CO 2 and water were in the range of (6 to 91) and where found to be near six times higher than those of hexanal (9 to 17). Very high separation factors from water were observed (∼10 4 ) especially for (E)-2-hexenal. The highest separation factor, for both compounds, was found at a temperature of 313 K and pressures from (12 to 14) MPa

  15. Study of transport of oxygen and water vapour between cells in valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culpin, Barry [11 Bluebell Close, Whittle -le -Woods, Chorley PR6 7RH (United Kingdom); Peters, Ken [Battery Design and Manfg Systems, Glenbank, 77 Chatsworth Road, Worsley, Manchester M28 2GG (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-25

    Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are maintenance free, safer, office compatible, and have higher volume efficiency than conventional designs. They are universally used in telecommunications and uninterruptible power supply systems. With the electrolyte immobilized in the separator or as a gel, it is feasible for a monobloc battery to have cells that are not fully sealed from one another, that is to have a common gas space, with certain attendant benefits. This study demonstrates that small differences in the saturation level, acid strength or operating temperature of the cells in such designs can initiate a cycle that may subsequently result in failure if the movement of oxygen and water vapour between cells is unrestricted. Cells that are initially out-of-balance will go further out-of-balance at an ever-increasing rate. This situation can also arise in monobloc designs with sealed cells if the intercell seal is inadequate or incomplete. Battery failure is associated with a re-distribution of water between the cells with some drying out and having high impedance. The preferential oxygen absorption in those cells produces heavily sulfated negative plates. Results on batteries tested under a range of overcharge conditions and temperatures are presented to illustrate these effects. The rate at which the cycle occurs depends on the initial relative density of the acid, the temperature or saturation imbalance between the cells, and the size of the interconnecting gas space. Batteries operating under a continuous cycling regime, particularly those with high overcharge currents and voltages that generate large volumes of oxygen, are more prone to this type of failure mode than batteries operating under low overcharge, intermittent cycling, or float conditions. (author)

  16. An observational study of air and water vapour convergence over the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, during summertime and the development of isolated thunderstorms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Lews Castle College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom); N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2012-12-15

    The daytime summer phenomenon of the mesoscale transport of air and water vapour from the Swiss lowlands into the nearby western Alps, leading to orographic convection, is investigated using a range of independent observations. These observations are: Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated water vapour (IWV) data, the TROWARA microwave radiometer, MeteoSwiss ANETZ surface weather station data, the Payerne radiosonde, synoptic analyses for Switzerland and Europe, EUMETSAT and NOAA visible and infrared satellite images, MeteoSwiss operational precipitation radar, photographs and webcam images including time-lapse cloud animations. The intention was to show, using GPS IWV data, that significant differences in IWV may occur between the Swiss plain and nearby Alps during small single-cell Alpine thunderstorm events, and that these may be attributable to regional airflow convergence. Two particular case studies are presented for closer examination: 20 June 2005 and 13 June 2006. On both days, fine and warm weather was followed by isolated orographic convection over the Alps in the afternoon and evening, producing thunderstorms. The thunderstorms investigated were generally small, local, discrete and short-lived phenomena. They were selected for study because of almost stationary position over orography, rendering easy observation because they remained contained within a particular mountain region before dissipating. The results show that large transfers of air and water vapour occur from the Swiss plain to the mountains on such days, with up to a 50% increase in GPS IWV values at individual Alpine stations, coincident with strong airflow convergence in the same locality. (orig.)

  17. Transport coefficients and cross sections for electrons in water vapour: Comparison of cross section sets using an improved Boltzmann equation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; White, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits the issues surrounding computation of electron transport properties in water vapour as a function of E/n0 (the ratio of the applied electric field to the water vapour number density) up to 1200 Td. We solve the Boltzmann equation using an improved version of the code of Ness and Robson [Phys. Rev. A 38, 1446 (1988)], facilitating the calculation of transport coefficients to a considerably higher degree of accuracy. This allows a correspondingly more discriminating test of the various electron-water vapour cross section sets proposed by a number of authors, which has become an important issue as such sets are now being applied to study electron driven processes in atmospheric phenomena [P. Thorn, L. Campbell, and M. Brunger, PMC Physics B 2, 1 (2009)] and in modeling charged particle tracks in matter [A. Munoz, F. Blanco, G. Garcia, P. A. Thorn, M. J. Brunger, J. P. Sullivan, and S. J. Buckman, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 277, 175 (2008)].

  18. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... within a RH range from 3 to 93%. The clay contents, which ranged between 1 and 56%, were measured with a combination of sieving and sedimentation methods. Two regression models were developed for both adsorption and desorption at 10 RH levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%). While the first...

  19. Derivation of water vapour absorption cross-sections in the red region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption spectrum in 436 to 448 nm wavelength region gives NO2 and O3 column densities. This spectrum can also give H2O column density. The spectrum in the range of 655 to 667 nm contains absorption due to NO3 and H2O. Combining the absorption spectra in the wavelength ranges of 436 to 448 and 655 to 667 nm, water vapor absorption cross-sections in this range comes out to be of the order of 2.0 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp -2).

  20. Application of remote sensing techniques to study aerosol water vapour uptake in a real atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A. J.; Molero, F.; Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Salvador, P.; Artíñano, B.; Pujadas, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a study of several observations of aerosol water uptake in a real (non-controlled) atmosphere, registered by remote sensing techniques, are presented. In particular, three events were identified within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and other two events were detected in the free troposphere (beyond the top of the ABL). Then, aerosol optical properties were measured at different relative humidity (RH) conditions by means of a multi-wavelength (MW) Raman lidar located at CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) facilities in Madrid (Spain). Additionally, aerosol optical and microphysical properties provided by automatic sun and sky scanning spectral radiometers (CIMEL CE-318) and a meteorological analysis complement the study. However, a detailed analysis only could be carried out for the cases observed within the ABL since well-mixed atmospheric layers are required to properly characterize these processes. This characterization of aerosol water uptake is based on the curve described by the backscatter coefficient at 532 nm as a function of RH which allows deriving the enhancement factor. Thus, the Hänel parameterization is utilized, and the results obtained are in the range of values reported in previous studies, which shows the suitability of this approach to study such hygroscopic processes. Furthermore, the anti-correlated pattern observed on backscatter-related Ångström exponent (532/355 nm) and RH indicates plausible signs of aerosol hygroscopic growth. According to the meteorological analysis performed, we attribute such hygroscopic behaviour to marine aerosols which are advected from the Atlantic Ocean to the low troposphere in Madrid. We have also observed an interesting response of aerosols to RH at certain levels which it is suggested to be due to a hysteresis process. The events registered in the free troposphere, which deal with volcano

  1. Range-energy relations and stopping power of water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid for α particles over the energy range 0.5 to 8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.J.; Akhavan-Rezayat, Ahmad

    1978-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid at energies up to 8 MeV. From these relations differential stopping powers are derived at 0.25 MeV energy intervals. Consideration is given to sources of error in the range-energy measurements and to the uncertainties that these will introduce into the stopping power values. The ratio of the differential stopping power of muscle equivalent liquid to that of water over the energy range 0.5 to 7.5 MeV is discussed in relation to the specific gravity and chemical composition of the muscle equivalent liquid. Theoretical molecular stopping power calculations based upon the Bethe formula are also presented for water. The effect of phase upon the stopping power of water is discussed. The molecular stopping power of water vapour is shown to be significantly higher than that of water for energies below 1.25 MeV and above 2.5 MeV, the ratio of the two stopping powers rising to 1.39 at 0.5 MeV and to 1.13 at 7.0 MeV. Stopping power measurements for other liquids and vapours are compared with the results for water and water vapour and some are observed to have stopping power ratios in the vapour and liquid phases which vary with energy in a similar way to water. It is suggested that there may be several factors contributing to the increased stopping power of liquids. The need for further experimental results on a wider range of liquids is stressed

  2. Correcting atmospheric effects on InSAR with MERIS water vapour data and elevation-dependent interpolation model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Z. W.; Xu, Wenbin; Feng, G. C.; Hu, J.; Wang, C. C.; Ding, X. L.; Zhu, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation delay when radar signals travel from the troposphere has been one of the major limitations for the applications of high precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In this paper, we first present an elevation-dependent atmospheric correction model for Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR—the instrument aboard the ENVISAT satellite) interferograms with Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) integrated water vapour (IWV) data. Then, using four ASAR interferometric pairs over Southern California as examples, we conduct the atmospheric correction experiments with cloud-free MERIS IWV data. The results show that after the correction the rms differences between InSAR and GPS have reduced by 69.6 per cent, 29 per cent, 31.8 per cent and 23.3 per cent, respectively for the four selected interferograms, with an average improvement of 38.4 per cent. Most importantly, after the correction, six distinct deformation areas have been identified, that is, Long Beach–Santa Ana Basin, Pomona–Ontario, San Bernardino and Elsinore basin, with the deformation velocities along the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction ranging from −20 mm yr−1 to −30 mm yr−1 and on average around −25 mm yr−1, and Santa Fe Springs and Wilmington, with a slightly low deformation rate of about −10 mm yr−1 along LOS. Finally, through the method of stacking, we generate a mean deformation velocity map of Los Angeles over a period of 5 yr. The deformation is quite consistent with the historical deformation of the area. Thus, using the cloud-free MERIS IWV data correcting synchronized ASAR interferograms can significantly reduce the atmospheric effects in the interferograms and further better capture the ground deformation and other geophysical signals.

  3. Correcting atmospheric effects on InSAR with MERIS water vapour data and elevation-dependent interpolation model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Z. W.

    2012-05-01

    The propagation delay when radar signals travel from the troposphere has been one of the major limitations for the applications of high precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In this paper, we first present an elevation-dependent atmospheric correction model for Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR—the instrument aboard the ENVISAT satellite) interferograms with Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) integrated water vapour (IWV) data. Then, using four ASAR interferometric pairs over Southern California as examples, we conduct the atmospheric correction experiments with cloud-free MERIS IWV data. The results show that after the correction the rms differences between InSAR and GPS have reduced by 69.6 per cent, 29 per cent, 31.8 per cent and 23.3 per cent, respectively for the four selected interferograms, with an average improvement of 38.4 per cent. Most importantly, after the correction, six distinct deformation areas have been identified, that is, Long Beach–Santa Ana Basin, Pomona–Ontario, San Bernardino and Elsinore basin, with the deformation velocities along the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction ranging from −20 mm yr−1 to −30 mm yr−1 and on average around −25 mm yr−1, and Santa Fe Springs and Wilmington, with a slightly low deformation rate of about −10 mm yr−1 along LOS. Finally, through the method of stacking, we generate a mean deformation velocity map of Los Angeles over a period of 5 yr. The deformation is quite consistent with the historical deformation of the area. Thus, using the cloud-free MERIS IWV data correcting synchronized ASAR interferograms can significantly reduce the atmospheric effects in the interferograms and further better capture the ground deformation and other geophysical signals.

  4. Measuring variations of δ18O and δ2H in atmospheric water vapour using two commercial laser-based spectrometers: an instrument characterisation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Variations of stable water isotopes in water vapour have become measurable at a measurement frequency of about 1 Hz in recent years using novel laser spectroscopic techniques. This enables us to perform continuous measurements for process-based investigations of the atmospheric water cycle at the time scales relevant for synoptic and mesoscale meteorology. An important prerequisite for the interpretation of data from automated field measurements lasting for several weeks or months is a detailed knowledge about instrument properties and the sources of measurement uncertainty. We present here a comprehensive characterisation and comparison study of two commercial laser spectroscopic systems based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (Picarro and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research. The uncertainty components of the measurements were first assessed in laboratory experiments, focussing on the effects of (i water vapour mixing ratio, (ii measurement stability, (iii uncertainties due to calibration and (iv response times of the isotope measurements due to adsorption-desorption processes on the tubing and measurement cavity walls. Based on the experience from our laboratory experiments, we set up a one-week field campaign for comparing measurements of the ambient isotope signals from the two laser spectroscopic systems. The optimal calibration strategy determined for both instruments was applied as well as the correction functions for water vapour mixing ratio effects. The root mean square difference between the isotope signals from the two instruments during the field deployment was 2.3‰ for δ2H, 0.5‰ for δ18O and 3.1‰ for deuterium excess. These uncertainty estimates from field measurements compare well to those found in the laboratory experiments. The present quality of measurements from laser spectroscopic instruments combined with a calibration system opens new possibilities for investigating the atmospheric

  5. Response of water vapour D-excess to land-atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen; McCabe, Matthew; Griffiths, Alan D.; Wang, Lixin; Chambers, Scott; Ershadi, Ali; Williams, Alastair G; Strauss, Josiah; Element, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    nocturnal inversion layer caused a lowering of dv values near the surface. In addition, transient mixing of vapour with a higher D-excess from above the nocturnal inversion modified these values, causing large variability during the night. These results indicate dET can generally be expected to show

  6. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 1: Background and equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10 was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code library for the thermodynamic properties of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air, referred to as the Sea-Ice-Air (SIA library. Here we present the background information and equations required for the determination of the properties of single phases and components as well as of phase transitions and composite systems as implemented in the library. All results are based on rigorous mathematical methods applied to the Primary Standards of the constituents, formulated as empirical thermodynamic potential functions and, except for humid air, endorsed as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS. Details of the implementation in the TEOS-10 SIA library are given in a companion paper.

  7. Studies in uptake and turnover of tritiated water vapour (HTO) by vegetables. Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme und zum Umsatz von tritiiertem Wasserdampf (HTO) in Gemuesepflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roller, M.

    1989-02-01

    The aerial parts of vegetables were exposed to tritiated water vapour for up to three days in a plant growth chamber. The species used were Raphanus sativus L., Phaseolus vulgaris K. and Daucus carota L. (red radish, bean and carrot). The increase of specific activity of tissue free water as collected by freeze drying which was observed in the aerial parts of plants is explained by direct uptake of tritiated water vapour by the exposed part of the plant. It shows different characteristics for the several organs. No translocation of water from the laminae into other parts of the plant was observed. After combustion of dry matter tritium activity was detectable in the oxidation water for all parts of the plants. Kinetics of the specific activity of organically bound tritium in leaves can be described by a single curve. The lower - steep - part of the curve is increasing approximately with the uptake rate of HTO; this is explained by reversible binding of tritium by isotopic exchange reactions. The upper - flat - part of the curve represents tritium bound by light dependent reducing reactions of photosynthesis; it is increasing with a rate similar to the growth rate of leaves. (orig./KG).

  8. Validation of GOME-2/MetOp-A total water vapour column using reference radiosonde data from GRUAN network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; Loyola, D.; Román, R.; Vömel, H.

    2014-09-01

    The main goal of this article is to validate the total water vapour column (TWVC) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite sensor and generated using the GOME Data Processor (GDP) retrieval algorithm developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). For this purpose, spatially and temporally collocated TWVC data from highly accurate sounding measurements for the period January 2009-May 2014 at six sites are used. These balloon-borne data are provided by GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN). The correlation between GOME-2 and sounding TWVC data is reasonably good (determination coefficient (R2) of 0.89) when all available radiosondes (1400) are employed in the inter-comparison. When cloud-free cases (544) are selected by means of the satellite cloud fraction (CF), the correlation exhibits a remarkable improvement (R2 ~ 0.95). Nevertheless, analyzing the six datasets together, the relative differences between GOME-2 and GRUAN data shows mean values (in absolute term) of 19% for all-sky conditions and 14% for cloud-free cases, which evidences a notable bias in the satellite TWVC data against the reference balloon-borne measurements. The satellite-sounding TWVC differences show a strong solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence for values above 50° with a stable behaviour for values below this zenith angle. The smallest relative differences found in the inter-comparison (between -5 and +3%) are achieved for those cloud-free cases with SZA below 50°. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of the influence of cloud properties (CF, cloud top albedo (CTA) and cloud top pressure (CTP)) on the satellite-sounding differences reveals, as expected, a large effect of clouds in the GOME-2 TWVC data. For instance, the relative differences exhibit a large negative dependence on CTA, varying from +5 to -20% when CTA rises from 0.3 to 0.9. Finally, the satellite-sounding differences also show a negative dependence on the reference TWVC values, changing from

  9. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  10. Heavy water handbook. Evaluation of available thermophysical properties of heavy water (D2O) liquid and vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukovsky, J.; Haack, K.; Wiig, P.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous publications on the thermophysical data of heavy water (D 2 O) have been published since D 2 O became commercially available in the 1930's. Some of these data are in mutual disagreement. This has led to confusion among the scientifical and technical staffs who needed the information on the D 2 O thermophysical data. Correct thermophysical data must be consistent, i.e. their mutual relations must be in accordance to the fundamental thermophysical laws. The work behind this publication has been focussed at collecting all avalilable D 2 O data and checking the data mutually by means of these fundamental thermophysical criteria. Depending on the various production methods, the oxygen content of the D 2 O is enriched more or less in the heavier oxygen isotopes 17 O and 18 O. This, together with the amount of impurities and dissolved gases in the D 2 O samples of the various references, might - to some extent - explain the discrepancies between the data sources. Only a few references contain information on these subjects. The D 2 O data sets which were found to be the most reliable are presented in chapter 9, in tables as well as in diagrams, together with the corresponding H 2 O data for comparison. The diagrams are commented for reliability where it was found necessary. Furthermore, the publication contains short descriptions on the heavy water sources, availability, production processes, economy, material and energy demands for production. A comprehensive list of references is enclosed. (author)

  11. Heavy water handbook. Evaluation of presently available thermophysical properties of heavy water (D2O) liquid and vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukovsky, J.; Haack, K.

    1994-08-01

    Many publication on the thermophysical properties of heavy water (D 2 O) have appeared since D 2 O became commercially available in the 1930's. Some for the data contradict one another and this has led to confusion when information is needed on D 2 O thermophysical data. Correct thermophysical data must be consistent, i.e. their mutual dependence must be consistent with fundamental thermophysical laws. The work behind this publication has focused on collecting all available D 2 O data and checking them against these fundamental thermophysical criteria. Depending on the various production methods for D 2 O, its oxygen content is enriched more or less by the heavier oxygen isotopes 17 O and 18 O. This, together with the amount of impurities and dissolved gases in the D 2 O samples of the various references, might - to some extent - explain the discrepancies found between the data. Only a few references contain information on these subjects. The D 2 O data sets found to be the most reliable are presented in Chapter 9, in tables as well as in diagrams, together with the corresponding H 2 O data for comparison. Comments on the reliability of the diagrams are given where necessary. Furthermore, short descriptions are given of heavy water sources, availability, production processes, economy, material and energy requirements for the production process. Finally a comprehensive list of references and an author index are included. (au)

  12. Impact of water vapour and carbon dioxide on surface composition of C{sub 3}A polymorphs studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubina, E.; Plank, J. [Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Bauchemie, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching bei München (Germany); Black, L., E-mail: l.black@leeds.ac.uk [Institute for Resilient Infrastructure, School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The surface specific analytical method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), has been used to study the effects of water vapour and CO{sub 2} on the cubic and orthorhombic polymorphs of C{sub 3}A. Significant differences between the two polymorphs were observed in the XPS spectra. Upon exposure to water vapour, both polymorphs produced C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} on their surfaces. Additionally, the sodium-doped o-C{sub 3}A developed NaOH and traces of C{sub 3}AH{sub 6} on its surface. Subsequent carbonation yielded mono carboaluminate on both polymorphs. Large amounts of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} also formed on the surface of o-C{sub 3}A as a result of carbonation of NaOH. Furthermore, the extent of carbonation was much more pronounced for o-C{sub 3}A{sub o} than for c-C{sub 3}A.

  13. The water vapour self-continuum absorption in the infrared atmospheric windows: new laser measurements near 3.3 and 2.0 µm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lechevallier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude, the temperature dependence, and the physical origin of the water vapour absorption continuum are a long-standing issue in molecular spectroscopy with direct impact in atmospheric and planetary sciences. In recent years, we have determined the self-continuum absorption of water vapour at different spectral points of the atmospheric windows at 4.0, 2.1, 1.6, and 1.25 µm, by highly sensitive cavity-enhanced laser techniques. These accurate experimental constraints have been used to adjust the last version (3.2 of the semi-empirical MT_CKD model (Mlawer-Tobin_Clough-Kneizys-Davies, which is widely incorporated in atmospheric radiative-transfer codes. In the present work, the self-continuum cross-sections, CS, are newly determined at 3.3 µm (3007 cm−1 and 2.0 µm (5000 cm−1 by optical-feedback-cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS, respectively. These new data allow extending the spectral coverage of the 4.0 and 2.1 µm windows, respectively, and testing the recently released 3.2 version of the MT_CKD continuum. By considering high temperature literature data together with our data, the temperature dependence of the self-continuum is also obtained.

  14. The water vapour self-continuum absorption in the infrared atmospheric windows: new laser measurements near 3.3 and 2.0 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechevallier, Loic; Vasilchenko, Semen; Grilli, Roberto; Mondelain, Didier; Romanini, Daniele; Campargue, Alain

    2018-04-01

    The amplitude, the temperature dependence, and the physical origin of the water vapour absorption continuum are a long-standing issue in molecular spectroscopy with direct impact in atmospheric and planetary sciences. In recent years, we have determined the self-continuum absorption of water vapour at different spectral points of the atmospheric windows at 4.0, 2.1, 1.6, and 1.25 µm, by highly sensitive cavity-enhanced laser techniques. These accurate experimental constraints have been used to adjust the last version (3.2) of the semi-empirical MT_CKD model (Mlawer-Tobin_Clough-Kneizys-Davies), which is widely incorporated in atmospheric radiative-transfer codes. In the present work, the self-continuum cross-sections, CS, are newly determined at 3.3 µm (3007 cm-1) and 2.0 µm (5000 cm-1) by optical-feedback-cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), respectively. These new data allow extending the spectral coverage of the 4.0 and 2.1 µm windows, respectively, and testing the recently released 3.2 version of the MT_CKD continuum. By considering high temperature literature data together with our data, the temperature dependence of the self-continuum is also obtained.

  15. Summer to Winter Diurnal Variabilities of Temperature and Water Vapour in the Lowermost Troposphere as Observed by HAMSTRAD over Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaud, P.; Genthon, C.; Durand, P.; Attié, J.-L.; Carminati, F.; Canut, G.; Vanacker, J.-F.; Moggio, L.; Courcoux, Y.; Pellegrini, A.; Rose, T.

    2012-04-01

    The HAMSTRAD (H2O Antarctica Microwave Stratospheric and Tropospheric Radiometers) microwave radiometer operating at 60 GHz (oxygen line, thus temperature) and 183 GHz (water vapour line) has been permanently deployed at the Dome C station, Concordia, Antarctica [75°06'S, 123°21'E, 3,233 m above mean sea level] in January 2010 to study long-term trends in tropospheric absolute humidity and temperature. The great sensitivity of the instrument in the lowermost troposphere helped to characterize the diurnal cycle of temperature and H2O from the austral summer (January 2010) to the winter (June 2010) seasons from heights of 10 to 200 m in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The study has characterized the vertical resolution of the HAMSTRAD measurements: 10-20 m for temperature and 25-50 m for H2O. A strong diurnal cycle in temperature and H2O (although noisier) has been measured in summertime at 10 m, decreasing in amplitude with height, and phase-shifted by about 4 h above 50 m with a strong H2O-temperature correlation (>0.8) throughout the entire PBL. In autumn, whilst the diurnal cycle in temperature and H2O is less intense, a 12-h phase shift is observed above 30 m. In wintertime, a weak diurnal signal measured between 10 to 200 m is attributed to the methodology employed, which consists of monthly averaged data, and that combines air masses from different origins (sampling effect) and not to the imprint of the null solar irradiation. In situ sensors scanning the entire 24-h period, radiosondes launched at 2000 local solar time (LST) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses at 0200, 0800, 1400 and 2000 LST agree very well with the HAMSTRAD diurnal cycles for temperature and relatively well for absolute humidity. For temperature, HAMSTRAD tends to be consistent with all the other datasets but shows a smoother vertical profile from 10 to 100 m compared to radiosondes and in-situ data, with ECMWF profiles even smoother than HAMSTRAD

  16. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  17. Thermodynamics of the ternary systems: (water + glycine, L-alanine and L-serine + di-ammonium hydrogen citrate) from volumetric, compressibility, and (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Gholamireza, Afsaneh

    2011-01-01

    The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg -1 di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {(NH 4 ) 2 HCit} and those of (NH 4 ) 2 HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH 4 ) 2 HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {glycine + (NH 4 ) 2 HCit}, {alanine + (NH 4 ) 2 HCit}, and {serine + (NH 4 ) 2 HCit} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.

  18. Thermodynamics of the ternary systems: (water + glycine, L-alanine and L-serine + di-ammonium hydrogen citrate) from volumetric, compressibility, and (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamireza, Afsaneh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg{sup -1} di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {l_brace}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} and those of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {l_brace}glycine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, {l_brace}alanine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, and {l_brace}serine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.

  19. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  20. The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schröder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF aims at the provision and sound validation of well documented Climate Data Records (CDRs in sustained and operational environments. In this study, a total column water vapour path (WVPA climatology from CM SAF is presented and inter-compared to water vapour data records from various data sources. Based on homogenised brightness temperatures from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, a climatology of WVPA has been generated within the Hamburg Ocean–Atmosphere Fluxes and Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS framework. Within a research and operation transition activity the HOAPS data and operation capabilities have been successfully transferred to the CM SAF where the complete HOAPS data and processing schemes are hosted in an operational environment. An objective analysis for interpolation, namely kriging, has been applied to the swath-based WVPA retrievals from the HOAPS data set. The resulting climatology consists of daily and monthly mean fields of WVPA over the global ice-free ocean. The temporal coverage ranges from July 1987 to August 2006. After a comparison to the precursor product the CM SAF SSM/I-based climatology has been comprehensively compared to different types of meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-ERA40, ERA INTERIM and operational analyses and from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA–JRA. This inter-comparison shows an overall good agreement between the climatology and the analyses, with daily absolute biases generally smaller than 2 kg m−2. The absolute value of the bias to JRA and ERA INTERIM is typically smaller than 0.5 kg m−2. For the period 1991–2006, the root mean square error (RMSE for both reanalyses is approximately 2 kg m−2. As SSM/I WVPA and radiances are assimilated into JMA and all ECMWF analyses and

  1. Analysis of Water Vapour Flux Between Alpine Wetlands Underlying the Surface and Atmosphere in the Source Region of the Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Wen, J.; Liu, R.; Wang, X.; JIA, D.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland underlying surface is sensitive to climate change. Analysis of the degree of coupling between wetlands and the atmosphere and a quantitative assessment of how environmental factors influence latent heat flux have considerable scientific significance. Previous studies, which focused on the forest, grassland and farmland ecosystems, lack research on the alpine wetlands. In addition, research on the environmental control mechanism of latent heat flux is still qualitative and lacks quantitative evaluations and calculations. Using data from the observational tests of the Maduo Observatory of Climate and Environment of the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resource, CAS, from June 1 to August 31, 2014, this study analysed the time-varying characteristics and causes of the degree of coupling between alpine wetlands underlying surface and the atmosphere and quantitatively calculated the influences of different environmental factors (solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit) on latent heat flux. The results were as follows: Due to the diurnal variations of solar radiation and wind speed, the diurnal variations of the Ω factor present a trend in which the Ω factor are small in the morning and large in the evening. Due to the vegetation growing cycle, the seasonal variations of the Ω factor present a reverse "U" trend . These trends are similar to the diurnal and seasonal variations of the absolute control exercised by solar radiation over the latent heat flux. This conforms to omega theory. The values for average absolute atmospheric factor (surface factor or total ) control exercised by solar radiation and water vapour pressure are 0.20 (0.02 or 0.22 ) and 0.005 (-0.07 or -0.06) W·m-2·Pa-1, respectively.. Generally speaking, solar radiation and water vapour pressure deficit exert opposite forces on the latent heat flux. The average Ω factor is high during the vegetation growing season, with a value of 0.38, and the degree of coupling between the

  2. An "island" in the stratosphere - on the enhanced annual variation of water vapour in the middle and upper stratosphere in the southern tropics and subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossow, Stefan; Garny, Hella; Jöckel, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    The amplitude of the annual variation in water vapour exhibits a distinct isolated maximum in the middle and upper stratosphere in the southern tropics and subtropics, peaking typically around 15° S in latitude and close to 3 hPa (˜ 40.5 km) in altitude. This enhanced annual variation is primarily related to the Brewer-Dobson circulation and hence also visible in other trace gases. So far this feature has not gained much attention in the literature and the present work aims to add more prominence. Using Envisat/MIPAS (Environmental Satellite/Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) observations and ECHAM/MESSy (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg/Modular Earth Submodel System) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) simulations we provide a dedicated illustration and a full account of the reasons for this enhanced annual variation.

  3. An “island” in the stratosphere – on the enhanced annual variation of water vapour in the middle and upper stratosphere in the southern tropics and subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lossow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude of the annual variation in water vapour exhibits a distinct isolated maximum in the middle and upper stratosphere in the southern tropics and subtropics, peaking typically around 15° S in latitude and close to 3 hPa (∼  40.5 km in altitude. This enhanced annual variation is primarily related to the Brewer–Dobson circulation and hence also visible in other trace gases. So far this feature has not gained much attention in the literature and the present work aims to add more prominence. Using Envisat/MIPAS (Environmental Satellite/Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding observations and ECHAM/MESSy (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg/Modular Earth Submodel System Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC simulations we provide a dedicated illustration and a full account of the reasons for this enhanced annual variation.

  4. In situ profiling of eastern Arabian Sea coastal waters using a new autonomous vertical profiler

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Phaldesai, M.; Maurya, P.

    The autonomous vertical profiler (AVP) presented here offers a fast, cost-effective, optimized approach to profiling in coastal waters. It consists of a hands-free, slightly buoyant, motor-driven in situ robot profiler that requires no operator...

  5. Water injection profiling by nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16 N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

  6. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  7. Water pollution profile of coal washeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, Gurdeep

    1995-01-01

    Environmental problems in coal mining industry is increased with the demand of good quality of coal through coal washing/beneficiation activities. The coal washeries in general have been identified as one of the serious sources of water pollution particularly of Damodar river. Coal washeries though are designed on close water circuit, most of these however, fail to operate on close water circuit thus resulting in enormous quantity of effluents containing coal fines as well. This apart from posing serious water pollution problem also results into economic losses. The present study attempts to provide an insight into water pollution profile from coal washeries in Jharia coalfield. Various process parameters/unit operations in coal washing are also described. Effluents from various selected coal washeries of Jharia coalfield are sampled and analysed over a period of six months during 1993. Suspended solids, oil and grease and COD in the washery effluents are identified as the three major water quality parameters causing lots of concern for Damodar river pollution. Reasons for unavoidable discharge of effluents containing coal fines are also described. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography - cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of mercury species in natural water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Min; Zhang, Feng-Ping; Jiao, Bao-Yu; Rao, Jin-Yu; Leng, Geng

    2017-04-14

    An automated, home-constructed, and low cost dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) device that directly coupled to a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS) system was designed and developed for the determination of trace concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg + ), ethylmercury (EtHg + ) and inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) in natural waters. With a simple, miniaturized and efficient automated DLLME system, nanogram amounts of these mercury species were extracted from natural water samples and injected into a hyphenated HPLC-CVAFS for quantification. The complete analytical procedure, including chelation, extraction, phase separation, collection and injection of the extracts, as well as HPLC-CVAFS quantification, was automated. Key parameters, such as the type and volume of the chelation, extraction and dispersive solvent, aspiration speed, sample pH, salt effect and matrix effect, were thoroughly investigated. Under the optimum conditions, linear range was 10-1200ngL -1 for EtHg + and 5-450ngL -1 for MeHg + and Hg 2+ . Limits of detection were 3.0ngL -1 for EtHg + and 1.5ngL -1 for MeHg + and Hg 2+ . Reproducibility and recoveries were assessed by spiking three natural water samples with different Hg concentrations, giving recoveries from 88.4-96.1%, and relative standard deviations <5.1%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical water shutoff profile research status and development trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. T.

    2017-08-01

    Excess water production is now a common problem encountered in almost every water flooding mature oilfield. The exploitation of oil field is faced with great challenge because of the decrease of oil field production. For the development of high water cut rare the status quo chemical water shutoff profile control technology is an important solution to solve this problem. Oilfield chemical water shutoff has important application prospects. This paper analyzes the water shutoff profile control and water shutoff profile control agent currently oilfield applications, moreover the use and development of blocking agent profile technology is to improve reservoir recovery and propose solutions. With the constant increase in water cut, profile technology should be simple, efficient, practical and profile control agent of development should be economic, environmental, and long period

  10. Modelling (vapour + liquid) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria of {water (H2O) + methanol (MeOH) + dimethyl ether (DME) + carbon dioxide (CO2)} quaternary system using the Peng-Robinson EoS with Wong-Sandler mixing rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Kongmeng; Freund, Hannsjoerg; Sundmacher, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Phase behaviour modelling of H 2 O-MeOH-DME under pressurized CO 2 (anti-solvent) using PRWS. → PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK has better performance than PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby in general. → Reliable to extend the VLE and VLLE phase behaviour from binary to multicomponent systems. → Successful prediction of the VLE and VLLE of binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. → Potential to apply the model for designing new DME separation process. - Abstract: The (vapour + liquid) equilibria (VLE) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria (VLLE) binary data from literature were correlated using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule (WS). Two group contribution activity models were used in the PRWS: UNIFAC-PSRK and UNIFAC-Lby. The systems were successfully extrapolated from the binary systems to ternary and quaternary systems. Results indicate that the PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK generally displays a better performance than the PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby.

  11. Improved water vapour spectroscopy in the 4174–4300 cm−1 region and its impact on SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Scheepmaker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative abundance of the heavy water isotopologue HDO provides a deeper insight into the atmospheric hydrological cycle. The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY allows for global retrievals of the ratio HDO/H2O in the 2.3 micron wavelength range. However, the spectroscopy of water lines in this region remains a large source of uncertainty for these retrievals. We therefore evaluate and improve the water spectroscopy in the range 4174–4300 cm−1 and test if this reduces systematic uncertainties in the SCIAMACHY retrievals of HDO/H2O. We use a laboratory spectrum of water vapour to fit line intensity, air broadening and wavelength shift parameters. The improved spectroscopy is tested on a series of ground-based high resolution FTS spectra as well as on SCIAMACHY retrievals of H2O and the ratio HDO/H2O. We find that the improved spectroscopy leads to lower residuals in the FTS spectra compared to HITRAN 2008 and Jenouvrier et al. (2007 spectroscopy, and the retrievals become more robust against changes in the retrieval window. For both the FTS and SCIAMACHY measurements, the retrieved total H2O columns decrease by 2–4% and we find a negative shift of the HDO/H2O ratio, which for SCIAMACHY is partly compensated by changes in the retrieval setup and calibration software. The updated SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O product shows somewhat steeper latitudinal and temporal gradients and a steeper Rayleigh distillation curve, strengthening previous conclusions that current isotope-enabled general circulation models underestimate the variability in the near-surface HDO/H2O ratio.

  12. An atlas of mean distribution of precipitable water vapour over the tropical Indian Ocean for the year 1979

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The monthly mean maps of the precipitable water (PW) over the tropical Indian Ocean are prepared using the data derived from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) sensor for the period January to December, 1979. The PW...

  13. First Zenith Total Delay and Integrated Water Vapour Estimates from the Near Real-Time GNSS Data Processing Systems at the University of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since September 2011 the University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Nottingham has been setting up two near real-time processing systems for ground-based GNSS data for the provision of zenith total delay (ZTD) and integrated water vapour (IWV) estimates. Both systems are based on Bernese v5.0, use the double-differenced network processing strategy and operate with a 1-hour (NRT1h) and 15-minutes (NRT15m) update cycle. Furthermore, the systems follow the approach of the E-GVAP METO and IES2 systems in that the normal equations for the latest data are combined with those from the previous four updates during the estimation of the ZTDs. NRT1h currently takes the hourly data from over 130 GNSS stations in Europe whereas NRT15m is primarily using the real-time streams of EUREF-IP. Both networks include additional GNSS stations in Luxembourg, Belgium and France. The a priori station coordinates for all of these stem from a moving average computed over the last 20 to 50 days and are based on the precise point positioning processing strategy. In this study we present the first ZTD and IWV estimates obtained from the NRT1h and NRT15m systems in development at the University of Luxembourg. In a preliminary evaluation we compare their performance to the IES2 system at the University of Nottingham and find the IWV estimates to agree at the sub-millimetre level.

  14. Influence of enhanced fluid intake on reduction of committed dose after acute intake of tritiated water vapour by occupational workers at Narora Atomic Power Station, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.K.; Mitra, S.R.; Chand, Lal

    2001-01-01

    The study of acute exposure cases of male radiation workers to tritiated water vapour (HTO) in Narora Atomic Power Station, using the bi-exponential function has provided direct practical evidence that the committed dose following an HTO exposure is directly proportional to effective half-life which in turn is inversely proportional to the fluid intake. Urine samples from these workers apparently in good health, were collected and measured for tritium concentration in urine up to maximum of 163 days after the exposure. They were advised to increase their fluid intakes to accelerate the elimination of tritium for dose mitigation. Their fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the later stage of the post exposure period. The non-linear regression analysis of the data of tritium concentration in urine showed an effective half-life of 1.5 to 3.8 days during the period of enhanced fluid intake, 3.4 to 6.9 days during the period of normal and slightly above normal fluid intake and 23.6 to 52.3 days due to elimination of metabolized organically bound tritium. This increase in elimination rate due to enhanced fluid intake directly resulted in dose mitigation of 45.1 to 76.0 percent in different subjects. (author)

  15. Surface fluxes of water vapour, momentum and CO{sub 2} over a savanna in Niger. A contribution to HAPEX-SAHEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, A; De Bruin, H A.R.; Krikke, R [Dept. of Meteorology. Landbouwuniversiteit, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    For large scale models such as Global Circulation Models (GCM) the lower boundary condition is often provided by a SVAT model (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer). A wide range of SVATs is in use nowadays, varying from models based on the simple big-leaf concept to complicated multiple source models. Obviously, a SVAT intended to provide the lower boundary condition in GCM`s needs to be able to describe a wide range of surface types, varying from completely vegetated to sparsely vegetated or completely bare surfaces. Especially sparse canopy surface types exhibit rather demanding features with respect to the exchange of momentum, water vapour, CO{sub 2} and heat between the surface and the atmosphere. In this paper attention is focused on a sparse canopy. We will compare SVAT model simulations with data collected in 1992 at a Savannah site, in the framework of the HAPEX-SAHEL project (a large-scale study of land atmosphere interactions in the semi-arid tropics). Two existing SVAT models are considered (Choudhury-Monteith and Deardorff). In a separate study these models have been tested. A combined model has been constructed, consisting of the `best` parts of the original SVAT`s. Some preliminary results will be presented. 4 figs., 14 refs., 1 appendix

  16. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in a tropical dry forest as influenced by the North American Monsoon System (NAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects and relationship between precipitation, net ecosystem carbon dioxide (NEE) and water vapor exchange (ET), we report a study conducted in the tropical dry forest (TDF) in the northwest of Mexico. Ecosystem gas exchange was measured using the eddy correlation technique...

  17. Influence of low water-vapour concentrations in air and carbon dioxide on the inflammability of magnesium in these media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, Raymond; Baque, Pierre; Leclercq, Daniel

    1960-01-01

    The temperatures at which live combustion starts in magnesium and certain of its alloys have been determined systematically in air and in carbon dioxide. In carbon dioxide, the ignition temperature is reduced by 130 to 140 deg. C for very low water-vapor concentrations. Reprint of a paper published in 'Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences', tome 240, p. 1647-1649, sitting of 28 October 1959 [fr

  18. Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} barrier coatings to reduce the water vapour permeability of polyetheretherketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzada, Tamkin, E-mail: tahm4852@uni.sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McKenzie, David R.; James, Natalie L.; Yin, Yongbai [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Qing [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-09-30

    We demonstrate significantly enhanced barrier properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) against water vapour penetration by depositing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanofilms grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Nanoindentation analysis revealed good adhesion strength of a bilayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} coating to PEEK, while the single layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating displayed flaking and delamination. We identified three critical design parameters for achieving the optimum barrier properties of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} coatings on PEEK. These are a minimum total thickness dependent on the required water vapour transmission rate, the use of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} bilayer coating and the application of the coating to both sides of the PEEK film. Using these design parameters, we achieved a reduction in moisture permeability of PEEK of over two orders of magnitude while maintaining good adhesion strength of the polymer–thin film system. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} coatings reduced water vapour permeability. • Bilayer coatings reduced the permeability more than single layer coatings. • Bilayer coatings displayed higher adhesion strength than the single layer coatings. • Double-sided coatings performed better than single-sided coatings. • Correlation was found between total thickness and reduced water vapour permeability.

  19. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  20. EX0904 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0904: Water Column Exploration Field...

  1. Modeling of the Process of Three-Isotope (H, D, T) Exchange Between Hydrogen Gas and Water Vapour on Pt-SDBC Catalyst over a Wide Range of Deuterium Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Alekseev, I.A.; Tchijov, A.S.; Uborsky, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The large scale studies of Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process in Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute showed a complicated influence of various factors on the process caused by the presence of two simultaneous isotope exchange sub processes: counter-current phase exchange (between liquid water and water vapour) and co-current catalytic exchange (between hydrogen gas and water vapour). A laboratory scale set-up of glass made apparatuses was established in such a way that it allows us to study phase and catalytic exchange apart. A computer model of the set-up has been developed.The catalytic isotope exchange model formulation is presented. A collection of reversible chemical reactions is accompanied by diffusion of the gaseous reactants and reaction products in the pores of catalyst carrier. This has some interesting features that are demonstrated. Thus it was noted that the flow rates ratio (gas to vapour - λ = G/V) as well as the concentrations of reactants exert influence on the process efficiency

  2. Evaluation of a dimension-reduction-based statistical technique for Temperature, Water Vapour and Ozone retrievals from IASI radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Umberto; Antoniadis, Anestis; De Feis, Italia; Masiello, Guido; Matricardi, Marco; Serio, Carmine

    2009-03-01

    Remote sensing of atmosphere is changing rapidly thanks to the development of high spectral resolution infrared space-borne sensors. The aim is to provide more and more accurate information on the lower atmosphere, as requested by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to improve reliability and time span of weather forecasts plus Earth's monitoring. In this paper we show the results we have obtained on a set of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) observations using a new statistical strategy based on dimension reduction. Retrievals have been compared to time-space colocated ECMWF analysis for temperature, water vapor and ozone.

  3. The use of a heat transfer coefficient for describing the radiative exchange between water vapour and the bounding walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifler, W.; Shepherd, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    During the ''severe-fuel-damage'' experiments of the SUPER SARA test program radiation heat transfer will play an important part. For the analysis of these experiments it should be modelled therefore in a particularly appropriate manner. Based on the same engineering type principles which are used in the radiation model of the TRAC code version for boiling water reactors a new model has been developed. This model is less computer time consuming than the TRAC model and particularly appropriate for the use in the subchannel - type bundle computer code which is planned to be developed for the analysis of the ''severe-fuel-damage'' experiments. Sample calculations for the ''severe-fuel-damage'' test array show that the difference between the results obtained with the new model and those obtained with the TRAC model is in general not significant

  4. An unstructured finite volume solver for two phase water/vapour flows based on an elliptic oriented fractional step method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechitoua, N.; Boucker, M.; Lavieville, J.; Pigny, S.; Serre, G.

    2003-01-01

    Based on experience gained at EDF and Cea, a more general and robust 3-dimensional (3D) multiphase flow solver has been being currently developed for over three years. This solver, based on an elliptic oriented fractional step approach, is able to simulate multicomponent/multiphase flows. Discretization follows a 3D full unstructured finite volume approach, with a collocated arrangement of all variables. The non linear behaviour between pressure and volume fractions and a symmetric treatment of all fields are taken into account in the iterative procedure, within the time step. It greatly enforces the realizability of volume fractions (i.e 0 < α < 1), without artificial numerical needs. Applications to widespread test cases as static sedimentation, water hammer and phase separation are shown to assess the accuracy and the robustness of the flow solver in different flow conditions, encountered in nuclear reactors pipes. (authors)

  5. Detection of polar vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for monitoring for polar vapours in a gas consists of (i) a body member defining a passage through which a continuous stream of the gas passes; (ii) an ionising source associated with a region of the passage such that ionization of the gas stream takes place substantially only within the region and also any polar vapour molecules present therein will react with the gas formed to generate ion clusters; and (iii) an electrode for collecting ions carried by the gas stream, the electrode being positioned in the passage downstream of the region and separated from the region by a sufficient distance to ensure that no substantial number of the gas ions formed in said region remains in the gas stream at the collector electrode whilst ensuring that a substantial proportion of the ion clusters formed in the region does remain in the gas stream at the collector electrode. (author)

  6. Vapour pressure of trideuterioammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, J.C.G.; Lopes, J.N.C.; Rebelo, L.P.N. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Quimica Estrutural)

    1992-09-01

    The H-to-D vapour-pressure isotope effect in liquid ammonia has been measured at 62 temperatures between 228 K and 260 K. The vapour pressures, corrected to 100 per cent nuclidic purity, have been fitted to the equation: T ln r = A+B/T+CT, where r is the vapour-pressure ratio p(NH[sub 3])/p(ND[sub 3]). The fit yielded the parameters: A = -8.22508 K, B = 12338.2 K[sup 2], and C = -0.05544. Comparisons with the results of other authors were made in order to clarify some discrepancies found in the literature. Our values are in accord with the previous results of King et al. and an extrapolation of the fitted equation down to the triple-point temperature gave good agreement with the published results. The fitted equation was used in conjunction with the Clapeyron equation to calculate the difference in the molar enthalpies of vaporization between NH[sub 3] and ND[sub 3]. At T = 230 K that difference is -846 J.mol[sup -1] decreasing to -747 J.mol[sup -1] at 260 K. (author).

  7. Desalination using spray tower and vapour compression refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish Kumar, S.; Mani, A.

    2006-01-01

    A desalination system using a spray tower and Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) system is proposed for obtaining fresh water from brackish water. In the spray tower, simultaneous heat and mass transfer take place between the brackish water and air, which results in the evaporation of the brackish water and humidification of the air. Fresh water is obtained from the humidified air by condensing the water vapour using a VCR system. Parametric studies were carried out to study the effect of various operational parameters on the fresh water production rate. (author)

  8. Representing the root water uptake process in the Common Land Model for better simulating the energy and water vapour fluxes in a Central Asian desert ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Longhui; van der Tol, C.; Chen, Xuelong; Jing, C.; Su, Zhongbo; Luo, G.; Tian, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The ability of roots to take up water depends on both root distribution and root water uptake efficiency. The former can be experimentally measured, while the latter is extremely difficult to determine. Yet a correct representation of root water uptake process in land surface models (LSMs) is

  9. GNSS troposphere tomography based on two-step reconstructions using GPS observations and COSMIC profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, balloon-based radiosonde soundings are used to study the spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapour. However, this approach cannot be frequently employed due to its high cost. In contrast, GPS tomography technique can obtain water vapour in a high temporal resolution. In the tomography technique, an iterative or non-iterative reconstruction algorithm is usually utilised to overcome rank deficiency of observation equations for water vapour inversion. However, the single iterative or non-iterative reconstruction algorithm has their limitations. For instance, the iterative reconstruction algorithm requires accurate initial values of water vapour while the non-iterative reconstruction algorithm needs proper constraint conditions. To overcome these drawbacks, we present a combined iterative and non-iterative reconstruction approach for the three-dimensional (3-D water vapour inversion using GPS observations and COSMIC profiles. In this approach, the non-iterative reconstruction algorithm is first used to estimate water vapour density based on a priori water vapour information derived from COSMIC radio occultation data. The estimates are then employed as initial values in the iterative reconstruction algorithm. The largest advantage of this approach is that precise initial values of water vapour density that are essential in the iterative reconstruction algorithm can be obtained. This combined reconstruction algorithm (CRA is evaluated using 10-day GPS observations in Hong Kong and COSMIC profiles. The test results indicate that the water vapor accuracy from CRA is 16 and 14% higher than that of iterative and non-iterative reconstruction approaches, respectively. In addition, the tomography results obtained from the CRA are further validated using radiosonde data. Results indicate that water vapour densities derived from the CRA agree with radiosonde results very well at altitudes above 2.5 km. The average RMS value of their

  10. Stratospheric isotopic water profiles from a single submillimeter limb scan by TELIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Lange

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Around 490 GHz relatively strong HDO and H218O emission lines can be found in the submillimeter thermal-emission spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere, along with lines of the principal isotopologue of water vapour. These can be used for remote sensing of the rare/principal isotope ratio in the stratosphere. A sensitivity study has been performed for retrieval simulations of water isotopologues from balloon-borne measurements by the limb sounder TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder. The study demonstrates the capability of TELIS to determine, from a single limb scan, the profiles for H218O and HDO between 20 km and 37 km with a retrieval error of ≈3 and a spatial resolution of 1.5 km, as determined by the width of the averaging kernel. In addition HDO can be retrieved in the range of 10–20 km, albeit with a strongly deteriorated retrieval error. Expected uncertainties in instrumental parameters have only limited impact on the retrieval results.

  11. EX1005 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1005: Guam to Honolulu, HI Transit...

  12. EX1701 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1701: Kingman/Palmyra, Jarvis (Mapping)...

  13. EX1102 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1102: ROV and Camera Sled Integration...

  14. EX1403 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1403: East Coast Mapping and Exploration...

  15. EX1104 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1104: Mid-Cayman Rise Exploration...

  16. EX1204 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1204: Northeastern Canyons and...

  17. EX1003 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1003: Transit from Hawaii to Guam...

  18. EX0905 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0905: Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino...

  19. EX1302 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1302: Ship Shakedown, Patch Test and...

  20. EX0802 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0802: Operation Halloween Shakedown...

  1. EX1006 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1006: Hawaii to San Francisco Transit to...

  2. EX0801 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0801: Mapping Operations Shakedown...

  3. EX1603 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1603: Hohonu Moana: Exploring the Deep...

  4. EX1604 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1604: CAPSTONE Wake Island PRIMNM...

  5. EX1203 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1203: Florida Escarpment and Straits...

  6. EX1602 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1602: Mission System Shakedown/CAPSTONE...

  7. EX1704 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1704: American Samoa and Cook Islands...

  8. EX1105 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1105: Field Trials of EM302 Multibeam...

  9. EX1303 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1303: New England Seamount Chain...

  10. EX1607 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1607: CAPSTONE Wake Island PRI MNM...

  11. EX1702 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1702: American Samoa Expedition:...

  12. EX1301 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1301: Ship Shakedown and Patch Test...

  13. EX1705 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1705: American Samoa, Kingman/Palmyra,...

  14. Characterization of the molecular distribution of drugs in glassy solid dispersions at the nano-meter scale, using differential scanning calorimetry and gravimetric water vapour sorption techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, D J; Hinrichs, W L J; Visser, M R; Frijlink, H W

    2006-03-09

    The molecular distribution in fully amorphous solid dispersions consisting of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-diazepam and inulin-diazepam was studied. One glass transition temperature (T(g)), as determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC), was observed in PVP-diazepam solid dispersions prepared by fusion for all drug loads tested (10-80 wt.%). The T(g) of these solid dispersions gradually changed with composition and decreased from 177 degrees C for pure PVP to 46 degrees C for diazepam. These observations indicate that diazepam was dispersed in PVP on a molecular level. However, in PVP-diazepam solid dispersions prepared by freeze drying, two T(g)'s were observed for drug loads above 35 wt.% indicating phase separation. One T(g) indicated the presence of amorphous diazepam clusters, the other T(g) was attributed to a PVP-rich phase in which diazepam was dispersed on a molecular level. With both the value of the latter T(g) and the DeltaC(p) of the diazepam glass transition the concentrations of molecular dispersed diazepam could be calculated (27-35 wt.%). Both methods gave similar results. Water vapour sorption (DVS) experiments revealed that the PVP-matrix was hydrophobised by the incorporated diazepam. TMDSC and DVS results were used to estimate the size of diazepam clusters in freeze dried PVP-diazepam solid dispersions, which appeared to be in the nano-meter range. The inulin-diazepam solid dispersions prepared by spray freeze drying showed one T(g) for drug loads up to 35 wt.% indicating homogeneous distribution on a molecular level. However, this T(g) was independent of the drug load, which is unexpected because diazepam has a lower T(g) than inulin (46 and 155 degrees C, respectively). For higher drug loads, a T(g) of diazepam as well as a T(g) of the inulin-rich phase was observed, indicating the formation of amorphous diazepam clusters. From the DeltaC(p) of the diazepam glass transition the amount of molecularly dispersed

  15. Inherent calibration of a blue LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thalman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0. We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420–490 nm to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2, glyoxal (CHOCHO, methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO, iodine oxide (IO, water vapour (H2O and oxygen dimers (O4. We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The instrument is further inherently calibrated for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3–7 × 10−7cm−1. Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype

  16. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m 3 of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of crops

  19. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, P. [PJS Barry (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m{sup 3} of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of

  20. Optimized sampling of hydroperoxides and investigations of the water vapour dependence of hydroperoxide formation during ozonolysis of alkenes; Optimierung der Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden und Untersuchungen zur Wasserdampfabhaengigkeit der Bildung von Hydroperoxiden bei der Ozonolyse von Alkenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Plagens, H.

    1997-06-01

    There are several sampling methods for hydroperoxides none of which is particularly reliable. The authors therefore tested three new methods in order to optimize hydroperoxide sampling and, using the optimized sampling procedure, to investigate the water vapour dependence of hydroperoxide formation during ozonolysis of alkenes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden existieren verschiedene Verfahren, von denen bisher keines als besonders zuverlaessig angesehen werden konnte. Daher wurden in dieser Arbeit drei Verfahren getestet, um die Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden zu optimieren und mit dem entsprechenden Verfahren die Wasserdampfabhaengigkeit der Bildung von Hydroperoxiden bei der Ozonolyse von Alkenen zu untersuchen. (orig.)

  1. An example of transition from a corrosion process in gaseous phase to corrosion in aqueous environment: the case of Z2CN18-10 stainless steel by iodine and water in vapour phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Bruno

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis addresses an example of transition of a corrosion process in gaseous phase towards corrosion in aqueous environment, specifically in the case of the corrosion of the Z2CN18-10 stainless steel by gaseous iodine in presence of water vapour (and possibly nitrogen dioxide). This transition occurs in two steps: initiation in gaseous phase and growth in aqueous environment. This transition is due to hygroscopic properties of mostly chromium iodides and, to a lesser extent, iron iodides. Morphological, electrochemical and thermogravimetry studies have been performed by varying different parameters governing corrosion processes: corrosion temperature, iodine concentration, relative humidity, and reaction time [fr

  2. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  3. Water level sensor and temperature profile detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector comprising a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material is electrically connected to the interior electrical conductor and positioned within the length of metal tubing. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows

  4. Water level sensor and temperature profile detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector comprising a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material is electrically connected to the interior electrical conductor and positioned within the length of metal tubing. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows.

  5. A Study on Water Surface Profiles of Rivers with Constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaochao; Yamada, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    Water surface profile of rivers with constrictions is precious in both classic hydraulics and river management practice. This study was conducted to clarify the essences of the water surface profiles. 3 cases of experiments and 1D numerical calculations with different discharges were made in the study and analysis solutions of the non-linear basic equation of surface profile in varied flow without considering friction were derived. The manning's number was kept in the same in each case by using crosspiece roughness. We found a new type of water surface profile of varied flow from the results of 1D numerical calculation and that of experiments and named it as Mc curve because of its mild condition with constriction segment. This kind of curves appears as a nature phenomenon ubiquitously. The process of water surface forming is dynamic and bore occurs at the upper side of constriction during increasing discharge before the surface profile formed. As a theoretical work, 3 analysis solutions were derived included 2 physical-meaning solutions in the study by using Man-Machine system. One of the derived physical-meaning solutions was confirmed that it is validity by comparing to the results of 1D numerical calculation and that of experiments. The solution represents a flow profile from under critical condition at the upper side to super critical condition at the down side of constriction segment. The other derived physical-meaning solution represents a flow profile from super critical condition at the upper side to under critical condition at the down side of constriction segment. These two kinds of flow profiles exist in the nature but no theoretical solution can express the phenomenon. We find the depth distribution only concerned with unit width discharge distribution and critical depth under a constant discharge from the derived solutions. Therefor, the profile can be gained simply and precisely by using the theoretical solutions instead of numerical calculation even

  6. Absorption of water vapour in the falling film of water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) in a vertical tube at air-cooling thermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourouis, Mahmoud; Valles, Manel; Medrano, Marc; Coronas, Alberto [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, CREVER, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Autovia de Salou, s/n, 43006, Tarragona (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    In air-cooled water-LiBr absorption chillers the working conditions in the absorber and condenser are shifted to higher temperatures and concentrations, thereby increasing the risk of crystallisation. To develop this technology, two main problems are to be addressed: the availability of new salt mixtures with wider range of solubility than water-LiBr, and advanced absorber configurations that enable to carry out simultaneously an appropriate absorption process and an effective air-cooling. One way of improving the solubility of LiBr aqueous solutions is to add other salts to create multicomponent salt solutions. The aqueous solution of the quaternary salt system (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) presents favourable properties required for air-cooled absorption systems: less corrosive and crystallisation temperature about 35 K lower than that of water-LiBr.This paper presents an experimental study on the absorption of water vapour over a wavy laminar falling film of an aqueous solution of (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) on the inner wall of a water-cooled smooth vertical tube. Cooling water temperatures in the range 30-45 C were selected to simulate air-cooling thermal conditions. The results are compared with those obtained in the same experimental set-up with water-LiBr solutions.The control variables for the experimental study were: absorber pressure, solution Reynolds number, solution concentration and cooling water temperature. The parameters considered to assess the absorber performance were: absorber thermal load, mass absorption flux, degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber, and the falling film heat transfer coefficient.The higher solubility of the multicomponent salt solution makes possible the operation of the absorber at higher salt concentration than with the conventional working fluid water-LiBr. The absorption fluxes achieved with water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) at a concentration of 64.2 wt% are around 60 % higher than

  7. Raman lidar water vapor profiling over Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Althausen, Dietrich

    2017-09-01

    Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles were derived from the multi-wavelength Raman PollyXT lidar at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, using the Rayleigh molecular extinction calculation based on atmospheric temperature and pressure from three different sources: i) the standard atmosphere US 62, ii) the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) model output, and iii) the WMO 12374 radiosoundings launched at Legionowo. With each method, 136 midnight relative humidity profiles were obtained for lidar observations from July 2013 to August 2015. Comparisons of these profiles showed in favor of the latter method (iii), but it also indicated that the other two data sources could replace it, if necessary. Such use was demonstrated for an automated retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from dusk until dawn on 19/20 March 2015; a case study related to an advection of biomass burning aerosol from forest fires over Ukraine. Additionally, an algorithm that applies thresholds to the radiosounding relative humidity profiles to estimate macro-physical cloud vertical structure was used for the first time on the Raman lidar relative humidity profiles. The results, based on a subset of 66 profiles, indicate that below 6 km cloud bases/tops can be successfully obtained in 53% and 76% cases from lidar and radiosounding profiles, respectively. Finally, a contribution of the lidar derived mean relative humidity to cloudy conditions within the range of 0.8 to 6.2 km, in comparison to clear-sky conditions, was estimated.

  8. Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH with CO, NO and NO2, and of HO2 with NO2 in the Presence of Water Vapour at Lower-Tropospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolletter, Michael; Fuchs, Hendrik; Novelli, Anna; Ehlers, Christian; Hofzumahaus, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the chemistry of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) in the lower troposphere is not fully understood. Aside from heterogenous reactions, the daytime HONO formation in the gas-phase is not well understood (Li et al., Science, 2014). For a better understanding of HONO in the gas-phase, we have reinvestigated the reaction rate constants of important tropospheric reactions of the HOx radical family (OH and HO2) with nitrogen oxides at realistic conditions of the lower troposphere (at ambient temperature/pressure and in humid air). In this study we apply a direct pump and probe technique with high accuracy, using small radical concentrations to avoid secondary chemistry. Pulsed laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) was used to investigate the reaction rate constants of OH with CO, NO, NO2, and HO2 with NO2 in synthetic air at different water vapor concentrations (up to 5 x 1017 molecules cm-3). Photolysis of ozone in the presence of gaseous water was the source of OH. The reactions took place in a flow-tube at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The chemical decay of the radicals was monitored by laser-induced fluorescence detection in a low-pressure cell, which sampled air continuously from the end of the flow-tube. Knowing the reactant concentrations subsequently allowed to calculate the bimolecular reaction rate constants at 1 atm from the pseudo-first-order decays. In order to observe HO2 reactions, OH was converted into HO2 with an excess of CO in the flow-tube. The newly measured rate constants for OH with CO, NO and NO2 agree very well with current recommendations by NASA/JPL and IUPAC and have an improved accuracy (uncertainty < 5%). These rate coefficients are independent of the presence of water vapour. The measured rate constant of HO2 with NO2 was found to depend significantly on the water-vapour concentration (probably due to formation of HO2*H2O complexes) and to exceed current recommendations by NASA/JPL and

  9. Environmental isotope profiles and evaporation in shallow water table soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.F.; Froehlich, K.; Nada, A.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental isotope methods have been employed to evaluate the processes of evaporation and soil salinisation in the Nile Delta. Stable isotope profiles (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) from three sites were analysed using a published isothermal model that analyses the steady-state isotopic profile in the unsaturated zone and provides an estimate of the evaporation rate. Evaporation rates estimated by this method at the three sites range between 60 and 98 mm y -1 which translates to an estimate of net water loss of one billion cubic meters per year from fallow soils on the Nile delta. Capillary rise of water through the root zone during the crop growing season is estimated to be three times greater than evaporation rate estimate and a modified water management strategy could be adopted in order to optimize water use and its management on the regional scale. (author)

  10. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 2: The library routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS–10 was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org. This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site.

    1

  11. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C G; Newland, M S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350{sup o}C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs.

  12. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.G.; Newland, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350 o C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs

  13. Detection of quadrupole relaxation in an optically pumped cesium vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J

    1985-10-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation induced by means of optical pumping in a cesium vapour is experimentally studied, and the results are compared to the theoretical predictions. The optical detection process of this type of orientation is also discussed as a function of the polarization and spectral profile of the detection light.

  14. Preparation of hydrosol suspensions of elemental and core–shell nanoparticles by co-deposition with water vapour from the gas-phase in ultra-high vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, Chris; Prieto, Pilar; Baker, Stephen; Howes, Paul; Dondi, Ruggero; Burley, Glenn; Lari, Leonardo; Kröger, Roland; Pratt, Andrew; Aktas, Sitki; Mellon, John K.

    2012-01-01

    We report a new method to produce liquid suspensions of nanoparticles by co-deposition with water vapour from the gas-phase in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The water is injected from outside the vacuum as a molecular beam onto a substrate maintained at 77 K and forms an ice layer with a UHV vapour pressure. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that the nanoparticles are soft-landed close to the surface of the growing ice layer. We show that the un-agglomerated size distribution within the liquid is similar to the gas-phase size distribution and demonstrate that the inclusion of surfactants in the injected water prevents agglomeration. The method allows the flexibility and tight size control available with gas-phase production methods to be applied to making nanoparticle suspensions with any desired properties. This is important for practical applications, especially in medicine. We have extended the method to include core–shell nanoparticles, in which there is flexible control over the core size and shell thickness and free choice of the material in either. Here, we report the production of suspensions of Cu, Ag and Au elemental nanoparticles and Fe-Au and Fe-Fe-oxide core–shell nanoparticles with diameters in the range 5–15 nm. We demonstrate the power of the method in practical applications in the case of Fe-Fe-oxide nanoparticles, which have a specific absorption rate of an applied oscillating magnetic field that is significantly higher than available Fe-oxide nanoparticle suspensions and the highest yet reported. These will thus have a very high-performance in the treatment of tumours by magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  15. Characterization of Water Vapor Fluxes by the Raman Lidar System Basil and the Univeristy of Cologne Wind Lidar in the Frame of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment - Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Cacciani, Marco; Scoccione, Andrea; Schween, Jan H.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL and the University of Cologne wind lidar are reported to demonstrate the capability of these instruments to characterize water vapour fluxes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). In order to determine the water vapour flux vertical profiles, high resolution water vapour and vertical wind speed measurements, with a temporal resolution of 1 sec and a vertical resolution of 15-90, are considered. Measurements of water vapour flux profiles are based on the application of covariance approach to the water vapour mixing ratio and vertical wind speed time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 11, 04 May 2013) from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. For this case study, the water vapour flux profile is characterized by increasing values throughout the CBL with lager values (around 0.1 g/kg m/s) in the entrainment region. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of water vapour flux profiles with sufficient accuracy.

  16. Fractionation of acid lime essential oil using ethanol/water mixtures: Effect of the process on the aroma profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Daniel; Costa, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.; Rodrigues, Alírio E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractionation of crude acid lime essential oil using ethanol/water mixtures. • Extract phases were enriched in aroma-active components. • Predicted compositions of liquid phases fitted well with the experimental data. • Aroma-active components were separated from terpenes, keeping the original acid lime essential oil odour. • The water content in the solvent did not affect the aroma profile of the phases from the liquid–liquid equilibrium. - Abstract: This study aims to separate aroma-active components of the crude Citrus latifolia essential oil (EO) from the unstable terpene hydrocarbons using ethanol/water mixtures through liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) and to evaluate the aroma profiles of the crude EO and the LLE phases. For this purpose, the liquid compositions of the crude EOs and the LLE phases were found by gas chromatography analysis. The compositions of the liquid phases were predicted using the NRTL model and compared to the experimental data. Afterwards, the concentrations of the components in the vapour phases above the liquid mixtures were obtained by headspace analysis and the odour intensity of each component was estimated using the Stevens’ power law concept. Finally, the classification into olfactory families was evaluated through the Perfumery Radar methodology. The solvent extraction technique made it possible to obtain extract phases enriched in citral and poor in monoterpenes, with aromas profiles similar to that of the crude EO and classified as herbaceous and citrus scent, with floral, woody, and oriental nuances. The extract phase obtained from ethanol with 50% water was found to be a promising fraction for industrial applications. Furthermore, the results proved that the NRTL parameters can be efficiently used to predict the compositions of the phases from the LLE.

  17. Corrigendum to “Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines” [Agric. Forest Meteorol. 165 (2012) 53–63

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  18. The mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, F.; Tabourier, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the mechanical vapour compression process applied to sea water desalination. As an example, the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process : a 1,500 m3/day unit installed in the Nuclear Power Plant of Flamanville in France which supplies a high quality process water to that plant. The authors outline the advantages of this process and present also the serie of mechanical vapour compression unit that SIDEM has developed in a size range in between 25 m3/day and 2,500 m3/day

  19. Transcriptome profiling of tobacco under water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the limiting environmental factors that affect crop production. Understanding the molecular basis of how plants respond to this water deficit stress is key to developing drought tolerant crops. In this study we generated time course-based transcriptome profiles of tobacco plants under water deficit conditions using microarray technology. In this paper, we describe in detail the experimental procedures and analyses performed in our study. The data set we generated (available in the NCBI/GEO database under GSE67434 has been analysed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of tobacco's responses to drought.

  20. Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito

    2018-03-05

    This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.

  1. An organic profile of a pressurised water reactor secondary plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeden, Nestor van; Stwayi, Mandisibuntu; Gericke, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Make-up water addition to the steam/water cycle at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station usually results in a corresponding increase of the chloride concentration in the steam generator blowdown system. During plant transients, when higher than normal make-up is required to the secondary plant, the concentration of chloride occasionally exceeds the limiting value for the station chemistry performance indicator. Irrespective of this, the demineralised water make-up supply tanks, which are routinely analysed for chloride, are within all recognised acceptable standards for secondary water make-up and therefore these tanks do not initially appear to be the source of chloride contamination. Water treatment at the plant relies essentially on ion exchange, which has been proven to be very effective in removing inorganic ionic species such as chloride. Organic compounds are less effectively removed by ion exchange and may pass through the treatment system, and these organics can reside undetected in the make-up water tanks. Historically, the elevated chloride concentration following high system make-up has been attributed to chlorinated organic compounds known as trihalomethanes being present in the make-up water tanks, but no rigorous study had been undertaken. As it has been assumed that the majority of chloride in the secondary system originates from the make-up water organic impurities, it was considered important to confirm this by compiling an organic profile of the secondary plant. The use of organic additives was also taken into account in the profile. This work has confirmed the contribution from trihalomethanes and has also found that other organochlorides contribute even more significantly to the overall chloride inventory of the secondary plant. (orig.)

  2. Vapour-phase method in the synthesis of polymer-ibuprofen sodium-silica gel composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierys, Agnieszka; Krasucka, Patrycja; Grochowicz, Marta

    2017-11-01

    The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS). The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM) and poly(HEMA- co -TRIM) produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM)-IBS and/or poly(HEMA- co -TRIM)-IBS) with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure. The conducted analyses reveal that the internal structure and total porosity of the resulting composites strongly depend on the catalyst which was used for silica precursor gelation. The parameters characterizing the porosity of both of the acid set composites are much lower than the parameters of the base set composites. Moreover, the basic catalyst supplied in the vapour phase does not affect the ibuprofen sodium molecules, whereas the acid one causes transformation of the ibuprofen sodium into the sodium chloride and a derivative of propanoic acid, which is poorly water soluble. The release profiles of ibuprofen sodium from composites demonstrate that there are differences in the rate and efficiency of drug desorption from them. They are mainly affected by the chemical character of the polymeric carrier but are also associated with the restricted swelling of the composites in the buffer solution after precipitation of silica gel.

  3. Vapour-phase method in the synthesis of polymer-ibuprofen sodium-silica gel composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kierys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS. The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM and poly(HEMA-co-TRIM produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM-IBS and/or poly(HEMA-co-TRIM-IBS with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure. The conducted analyses reveal that the internal structure and total porosity of the resulting composites strongly depend on the catalyst which was used for silica precursor gelation. The parameters characterizing the porosity of both of the acid set composites are much lower than the parameters of the base set composites. Moreover, the basic catalyst supplied in the vapour phase does not affect the ibuprofen sodium molecules, whereas the acid one causes transformation of the ibuprofen sodium into the sodium chloride and a derivative of propanoic acid, which is poorly water soluble. The release profiles of ibuprofen sodium from composites demonstrate that there are differences in the rate and efficiency of drug desorption from them. They are mainly affected by the chemical character of the polymeric carrier but are also associated with the restricted swelling of the composites in the buffer solution after precipitation of silica gel.

  4. Vapour Pressure of Diethyl Phthalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roháč, V.; Růžička, K.; Růžička, V.; Zaitsau, D. H.; Kabo, G. J.; Diky, V.; Aim, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 11 (2004), s. 929-937 ISSN 0021-9614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : vapour pressure * diethyl phthalate * correlation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2004

  5. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  6. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  7. Calculation of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajka, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The known models of vapour bubble growth are compared with experimental data. Cinematographic study of vapour formation during water boiling was carried out with elements of horizontal tubes of copper 10, 16, 24, 34 and 70 mm in diameter under the pressure of 100 kPa and specific thermal loadings of 20 and 40 kW/m 2 . According to the experimental data the main volume of vapour phase is occupied by vapour bubbles from the lower part of the horizontal tube. Five stages of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the horizontal tube: nucleation, growth to the point of breaking off from nucleate centre, the breaking off from the nucleate centre, the tube surface flowing around during floating up, the breaking off from the tube surface, were singled out. The shape of vapour volume varied during the whole period of the bubble growth and it was mainly determined by the horizontal tube diameter. The change of vapour bubble radius in time is the function of the horizontal tube diameter. Comparison of the experimental data with the known models of vapour bubble growth has shown, that every stage of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the tube is determined by the complex of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions, the effect of which depends on the horizontal tube diameter

  8. Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villanueva, L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life of the material. They likewise served as a basis for ensuring the proper evacuation of water vapour in walls, and use of the capacity of the porous network in plaster products to regulate moisture content or serve as a water vapour barrier to avoid condensation.Briefly, the research showed that pigments, water-based paints and silicon-based water repellents scantly raised vapour resistance. Plastic paints, enamels and lacquers, however, respectively induced five-, ten- and twenty-fold increases in vapour resistivity, on average.Se estudia el fenómeno de la resistividad al vapor de los de yeso y el efecto impermeabilizante que producen los recubrimientos de pintura sobre diversos tipos de yeso y escayola. Para ello, se ensayan probetas desnudas y recubiertas con distintos tipos de pintura, así como coloreados en masa. Se obtienen valores experimentales de la difusividad o permeabilidad al vapor o su inverso la resistividad al vapor de agua.Los datos obtenidos son muy útiles para valorar el fenómeno del intercambio de humedad entre el yeso y el ambiente, tanto durante el proceso de su secado inicial, como en el transcurso de su vida. Así como para disponer soluciones adecuadas para la evacuación del vapor de agua a través de los cerramientos, para utilizar la capacidad de regulación de la humedad, que proporciona el entramado poroso de los productos de yeso, o para impedir el paso del vapor de agua y evitar condensaciones.Como resumen de la investigación, se

  9. Profiles of chloride and water stable isotope in porewater obtained from a 2000 m-deep borehole through the Mesozoic sedimentary series in the East of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensenouci, F.; Michelot, J.L.; Matray, J.M.; Savoye, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A method to obtain information about fluid flow and solute transport in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and low water content is based on the study of the natural tracer distribution in pore water. This approach was previously applied to the Callovo-Oxfordian argillites, studied by Andra at the Bure URL (East of France), using several natural tracer profiles ( 4 He, 2 H, 18 O, Cl - , 37 Cl). These profiles were interpreted as the result of a diffusive exchange between pore water in the aquitard and groundwater in the surrounding aquifers. However, at the Bure URL, and in contrast to other investigated argillaceous formations, the concentrations of tracers in lower aquifer groundwater may be higher than those in argillite pore water and increase with depth. The continuity of the profiles and the origin of pore water salinity remained questionable. This study aims at presenting and interpreting chloride and stable isotope profiles in pore water through more than 800 m of sediments, from the lower Oxfordian to the lower Hettangian. Drill-core samples were collected from the 2000 m-deep borehole (EST 433) drilled by Andra in the so-called 'Transposition Zone', located north to the Bure URL. In the framework of the TAPPS 2000 programme, twenty-five core samples were collected from the Oxfordian to the lower Hettangian during the drilling campaign, and in-situ conditioned. The chloride concentrations in pore water were firstly estimated by aqueous leaching, using a geochemical porosity two times smaller than the porosity measured by heating at 150 deg. C. After this estimation of pore water salinities, the radial diffusion and vapour exchange methods were applied to determine the stable isotope and anion concentrations in pore water. The deuterium contents of pore water derived from the vapour exchange experiments describe a classical bell-shape profile in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillites with an

  10. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P R; Sautray, R R; Girard, B R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence sur la decontamination. L'activite en

  11. Vapour pressure of D2O - Ice at temperatures below 237 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, J.M.; Asensio, M.C.; Estiu, G.; Viscido, L.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate measurements of heavy water ice vapour pressures between 193 and 253 K have been carried out and an equation based on thermodynamic data has been derived in order to calculate the D 2 O-ice vapour pressures between 173 and 273 K. The agreement between our calculated vapour pressures and the available experimental data including those in this paper, is very good. The comparison between the theoretical calculations of H 2 O-ice and D 2 O-ice vapour pressures confirms the experimental evidence that H 2 O-ice is more volatile than D 2 O-ice at all temperatures in agreement with the vapour isotopic effect theory (VPIE).(author)

  12. Reconstructing the δ(18) O of atmospheric water vapour via the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides: seasonal controls on δ(18) O in the field and large-scale reconstruction of δ(18) Oa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, Brent R

    2014-03-01

    Using both oxygen isotope ratios of leaf water (δ(18) OL ) and cellulose (δ(18) OC ) of Tillandsia usneoides in situ, this paper examined how short- and long-term responses to environmental variation and model parameterization affected the reconstruction of the atmospheric water vapour (δ(18) Oa ). During sample-intensive field campaigns, predictions of δ(18) OL matched observations well using a non-steady-state model, but the model required data-rich parameterization. Predictions from the more easily parameterized maximum enrichment model (δ(18) OL-M ) matched observed δ(18) OL and observed δ(18) Oa when leaf water turnover was less than 3.5 d. Using the δ(18) OL-M model and weekly samples of δ(18) OL across two growing seasons in Florida, USA, reconstructed δ(18) Oa was -12.6 ± 0.3‰. This is compared with δ(18) Oa of -12.4 ± 0.2‰ resolved from the growing-season-weighted δ(18) OC . Both of these values were similar to δ(18) Oa in equilibrium with precipitation, -12.9‰. δ(18) Oa was also reconstructed through a large-scale transect with δ(18) OL and the growing-season-integrated δ(18) OC across the southeastern United States. There was considerable large-scale variation, but there was regional, weather-induced coherence in δ(18) Oa when using δ(18) OL . The reconstruction of δ(18) Oa with δ(18) OC generally supported the assumption of δ(18) Oa being in equilibrium with precipitation δ(18) O (δ(18) Oppt ), but the pool of δ(18) Oppt with which δ(18) Oa was in equilibrium - growing season versus annual δ(18) Oppt - changed with latitude. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Simulating the Vapour Phase Air/Water Exchange of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, Lindane, and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncertainties in our understanding of gaseous air/water exchange have emerged as major sources of concern in efforts to construct global and regional mass balances of both the green house gas carbon dioxide and semi-volatile persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals. Hoff e...

  14. Screening the Effect of Water Vapour on Gas Adsorption Performance: Application to CO2 Capture from Flue Gas in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanut, Nicolas; Bourrelly, Sandrine; Kuchta, Bogdan; Serre, Christian; Chang, Jong-San; Wright, Paul A; Llewellyn, Philip L

    2017-04-10

    A simple laboratory-scale protocol that enables the evaluation of the effect of adsorbed water on CO 2 uptake is proposed. 45 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were compared against reference zeolites and active carbons. It is possible to classify materials with different trends in CO 2 uptake with varying amounts of pre-adsorbed water, including cases in which an increase in CO 2 uptake is observed for samples with a given amount of pre-adsorbed water. Comparing loss in CO 2 uptake between "wet" and "dry" samples with the Henry constant calculated from the water adsorption isotherm results in a semi-logarithmic trend for the majority of samples allowing predictions to be made. Outliers from this trend may be of particular interest and an explanation for the behaviour for each of the outliers is proposed. This thus leads to propositions for designing or choosing MOFs for CO 2 capture in applications where humidity is present. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-08-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems.

  16. Environmental and Physiographic Controls on Inter-Growing Season Variability of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour Fluxes in a Minerotrophic Fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, G.; Sonnentag, O.; Chen, J. M.; Barr, A.; Hedstrom, N.; Granger, R.

    2008-12-01

    The interaction of fens with groundwater is spatially and temporally highly variable in response to meteorological conditions, resulting in frequent changes of groundwater fluxes in both vertical and lateral directions (flow reversals) across the mineral soil-peat boundary. However, despite the importance of the topographic and hydrogeological setting of fens, no study has been reported in the literature that explores a fen's atmospheric CO2 and energy flux densities under contrasting meteorological conditions in response to its physiographic setting. In our contribution we report four years of growing season eddy covariance and supporting measurements from the Canada Fluxnet-BERMS fen (formerly BOREAS southern peatland) in Saskatchewan, Canada. We first analyze hydrological data along two piezometer transects across the mineral soil-peat boundary with the objective of assessing changes in water table configuration and thus hydraulic gradients, indicating flow reversals, in response to dry and wet meteorological conditions. Next we quantify and compare growing season totals and diurnal and daily variations in evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its component fluxes gross ecosystem productivity (GPP) and terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) to identify their controls with a major focus on water table depth. While ET growing season totals were similar (~ 310 mm) under dry and wet meteorological conditions, the CO2 sink- source strength of Sandhill fen varied substantially from carbon neutral (NEE = -2 [+-7] g C m-2 per growing season) under dry meteorological condition (2003) to a moderate CO2- sink with NEE ranging between 157 [+- 10] and 190 [+- 11] g C m-2 per growing season under wet meteorological conditions (2004, 2005, and 2006). Using a process-oriented ecosystem model, BEPS-TerrainLab, we investigate how different canopy components at Sandhill contribute to total ET and GPP, and thus water use efficiency, under dry and wet

  17. No sodium in the vapour plumes of Enceladus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicholas M; Burger, Matthew H; Schaller, Emily L; Brown, Michael E; Johnson, Robert E; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Dougherty, Michele K; Achilleos, Nicholas A

    2009-06-25

    The discovery of water vapour and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fuelled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. Sodium chloride (that is, salt) is expected to be present in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core. Here we report a ground-based spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus that places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapour plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity. The low sodium content of escaping vapour, together with the small fraction of salt-bearing particles, argues against a situation in which a near-surface geyser is fuelled by a salty ocean through cracks in the crust. The lack of observable sodium in the vapour is consistent with a wide variety of alternative eruption sources, including a deep ocean, a freshwater reservoir, or ice. The existing data may be insufficient to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  18. Lagrangian process attribution of isotopic variations in near-surface water vapour in a 30-year regional climate simulation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Meyer, Miro; Wernli, Heini

    2018-02-01

    Stable water isotopes are naturally available tracers of moisture in the atmosphere. Due to isotopic fractionation, they record information about condensation and evaporation processes during the transport of air parcels, and therefore present a valuable means for studying the global water cycle. However, the meteorological processes driving isotopic variations are complex and not very well understood so far, in particular on short (hourly to daily) timescales. This study presents a Lagrangian method for attributing the isotopic composition of air parcels to meteorological processes, which provides new insight into the isotopic history of air parcels. It is based on the temporal evolution of the isotope ratios, the humidity, the temperature, and the location of the air parcels. Here these values are extracted along 7-day backward trajectories started every 6 hours from near the surface in a 30-year regional climate simulation over Europe with the isotope-enabled version of the model of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMOiso). The COSMOiso simulation has a horizontal resolution of 0.25° and is driven at the lateral boundaries by a T106 global climate simulation with the isotope-enabled version of the European Centre Hamburg model (ECHAMwiso). Both simulations are validated against measurements from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which shows that nesting COSMOiso within ECHAMwiso improves the representation of δ2H and deuterium excess in monthly accumulated precipitation. The method considers all isotopic changes that occur inside the COSMOiso model domain, which, on average, correspond to more than half of the mean and variability in both δ2H and deuterium excess at the air parcels' arrival points. Along every trajectory, the variations in the isotope values are quantitatively decomposed into eight process categories (evaporation from the ocean, evapotranspiration from land, mixing with moister air, mixing with drier air

  19. Lagrangian process attribution of isotopic variations in near-surface water vapour in a 30-year regional climate simulation over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dütsch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable water isotopes are naturally available tracers of moisture in the atmosphere. Due to isotopic fractionation, they record information about condensation and evaporation processes during the transport of air parcels, and therefore present a valuable means for studying the global water cycle. However, the meteorological processes driving isotopic variations are complex and not very well understood so far, in particular on short (hourly to daily timescales. This study presents a Lagrangian method for attributing the isotopic composition of air parcels to meteorological processes, which provides new insight into the isotopic history of air parcels. It is based on the temporal evolution of the isotope ratios, the humidity, the temperature, and the location of the air parcels. Here these values are extracted along 7-day backward trajectories started every 6 hours from near the surface in a 30-year regional climate simulation over Europe with the isotope-enabled version of the model of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMOiso. The COSMOiso simulation has a horizontal resolution of 0.25° and is driven at the lateral boundaries by a T106 global climate simulation with the isotope-enabled version of the European Centre Hamburg model (ECHAMwiso. Both simulations are validated against measurements from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP, which shows that nesting COSMOiso within ECHAMwiso improves the representation of δ2H and deuterium excess in monthly accumulated precipitation. The method considers all isotopic changes that occur inside the COSMOiso model domain, which, on average, correspond to more than half of the mean and variability in both δ2H and deuterium excess at the air parcels' arrival points. Along every trajectory, the variations in the isotope values are quantitatively decomposed into eight process categories (evaporation from the ocean, evapotranspiration from land, mixing with moister air, mixing

  20. The Droplets Condensate Centering in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Shakshin, S. L.; Alekseev, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of the process of condensate microdroplets centering contained in the moving moist vapour in the vapour channel of short heat pipes (HPs) for large thermal loads are presented. A vapour channel formed by capillary-porous insert in the form of the inner Laval-liked nozzle along the entire length of the HP. In the upper cover forming a condensation surface in the HP, on the diametrical line are installed capacitive sensors, forming three capacitors located at different distances from the longitudinal axis of the vapour channel. With increasing heat load and the boil beginning in the evaporator a large amount of moist vapour in the vapour channel of HP occur the pressure pulsation with frequency of 400-500 Hz and amplitude up to 1·104Pa. These pulsations affect the moving of the inertial droplets subsystem of the vapour and due to the heterogeneity of the velocity profile around the particle flow in the vapour channel at the diameter of microdroplets occurs transverse force, called the Saffman force and shear microdroplets to the center of vapour channel. Using installed in the top cover capacitors we can record the radial displacement of the condensable microdroplets.

  1. Effect of sugars on liquid-vapour partition of volatile compounds in ready-to-drink coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccone, P; Lonzarich, V; Navarini, L; Fusella, G; Pittia, P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of sugars (sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose, 10%w/v) on the liquid-vapour partition of selected volatile compounds of coffee beverages has been investigated in espresso coffee and ready-to-drink (RTD) canned coffee prepared and obtained by using the same Arabica roasted coffee beans blend. Aroma composition of coffee beverages has been preliminary investigated by headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) and solid phase microextraction-HS-GC-mass spectrometry to characterize the volatile pattern of the systems and to evaluate the effects of sugars on the aroma release/retention. Then, the liquid-vapour partition coefficient (k) of 4 selected key aroma compounds (diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, ethylpyrazine, hexanal) was determined in water, sugars solutions as well as RTD coffee brews added with the same sugars (10%w/v). Sugars added in coffee beverages affected the release of the volatiles and thus its aroma profile with differences due to the type of added sugar and coffee brew type. The k values of the selected volatile compounds resulted different depending on the model system composition (water, coffee brew) and sugar type added. In particular, melanoidins as well as other non-volatile components (lipids, acids, carbohydrates) in the RTD coffee brews could be implied in the change of k of the volatile compounds in respect to that observed in water. The effects of the sugar type on the release/retention of the four key coffee aroma compounds were partly explained in terms of 'salting out' especially for the more polar volatile compounds and in the sucrose-added model systems. The change of chemical and physico-chemical properties of the water and brews induced by the sugars as well as the occurrence of interactions between volatile compounds and non-volatile components may be implied in the reduction of the vapour partition of the aroma compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Precipitation scavenging of tritiated water vapour (HTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogram, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation scavenging (or washout) is an important mechanism for the removal of HTO from the atmosphere. Methods of parameterizing the depletion of a plume of HTO released to the atmosphere are examined. Simple approaches, commonly used for atmospheric transport modelling purposes, such as the use of a constant washout coefficient or washout ratio, or the use of parameters based on equilibrium assumptions, are often not justified. It is shown that these parameters depend strongly on ambient temperature and plume dimensions, as well as rainfall rate. An approximate expression for washout ratio, as a function of these variables, is developed, and it is shown that near equilibrium washout conditions are only expected to hold at long plume travel distances. A possible method of treating scavenging by snow is also suggested

  3. RDF gasification with water vapour: influence of process temperature on yield and products composition; Gassificazione con vapore del CDR: influenza della temperatura di processo su rese e composizione dei prodotti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Russo, A.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Portofino, S. [C. R. ENEA Trisaglia, Rotondella (Italy). PROT-STP

    2005-08-01

    The opportunity of using RDF (Refused Derived Fuel) to produce fuel gas seems to be promising and particular attention has been focused on alternative process technologies such as pyrolysis and gasification. Within this frame, present work relates to experimental tests and obtained results of a series of experimental surveys on RDF gasification with water vapour, carried out by means of a bench scale rotary kiln plant at different process temperature, using thermogravimetry (TG) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR), in order to characterize the incoming material, and online gas chromatography to qualify the gaseous stream. Experimental data show that gas yield rise with temperature and, with respect to the gas composition, hydrogen content grows up mainly at the expense of the other gaseous compound, pointing out the major extension of secondary cracking reactions into the gaseous fraction at higher temperature. Syngas obtained at process temperature of 950{sup o}C or higher seems to be suitable for fuel cells applications; at lower process temperature, gas composition suggest a final utilisation for feedstock recycling. The low organic content of solid residue does not suggest any other exploitation of the char apart from the land filling. [Italian] La possibilita' di usare il CDR (combustibile derivato dai rifiuti) per produrre gas combustibile, sembra particolarmente promettente e particolare attenzione si sta rivolgendo a tecnologie alternative di trattamento termico, quali la pirolisi e la gassificazione. In questo ambito, il presente lavoro riporta le prove sperimentali e i risultati ottenuti in una campagna di prove di gassificazione di CDR con vapor d'acqua, effettuate su scala banco in un forno a tamburo rotante a temperatura di processo variabile, utilizzando tecniche di analisi termogravimetrica (TG) e di spettrometria infrarossa in trasformata di Fourier (FTIR), per la caratterizzazione del materiale di ingresso, e analisi gascromatografiche on

  4. A Portable FTIR Analyser for Field Measurements of Trace Gases and their Isotopologues: CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, del13C in CO2 and delD in water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D. W.; Bryant, G. R.; Deutscher, N. M.; Wilson, S. R.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.

    2007-12-01

    We describe a portable Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) analyser capable of simultaneous high precision analysis of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air, as well as δ13C in CO2 and δD in water vapour. The instrument is based on a commercial 1 cm-1 resolution FTIR spectrometer fitted with a mid-IR globar source, 26 m multipass White cell and thermoelectrically-cooled MCT detector operating between 2000 and 7500 cm-1. Air is passed through the cell and analysed in real time without any pre-treatment except for (optional) drying. An inlet selection manifold allows automated sequential analysis of samples from one or more inlet lines, with typical measurement times of 1-10 minutes per sample. The spectrometer, inlet sampling sequence, real-time quantitative spectrum analysis, data logging and display are all under the control of a single program running on a laptop PC, and can be left unattended for continuous measurements over periods of weeks to months. Selected spectral regions of typically 100-200 cm-1 width are analysed by a least squares fitting technique to retrieve concentrations of trace gases, 13CO2 and HDO. Typical precision is better than 0.1% without the need for calibration gases. Accuracy is similar if measurements are referenced to calibration standard gases. δ13C precision is typically around 0.1‰, and for δD it is 1‰. Applications of the analyser include clean and polluted air monitoring, tower-based flux measurements such as flux gradient or integrated horizontal flux measurements, automated soil chambers, and field-based measurements of isotopic fractionation in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. The simultaneous multi-component advantages can be exploited in tracer-type emission measurements, for example of CH4 from livestock using a co-released tracer gas and downwind measurement. We have also developed an open path variant especially suited to tracer release studies and measurements of NH3 emissions from agricultural sources. An illustrative

  5. Vapour pressures and enthalpies of vapourization of a series of the linear aliphatic nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Koutek, Bohumir; Doubsky, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Vapour pressures and the molar enthalpies of vapourization ΔlgHm-bar of the linear aliphatic nitriles C 7 -C 17 have been determined by the transpiration method. Kovat's indices of these compounds were measured by capillary gas-chromatography. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vapourization ΔlgHm-bar at T=298.15 K of the nitriles studied with the Kovats indices has been found

  6. How well Can We Classify SWOT-derived Water Surface Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, R. P. M.; Wei, R.; Picamilh, C.; Durand, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will detect water bodies and measure water surface elevation throughout the globe. Within its continental high resolution mask, SWOT is expected to deliver measurements of river width, water elevation and slope of rivers wider than ~50 m. The definition of river reaches is an integral step of the computation of discharge based on SWOT's observables. As poorly defined reaches can negatively affect the accuracy of discharge estimations, we seek strategies to break up rivers into physically meaningful sections. In the present work, we investigate how accurately we can classify water surface profiles based on simulated SWOT observations. We assume that most river sections can be classified as either M1 (mild slope, with depth larger than the normal depth), or A1 (adverse slope with depth larger than the critical depth). This assumption allows the classification to be based solely on the second derivative of water surface profiles, with convex profiles being classified as A1 and concave profiles as M1. We consider a HEC-RAS model of the Sacramento River as a representation of the true state of the river. We employ the SWOT instrument simulator to generate a synthetic pass of the river, which includes our best estimates of height measurement noise and geolocation errors. We process the resulting point cloud of water surface heights with the RiverObs package, which delineates the river center line and draws the water surface profile. Next, we identify inflection points in the water surface profile and classify the sections between the inflection points. Finally, we compare our limited classification of simulated SWOT-derived water surface profile to the "exact" classification of the modeled Sacramento River. With this exercise, we expect to determine if SWOT observations can be used to find inflection points in water surface profiles, which would bring knowledge of flow regimes into the definition of river reaches.

  7. Developmental profiles in tick water balance with a focus on the new Rocky Mountain spotted fever vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, J A; Benoit, J B; Rellinger, E J; Tank, J L

    2006-12-01

    Recent reports indicate that the common brown dog tick, or kennel tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) is a competent vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the U.S.A. This tick is of concern to public health because of its high frequency of contact, as it has a unique ability to thrive within human homes. To assess the moisture requirements necessary for survival, water balance characteristics were determined for each developmental stage, from egg to adult. This is the first time that water relations in ticks have been assessed throughout the complete lifecycle. Notably, R. sanguineus is differentially adapted for life in a dry environment, as characterized by a suppressed water loss rate distinctive for each stage that distinguishes it from other ticks. Analysis of its dehydration tolerance limit and percentage body water content provides no evidence to suggest that the various stages of this tick can function more effectively containing less water, indicating that this species is modified for water conservation, not desiccation hardiness. All stages, eggs excepted, absorb water vapour from the air and can drink free water to replenish water stores. Developmentally, a shift in water balance strategies occurs in the transition from the larva, where the emphasis is on water gain (water vapour absorption from drier air), to the adult, where the emphasis is on water retention (low water loss rate). These results on the xerophilic-nature of R. sanguineus identify overhydration as the primary water stress, indicating that this tick is less dependent upon a moisture-rich habitat for survival, which matches its preference for a dry environment. We suggest that the controlled, host-confined conditions of homes and kennels have played a key role in promoting the ubiquitous distribution of R. sanguineus by creating isolated arid environments that enable this tick to establish within regions that are unfavourable for maintaining water balance.

  8. Vapour trap development and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.; Kirchner, G.; Menck, J.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium aerosols have the unpleasant characteristic that they deposit at places with low temperature level. This effect can be utilized when sodium aerosols are to be trapped at places which are determined beforehand. Thus vapour traps were developed which can filter sodium vapour from the cover gas. By this means the necessity was eliminated to heat all gas lines and gas systems with trace heaters just as all sodium lines are heated. It was of special interest for the INTERATOM to develop vapour traps which must not be changed or cleaned after a certain limited operating period. The vapour traps were supposed to enable maintenance free operation, i.e. they were to operate 'self cleaning'

  9. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rosser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS, as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further, the results also indicate that the sensor is capable of distinguishing “clean” air from “dirty”, multiple times per flight, allowing us to look towards autonomous cloud mapping and source localization applications. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system.

  10. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    implications to human health, and requires frequent and effective monitoring, particularly during summer months (March–May) when water consumption is highest. These water bodies are frequently located in remote areas away from human habitation, making...

  11. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

  12. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-05-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

  13. Modelling of vapour explosion in a stratified geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brayer, Claude

    1994-01-01

    A vapour explosion is the explosive vaporisation of a volatile liquid in contact with another hotter liquid. Such a violent vaporisation requires an intimate mixing and a fine fragmentation of both liquids. Based on a synthesis of published experimental results, the author of this research thesis reports the development of a new physical model which describes the explosion. In this model, the explosion propagation is due to the propagation of the pressure wave associated with this this explosion, all along the vapour film which initially separates both liquids. The author takes the presence of water in the liquid initially located over the film into account. This presence of vapour explains experimental propagation rates. Another consequence, when the pressure wave passes, is an acceleration of liquids at different rates below and above the film. The author considers that a mixture layer then forms from the point of disappearance of the film, between both liquids, and that fragmentation is due to the turbulence in this mixture layer. This fragmentation model is then introduced into an Euler thermodynamic, three-dimensional and multi-constituents code of calculation, MC3D, to study the influence of fragmentation on thermal exchanges between the various constituents on the volatile liquid vaporisation [fr

  14. Profiling water content in soils with TDR: Comparison with the neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In November 1996, at a site on the Grenoble campus a 1.2-m-long neutron access tube, a 0.8-m fibreglass Trime access tube and three sets of 1-m twin-rod TDR probes were installed. Weekly measurements were made over a 9-month period. In addition, soil samples were taken from time to time with an auger, to determine gravimetric water-contents. The soil bulk density profile was initially characterised by gammametry using a Campbell TM probe. A Troxler TM 4300 was used for the neutron-probe measurements. The TDR signals, for further processing by TDR-SSI, were logged using a Trase 2000 from Soil Moisture Equipment Corporation TM . TDR methods were employed without any special calibration of the permittivity/water-content relationship: standard internal calibrations of the devices or Topp polynomial relation were always applied. The results of all these water-content profiling methods were compared in three ways: (i) the water-content profiles were plotted directly on the same graph for different dates; (ii) all the water contents measured at all dates and all depths were plotted against a corresponding 'reference', namely neutron probe or gravimetry; (iii) water balances were calculated for each method and their respective time-profiles analysed. There was fairly good agreement among the three profiling methods, indicating that TDR is now a viable alternative to nuclear techniques for soil water-content profiling. (author)

  15. EX1004L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L1: Exploration Indonesia - Guam to...

  16. EX1004L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L3: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...

  17. EX1004L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L2: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...

  18. EX1605L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L2: CAPSTONE CNMI and Mariana Trench...

  19. EX0909L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L3: Mapping Field Trials - Hawaiian...

  20. EX1304L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons...

  1. EX1502L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1502L3: Caribbean Exploration (ROV)...

  2. EX1205L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1205L1: Exploration, Blake Plateau...

  3. EX1103L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1103: Exploration and Mapping, Galapagos...

  4. EX1502L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1502L1: Caribbean Exploration (Mapping)...

  5. EX1502L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1502L2: Caribbean Exploration (Mapping)...

  6. EX1504L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L1: CAPSTONE NWHI & Johnston...

  7. EX1503L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1503L1: Tropical Exploration (Mapping I)...

  8. EX0909L4 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L4: Mapping Field Trials -...

  9. EX1402L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1402L3: Gulf of Mexico Mapping and ROV...

  10. EX1202L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L3: Gulf of Mexico Exploration...

  11. EX1504L4 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address Pacific...

  12. EX1402L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1402L1: Gulf of Mexico Mapping and...

  13. EX1202L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1202: Gulf of Mexico Exploration between...

  14. EX1402L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1402L2: Gulf of Mexico Mapping and...

  15. EX0909L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L2: Mapping Field Trials - Necker...

  16. EX1504L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III: Main Hawaiian...

  17. Identification of ballast water discharge profiles of a port to enable effective ballast water management and environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Penko, Ludvik

    2018-03-01

    Information about the profile of ballast water discharges in a port is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in ballast water risk assessment and management, and supports the evaluation of dimensions and processes of aquatic species invasions with vessels ballast water. In the lack of ballast water reporting, ballast water discharge assessments need to be conducted. In this study we have assessed and compared ballast water discharge profiles of two ports with different maritime traffic and cargo profiles, the Port of Hamburg (Germany) and the Muuga Harbour, Port of Tallinn (Estonia). This study shows methods and approaches which can be used to assess volumes and donor ports of ballast water discharges for a port at the level of each vessel call. These methods and approaches can be applied to any port to support the implementation of feasible and efficient ballast water management measures and to enable environmental studies including long-term accumulation risks of disinfection by-products from ballast water management systems making use of active substances, as well as for discharges of other chemical compounds.

  18. The STARTWAVE atmospheric water database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morland

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The STARTWAVE (STudies in Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Water Vapour Effects project aims to investigate the role which water vapour plays in the climate system, and in particular its interaction with radiation. Within this framework, an ongoing water vapour database project was set up which comprises integrated water vapour (IWV measurements made over the last ten years by ground-based microwave radiometers, Global Positioning System (GPS receivers and sun photometers located throughout Switzerland at altitudes between 330 and 3584 m. At Bern (46.95° N, 7.44° E tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained on a regular basis and integrated liquid water, which is important for cloud characterisation, is also measured. Additional stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained by an airborne microwave radiometer which observes large parts of the northern hemisphere during yearly flight campaigns. The database allows us to validate the various water vapour measurement techniques. Comparisons between IWV measured by the Payerne radiosonde with that measured at Bern by two microwave radiometers, GPS and sun photometer showed instrument biases within ±0.5 mm. The bias in GPS relative to sun photometer over the 2001 to 2004 period was –0.8 mm at Payerne (46.81° N, 6.94° E, 490 m, which lies in the Swiss plains north of the Alps, and +0.6 mm at Davos (46.81° N, 9.84° E, 1598 m, which is located within the Alps in the eastern part of Switzerland. At Locarno (46.18° N, 8.78° E, 366 m, which is located on the south side of the Alps, the bias is +1.9 mm. The sun photometer at Locarno was found to have a bias of –2.2 mm (13% of the mean annual IWV relative to the data from the closest radiosonde station at Milano. This result led to a yearly rotation of the sun photometer instruments between low and high altitude stations to improve the calibrations. In order to demonstrate the capabilites of the database for studying

  19. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Water Vapor Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting and the AIRS 2015 NetMeeting. AIRS Version 6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version 6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version 5. Version 6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version 5, or even from Version 4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version 6.

  20. An externally heated copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, P.A.; Sopchyshyn, F.C.; Selkirk, E.B.; Green, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    A pulsed Copper Vapour Laser (CVL), with a nominal 6 kHz repetition rate, was designed, build, and commissioned at Chalk River laboratories. The laser was required for Resonant Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) experiments and for projects associated with Atomic Vapour laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) studies. For the laser to operate, copper coupons position along the length of a ceramic tube must be heated sufficiently to create an appropriate vapour pressure. The AECL CVL uses an external heater element with a unique design to raise the temperature of the tube. The Cylindrical graphite heating element is shaped to compensate for the large radiation end losses of the laser tube. The use of an external heater saves the expensive high-current-voltage switching device from heating the laser tube, as in most commercial lasers. This feature is especially important given the intermittent usage typical of experimental research. As well, the heater enables better parametric control of the laser output when studying the lasing of copper (or other) vapour. This report outlines the lasing process in copper vapour, describes in detail all three major laser sub-systems: the laser body; the laser tube heater; the high voltage pulsed discharge; and, reports parametric measurements of the individual sub-systems and the laser system as a whole. Also included are normal operating procedures to heat up, run and shut down the laser

  1. Establishing an environmental profile of water supply in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available -losses in the supply system must receive attention, especially in the municipal-controlled part. Water quality impacts are also important, although through supporting processes, and specifically electricity generation. The boosting requirements attribute most...

  2. Upscaling the impact of convective overshooting (COV) through BRAMS: a continental and wet-season scale study of the water vapour (WV) budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Abhinna; Rivière, Emmanuel; Marécal, Virginie; Rysman, Jean-François; Claud, Chantal; Burgalat, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    The stratospheric water vapour (WV) has a conceding impact on the radiative and chemical budget of Earth's atmosphere. The convective overshooting (COV) at the tropics is well admitted for playing a role in transporting directly WV to the stratosphere. Nonetheless, its impact on the lower stratosphere is yet to be determined at global scale, as the satellite and other air-borne measurements are not of having fine enough resolution to quantify this impact at large scale. Therefore, efforts have been made to quantify the influence of COV over the WV budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through modelling. Our approach is to build two synthetic tropical wet-seasons; where one would be having only deep convection (DC) but no COV at all, and the second one would be having the COV, and in both cases the WV budget in the TTL would be estimated. Before that, a French-Brazilian TRO-pico campaign was carried out at Bauru, Brazil in order to understand the influence of COV on the WV budget in the TTL. The radio-sounding, and the small balloon-borne WV measurements from the campaign are being utilized to validate the model simulation. Brazilian version of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) is used with a single grid system to simulate a WV variability in a wet-season. Grell's convective parameterization with ensemble closure, microphysics with double moment scheme and 7 types of hydrometeors are incorporated to simulate the WV variability for a wet-season at the tropics. The grid size of simulation is chosen to be 20 km x 20 km horizontally and from surface to 30 km altitude, so that there cannot be COV at all, only DC due to such a relatively coarse resolution. The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses data are used every 6 hours for grid initialization and boundary conditions, and grid center nudging. The simulation is carried out for a full wet-season (Nov 2012 - Mar 2013) at Brazilian scale, so that it would

  3. Silicon nanowire arrays as learning chemical vapour classifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niskanen, A O; Colli, A; White, R; Li, H W; Spigone, E; Kivioja, J M

    2011-01-01

    Nanowire field-effect transistors are a promising class of devices for various sensing applications. Apart from detecting individual chemical or biological analytes, it is especially interesting to use multiple selective sensors to look at their collective response in order to perform classification into predetermined categories. We show that non-functionalised silicon nanowire arrays can be used to robustly classify different chemical vapours using simple statistical machine learning methods. We were able to distinguish between acetone, ethanol and water with 100% accuracy while methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol were classified with 96% accuracy in ambient conditions.

  4. Water-level sensor and temperature-profile detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A temperature profile detector is described which comprises a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material are positioned at spaced locations along a length of the conductors. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows.

  5. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  6. The response of liquid-filled pipes to vapour collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijsseling, A.S.; Fan, D.

    1991-01-01

    The collapse of vapour cavities in liquid is usually accompanied with almost instantaneous pressure rises. These pressure rises impose severe loads on liquid-conveying pipes whenever the cavities become sufficiently large. Due to the impact nature of loadings, movement of the pipe walls can be expected. Tests are performed in a water-filled closed pipe suspended by thin steel wires. Vaporous cavities are induced in the liquid by hitting the pipe axially by a steel rod. The volume of the cavities can be varied by changing the initial pressure of the water. The developing and collapsing of cavities in the liquid is inferred from pressure measurements. Strain gauges and a laser Doppler vibrometer are used to record the response of the pipe to these pressures. The test results are compared with predictions from a numerical model. The model describes 1) axial stress wave propagations in the pipe and 2) water hammer and cavitation phenomena in the liquid. Pipe and liquid interact via 1) the radial expansion and contraction of the pipe wall and 2) the closed ends of the pipe, where large vapour cavities may develop. (author)

  7. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratoy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rye, B.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance and the correction of other site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. In this study, we develop system performance models and examine the potential of infrared differential absoroption lidar (DIAL) to determine the concentration of water vapor.

  8. Determination of water vapor and ozone profiles in the middle atmosphere by microwave-spectroscopy. Bestimmung von Wasserdampf- und Ozonprofilen in der mittleren Atmosphaere durch Millimeterwellenspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puliafito, S.E.

    1989-10-17

    This work was performed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (F.R.G.) and treats the following points: 1. Satellite borne microwave radiometry. Principles for a real-time evaluation of the MAS-Limb-Sounding measurements. (MAS: Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder from Space Shuttle as part of the NASA ATLAS Missions, 1991-1997). (a) Deconvolution of the 60 GHz-antenna. (b) Test of different inversion proceedings. A detailed study of the boundary conditions and 'error influence' as well as a discussion of the radiometer specifications. (c) Near real time inversion of microwave spectral lines of the Earth atmosphere. i. The possibility of a (near) real time evaluation (retrieval of the profiles of the atmospheric components) was proved for the first time with a space proof microprocessor. ii. Data reduction of about a factor > 10{sup 3} in comparison with other methods. 2. Airborne and ground based microwave radiometry. (a) Study of the possibilities of ground- and aircraft based measurements for validation and cross calibration of the satellite measurements. (b) Study of the possibilities of ground based radiometric measurements of water vapour in the Artic or Antartica. Precise boundary conditions were given for the first time in order to perform ground based millimeter radiometric measurements in these areas. (orig.).

  9. Water and salinity stress in grapevines: early and late changes in transcript and metabolite profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Ergül, Ali; Grimplet, Jerome; Tillett, Richard L; Tattersall, Elizabeth A R; Bohlman, Marlene C; Vincent, Delphine; Sonderegger, Justin; Evans, Jason; Osborne, Craig; Quilici, David; Schlauch, Karen A; Schooley, David A; Cushman, John C

    2007-04-01

    Grapes are grown in semiarid environments, where drought and salinity are common problems. Microarray transcript profiling, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and metabolite profiling were used to define genes and metabolic pathways in Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon with shared and divergent responses to a gradually applied and long-term (16 days) water-deficit stress and equivalent salinity stress. In this first-of-a-kind study, distinct differences between water deficit and salinity were revealed. Water deficit caused more rapid and greater inhibition of shoot growth than did salinity at equivalent stem water potentials. One of the earliest responses to water deficit was an increase in the transcript abundance of RuBisCo activase (day 4), but this increase occurred much later in salt-stressed plants (day 12). As water deficit progressed, a greater number of affected transcripts were involved in metabolism, transport, and the biogenesis of cellular components than did salinity. Salinity affected a higher percentage of transcripts involved in transcription, protein synthesis, and protein fate than did water deficit. Metabolite profiling revealed that there were higher concentrations of glucose, malate, and proline in water-deficit-treated plants as compared to salinized plants. The metabolite differences were linked to differences in transcript abundance of many genes involved in energy metabolism and nitrogen assimilation, particularly photosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and photorespiration. Water-deficit-treated plants appear to have a higher demand than salinized plants to adjust osmotically, detoxify free radicals (reactive oxygen species), and cope with photoinhibition.

  10. Film boiling heat transfer and vapour film collapse for various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.I.; Axcell, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Film boiling heat transfer has application to the safe operation of water-cooled nuclear reactors under fault conditions and it has been studied using nickel-plated copper specimens in transient and steady state experiments. In the transient tests the specimens were held in a water flow; in the steady state investigation a specimen was mounted in an essentially quiescent pool of water. The transient investigation was conducted on two spheres with different diameters, two cylindrical specimens of different lengths in parallel flow, a short cylinder in cross flow and two flat plates with different lengths. The heat transfer coefficient, vapour film thickness (which was estimated from the heat transfer coefficient) and heat flux followed a similar behaviour with changing experimental conditions for all specimens studied. The heat transfer coefficient increased and the vapour film thickness and heat flux decreased as the specimen temperature decreased. As the water subcooling increased the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux increased while the vapour film thickness decreased. The water velocity was found to have little influence on the film boiling heat transfer results except for the short cylinder in cross flow. The sphere diameter was found to affect the heat transfer results; the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux were larger, for the larger sphere. No significant effect of the cylinder length on the heat transfer data was observed. However, the heat transfer coefficient was higher (and the average vapour film thinner) for the longer plate than for the shorter plate. Three vapour/liquid interface types were observed namely: 'smooth', 'rippled' and 'turbulent' depending largely on specimen and water temperatures. For all specimens, the maximum heat transfer coefficient, minimum heat flux and minimum film boiling temperature, occurring just before vapour film collapse, were found to increase as the water subcooling

  11. A mathematical model of vapour film destabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.B.

    1985-04-01

    In a hypothetical reactor accident, destabilisation of an intervening vapour film between the molten fuel and liquid coolant by a weak shock wave (trigger), is considered likely to initiate the molten fuel-coolant interaction. The one-dimensional model presented here is part of a larger programme of fundamental research aimed at improved reactor safety. (U.K.)

  12. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  13. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground-Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. D.; Feltz, W. F.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, offers unique operational water vapor profiling capabilities, including active and passive remote sensors as well as traditional in situ radiosonde measurements. Remote sensing technologies include an automated Raman lidar and an automated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), which are able to retrieve water vapor profiles operationally through the lower troposphere throughout the diurnal cycle. Comparisons of these two water vapor remote sensing methods to each other and to radiosondes over an 8-month period are presented and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and limitations of each method. Additionally, the AERI is able to retrieve profiles of temperature while the Raman lidar is able to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles operationally. These data, coupled with hourly wind profiles from a 915-MHz wind profiler, provide complete specification of the state of the atmosphere in noncloudy skies. Several case studies illustrate the utility of these high temporal resolution measurements in the characterization of mesoscale features within a 3-day time period in which passage of a dryline, warm air advection, and cold front occurred.

  14. Introducing zinc cations into zeolite Y via the reduction of HY with zinc metal vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A.; Boddenberg, B.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites HY and NaY which were contacted with zinc metal vapour at 420°C were investigated by carbon monoxide and xenon adsorption as well as 129Xe NMR spectroscopy. The reaction of zeolite HY results in the incorporation of Zn 2+ cations which are shown to populate the supercage positions S II and S III to an unusually high extent. The supercage zinc cation concentration strongly decreases when the material is saturated with water and subsequently dehydrated at 400°C. The zeolite NaY turns out to be inert towards the reaction with zinc metal vapour.

  15. Influence of water quality deterioration on blood profile of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, H. M.; Samir, Y. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of water quality deterioration on the haematological indices and blood profile of cultured fish, which was most frequently used in pathophy-siological investigations in fish reared in the ponds and tanks culture conditions, compared with normal healthy fish in natural water (White Nile River). The results showed that water quality characteristics of experimental tanks level of NH 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 concentration significantly (p 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 ) with moderate regression factors. Relationship between RBC, and water quality characteristics was positive and with very low regression factors. (Author)

  16. Vapour Removal from the Greenhouse Using Forced Ventilation when Applying a Thermal Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to dimension a system capable of removing water vapour mainly generated by evaporation of the crop when a thermal screen is applied. The humid greenhouse air is replaced by cold dry outside air using an air distribution system. The dry air is injected above the

  17. Field observations of turbulent dissipation rate profiles immediately below the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Liao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Near surface profiles of turbulence immediately below the air-water interface were measured with a free-floating Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system on Lake Michigan. The surface-following configuration allowed the system to measure the statistics of the aqueous-side turbulence in the topmost layer immediately below the water surface (z≈0˜15 cm, z points downward with 0 at the interface). Profiles of turbulent dissipation rate (ɛ) were investigated under a variety of wind and wave conditions. Various methods were applied to estimate the dissipation rate. Results suggest that these methods yield consistent dissipation rate profiles with reasonable scattering. In general, the dissipation rate decreases from the water surface following a power law relation in the top layer, ɛ˜z-0.7, i.e., the slope of the decrease was lower than that predicted by the wall turbulence theory, and the dissipation was considerably higher in the top layer for cases with higher wave ages. The measured dissipation rate profiles collapse when they were normalized with the wave speed, wave height, water-side friction velocity, and the wave age. This scaling suggests that the enhanced turbulence may be attributed to the additional source of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) at the "skin layer" (likely due to micro-breaking), and its downward transport in the water column.

  18. Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Pilla, Carmen; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Barreto, Michelle Flores; Vieiro, Priscila Azevedo; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia. Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval…

  19. Scanning Raman lidar for tropospheric water vapor profiling and GPS path delay correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniewicz, Jerome; Bock, Olivier; Pelon, Jacques R.; Thom, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The design of a ground based and transportable combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for the remote sensing of lower tropospheric water vapor and nitrogen concentration is described. This lidar is intended to be used for an external calibration of the wet path delay of GPS signals. A description of the method used to derive water vapor and nitrogen profiles in the lower troposphere is given. The instrument has been tested during the ESCOMPTE campaign in June 2001 and first measurements are presented.

  20. Combined ground- and satellite-based profiling of temperature and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankov, B.B.; Westwater, E.R.; Snider, J.B.; Churnside, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The fusion or integration of meteorological and radiative data from a range of instrumentation into a representative picture of temperature, water vapor, and clouds over a CART domain will be a challenging task for four-dimensional data assimilation models. In the work reported here, we have summarized work supported by DOE's algorithm development program including combined RASS and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) temperature sensing, water vapor profiles from dual-channel radiometers, and neural network radiometric temperature retrievals

  1. Contribution to the activation analysis of the rare gases. Contribution to the analysis of carbon monoxide and water vapour in gases (1963); Contribution a l'analyse par activation des gaz rares. Contribution a l'analyse de l'oxyde de carbone et de la vapeur d'eau dans les gaz (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebolt, J [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-15

    In the present work, we have applied radioactive analysis to the general technique of rare gas separation. This separation is carried out on active charcoal, at constant pressure. The desorption of the gas is caused by an increase in the initial temperature of adsorption. These separations are quantitative and can be confirmed by chemical analysis. The volumes of desorbed gas are measured by radioactive counting. We have also used radioactivation to study the reduction of palladous chloride by carbon monoxide. Since this reduction is quantitative, we can have a knowledge of the mass of palladium reduced by measuring its activity. We have used the property which have organic chlorides of being hydrolysed by water vapour and of liberating hydrochloric acid to study quantitatively the amount of water vapour which a gas contains. The hydrochloric acid formed is measured by activation of the chlorine in the acid. (author) [French] Dans les travaux que nous presentons, nous avons applique l'analyse par radioactivation, a la technique generale de separation des gaz rares. Cette separation est faite sur charbon active, a pression constante. La desorption des gaz est provoquee par une augmentation de la temperature initiale d'adsorption. Ces separations sont quantitatives, et peuvent etre exploitees par l'analyse chimique. Les volumes de gaz dedorbes sont mesures par comptage de la radioactivite. Nous avons egalement utilise la radioactivation pour l'etude de la reduction du chlorure palladeux par l'oxyde de carbone. Cette reduction etant quantitative, nous pouvons connaitre la masse de palladium reduit par la mesure de son activite. Nous avons exploite la propriete que possede un chlorure organique d'etre hydrolise par la vapeur d'eau et de liberer de l'acide chlorhydrique pour etudier quantitativement la vapeur d'eau contenue dans un gaz. L'acide chlorhydrique forme est mesure par l'activation du chlore de l'acide. (auteur)

  2. Vapour pressure of caesium over nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, R.L.; Pummery, F.C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The vapour pressure of caesium over a fine-grained isotropic moulded gilsocarbon nuclear graphite intended for use in the manufacture of fuel tubes for the high temperature reactor has been determined as a function of temperature and concentration by means of the Knudsen effusion technique. The concentration range 0 to 10 μg caesium/g graphite was investigated and it was concluded that a Langmuir adsorption situation exists under these conditions. (author)

  3. Bibliography on vapour pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illy, H.; Jancso, G.

    1976-03-01

    The bibliography of research on vapour pressure isotope effects from 1919 to December 1975 is presented in chronological order. Within each year the references are listed alphabetically according to the name of the first author of each work. The bibliography is followed by a Compound Index containing the names o compounds, but the type of isotopic substituation is not shown. The Author Index includes all authors of the papers. (Sz.N.Z.)

  4. Leaf water 18 O and 2 H enrichment along vertical canopy profiles in a broadleaved and a conifer forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögelein, Rebekka; Thomas, Frank M; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-07-01

    Distinguishing meteorological and plant-mediated drivers of leaf water isotopic enrichment is prerequisite for ecological interpretations of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in plant tissue. We measured input and leaf water δ 2 H and δ 18 O as well as micrometeorological and leaf morpho-physiological variables along a vertical gradient in a mature angiosperm (European beech) and gymnosperm (Douglas fir) tree. We used these variables and different enrichment models to quantify the influence of Péclet and non-steady state effects and of the biophysical drivers on leaf water enrichment. The two-pool model accurately described the diurnal variation of leaf water enrichment. The estimated unenriched water fraction was linked to leaf dry matter content across the canopy heights. Non-steady state effects and reduced stomatal conductance caused a higher enrichment of Douglas fir compared to beech leaf water. A dynamic effect analyses revealed that the light-induced vertical gradients of stomatal conductance and leaf temperature outbalanced each other in their effects on evaporative enrichment. We conclude that neither vertical canopy gradients nor the Péclet effect is important for estimates and interpretation of isotopic leaf water enrichment in hypostomatous trees. Contrarily, species-specific non-steady state effects and leaf temperatures as well as the water vapour isotope composition need careful consideration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Determination of alpha dose rate profile at the HLW nuclear glass/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougnaud, S., E-mail: sarah.mougnaud@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Tribet, M.; Rolland, S. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Renault, J.-P. [CEA Saclay, NIMBE UMR 3685 CEA/CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Jégou, C. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear glass/water interface is studied. • The way the energy of alpha particles is deposited is modeled using MCNPX code. • A model giving dose rate profiles at the interface using intrinsic data is proposed. • Bulk dose rate is a majoring estimation in alteration layer and in surrounding water. • Dose rate is high in small cracks; in larger ones irradiated volume is negligible. - Abstract: Alpha irradiation and radiolysis can affect the alteration behavior of High Level Waste (HLW) nuclear glasses. In this study, the way the energy of alpha particles, emitted by a typical HLW glass, is deposited in water at the glass/water interface is investigated, with the aim of better characterizing the dose deposition at the glass/water interface during water-induced leaching mechanisms. A simplified chemical composition was considered for the nuclear glass under study, wherein the dose rate is about 140 Gy/h. The MCNPX calculation code was used to calculate alpha dose rate and alpha particle flux profiles at the glass/water interface in different systems: a single glass grain in water, a glass powder in water and a water-filled ideal crack in a glass package. Dose rate decreases within glass and in water as distance to the center of the grain increases. A general model has been proposed to fit a dose rate profile in water and in glass from values for dose rate in glass bulk, alpha range in water and linear energy transfer considerations. The glass powder simulation showed that there was systematic overlapping of radiation fields for neighboring glass grains, but the water dose rate always remained lower than the bulk value. Finally, for typical ideal cracks in a glass matrix, an overlapping of irradiation fields was observed while the crack aperture was lower than twice the alpha range in water. This led to significant values for the alpha dose rate within the crack volume, as long as the aperture remained lower than 60 μm.

  6. Meridional Martian water abundance profiles during the 1988-1989 season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, B.; Wells, W.K.; Hunten, D.M.; Stoker, C.R.; Freedman, R.S.; Roush, T.; Pollack, J.B.; Haberle, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Martian southern hemisphere atmospheric water vapor column abundance measurements reported agree with Viking Orbiter atmospheric water detectors during early southern spring and southern autumnal equinox; profiles obtained in southern mid- and late summer, however, indicate the presence of twice as much water both in the southern hemisphere and planetwide. This discrepancy is accounted for by the high optical depths created by two global dust storms during the Viking year, while the present observations were obtained in the case of the relatively dust-free atmosphere of the 1988-1989 opposition. 29 refs

  7. Beneficial impact on cardiovascular risk profile of water buffalo meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G; Guarini, P; Ferrari, P; Biondi-Zoccai, G; Schiavone, B; Giordano, A

    2010-09-01

    Meat is a good source of proteins and irons, yet its consumption has been associated with unfavorable cardiovascular effects. Whether this applies to all types of meat is unclear. We thus aimed to appraise the impact of water buffalo meat consumption on cardiovascular risk profile with an observational longitudinal study. Several important cardiovascular risk features were appraised at baseline and at 12-month follow-up in 300 adult subjects divided in groups: recent consumers of water buffalo meat vs subjects who had never consumed water buffalo meat. In addition, long-standing consumers of water buffalo meat were evaluated. Age, gender, height, body weight, and the remaining diet (with the exception of cow meat consumption) were similar across groups. From baseline to follow-up, recent consumers of water buffalo meat change their intake of water buffalo meat from none to 600+/-107 g per week (Pconsumption from 504+/-104 to 4+/-28 (PConsumption of buffalo meat seems to be associated with several beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk profile. Awaiting further randomized clinical trials, this study suggests that a larger consumption of water buffalo meat could confer significant cardiovascular benefits, while continuing to provide a substantial proportion of the recommended daily allowance of protein.

  8. Numerical study of the heat and material transport in the absorption of water vapour in aqueous LiBr solution; Numerische Untersuchung des Waerme- und Stofftransports bei der Absorption von Wasserdampf in waessriger LiBr-Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbricht, Michael; Buchholz, Niklas; Fries, Simon; Addy, Joseph; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    2016-07-01

    In absorption refrigerating machines with the working-material pair water/lithium bromide usually falling-film apparatuses are applied as absorbers, evaporators, and condensers. These are often performed as horizontal tube bundes. As critical, the process limiting component in the literature the absorper is called, because of which the their running, coupled heat and material transport processes are more detailedly theoretically studied. For this a model was developed, which maps starting from analytically describable physical connections the transport processes in the apparatus. The flow in the tube bundle is hereby divided in two sections, the flow in the liquid film on the tubes and the drop fall between the tubes. The basic equations are numerically solved under given boundary conditions, whereby for the description of the drop fall phase addititonally semi-empirical calculation approaches are used. The results are elucidated by means of concentration and temperature profiles in the film. A distinctly faster formation of the temperature boundary layer than the concentration boundary layer in the fim is shown, which makes the material transport to the limiting transport process in the absorber, which is already known from experimental studies.The physical plausibility of the model is by means of this fact confirmed by an analysis of the coupled transport processes by means of dimensionless characteristic numbers. Furthermore from the results an improvement of the heat and material transport at diminishing of the tube diameter can be derived. Just so by the results of the study an estimation method for the quality of the absorber by means of the subcooling is shown.

  9. Rewetting of semi-dried ink patterns by vapour annealing for developing a reflow process in reverse offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Sugihara, Kazuyoshi; Koutake, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    A process for reflowing patterned materials for reverse offset printing was developed, with the aim of mitigating the step-coverage problem in multilayered devices. The proposed reflow process involves a single step of vapour annealing at moderate temperatures ranging from 60 to 70 °C. This step successfully changes the height profile of semi-dried ink patterns formed on a silicone blanket, from an initially rectangular shape to a rounded shape. A systematic investigation on the effects of various vapour species and vapour temperatures on the reflow process revealed that the miscibility between the vapour and the ink, and a low boiling point of the respective solvent (high vapour pressure) are the prerequisites for successful reflows of semi-dried ink layers patterned on a silicone blanket. The results suggested that the rewetting of previously semi-dried patterns is the main mechanism in the reflow process, which led to a change in the height profile. Furthermore, the reflowed patterns demonstrated almost identical peak-height thicknesses, irrespective of the width of the patterns. This is a unique property that is unattainable by other printing methods, including gravure offset printing and microcontact printing, wherein printed patterns have rounded shapes without a reflow process, but their thickness inevitably depends on the pattern sizes. (technical note)

  10. [Qualitative Determination of Organic Vapour Using Violet and Visible Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Hu, Wen-zhong; Liu, Chang-jian; Zheng, Wei; Qi, Xiao-hui; Jiang, Ai-li; Wang, Yan-ying

    2015-12-01

    Vapours of organic matters were determined qualitatively employed with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapours of organic matters were detected using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer employing polyethylene film as medium, the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of vegetable oil vapours of soybean oil, sunflower seed oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sesame oil, cotton seed oil, tung tree seed oil, and organic compound vapours of acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol, glacial acetic acid were obtained. Experimental results showed that spectra of the vegetable oil vapour and the organic compound vapour could be obtained commendably, since ultra violet and visible spectrum of polyethylene film could be deducted by spectrograph zero setting. Different kinds of vegetable oils could been distinguished commendably in the spectra since the λ(max), λ(min), number of absorption peak, position, inflection point in the ultra violet and visible spectra obtained from the vapours of the vegetable oils were all inconsistent, and the vapours of organic compounds were also determined perfectly. The method had a good reproducibility, the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the vapours of sunflower seed oil in 10 times determination were absolutely the same. The experimental result indicated that polyethylene film as a kind of medium could be used for qualitative analysis of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy. The method for determination of the vapours of the vegetable oils and organic compounds had the peculiarities of fast speed analysis, well reproducibility, accuracy and reliability and low cost, and so on. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectrum of organic vapour could provide feature information of material vapour and structural information of organic compound, and provide a novel test method for identifying vapour of compound and organic matter.

  11. TDR water content inverse profiling in layered soils during infiltration and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R.; Guida, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the last three decades, time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become one of the most commonly used tools for soil water content measurements either in laboratory or in the field. Indeed, TDR provides easy and cheap water content estimations with relatively small disturbance to the investigated soil. TDR measurements of soil water content are based on the strong correlation between relative dielectric permittivity of wet soil and its volumetric water content. Several expressions of the relationship between relative dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content have been proposed, empirically stated (Topp et al., 1980) as well as based on semi-analytical approach to dielectric mixing models (Roth et al., 1990; Whalley, 1993). So far, TDR field applications suffered the limitation due to the capability of the technique of estimating only the mean water content in the volume investigated by the probe. Whereas the knowledge of non homogeneous vertical water content profiles was needed, it was necessary to install either several vertical probes of different length or several horizontal probes placed in the soil at different depths, in both cases strongly increasing soil disturbance as well as the complexity of the measurements. Several studies have been recently dedicated to the development of inversion methods aimed to extract more information from TDR waveforms, in order to estimate non homogeneous moisture profiles along the axis of the metallic probe used for TDR measurements. A common feature of all these methods is that electromagnetic transient through the wet soil along the probe is mathematically modelled, assuming that the unknown soil water content distribution corresponds to the best agreement between simulated and measured waveforms. In some cases the soil is modelled as a series of small layers with different dielectric properties, and the waveform is obtained as the result of the superposition of multiple reflections arising from impedance

  12. Neutron absorption profile in a reactor moderated by different mixtures of light and heavy waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Mohamed E.; Aly, Mohamed N.; Gaber, Fatma A.; Dorrah, Mahmoud E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied neutron absorption spectra in a mixed water moderated reactor. • Changing D 2 O% in moderator induced neutron energy spectral shift. • Most of the neutrons absorbed in control rods were epithermal. • Control rods worth changes were not proportional to changes of D 2 O% in moderator. • Control rod arrangement influenced the neutronic behavior of the reactor. - Abstract: A Monte-Carlo parametric study was carried out to investigate the neutron absorption profile in a model of LR-0 reactor when it is moderated by different mixtures of heavy/light waters at molecular ratios ranging from 0% up to 100% D 2 O at increments of 10% in D 2 O. The tallies included; neutron absorption profiles in control rods and moderator, and neutron capture profile in 238 U. The work focused on neutron absorption in control rods entailing; total mass of control rods needed to attain criticality, neutron absorption density and total neutron absorption in control rods at each of the studied mixed water moderators. The aim was to explore whether thermal neutron poisons are the most suitable poisons to be used in control rods of nuclear reactors moderated by mixed heavy/light water moderators

  13. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  14. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, R S; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H K; Dodson, J M; Friel, I; Inglis, P N; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M L; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N; Scarsbrook, G A; Twitchen, D J; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J; Woollard, S M

    2009-01-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product.

  15. Metabolic profiles in serum of mouse after chronic exposure to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Shupei

    2011-08-01

    The toxicity of Nanjing drinking water on mouse (Mus musculus) was detected by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic method. Three groups of mice were fed with drinking water (produced by Nanjing BHK Water Plant), 3.8 μg/L benzo(a)pyrene as contrast, and clean water as control, respectively, for 90 days. It was observed that the levels of lactate, alanine, and creatinine in the mice fed with drinking water were increased and that of valine was decreased. The mice of drinking water group were successfully separated from control. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates (PAEs), and other organic pollutants in the drinking water were 0.23 μg/L, 4.57 μg/L, and 0.34 μg/L, respectively. In this study, Nanjing drinking water was found to induce distinct perturbations of metabolic profiles on mouse including disorders of glucose-alanine cycle, branched-chain amino acid and energy metabolism, and dysfunction of kidney. This study suggests that metabonomic method is feasible and sensitive to evaluate potential toxic effects of drinking water.

  16. Modelling of vapour explosion in stratified geometrie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picchi, St.

    1999-01-01

    When a hot liquid comes into contact with a colder volatile liquid, one can obtain in some conditions an explosive vaporization, told vapour explosion, whose consequences can be important on neighbouring structures. This explosion needs the intimate mixing and the fine fragmentation between the two liquids. In a stratified vapour explosion, these two liquids are initially superposed and separated by a vapor film. A triggering of the explosion can induce a propagation of this along the film. A study of experimental results and existent models has allowed to retain the following main points: - the explosion propagation is due to a pressure wave propagating through the medium; - the mixing is due to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by the shear velocity between the two liquids behind the pressure wave. The presence of the vapour in the volatile liquid explains experimental propagation velocity and the velocity difference between the two fluids at the pressure wave crossing. A first model has been proposed by Brayer in 1994 in order to describe the fragmentation and the mixing of the two fluids. Results of the author do not show explosion propagation. We have therefore built a new mixing-fragmentation model based on the atomization phenomenon that develops itself during the pressure wave crossing. We have also taken into account the transient aspect of the heat transfer between fuel drops and the volatile liquid, and elaborated a model of transient heat transfer. These two models have been introduced in a multi-components, thermal, hydraulic code, MC3D. Results of calculation show a qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results and confirm basic options of the model. (author)

  17. Water Uptake Profile In a Model Ion-Exchange Membrane: Conditions For Water-Rich Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    these issues, more research is needed to improve their performance. Aqueous alkaline electrolytes such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) trace their begin...1.2 Water distribution Motivation Hydroxide ion transport through the membrane is fundamentally dependent on the amount and distribution of water...hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic ratio, for several reasons. First, this is the case for Nafion, the gold standard for PEM membranes; its unique pore structure

  18. Copper vapour laser development for Silva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinger, A.; Neu, M.; Chatelet, J.

    1993-01-01

    The recent developments of the components for high power Copper Vapour Laser (CVL) have been oriented towards four main goals: high quality laser beam, mainly for the CVL oscillators, increase of the extracted energy out of the amplifying stage, fully integrated and monolithic design for oscillator and amplifier, extended lifetime and high reliability. A first step of this work, which is done under contract with CILAS (Compagnie Industrielle des Lasers) led to an injection seeded oscillator and a 100 Watts amplifier; the present step concerns development of a 400 Watts class amplifier

  19. Thermogravimetric studies of vapour-aerosol interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.; Newland, M.S.; Wood, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis has been used to study the interaction of iodine vapour with cadmium, silver and manganese monoxide substrates. These studies have demonstrated the importance of time-dependence data on reaction rates. Iodine did not react with manganese monoxide (as expected from thermodynamic considerations); however, extensive reaction did occur with silver and cadmium. Two rate limiting mechanisms were observed: mass transfer of iodine molecules from the gas phase (leading to linear reaction rates) and parabolic kinetics (ie inversely proportional to the extent of reaction) when the rate was limited by a diffusion process through the reaction product. (author)

  20. Experiments on a vapour absorption heat transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J M; Murthy, S S [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-03-01

    Tests were conducted on a 3 kW heating capacity R21-DMF vapour absorption heat transformer to study the influence of operating temperature on its performance. Heat source temperature and condensing temperature were varied in the ranges 50-75[sup o]C and 20-40[sup o]C, respectively. Heat delivery temperatures up to 85[sup o]C and temperature lifts up to 20[sup o]C were achieved. Actual coefficients of performance (COPs) ranged from 0.2 to 0.35, whereas exergetic efficiencies of 0.3-0.4 could be obtained. (Author)

  1. Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the study of the remediation of sandy soils containing six of the most common contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) using soil vapour extraction (SVE). The influence of soil water content on the process efficiency was evaluated considering the soil type and the contaminant. For artificially contaminated soils with negligible clay contents and natural organic matter it was concluded that: (i) all the remediation processes presented efficiencies above 92%; (ii) an increase of the soil water content led to a more time-consuming remediation; (iii) longer remediation periods were observed for contaminants with lower vapour pressures and lower water solubilities due to mass transfer limitations. Based on these results an easy and relatively fast procedure was developed for the prediction of the remediation times of real soils; 83% of the remediation times were predicted with relative deviations below 14%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical committee meeting on aerosol formation, vapour deposits and sodium vapour trapping. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    The papers presented at the LMFBR meeting on aerosol formation covered the following four main topics: theoretical studies on aerosol behaviour and comparison with experimental results; techniques for measurement of aerosols; techniques for trapping sodium vapour and aerosols in gas circuits; design of components having to cope with aerosol deposits. The resulting summaries, conclusions and recommendations which were were agreed upon are presented.

  3. Technical committee meeting on aerosol formation, vapour deposits and sodium vapour trapping. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The papers presented at the LMFBR meeting on aerosol formation covered the following four main topics: theoretical studies on aerosol behaviour and comparison with experimental results; techniques for measurement of aerosols; techniques for trapping sodium vapour and aerosols in gas circuits; design of components having to cope with aerosol deposits. The resulting summaries, conclusions and recommendations which were were agreed upon are presented

  4. Characterization of aqueous interactions of copper-doped phosphate-based glasses by vapour sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, Christoph; Shah Mohammadi, Maziar; Waters, Kristian E; Nazhat, Showan N

    2014-07-01

    Owing to their adjustable dissolution properties, phosphate-based glasses (PGs) are promising materials for the controlled release of bioinorganics, such as copper ions. This study describes a vapour sorption method that allowed for the investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of aqueous interactions of PGs of the formulation 50P2O5-30CaO-(20-x)Na2O-xCuO (x=0, 1, 5 and 10mol.%). Initial characterization was performed using (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Increasing CuO content resulted in chemical shifts of the predominant Q(2) NMR peak and of the (POP)as and (PO(-)) Fourier transform infrared absorptions, owing to the higher strength of the POCu bond compared to PONa. Vapour sorption and desorption were gravimetrically measured in PG powders exposed to variable relative humidity (RH). Sorption was negligible below 70% RH and increased exponentially with RH from 70 to 90%, where it exhibited a negative correlation with CuO content. Vapour sorption in 0% and 1% CuO glasses resulted in phosphate chain hydration and hydrolysis, as evidenced by protonated Q(0)(1H) and Q(1)(1H) species. Dissolution rates in deionized water showed a linear correlation (R(2)>0.99) with vapour sorption. Furthermore, cation release rates could be predicted based on dissolution rates and PG composition. The release of orthophosphate and short polyphosphate species corroborates the action of hydrolysis and was correlated with pH changes. In conclusion, the agreement between vapour sorption and routine characterization techniques in water demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of PG aqueous reactions. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Collective dynamics in dense Hg vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, D; Inui, M; Matsuda, K; Tamura, K; Baron, A Q R; Tsutsui, S; Tanaka, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor, S(Q,ο), of dense Hg vapour has been measured by high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering for densities of 3.0, 2.1 and 1.0 g cm -3 corresponding to 0.52, 0.36 and 0.17 times the critical density, respectively, and for momentum transfers between 2.0 and 48 nm -1 . Analysis of the longitudinal current-current correlation function in the framework of generalized hydrodynamics reveals that the frequencies of the collective excitations increase faster with Q than estimated from the macroscopic speed of sound. The ratios of the frequencies were found to be 1.27 at 3.0 g cm -3 , 1.12 at 2.1 g cm -3 and 1.10 at 1.0 g cm -3 . The sound velocity obtained from the present experiments is well reproduced by a wavenumber dependent adiabatic sound velocity, which means that the collective modes remain in the spectra of dense Hg vapour. (letter to the editor)

  6. Dispersion of gold nanoclusters in TMBPA-polycarbonate by a combination of thermal embedding and vapour-induced crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, J; Dolgner, K; Greve, H; Zaporojtchenko, V; Faupel, F

    2006-01-01

    Gold nanoclusters can be dispersed into the surface of a bisphenol-A polycarbonate film by acetone vapour induced crystallization, an effect which has been demonstrated in a previous publication of our group. Gold nanoclusters were deposited by physical vapour deposition on an amorphous thin film of polycarbonate. After vapour induced crystallization these clusters were detected by depth profiling to be embedded into the surface, with a concentration maximum in a depth of approximately 100 nm. In this work, we replaced the BPA by the modified tetramethyl bisphenol-A polycarbonate, which shows a slower crystallization kinetics. A strong enhancement of the dispersion depth has been achieved by thermal pre-embedding of the clusters into the surface. Surface analysis by means of atomic force microscopy reflects the rearrangement of polymer material in the course of crystallization

  7. On the Quality of the Nimbus 7 LIMS Version 6 Water Vapor Profiles and Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Natarajan, M.; Lingenfelser, G. S.; Thompson, R. E.; Marshall, B. T.; Gordley, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) water vapor (H2O) profiles of 1978/79 that were processed with a Version 6 (V6) algorithm and archived in 2002. The V6 profiles incorporate a better knowledge of the instrument attitude for the LIMS measurements along its orbits, leading to improvements for its temperature profiles and for the registration of its water vapor radiances with pressure. As a result, the LIMS V6 zonal-mean distributions of H2O exhibit better hemispheric symmetry than was the case from the original Version 5 (V5) dataset that was archived in 1982. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of the V6 H2O profiles are developed and provided. Individual profiles have a precision of order 5% and an estimated accuracy of about 19% at 3 hPa, 14% at 10 hPa, and 26% at 50 hPa. Profile segments within about 2 km of the tropopause are often affected by emissions from clouds that appear in the finite field-of-view of the detector for the LIMS H2O channel. Zonally-averaged distributions of the LIMS V6 H2O are compared with those from the more recent Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite experiment for November, February, and May of 2004/2005. The patterns and values of their respective distributions are similar in many respects. Effects of a strengthened Brewer-Dobson circulation are indicated in the MLS distributions of the recent decade versus those of LIMS from 1978/79. A tropical tape recorder signal is present in the 7-month time series of LIMS V6 H2O with lowest values in February 1979, and the estimated, annually-averaged "entry-level" H2O is 3.5 to 3.8 ppmv. It is judged that this historic LIMS water vapor dataset is of good quality for studies of the near global-scale chemistry and transport for pressure levels from 3 hPa to about 70 to 100 hPa.

  8. Inversion for Sound Speed Profile by Using a Bottom Mounted Horizontal Line Array in Shallow Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng-Hua, Li; Ren-He, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography is an appealing technique for remote monitoring of the ocean environment. In shallow water, matched field processing (MFP) with a vertical line array is one of the widely used methods for inverting the sound speed profile (SSP) of water column. The approach adopted is to invert the SSP with a bottom mounted horizontal line array (HLA) based on MFP. Empirical orthonormal functions are used to express the SSP, and perturbation theory is used in the forward sound field calculation. This inversion method is applied to the data measured in a shallow water acoustic experiment performed in 2003. Successful results show that the bottom mounted HLA is able to estimate the SSP. One of the most important advantages of the inversion method with bottom mounted HLA is that the bottom mounted HLA can keep a stable array shape and is safe in a relatively long period. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  9. Diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, S.; Weckwerth, T.; Repasky, K. S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Carbone, R.

    2012-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating the performance of an eye-safe, low-cost, diode-laser-based, water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler. This class of instrument may be capable of providing continuous water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles at high vertical resolution in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for periods of months to years. The technology potentially fills a national long term observing facility gap and could greatly benefit micro- and meso-meteorology, water cycle, carbon cycle and, more generally, biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interaction research at both weather and climate variability time scales. For the evaluation, the Montana State University 3rd generation water vapor DIAL was modified to enable unattended operation for a period of several weeks. The performance of this V3.5 version DIAL was tested at MSU and NCAR in June and July of 2012. Further tests are currently in progress with Howard University at Beltsville, Maryland; and with the National Weather Service and Oklahoma University at Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The presentation will include a comparison of DIAL profiles against meteorological "truth" at the aforementioned locations including: radiosondes, Raman lidars, microwave and IR radiometers, AERONET and SUOMINET systems. Instrument reliability, uncertainty, systematic biases, detection height statistics, and environmental complications will be evaluated. Performance will be judged in the context of diverse scientific applications that range from operational weather prediction and seasonal climate variability, to more demanding climate system process studies at the land-canopy-ABL interface. Estimating the extent to which such research and operational applications can be satisfied with a low cost autonomous network of similar instruments is our principal objective.

  10. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P.R.; Sautray, R.R.; Girard, B.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence

  11. Estimation of vapour pressure and partial pressure of subliming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    conditions of (total) pressure by using thermogravimetry under those conditions. Further, from the partial pressure P, it is possible to determine the number of moles of material in the vapour phase using the ideal gas equation, PV = nRT, where P is the partial pressure, V the volume, n number of moles (of the vapour), R the ...

  12. Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, FR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ablation of graphite, carbon-arc discharge and chemical vapour deposition (CVD). However, some of these techniques have been shown to be expensive due to high deposition temperatures and are not easily controllable. Recently hot-wire chemical vapour...

  13. Capacitive-discharge-pumped copper bromide vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F; Troitskii, V O; Gubarev, F A; Evtushenko, Gennadii S

    2007-01-01

    A copper bromide vapour laser pumped by a high-frequency capacitive discharge is developed. It is shown that, by using of a capacitive discharge, it is possible to built a sealed off metal halide vapour laser of a simple design allowing the addition of active impurities into the working medium. (letters)

  14. ADME-Tox profiling of some low molecular weight water soluble chitosan derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isvoran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we use a few computational tools for predicting absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox, pharmacokinetics profiles, toxic/adverse effects, carcinogenicity, cardiotoxicity and endocrine disruption of some of low molecular weight water soluble derivatives of chitosan that are used in wound healing. Investigated compounds do not possess drug-like properties, their pharmacokinetics profiles reveal poor gastrointestinal absorption and low skin penetration. Chitosan derivatives cannot pass the blood-brain barrier and they are not able to inhibit the enzymes of the cytochrome P450 that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. They do not reflect carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity and reveal only a low probability to be endocrine disruptors. The main side effects in humans of the investigated compounds are: weight loss, acidosis, gastrointestinal toxicity, respiratory failure. This information is especially important for professional exposure and accidental contamination with these compounds.

  15. Measurement of the wetting profile in concrete samples with vertical water by gamma radiation transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.M. da; Rocha, M.C. da; Appoloni, C.R.; Portezan Filho, O.; Lopes, F.; Melquiades, F.L.; Santos, E.A. dos; Santos, A.O. dos; Moreira, A.C.; Poetker, W.E.; Almeida, E. de; Tannous, C.Q.; Kuramoto, R.; Cavalcante, F.H. de M.; Barbieri, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of concrete for popular habitation (0,1x0,03x0,1 m) and cellular concrete (0,1x0,05x0,1 m) were submitted to water vertical ascending infiltration. The moisture content spatial and temporal evolution of each sample it was monitored in three halfway positions in a same horizontal line, applying the gamma rays transmission method. The data were taken with a 137 Cs (3,7x10 10 Bq, 0662 MeV) source, NaI (Tl) of 2x2' detector coupled to between wetting profiles and concrete strength. The cellular concrete showed a wetting profile compatible to its greater porosity. (author)

  16. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Water surface temperature profiles for the Rhine River derived from Landsat ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Water temperature influences physical and chemical parameters of rivers and streams and is an important parameter for water quality. It is a crucial factor for the existence and the growth of animal and plant species in the river ecosystem. The aim of the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature" at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany, is to supplement point measurements of water temperature with remote sensing methodology. The research area investigated here is the Upper and Middle Rhine River, where continuous measurements of water temperature are already available for several water quality monitoring stations. Satellite imagery is used to complement these point measurements and to generate longitudinal temperature profiles for a better systematic understanding of the changes in river temperature along its course. Several products for sea surface temperature derived from radiances in the thermal infrared are available, but for water temperature from rivers less research has been carried out. Problems arise from the characteristics of the river valley and morphology and the proximity to the riverbank. Depending on the river width, a certain spatial resolution of the satellite images is necessary to allow for an accurate identification of the river surface and the calculation of water temperature. The bands from the Landsat ETM+ sensor in the thermal infrared region offer a possibility to extract the river surface temperatures (RST) of a sufficiently wide river such as the Rhine. Additionally, problems such as cloud cover, shadowing effects, georeferencing errors, different emissivity of water and land, scattering of thermal radiation, adjacency and mixed pixel effects had to be accounted for and their effects on the radiance temperatures will be discussed. For this purpose, several temperature data sets derived from radiance and in situ measurements were com- pared. The observed radiance temperatures are strongly influenced by

  18. Persistence profile of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in shallow and deep Gulf waters and sediments: Effect of water temperature and sediment–water partitioning characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansel, B.; Fuentes, C.; Sanchez, M.; Predoi, K.; Acevedo, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice longer than the shallow areas (100–150 m). ► In the water column, anthracene levels can decrease by 50% within 1–2 days. ► The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer than those in the water column. ► The half-life of pyrene in the shallow and deep sediments is 9 and 16 years, respectively. - Abstract: Persistence profiles of selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed depending on temperature variations in the water column and water–sediment interactions in the Gulf of Mexico. The PAHs studied include anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice as long as those in the shallow areas (100–150 m), and almost 2.5 times as long as those in the top layer (0–10 m) of the water column. The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer. Among the PAHs studied, chrysene is the most persistent in the water column, and pyrene is the most persistent in the sediments. The half-life of chrysene in the shallow and deep waters is over 2.5 and about 5 years, respectively. For pyrene, the half-life in the shallow and deep sediments is about 9 and 16 years, respectively.

  19. Aerosol formation from heat and mass transfer in vapour-gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer equations and their coupling to the equation for the aerosol size distribution are examined for mixtures in which pressure changes are slow. Specific results in terms of Cn (the condensation number) and Le (the Lewis number - the ratio of the relative rates of evaporation and condensation) are obtained for the proportion of vapour condensing as a aerosol during the cooling and heating of a mixture in a well-mixed cavity. The assumption of allowing no supersaturations, the validity of which is examined, is shown to lead to maximum aerosol formation. For water vapour-air mixtures predictions are made as to temperature regions in which aerosols will evaporate or not form in cooling processes. The results are also qualitatively applied to some atmospheric effects as well as to water aerosols formed in the containment of a pressurized water reactor following a possible accident. In this context, the present conclusion that the whereabouts of vapour condensation is controlled by heat and mass transfer, contrasts with previous assumptions that the controlling factor is relative surface areas. (U.K.)

  20. Modelling of tracer profiles in pore water of argillaceous rocks in the Benken borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmi, T.; Waber, H. N.

    2004-12-01

    Isotope tracers offer unique possibilities for analysing flow and transport processes over large scales of time and space. This is especially relevant for low-permeability media like clay stones, where transport is typically very slow and, consequently, difficult to investigate. Such lithologies are currently being investigated in several countries as potential host rocks for the disposal of radioactive or other hazardous waste. In the deep borehole at Benken (north-eastern Switzerland), a sequence of aquifers and argillaceous aquitards was investigated. Water samples were obtained from four formations (Malm, Keuper, Muschelkalk, and Buntsandstein). The Malm and the Keuper aquifer delimit a sequence of clay stones and marls at depth from about 400 to 700 m with hydraulic conductivities generally below 10 -13 m s -1 . Profiles of δ 18 O, δ 2 H, chloride, and δ 37 Cl in pore fluids of these formations were obtained. The chemical, isotopic, and noble gas composition of the ground water samples indicated that no cross-formation flow occurred, but that - with the exception of the Malm - the waters evolved geochemically within the formation from which they were sampled. Infiltration conditions could also be inferred from the data. The pore water profiles in the low-permeability zone show clear trends that hint at diffusion-dominated transport processes. To evaluate possible mechanisms and time scales of evolution of the profiles, a series of advective-dispersive model calculations was performed. Varying initial conditions as well as the type and concentration values of boundary conditions revealed the following: (i), molecular diffusion to the underlying aquifer can explain the general features of the isotope profiles, (ii), no signatures of advective flow could be detected, (iii), the evolution time is in the order of 0.5 to 1 Ma (relying on laboratory diffusion coefficients) with a possible range of about 0.2 to 2 Ma, which is geologically plausible, and, (iv

  1. The generation of absorbed dose profiles of proton beam in water using Geant4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christovao, Marilia T.; Campos, Tarcisio Passos R. de

    2007-01-01

    The present article approaches simulations on the proton beam radiation therapy, using an application based on the code GEANT4, with Open GL as a visualization drive and JAS3 (Java Analysis Studio) analysis data tools systems, implementing the AIDA interfaces. The proton radiotherapy is adapted to treat cancer or other benign tumors that are close to sensitive structures, since it allows precise irradiation of the target with high doses, while the health tissues adjacent to vital organs and tissues are preserved, due to physical property of dose profile. GEANT4 is a toolkit for simulating the transport of particles through matter, in complex geometries. Taking advantage of the object-oriented project features, the user can adapt or extend the tool in all domain, due to the flexibility of the code, providing a subroutine's group for materials definition, geometries and particles properties in agreement with the user's needs to generate the Monte Carlo simulation. In this paper, the parameters of beam line used in the simulation possess adjustment elements, such as: the range shifter, composition and dimension; the beam line, energy, intensity, length, according with physic processes applied. The simulation result is the depth dose profiles on water, dependent on the various incident beam energy. Starting from those profiles, one can define appropriate conditions for proton radiotherapy in ocular region. (author)

  2. Medical cannabis use in Canada: vapourization and modes of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplo, Samantha; Asbridge, Mark; Leatherdale, Scott T; Hammond, David

    2016-10-29

    The mode of medical cannabis delivery-whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally-may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evidence on current patterns of use among Canadian medical cannabis users, particularly with respect to modes of delivery. The current study examined modes of medical cannabis delivery following regulatory changes in 2014 governing how Canadians access medical cannabis. A total of 364 approved adult Canadian medical cannabis users completed an online cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015. The survey examined patterns of medical cannabis use, modes of delivery used, and reasons for use. Participants were recruited through a convenience sample from nine Health Canada licensed producers. Using a vapourizer was the most popular mode of delivery for medical cannabis (53 %), followed by smoking a joint (47 %). The main reason for using a vapourizer was to reduce negative health consequences associated with smoking. A majority of current vapourizer users reported using a portable vapourizer (67.2 %), followed by a stationary vapourizer (41.7 %), and an e-cigarette or vape pen (19.3 %). Current use of a vapourizer was associated with fewer respiratory symptoms (AOR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.05-1.56, p = 0.01). The findings suggest an increase in the popularity of vapourizers as the primary mode of delivery among approved medical users. Using vapourizers has the potential to prevent some of the adverse respiratory health consequences associated with smoking and may serve as an effective harm reduction method. Monitoring implications of such current and future changes to medical cannabis regulations may be beneficial to policymakers.

  3. Medical cannabis use in Canada: vapourization and modes of delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Shiplo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mode of medical cannabis delivery—whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally—may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evidence on current patterns of use among Canadian medical cannabis users, particularly with respect to modes of delivery. The current study examined modes of medical cannabis delivery following regulatory changes in 2014 governing how Canadians access medical cannabis. Methods A total of 364 approved adult Canadian medical cannabis users completed an online cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015. The survey examined patterns of medical cannabis use, modes of delivery used, and reasons for use. Participants were recruited through a convenience sample from nine Health Canada licensed producers. Results Using a vapourizer was the most popular mode of delivery for medical cannabis (53 %, followed by smoking a joint (47 %. The main reason for using a vapourizer was to reduce negative health consequences associated with smoking. A majority of current vapourizer users reported using a portable vapourizer (67.2 %, followed by a stationary vapourizer (41.7 %, and an e-cigarette or vape pen (19.3 %. Current use of a vapourizer was associated with fewer respiratory symptoms (AOR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.05–1.56, p = 0.01. Conclusions The findings suggest an increase in the popularity of vapourizers as the primary mode of delivery among approved medical users. Using vapourizers has the potential to prevent some of the adverse respiratory health consequences associated with smoking and may serve as an effective harm reduction method. Monitoring implications of such current and future changes to medical cannabis regulations may be beneficial to policymakers.

  4. Determining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The D/H isotope ratio is used to attribute boundary layer humidity changes to the set of contributing fluxes for a case following a snowstorm in which a snow pack of about 10 cm vanished. Profiles of H2O and CO2 mixing ratio, D/H isotope ratio, and several thermodynamic properties were measured from the surface to 300 m every 15 min during four winter days near Boulder, Colorado. Coeval analysis of the D/H ratios and CO2 concentrations find these two variables to be complementary with the former being sensitive to daytime surface fluxes and the latter particularly indicative of nocturnal surface sources. Together they capture evidence for strong vertical mixing during the day, weaker mixing by turbulent bursts and low level jets within the nocturnal stable boundary layer during the night, and frost formation in the morning. The profiles are generally not well described with a gradient mixing line analysis because D/H ratios of the end members (i.e., surface fluxes and the free troposphere evolve throughout the day which leads to large uncertainties in the estimate of the D/H ratio of surface water flux. A mass balance model is constructed for the snow pack, and constrained with observations to provide an optimal estimate of the partitioning of the surface water flux into contributions from sublimation, evaporation of melt water in the snow and evaporation from ponds. Results show that while vapor measurements are important in constraining surface fluxes, measurements of the source reservoirs (soil water, snow pack and standing liquid offer stronger constraint on the surface water balance. Measurements of surface water are therefore essential in developing observational programs that seek to use isotopic data for flux attribution.

  5. Variation of 210Po and 210Pb Profile in the Sediment Core of Sarawak Coastal Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Che Abd Rahim Mohamed; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to observe the variation in the distribution of 210 Po and 210 Pb through their activity vertical profile and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio in the sediment cores that were taken at some sampling stations in the Sarawak coastal waters. It was found that the distribution profile of those radionuclide in the sediment cores varied depending on the sampling location and ANOVA analysis shows significant difference at 95% confidence level for activities of 210 Po (p = 0.000), 210 Pb (p = 0.035) and 210 Po/ 210 Pb (p = 0.000) at all study locations. Generally, the measured activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb ranged from 337 to 2460 Bq/ kg, 11 to 84 Bq/ kg at SR 01; 224 to 2008 Bq/ kg, 6 to 80 Bq/ kg at SR 02; 119 to 1595 Bq/ kg, 6 to 84 Bq/ kg at SR 03; 241 to 2294 Bq/ kg, 5 to 82 Bq/ kg at SR 04 and 175 to 1340 Bq/ kg, 4 to 44 Bq/ kg at SR 05, respectively. In those range it was found that 210 Po activities were higher than 210 Pb with average of 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios at all stations were from 20 to 35. The variation in the distribution profile for the radionuclides are believed to be influenced by some environmental factors and have strong correlation between the radionuclide distribution and the sediment composition of silt ( 210 Po: r = 0.701 and 210 Pb: r = 0.648), water depth ( 210 Po: r = -0.647) and the distance from the sampling station to the main land ( 210 Po: r = 0.746 and 210 Pb: r = 0.975). Those factors are a major contributions on the variation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the samples. (author)

  6. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Analysis of a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphornratana, Satha; Sriveerakul, Thanarath

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a heat-powered refrigeration cycle, a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle. This refrigeration cycle combines an Organic Rankine Cycle and a vapour-compression cycle. The cycle can be powered by low grade thermal energy as low as 60 deg. C and can produce cooling temperature as low as -10 deg. C. In the analysis, two combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycles were investigated: the system with R22 and the system with R134a. Calculated COP values between 0.1 and 0.6 of both the systems were found.

  8. On the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets used for water proofing under NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.D.; Korenev, K.I.; Chukvaidze, K.I.; Dzhurinskij, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The problem on the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets with special longitudinal ribs which are anchorized in concrete is considered. The use of new water proofing material applied under NPP construction allows one to enhance the commercialization of water proofing works which ensured cost reduction of these works

  9. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    In most Nordic homes the interior surfaces of walls and ceilings have some kind of surface treatment for aesthetical reasons. The treatments can for example be glass felt or glass fibre cloth which are painted afterwards. To evaluate the hygrothermal performance of walls and ceilings...... treatments. The surface treatments were glass felt or glass fibre cloth with different types of paints or just paint. The paint types were acrylic paint and silicate paint. The results show that the paint type has high influence on the water vapour resistance while the underlay i.e. glass felt or glass fibre...... acrylic paint on glass felt or glass fibre cloth cannot be used instead of a vapour barrier....

  10. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun O. Adeniji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n-alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  11. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Abiodun O; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-20

    Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels) and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n -alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  12. Calibration of Raman lidar water vapor profiles by means of AERONET photometer observations and GDAS meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guangyao; Althausen, Dietrich; Hofer, Julian; Engelmann, Ronny; Seifert, Patric; Bühl, Johannes; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Wu, Songhua; Ansmann, Albert

    2018-05-01

    We present a practical method to continuously calibrate Raman lidar observations of water vapor mixing ratio profiles. The water vapor profile measured with the multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar class="text">PollyXT is calibrated by means of co-located AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometer observations and Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) temperature and pressure profiles. This method is applied to lidar observations conducted during the Cyprus Cloud Aerosol and Rain Experiment (CyCARE) in Limassol, Cyprus. We use the GDAS temperature and pressure profiles to retrieve the water vapor density. In the next step, the precipitable water vapor from the lidar observations is used for the calibration of the lidar measurements with the sun photometer measurements. The retrieved calibrated water vapor mixing ratio from the lidar measurements has a relative uncertainty of 11 % in which the error is mainly caused by the error of the sun photometer measurements. During CyCARE, nine measurement cases with cloud-free and stable meteorological conditions are selected to calculate the precipitable water vapor from the lidar and the sun photometer observations. The ratio of these two precipitable water vapor values yields the water vapor calibration constant. The calibration constant for the class="text">PollyXT Raman lidar is 6.56 g kg-1 ± 0.72 g kg-1 (with a statistical uncertainty of 0.08 g kg-1 and an instrumental uncertainty of 0.72 g kg-1). To check the quality of the water vapor calibration, the water vapor mixing ratio profiles from the simultaneous nighttime observations with Raman lidar and Vaisala radiosonde sounding are compared. The correlation of the water vapor mixing ratios from these two instruments is determined by using all of the 19 simultaneous nighttime measurements during CyCARE. Excellent agreement with the slope of 1.01 and the R2 of 0.99 is found. One example is presented to demonstrate the full potential of a well-calibrated Raman

  13. Vapour galvanizing (Sherardizing) of copper with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelen, Dietbert; Bracht, Hartmut [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Natrup, Frank; Graf, Wolfram [Bodycote Waermebehandlung GmbH, Sprockhoevel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Using a vapour galvanizing technique called Sherardizing we investigated the growth kinetics and coefficients of zinc copper phases. For this purpose polished (OFHC)-copper plates and zinc powder have been sealed in quartz ampoules under inert gas atmospheres and annealed at a temperature range between 300 and 410 C. In order to study the coating thickness and the phase composition, cross sections were prepared, which have been analyzed by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We were able to demonstrate that the coating thickness is a function of the parabolic time law and that the formed coatings are composed of two layers referring to the ordered {beta}-CuZn and {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8}-phases. To enhance the coating quality, small amounts of ZnCl{sub 2} were added to the zinc powder. It was observed that the coating thickness decreased with increasing ZnCl{sub 2}. Experiments with variable Ar-pressure demonstrated a reduced coating growth with increasing pressures. Further measurements with ZnCl{sub 2} were performed to check whether an electrochemical mechanism is involved in the coating process.

  14. Action of the chlorine trifluoride on water vapour. Analysis of reaction products. Technical report - 589; Action du trifluorure de chlore sur la vapeur d'eau. Analyses des produits de reaction. Rapport technique - 589

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougon, R.

    1961-06-15

    As the separation of uranium 235 from uranium 238 by gaseous diffusion under the form of uranium hexa-fluoride requires the use of materials which may contain some impurities retained by chemical or physical bounds, this report addresses the use of a reactant which would allow these impurities to be removed. Due to its properties (inert with respect to UF{sub 6}; transforms most of impurities into volatile compounds, and different UF compounds into UF{sub 6}; strongly reacts on water; all its degradation products are volatile), chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) has been chosen. It is used for the preprocessing of materials for their passivation with respect to UF{sub 6}, and for a post-processing for the regeneration of porous materials by transformation of UF{sub 4}, UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and UF{sub x} into UF{sub 6}. The authors more particularly studied the reaction between ClF{sub 3} and water.

  15. PERBAIKAN SIFAT MEKANIK DAN LAJU TRANSMISI UAP AIR EDIBLE FILM DARI PATI GANYONG TERMODIFIKASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN LILIN LEBAH DAN SURFAKTAN Improving the Mechanical and Water Vapour Transmission Rate Properties of Edible Film from Modified Ganyong Starc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Edible film from ganyong starch without and with modification were incorporated by CMC and lecithin as surfactants. Edible film were characterized with respect to water vapor transmission rate and mechanical properties. Incorporation of CMC 2 % and lecithin 1 % as surfactants decreased water vapor transmission rate. Puncture strength decreased but still fulfill Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS 1975 min 50 gf.  Elongation of edible film increased and not fulfill JIS 1975 min 70 %.   Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lecithin, modification, starch, surfactants   ABSTRAK Edible film pati ganyong sebelum dan setelah dimodifikasi ditambahkan surfaktan CMC dan lesitin. Karakteristik edible film yang diamati adalah laju transmisi uap air dan sifat mekanik (kuat tekan dan persen pemanjangan. Penambahan CMC dengan konsentrasi 2 % dan lesitin 1 % menurunkan laju transmisi uap air edible film pati ganyong. Kuat tekan edible film pati ganyong mengalami penurunan, namun masih memenuhi standar JIS 1975 minimal 50gf. Nilai persen pemanjangan edible film pati ganyong meningkat tetapi belum memenuhi standar JIS 1975. Kata kunci: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lesitin, modifikasi, pati, surfaktan

  16. Evaluation of niobium dimethylamino-ethoxide for chemical vapour deposition of niobium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabirian, Ali; Kuzminykh, Yury; Wagner, Estelle; Benvenuti, Giacomo; Rushworth, Simon; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes depend on the availability of suitable precursors. Precursors that deliver a stable vapour pressure are favourable in classical CVD processes, as they ensure process reproducibility. In high vacuum CVD (HV-CVD) process vapour pressure stability of the precursor is of particular importance, since no carrier gas assisted transport can be used. The dimeric Nb 2 (OEt) 10 does not fulfil this requirement since it partially dissociates upon heating. Dimethylamino functionalization of an ethoxy ligand of Nb(OEt) 5 acts as an octahedral field completing entity and leads to Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae). We show that Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae) evaporates as monomeric molecule and ensures a stable vapour pressure and, consequently, stable flow. A set of HV-CVD experiments were conducted using this precursor by projecting a graded molecular beam of the precursor onto the substrate at deposition temperatures from 320 °C to 650 °C. Film growth rates ranging from 8 nm·h −1 to values larger than 400 nm·h −1 can be obtained in this system illustrating the high level of control available over the film growth process. Classical CVD limiting conditions along with the recently reported adsorption–reaction limited conditions are observed and the chemical composition, and microstructural and optical properties of the films are related to the corresponding growth regime. Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae) provides a large process window of deposition temperatures and precursor fluxes over which carbon-free and polycrystalline niobium oxide films with growth rates proportional to precursor flux are obtained. This feature makes Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae) an attractive precursor for combinatorial CVD of niobium containing complex oxide films that are finding an increasing interest in photonics and photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. The adsorption–reaction limited conditions provide extremely small growth rates comparable to an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process

  17. Emerging Technologies and Synergies for Airborne and Space-Based Measurements of Water Vapor Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrir, Amin R.; Kiemle, Christoph; Lebsock, Mathew D.; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Buehler, Stefan A.; Löhnert, Ulrich; Liu, Cong-Liang; Hargrave, Peter C.; Barrera-Verdejo, Maria; Winker, David M.

    2017-11-01

    A deeper understanding of how clouds will respond to a warming climate is one of the outstanding challenges in climate science. Uncertainties in the response of clouds, and particularly shallow clouds, have been identified as the dominant source of the discrepancy in model estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity. As the community gains a deeper understanding of the many processes involved, there is a growing appreciation of the critical role played by fluctuations in water vapor and the coupling of water vapor and atmospheric circulations. Reduction of uncertainties in cloud-climate feedbacks and convection initiation as well as improved understanding of processes governing these effects will result from profiling of water vapor in the lower troposphere with improved accuracy and vertical resolution compared to existing airborne and space-based measurements. This paper highlights new technologies and improved measurement approaches for measuring lower tropospheric water vapor and their expected added value to current observations. Those include differential absorption lidar and radar, microwave occultation between low-Earth orbiters, and hyperspectral microwave remote sensing. Each methodology is briefly explained, and measurement capabilities as well as the current technological readiness for aircraft and satellite implementation are specified. Potential synergies between the technologies are discussed, actual examples hereof are given, and future perspectives are explored. Based on technical maturity and the foreseen near-mid-term development path of the various discussed measurement approaches, we find that improved measurements of water vapor throughout the troposphere would greatly benefit from the combination of differential absorption lidar focusing on the lower troposphere with passive remote sensors constraining the upper-tropospheric humidity.

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment for six vapour intrusion algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bronders, J.; Van Keer, I.; Govaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment with sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation for six vapour intrusion algorithms, used in various regulatory frameworks for contaminated land management, is presented here. In addition a deterministic approach with default parameter sets is evaluated against

  19. Vapour phase synthesis of salol over solid acids via transesterification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    rate of reactants, WHSV and time-on-stream on the conversion (%) of phenol and selectivity (%) of salol ... Possible reaction mechanisms for the formation of salol and diphenyl ether over ... Hence, vapour-phase conditions of the experiment.

  20. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  1. Velocity profile of water vapor inside a cavity with two axial inlets and two outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, José; Ruiz Chavarría, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    To study the dynamics of Breath Figure phenomenon, a control of both the rate of flow and temperature of water vapor is required. The experimental setup widely used is a non hermetically closed chamber with cylindrical geometry and axial inlets and outlets. In this work we present measurements in a cylindrical chamber with diameter 10 cm and 1.5 cm height, keeping a constant temperature (10 °C). We are focused in the velocity field when a gradient of the temperatures is produced between the base plate and the vapor. With a flux of water vapor of 250 mil/min at room temperature (21 °C), the Reynolds number measured in one inlet is 755. Otherwise, the temperatures of water vapor varies from 21 to 40 °C. The velocity profile is obtained by hot wire anemometry. We identify the stagnations and the possibly instabilities regions for an empty plate and with a well defined shape obstacle as a fashion sample. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  2. Ethylene vinylacetate copolymer and nanographite composite as chemical vapour sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, Santa; Sakale, Gita; Knite, Maris

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-nanostructured carbon composite as chemical vapour sensor is described, made by the dissolution method of a non-conductive polymer, ethylene vinylacetate copolymer, mixed with conductive nanographite particles (carbon black). Sensor exhibits relative electrical resistance change in chemical vapours, like ethanol and toluene. Since the sensor is relatively cheap, easy to fabricate, it can be used in air quality monitoring and at industries to control hazardous substance concentration in the air, for example, to protect workers from exposure to chemical spills

  3. Microsphere formation in droplets using antisolvent vapour precipitation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Sean Jun Liang

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, the antisolvent vapour precipitation method has been proven to produce uniformly sized lactose microspheres (1.0 µm) from a single droplet (1.2 mm diameter) at atmospheric pressure. These types of particles have potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry, especially due to their high dissolution rate. This project looked into the possibility of using antisolvent vapour precipitation to produce microspheres from finely atomised droplets. Microspheres in the sub-...

  4. Considering the use of polyethylene vapour barriers in temperate climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, M.D. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Brown, W.C. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Most building envelope assemblies in Canada must include a vapour barrier in order to comply with Canadian building codes. The installation of sheet polyethylene between the studs and the interior sheathing has been the most common method because it provides more diffusion resistance than necessary to control condensation within a building envelope assembly. It has been suggested that the presence of a polyethylene vapour barrier on the warm-in-winter side of the insulation may actually cause moisture problems because a very low permeance material increases average moisture levels. This paper examined the theory that a vapour barrier at this location restricts drying of moisture that enters the building from outside. Pacific coastal regions of Canada and the United States were presented as examples. Other ways that a polyethylene vapour barrier affects wall performance were also presented. The advanced hygrothermal model HygIRC, developed by Canada's National Research Council, was used to simulate the performance of a wall assembly. Results indicate that eliminating the low permeance polyethylene vapour barrier does not necessarily reduce the risk of moisture problems. Removal of the vapour barrier may have some negative effects, such as increased risk of periodic moisture accumulation and mold growth on paper-faced gypsum board. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Induction of lipids and resultant FAME profiles of microalgae from coastal waters of Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroch, Maurycy; Shao, Congcong; Liu, Ying; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a study on identification, cultivation and characterisation of microalgal strains from the coastal waters of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong, China. Thirty-seven identified strains belong to the families: Chlorellaceae, Scotiellocystoidaceae, Scenedesmaceae,Selenastraceae,Micractiniaceae, Coccomyxaceae, Trebouxiaceae and Chlorococcaceae. Of isolated strains, Hindakia PKUAC 169 was selected for lipid induction using two methods: nitrogen starvation and salt stress. After derivatisation of algal lipids through in situ transesterification, lipid profiles of the alga under the two methods were analysed. The results have shown that both lipid yield and fatty acid profiles vary with the methods. Of the two tested methods of inducing lipid production, salt stress yielded three-fold higher lipid productivity than nitrogen starvation. The lipids are predominantly composed of C14-C18 fatty acids, which are favourable for biodiesel production. Moreover, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was below the limit of 12% set by EN14214 biodiesel standard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 231Pa and 230Th profiles in the open ocean water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    231 Pa and two Th isotopes ( 230 Th and 228 Th) were measured using large-volume water samples from the western North Pacific. Although 231 Pa and 230 Th have uniform source distributions (by decay of uranium) throughout the oceans, their vertical profiles are discernibly different from each other. The 231 Pa profile shows a mid-depth maximum around 2.5 km, while 230 Th increases monotonically with depth. This demonstrates that these nuclides follow different pathways for their transport and removal from seawater to depositional sinks. The activity ratio of 230 Th/ 231 Pa in seawater increases from one at the surface to four at a depth of 4 to 5 km, which is lower by a factor of 10 than the ratios published for open ocean particulate matter at the same depth horizon. The distribution coefficient, Ksub(D) for Pa, and the fractionation factor, Fsub(Th/Pa), between natural marine particulate matter and seawater are constant with depth at approx. 2 x 10 6 and 10, respectively. This implies that the adsorptive characteristics of deep open ocean particles are independent of particle composition or the content of manganese. The mean residence time of 231 Pa is estimated to be 200 years, which is considerably longer than that of 230 Th, but close to that of 210 Pb. (author)

  7. Enantiomeric profiling of a chemically diverse mixture of chiral pharmaceuticals in urban water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Bagnall, J.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.

    2017-01-01

    . - Highlights: • Chiral drugs present in wastewater and receiving waters enriched with one enantiomeric form. • Stereoselective microbial degradation observed in receiving water and activated sludge microcosms. • Preferential degradation of S(+)-, R(+)- & S(+)- amphetamines, beta-blockers & antidepressants respectively. • Desmethyl metabolites showed higher degradation rate and stereoselectivity. • Metabolites enriched with enantiomers of opposite configuration to their parent compounds. - Enantiomeric profiling of chemically diverse mixtures of chiral pharmaceuticals in urban water shows high stereoselectivity of environmental processes.

  8. Resolving precipitation-induced water content profiles through inversion of dispersive GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangel, A. R.; Moysey, S. M.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a popular tool for monitoring hydrologic processes. When monitoring infiltration, the thin wetted zone that occurs near the ground surface at early times may act as a dispersive waveguide. This low-velocity layer traps the GPR waves, causing specific frequencies of the signal to travel at different phase velocities, confounding standard traveltime analysis. In a previous numerical study we demonstrated the potential of dispersion analysis for estimating the depth distribution of waveguide water contents. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of the methodology when applying it to experimental time-lapse dispersive GPR data collected during a laboratory infiltration experiment in a relatively homogenous soil. A large sand-filled tank is equipped with an automated gantry to independently control the position of 1000 MHz source and receiver antennas. The system was programmed to repeatedly collect a common mid-point (CMP) profile at the center of the tank followed by two constant offset profiles (COP) in the x and y direction. Each collection was completed in 30 s and repeated 50 times during a 28 min experiment. Two minutes after the start of measurements, the surface of the sand was irrigated at a constant flux rate of 0.006 cm/sec for 23 minutes. Time-lapse COPs show increases in traveltime to reflectors in the tank associated with increasing water content, as well as the development of a wetting front reflection. From 4-10 min, the CMPs show a distinct shingling characteristic that is indicative of waveguide dispersion. Forward models where the waveguide is conceptualized as discrete layers and a piece-wise linear function were used to invert picked dispersion curves for waveguide properties. We show the results from both inversion approaches for multiple dispersive CMPs and show how the single layer model fails to represent the gradational nature of the wetting front.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of CO2 at Vapour and Supercritical Phases in Micro-Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao N.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 has special thermal properties with better heat transfer and flow characteristics. Due to this reason, supercritical CO2 is being used recently in air-condition and refrigeration systems to replace non environmental friendly refrigerants. Even though many researches have been done, there are not many literatures for heat transfer and flow characteristics of supercritical CO2. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to develop flow and heat transfer CFD models on two different phases; vapour and supercritical of CO2 to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop in micro-channels. CO2 is considered to be in different phases with different flow pressures but at same temperature. For the simulation, the CO2 flow was assumed to be turbulent, nonisothermal and Newtonian. The numerical results for both phases are compared. From the numerical analysis, for both vapour and supercritical phases, the heat energy from CO2 gas transferred to water to attain thermal equilibrium. The temperature of CO2 at vapour phase decreased 1.78% compared to supercritical phase, which decreased for 0.56% from the inlet temperature. There was a drastic increase of 72% for average Nu when the phase changed from vapour to supercritical. The average Nu decreased rapidly about 41% after total pressure of 9.0 MPa. Pressure drop (ΔP increased together with Reynolds number (Re for vapour and supercritical phases. When the phase changed from vapour to supercritical, ΔP was increased about 26%. The results obtained from this study can provide information for further investigations on supercritical CO2.

  10. High temperature oxidation of 9% and 12% Cr steel: effect of water vapour; Oxidation haute temperature d'un acier 9% et 12% de teneur Cr. Effet de la vapeur d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evin, H.; Heritier, D.; Chevalier, S. [Universite de Bourgogne, Institut Carnot de Bourgogne UMR 5209 CNRS, 21 - Dijon (France); Fojer, C. [OCAS N.V. ArcelorMittal Research Industry Gent, Zelzate (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    Isothermal tests were performed on commercial 9%Cr and 12%Cr steels between 600 and 750 deg C in air under atmospheric pressure. The same steels were also tested in oxidizing atmosphere enriched with 12% H{sub 2}O at 700 deg C for 24 hours. Kinetics data were registered and the corrosion products were analyzed using different characterization tools such as scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and secondary ions mass spectrometry. 9%Cr steels showed very limited high temperature corrosion behavior in air, because a breakaway appeared after less than 80 hours at 750 deg C. Spinel oxides composed of iron, chromium and manganese (Mn{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were identified over the surfaces of both steel grades after oxidation. (Cr,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 3} was also identified especially at 700 deg C and 750 deg C, whereas Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mainly grew at 600 and 650 deg C. Differences in oxide morphology and composition were noticed between the samples oxidized under air and air + 12 % water vapor. (authors)

  11. Study of corrosion kinetics of fuel element tubes from calcium-thermal zirconium alloy Zr1Nb in water at 350 degree C and in vapour at 400 and 500 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petel'guzov, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the report brought results of corrosion process studies in water medium of pipe samples for fuel element shells from Zr1Nb alloy (earlier KTZ-110),made from the calcium-thermal zirconium alloys developed in the Ukraine of technology and,for the comparison,samples of pipes from the staff alloy E110, applicable in fuel elements acting reactors of type WWER. Tests were conducted under the working temperature of fuel shells in the reactor (350 degree C) in during of 14000 hours and under increased temperatures (400 degree C) within a time acordinly 4000 hours. Samples from the alloy Zr1Nb had more high contents of oxygen (before 0,12%...0,16%), than staff alloy Eh110 (0,08%O). Studies have shown sufficiently high corrosion stability of experimental alloy Zr1Nb, close to stability of alloy E110.Discovered signs of corrosion 'breakway' or 'transition' on kinetic corrosion curves of Zr1Nb alloys and E110 alloy, characterisating zircaloy type of alloy. Considered mechanism of influence of oxygen on the corrosion process of zirconium alloys with the additive a niobium

  12. Measurement and inference of profile soil-water dynamics at different hillslope positions in a semiarid agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy R.; Erskine, Robert H.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamics of profile soil water vary with terrain, soil, and plant characteristics. The objectives addressed here are to quantify dynamic soil water content over a range of slope positions, infer soil profile water fluxes, and identify locations most likely influenced by multidimensional flow. The instrumented 56 ha watershed lies mostly within a dryland (rainfed) wheat field in semiarid eastern Colorado. Dielectric capacitance sensors were used to infer hourly soil water content for approximately 8 years (minus missing data) at 18 hillslope positions and four or more depths. Based on previous research and a new algorithm, sensor measurements (resonant frequency) were rescaled to estimate soil permittivity, then corrected for temperature effects on bulk electrical conductivity before inferring soil water content. Using a mass-conservation method, we analyzed multitemporal changes in soil water content at each sensor to infer the dynamics of water flux at different depths and landscape positions. At summit positions vertical processes appear to control profile soil water dynamics. At downslope positions infrequent overland flow and unsaturated subsurface lateral flow appear to influence soil water dynamics. Crop water use accounts for much of the variability in soil water between transects that are either cropped or fallow in alternating years, while soil hydraulic properties and near-surface hydrology affect soil water variability across landscape positions within each management zone. The observed spatiotemporal patterns exhibit the joint effects of short-term hydrology and long-term soil development. Quantitative methods of analyzing soil water patterns in space and time improve our understanding of dominant soil hydrological processes and provide alternative measures of model performance.

  13. Thermodynamic study of multi-effect thermal vapour-compression desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaké, Oumar; Galanis, Nicolas; Sorin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The parametric analysis of a multi-effect-evaporation (MEE) desalination system combined with a thermal-vapour-compression (TVC) process activated by a gaseous stream of specified flowrate and temperature was performed based on the principles of classical (1st and 2nd laws) and finite-size thermodynamics. The MEE subsystem was treated as a black box and therefore the results are valid for any combination of physical characteristics and internal operational conditions of this subsystem. They show the effects of four design variables (the motive fluid pressure and the compression ratio of the ejector, the condenser temperature pinch and the ratio of rejected to supplied seawater) on significant operating quantities and performance indicators such as: energy supplied by the heat source; motive fluid flowrate; flowrates of the supplied seawater and produced potable water; specific heat consumption; thermal conductance of the vapour generator and the condenser; exergy destruction by the MEE, the ejector and the vapour generator. Based on the obtained results recommendations are formulated for the optimal choice of values for the four design variables. - Highlights: • Model of a MEE-TVC desalination system independent of MEE characteristics. • Parametric study based on classical (1st and 2nd law) and finite-size thermodynamics. • Effect of 4 design parameters on operating conditions and performance indicators. • Recommended values for the design parameters

  14. Distribution and excretion of inhaled mercury vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1961-01-01

    Rats have been exposed for varying periods to an atmosphere containing 1 mg/cu.m. mercury vapor. The toxic effects produced showed resemblances to signs of mercurialism in man. An attempt has been made to study the kinetics of absorption and excretion of mercury from measurements of the amounts excreted and stored in the tissues. The efficiency of absorption of mercury by the rat lung is about 50%. A small proportion is excreted into the gut. After about 10 days of continuous exposure a steady state is reached in which excretion balances absorption. During short exposures the turnover of mercury in all tissues except brain is fairly rapid and most of the mercury is cleared from the body within a week after exposure. The urinary excretion of mercury, during the initial stage of storage in the tissues and the final stage of clearance, shows divergencies from the simple exponential pattern; there appears to be a delay mechanism in the kidney which, in intermittent exposures, may result in the occurrence of peak excretion during periods of non-exposure. After more prolonged exposures the mercury in the kidney appears to be converted to a form which is only very slowly excreted. The significance of the urinary excretion of mercury by man after industrial exposure to mercury vapour is discussed. The rat experiments suggest that single measurements will give only limited information concerning industrial conditions, but that an approximate assessment of the total absorbed during a working week would be obtained if it were possible to make a seven-day collection of urine. Repeated measurements after exposure would yield information on the duration of exposure and would have some diagnostic value.

  15. Study of the reversible water vapour sorption process of MgSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O and MgCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O under the conditions of seasonal solar heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, C.J.; De Boer, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Zondag, H.A.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The characterization of the structural, compositional and thermodynamic properties of MgSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O and MgCl{sub 2}.6H{sub O} has been done for seasonal heat storage using in-situ X-ray Diffraction and thermal analyses (TG/DSC) under practical conditions for seasonal heat storage (T{sub max} = 150C, p(H{sub 2}O)=13 mbar). This study showed that these two materials release heat after a dehydration/hydration cycle with energy densities of 0.38 GJ/m{sup 3} for MgSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O and 0.71 GJ/m{sup 3} MgCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O. The low heat release found for MgSO{sub 4}.7H2O is mainly attributed to the amorphization of the material during the dehydration performed at 13 mbar which reduces its sorption capacity during the rehydration. MgCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O presents a high energy density which makes this material interesting for the seasonal heat storage in domestic applications. This material would be able to fulfil the winter heat demand of a passive house estimated at 6 GJ with a packed bed reactor of 8.5 m{sup 3}. However, a seasonal heat storage system based on the water vapour sorption process in MgCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O should be carefully set with a restricted temperature of 40C for the hydration reaction to avoid the liquefaction of the material at ambient temperature which limits its performances for long term storage.

  16. A research of vapour-film characteristics of inverted-annular flow film boiling by visual method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jijun; Guo Zhichao; Yan An; Bi Haoran

    1988-01-01

    The vapour-film characteristics are an interesting topic in inverted-annular flow film boiling. A practical set of experimental rig has been designed and constructed for visual observation. Photographic method is adopted for obtaining number of photographs in the conditions of steady state. For references at hands, photographs under steady conditions of water flow film boiling have not been published yet. This paper discusses the typical vapour film characteristics and regards Elias' two-region model summarized from transient visual experiment as reasonable. In addition, under heated conditions, at least, three types of vapour-water interfaces have been observed. They are asymmetric sine waves, symmetic varicose waves, and roll waves offered by Jarlais from an adiabatic simulation. In diabatic conditions a transition of flow pattern to slug flow is usually caused by hydrodynamic instability and/or by thermodynamic instability. The effects of mass velocity, inlet subcooling, heat flux input, initial quality and pressure to vapour-film characteristics are described. An empirical correlation is fitted to 23 sets of tests of discussion

  17. BELINDA: Broadband Emission Lidar with Narrowband Determination of Absorption. A new concept for measuring water vapor and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theopold, F. A.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new concept for differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor and temperature profiles. The idea is to use one broadband emission laser and a narrowband filter system for separation of the 'online' and 'offline' return signals. It is shown that BELINDA offers improvements as to laser emission shape and stability requirements, background suppression, and last and most important a significant reduction of the influence of Rayleigh scattering. A suitably designed system based on this concept is presented, capable of measuring water vapor or temperature profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer.

  18. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) profile during backwashing cycle of drinking water biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Gu, Li; Yu, Xin; Yu, Guozhong; Zhang, Huining; Xu, Jinli

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation was made in this study on the variation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) during a whole backwashing cycle of the biofiltration for drinking water treatment. In such a cycle, the normalized DON concentration (C(effluent)/C(influent)) was decreased from 0.98 to 0.90 in the first 1.5h, and then gradually increased to about 1.5 in the following 8h. Finally, it remained stable until the end of this 24-hour cycle. This clearly 3-stage profile of DON could be explained by three aspects as follows: (1) the impact of the backwashing on the biomass and the microbial activity; (2) the release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during the biofiltration; (3) the competition between heterotrophic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria. All the facts supported that more DON was generated during later part of the backwashing cycle. The significance of the conclusion is that the shorter backwashing intervals between backwashing for the drinking water biofilter should further decrease the DON concentration in effluent of biofilter. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolammonium tetrafluoroborate protonic ionic liquids on vapour liquid equilibria of ethanol aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Chong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering and College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ma Xiaoyan [College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Lu Yingzhou [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering and College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Chunxi, E-mail: Licx@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering and College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Vapour pressures were measured using a quasi-static ebulliometer for the binary mixture of (water + ethanol) containing one of three protonic ionic liquids (PIL), namely, mono-, di- or tri-ethanolammonium tetrafluoroborate, over the temperature range of (318.24 to 356.58) K at fixed PIL content of 0.30 in mass fraction. The vapour pressure data of the PIL-containing ternary systems were correlated using the NRTL equation with an overall root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 0.0092. The regressed NRTL parameters were used to predict the isobaric vapour liquid equilibria (VLE) for ternary systems (water + ethanol + PIL) at varying mass fraction of PIL and atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa). It is shown that the effect of PILs on the VLE of the (water + ethanol) mixture follows the order: [HTEA][BF{sub 4}] > [HDEA][BF{sub 4}] > [HMEA][BF{sub 4}]. In addition, the relative volatilities of ethanol to water for pseudo-binary systems (water + ethanol + PIL) were calculated. The results indicate that the PILs studied can enhance the relative volatility of ethanol to water and even break the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol aqueous solution when PIL content is increased to a specified content.

  20. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  2. Comparison of Temporal Profiles among Sucrose, Sucralose, and Acesulfame Potassium after Swallowing Sweetened Coffee Beverages and Sweetened Water Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Gotow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-nutritive sweeteners have been used as substitutes for nutritive sweeteners with the goal of preventing obesity and dental caries. The main factor responsible for the difference in taste between beverages containing a nutritive sweetener and those containing a non-nutritive sweetener is the temporal profile of sensory attributes. In this study, untrained panelists performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness, using one coffee beverage containing a nutritive sweetener (sucrose and two coffee beverages containing non-nutritive sweeteners (sucralose or acesulfame potassium (acesulfame K. They evaluated continuously perceived intensity of sweetness for 150 s after swallowing each coffee beverage. We did not detect a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three coffee beverages. To investigate why the temporal profiles of the three coffee beverages followed similar traces, all untrained participants who had participated in the coffee beverage session also performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness using three water solutions (sucrose-sweetened, sucralose-sweetened, and acesulfame K–sweetened deionized water. We observed a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three water solutions. These results indicate that differences in the temporal profiles of coffee beverages might be masked by factors other than the sweetness of the sweetener.

  3. [Effect of irregular bedrock topography on the soil profile pattern of water content in a Karst hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jin Tian; Fu, Zhi Yong; Chen, Hong Song; Wang, Ke Lin; Zhou, Wei Jun

    2016-06-01

    Based on three manually excavated trenches (projection length of 21 m, width of 1 m) along a typical Karst hillslope, the changing trends for soil-bedrock structure, average water content of soil profile and soil-bedrock interface water content along each individual trench were studied. The effect of irregular bedrock topography on soil moisture distribution was discussed. The results showed that the surface topography was inconsistent with the bedrock topography in the Karst hill-slopes. The bedrock topography was highly irregular with a maximum variation coefficient of 82%. The distribution pattern of soil profile of moisture was significantly affected by the underlying undulant bedrock. The soil water content was related to slope position when the fluctuation was gentle, and displayed a linear increase from upslope to downslope. When the bedrock fluctuation increased, the downslope linear increasing trend for soil water content became unapparent, and the spatial continuity of soil moisture was weakened. The soil moisture was converged in rock dents and cracks. The average water content of soil profile was significantly positively correlated with the soil-bedrock interface water content, while the latter responded more sensitively to the bedrock fluctuation.

  4. LASE measurements of water vapor and aerosol profiles during the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kooi, S. A.; Butler, C. F.; Notari, A.; Hair, J. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Ismail, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field experiment, which was conducted during June-July 2015 over the central and southern plains. LASE is an active remote sensor that employs the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to measure range resolved profiles of water vapor and aerosols above and below the aircraft. The DC-8 conducted nine local science flights from June 30- July 14 where LASE sampled water vapor and aerosol fields in support of the PECAN primary science objectives relating to better understanding nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), Convective Initiation (CI), the Low Level Jet (LLJ), bores, and to compare different airborne and ground based measurements. LASE observed large spatial and temporal variability in water vapor and aerosol distributions in advance of nocturnal MCSs, across bores resulting from MCS outflow boundaries, and across the LLJ associated with the development of MCSs and CI. An overview of the LASE data collected during the PECAN field experiment will be presented where emphasis will be placed on variability of water vapor profiles in the vicinity of severe storms and intense convection in the central and southern plains. Preliminary comparisons show good agreement between coincident LASE and radiosonde water vapor profiles. In addition, an advanced water vapor DIAL system being developed at NASA Langley will be discussed.

  5. An advanced expiratory circuit for the recovery of perfluorocarbon liquid from non-saturated perfluorocarbon vapour during partial liquid ventilation: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Mark W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of perfluorocarbon (PFC vapour in the expired gases during partial liquid ventilation should be minimized both to prevent perfluorocarbon vapour entering the atmosphere and to re-use the recovered PFC liquid. Using a substantially modified design of our previously described condenser, we aimed to determine how much perfluorocarbon liquid could be recovered from gases containing PFC and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, and to determine if the amount recovered differed with background flow rate (at flow rates suitable for use in neonates. Methods The expiratory line of a standard ventilator circuit set-up was mimicked, with the addition of two condensers. Perfluorocarbon (30 mL of FC-77 and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, were passed through the circuit at a number of flow rates and the percentage recovery of the liquids measured. Results From 14.2 mL (47% to 27.3 mL (91% of the infused 30 mL of FC-77 was recovered at the flow rates studied. Significantly higher FC-77 recovery was obtained at lower flow rates (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p -1 (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p -1, respectively. Conclusion Using two condensers in series 47% to 91% of perfluorocarbon liquid can be recovered, from gases containing perfluorocarbon and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation.

  6. Vapour pressure isotope effects in liquid hydrogen chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.N.C.; Calado, J.C.G. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)); Jancso, Gabor (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1992-08-10

    The difference between the vapour pressures of HCl and DCl has been measured over the temperature range 170-203 K by a differential manometric technique in a precision cryostat. In this range the vapour pressure of HCl is higher than that of DCl by 3.2% at 170 K, decreasing to 0.9% at 200 K. The reduced partition function ratios f[sub l]/f[sub g] derived from the vapour pressure data can be described by the equation ln(f[sub l]/f[sub g]) = (3914.57[+-]10)/T[sup 2] - (17.730[+-]0.055)/T. The experimentally observed H-D vapour pressure isotope effect, together with the values on the [sup 35]Cl-[sup 37]Cl isotope effect available in the literature, is interpreted in the light of the statistical theory of isotope effects in condensed systems by using spectroscopic data of the vapour and liquid phases. The results indicate that the rotation in liquid hydrogen chloride is hindered. Temperature-dependent force constants for the hindered translational and rotational motions were invoked in order to obtain better agreement between the model calculation and experiment. (author).

  7. Ethanol vapour induced dilated cardiomyopathy in chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, K.; Khan, M.Y.; Minhas, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of ethanol vapour inhalation on the heart chambers of chick embryo. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan regional centre in Islamabad from January to October 2007. Both experimental and control groups were divided into three sub-groups each, based on the day of the sacrifice. Each group was dissected on day 7, day 10 and day 22 or hatching whichever was earlier. The experimental sub-groups sacrificed on day 7, day 10 and on hatching, were exposed to ethanol vapours till day 6, 9 and 9 of incubation respectively. The diameter of all 4 chambers was measured in experimental hearts and compared with age-matched controls. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Ethanol vapour exposure caused widening of all heart chambers in the experimental chick embryos sacrificed on day 7 and day 10 compared to the controls. The chambers of newly hatched chick hearts showed dilatation in all the chambers except the left ventricle. Conclusion: Ethanol vapour exposure during development affects the heart, resulting in the widening of all heart chambers. The exposure is as dangerous as drinking alcohol. Alcohol vapour exposure during development leads to progressive dilatation in different heart chambers, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  8. Nitrogen Release in Pristine and Drained Peat Profiles in Response to Water Table Fluctuations: A Mesocosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merjo P. P. Laine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the northern hemisphere, variability in hydrological conditions was suggested to increase as a consequence of climate warming, which may result in longer droughts than the area has experienced before. Due to their predominately anoxic conditions, peatlands are expected to respond to changes in hydrological conditions, such as successive drying and rewetting periods. As peatlands are rich in organic matter, any major changes in water table may influence the decomposition of it. The hydrological conditions may also influence release of nutrients from peat profiles as well as affect their transport to downstream ecosystems. In our mesocosm experiment, artificial water table fluctuations in pristine peat profiles caused an increase in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON and ammonium (NH4+-N concentrations, while no response was found in drained peat profiles, although originating from the same peatland complex.

  9. Short-term nitrous oxide profile dynamics and emissions response to water, nitrogen and carbon additions in two tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Nobre; M. Keller; P. M. Crill; R. C. Harriss

    2001-01-01

    Tropical soils are potentially the highest and least studied nitrous oxide (N2O) production areas in the world. The effect of water, nitrate and glucose additions on profile concentrations and episodic emissions of N2O for two volcanic soils in Costa Rica was examined. Magnitudes of episodic N2O pulses, as well as overall N2O emissions, varied considerably and...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km (MYD07_L2). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing...

  11. estimation of precipitable water vapour in nigeria using surface

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    For the purpose of this work, Nigeria was divided into four climatic regions and for each region empirical models of the form PWV (T ) and PWV (RH) were found; where T was the surface dew- d d point temperature ... its effect on the atmospheric temperature and .... making contact with the coastal land, the clouds will then ...

  12. Carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over a semi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    of energy fluxes showed dominance of latent heat fluxes over sensible heat flux. .... for measurement of air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed etc. ... within the radius of 100 m around the tower by using plant canopy analyzer ..... 2001), similar mechanisms might operate in our study resulting in flux deficit.

  13. Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plant growth chamber using an electronic balance recording the weight of condensation. There was ..... Beysens (1995) studied the control of dew for- mation and ..... Subramanian A R and Kesava-Rao A V R 1983 Dew fall in sand dune areas ...

  14. Gene expression profiling of three different stressors in the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vandenbrouck, Tine; Knapen, Dries; Dom, Nathalie; Spanier, Katina I; Cielen, Anke; De Meester, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Microarrays are an ideal tool to screen for differences in gene expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. However, often commercial arrays are not available. In this study, we performed microarray analyses to evaluate patterns of gene transcription following exposure to two natural and one anthropogenic stressor. cDNA microarrays compiled of three life stage specific and three stressor-specific EST libraries, yielding 1734 different EST sequences, were used. We exposed juveniles of the water flea Daphnia magna for 48, 96 and 144 h to three stressors known to exert strong selection in natural populations of this species i.e. a sublethal concentration of the pesticide carbaryl, infective spores of the endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa, and fish predation risk mimicked by exposure to fish kairomones. A total of 148 gene fragments were differentially expressed compared to the control. Based on a PCA, the exposure treatments were separated into two main groups based on the extent of the transcriptional response: a low and a high (144 h of fish or carbaryl exposure and 96 h of parasite exposure) stress group. Firstly, we observed a general stress-related transcriptional expression profile independent of the treatment characterized by repression of transcripts involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction and energy metabolism. Secondly, we observed treatment-specific responses including signs of migration to deeper water layers in response to fish predation, structural challenge of the cuticle in response to carbaryl exposure, and disturbance of the ATP production in parasite exposure. A third important conclusion is that transcription expression patterns exhibit stress-specific changes over time. Parasite exposure shows the most differentially expressed gene fragments after 96 h. The peak of differentially expressed transcripts came only after 144 h of fish exposure, while carbaryl exposure induced a more stable number of differently expressed gene

  15. Electron collision cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Takahashi, K.; Satoh, K.; Itoh, H.

    2017-05-01

    Reliable and detailed sets of electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4] and tetraethoxysilane [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4] vapours are proposed. The cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours include 16 and 20 kinds of partial ionization cross sections, respectively. Electron transport coefficients, such as electron drift velocity, ionization coefficient, and longitudinal diffusion coefficient, in those vapours are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using the proposed cross section sets, and the validity of the sets is confirmed by comparing the calculated values of those transport coefficients with measured data. Furthermore, the calculated values of the ionization coefficient in TEOS/O2 mixtures are compared with measured data to confirm the validity of the proposed cross section set.

  16. Using Peltier cells to study solid-liquid-vapour transitions and supercooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states (supercooling). The thermoelectric module (a technological evolution of the thermocouple) is by itself an interesting subject that offers a clear example of both thermo-electric (Seebeck effect) and electro-thermal (Peltier effect) energy transformation. We report here some cooling/heating measurements for several liquids and mixtures, including water, salt/water, ethanol/water and sodium acetate, showing how to evaluate the phenomena of freezing point depression and elevation, and how to evaluate the water latent heat

  17. Spontaneuos and Parametric Processes in Warm Rubidium Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Warm rubidium vapours are known to be a versatile medium for a variety of experiments in atomic physics and quantum optics. Here we present experimental results on producing the frequency converted light for quantum applications based on spontaneous and stimulated processes in rubidium vapours. In particular, we study the efficiency of spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering in the Λ-level configuration and conditions of generating the coherent blue light assisted by multi-photon transitions in the diamond-level configuration. Our results will be helpful in search for new types of interfaces between light and atomic quantum memories.

  18. Predicting the impact of vegetations in open channels with different distributaries' operations on water surface profile using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeen, Mostafa A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the open water irrigation channels in Egypt suffer from the infestation of aquatic weeds, especially the submerged ones that cause numerous hydraulic problems for the open channels themselves and their water distributaries such as increasing water losses, obstructing water flow, and reducing channels' water distribution efficiencies. Accurate simulation and prediction of flow behavior in such channels is very essential for water distribution decision makers. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be very successful in the simulation of several physical phenomena, in general, and in the water research field in particular. Therefore, the current study aims towards introducing the utilization of ANN in simulating the impact of vegetation in main open channel, which supplies water to different distributaries, on the water surface profile in this main channel. Specifically, the study, presented in the current paper utilizes ANN technique for the development of various models to simulate the impact of different submerged weeds' densities, different flow discharges, and different distributaries operation scheduling on the water surface profile in an experimental main open channel that supplies water to different distributaries. In the investigated experiment, the submerged weeds were simulated as branched flexible elements. The investigated experiment was considered as an example for implementing the same methodology and technique in a real open channel system. The results showed that the ANN technique is very successful in simulating the flow behavior of the pre-mentioned open channel experiment with the existence of the submerged weeds. In addition, the developed ANN models were capable of predicting the open channel flow behavior in all the submerged weeds' cases that were considered in the ANN development process

  19. Modification of Peng Robinson EOS for modelling (vapour + liquid) equilibria with electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseri, Hadi; Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Extended PR-EOS was presented for VLE of H 2 O/Salt/CO 2 systems at high pressure. → The proposed EPR-EOS is based upon contributions to the Helmholtz energy. → Born, Margules, and Debye-Huckel or mean spherical approximation terms were used. → Two different mixing rules Panagiotopoulos and Reid and Kwak and Mansoori (KM) were used. → A combination of KM mixing rule with DH term results more accurate VLE results. - Abstract: A modification of the extended Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) is presented to describe the (vapour + liquid) equilibria of systems containing water and salts. The modification employs three additional terms including a Born term, a Margules term and two terms separately used for estimation of the long-range electrostatic interactions (the Debye-Huckel (DH) or the mean spherical approximation (MSA) terms). Effects of two mixing rules, first, the Panagiotopoulos and Reid mixing rule (PR) and, second, the Kwak and Mansoori mixing rule (KM), on the final values of VLE calculations are also investigated. The results show that the KM mixing rule is more appropriate than the PR mixing rule. The proposed equation of state is used to calculate the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) of the systems containing (water + sodium sulphate + carbon dioxide) and (water + sodium chloride + carbon dioxide) at high pressure. The comparison of calculated results with the experimental data shows that a combination of KM mixing rule with the DH term results a more accurate VLE values.

  20. The molar enthalpies of solution and vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of some cesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cesium chloride, cesium bromide, cesium nitrate, cesium sulfate, cesium formate, and cesium oxalate were determined as a function of temperature. These vapour pressures were used to evaluate the water activities, osmotic coefficients and molar enthalpies of vapourization. Molar enthalpies of solution of cesium chloride, Δ sol H m (T = 295.73 K; m = 0.0622 mol . kg -1 ) = (17.83 ± 0.50) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium bromide, Δ sol H m (T = 293.99 K; m = 0.0238 mol . kg -1 ) = (26.91 ± 0.59) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium nitrate, Δ sol H m (T = 294.68 K; m = 0.0258 mol . kg -1 ) = (37.1 ± 2.3) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium sulfate, Δ sol H m (T = 296.43 K; m = 0.0284 mol . kg -1 ) (16.94 ± 0.43) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium formate, Δ sol H m (T = 295.64 K; m = 0.0283 mol . kg -1 ) = (11.10 ± 0.26) kJ . mol -1 and Δ sol H m (T = 292.64 K; m = 0.0577 mol . kg -1 ) = (11.56 ± 0.56) kJ . mol -1 ; and cesium oxalate, Δ sol H m (T = 291.34 K; m = 0.0143 mol . kg -1 ) = (22.07 ± 0.16) kJ . mol -1 were determined calorimetrically. The purity of the chemicals was generally greater than 0.99 mass fraction, except for HCOOCs and (COOCs) 2 where purities were approximately 0.95 and 0.97 mass fraction, respectively. The uncertainties are one standard deviations