Sample records for water vapor tracers

  1. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  2. Stable isotope tracers of water vapor sources in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile: a pilot study on the Chajnantor Plateau (United States)

    Samuels, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Sharp, Z. D.; Rella, C.; Ward, D.


    Subtropical deserts form in response to the interaction of large-scale processes, including atmospheric circulation and oceanic currents, with local features like topography. The degree to which each of these factors controls desert formation and the anticipated impacts of variations in each as climate changes, however, are poorly understood. Stable isotope compositions of water vapor in desert air can help to distinguish between moisture sources and processes that control aridity. The Atacama Desert, located in northern Chile between latitudes 23S and 27S, provides a natural laboratory in which to test the degree to which water vapor isotopologues enable the distinction between processes that control humidity, including the Hadley Circulation, the cold Humboldt Current off the coast of Chile, and the orographic effect of the Andes, in this subtropical desert. Water vapor isotopologues and concentrations were measured in real time using a cavity-ringdown spectrometer deployed on the Chajnantor Plateau over a three-week period from mid-July early August 2010. The elevation of the Plateau, 5000 m amsl (~550 hPa), places it above the boundary layer, allowing the evaluation of the Rayleigh fractionation model from the coast inland. Values reported by the instrument were verified with air samples taken at the coast and the Plateau, which were analyzed on an MAT-252 mass spectrometer. Water vapor concentrations and δD values varied spatially and temporally. Water vapor concentrations on the Plateau ranged from 200 to 3664 ppmv with a mean value of 536 ppmv. In contrast, water vapor concentrations at the coast were approximately 10000 ppmv, and at Yungay, 60 km inland, water vapor concentrations ranged from 1300 to 2000 ppmv from morning to evening. δD values on the Plateau ranged from -526‰ to -100‰ with a mean value of 290‰ with enriched values correlated to periods with higher water vapor concentrations. There are no strong diurnal variations in water vapor

  3. Water vaporization on Ceres (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.


    A search is presently conducted for OH generated by the photodissociation of atmospheric water vapor in long-exposure IUE spectra of the region around Ceres. A statistically significant detection of OH is noted in an exposure off the northern limb of Ceres after perihelion. The amount of OH is consistent with a polar cap that might be replenished during winter by subsurface percolation, but which dissipates in summer.

  4. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi


    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  5. Water vapor adsorption on goethite. (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François


    Goethite (α-FeOOH) is an important mineral contributing to processes of atmospheric and terrestrial importance. Their interactions with water vapor are particularly relevant in these contexts. In this work, molecular details of water vapor (0.0-19.0 Torr; 0-96% relative humidity at 25 °C) adsorption at surfaces of synthetic goethite nanoparticles reacted with and without HCl and NaCl were resolved using vibrational spectroscopy. This technique probed interactions between surface (hydr)oxo groups and liquid water-like films. Molecular dynamics showed that structures and orientations adopted by these waters are comparable to those adopted at the interface with liquid water. Particle surfaces reacted with HCl accumulated less water than acid-free surfaces due to disruptions in hydrogen bond networks by chemisorbed waters and chloride. Particles reacted with NaCl had lower loadings below ∼10 Torr water vapor but greater loadings above this value than salt-free surfaces. Water adsorption reactions were here affected by competitive hydration of coexisting salt-free surface regions, adsorbed chloride and sodium, as well as precipitated NaCl. Collectively, the findings presented in this study add further insight into the initial mechanisms of thin water film formation at goethite surfaces subjected to variations in water vapor pressure that are relevant to natural systems.

  6. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water (United States)

    Wörman, A.


    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  7. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita


    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln(R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  8. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita


    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  9. TRACER-II: a complete computational model for mixing and propagation of vapor explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.H. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, I.G.; Park, G.C.


    A vapor explosion is a physical process in which very rapid energy transfer occurs between a hot liquid and a volatile, colder liquid when the two liquids come into a sudden contact. For the analyses of potential impacts from such explosive events, a computer program, TRACER-II, has been developed, which contains a complete description of mixing and propagation phases of vapor explosions. The model consists of fuel, fragmented fuel (debris), coolant liquid, and coolant vapor in two-dimensional Eulerian coordinates. The set of governing equations are solved numerically using finite difference method. The results of this numerical simulation of vapor explosions are discussed in comparison with the recent experimental data of FARO and KROTOS tests. When compared to some selected FARO and KROTOS data, the fuel-coolant mixing and explosion propagation behavior agree reasonably with the data, although the results are yet sensitive primarily to the melt breakup and fragmentation modeling. (author)

  10. Attenuation of concentration fluctuations of water vapor and other trace gases in turbulent tube flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massman, W.J.; Ibrom, Andreas


    the turbulent tube flow issue for both passive and sorbing tracers with the intent of developing a physically-based semi-empirical model that describes the attenuation associated with water vapor fluctuations. Toward this end, we develop a new model of tube flow dynamics (radial profiles of the turbulent...... diffusivity and tube airstream velocity). We compare our new passive-tracer formulation with previous formulations in a systematic and unified way in order to assess how sensitive the passive-tracer results depend on fundamental modeling assumptions. We extend the passive tracer model to the vapor sorption....../desorption case by formulating the model's wall boundary condition in terms of a physically-based semi-empirical model of the sorption/desorption vapor fluxes. Finally we synthesize all modeling and observational results into a single analytical expression that captures the effects of the mean ambient humidity...

  11. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  12. Mars water vapor, near-surface (United States)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.; Lucich, R. D.


    In a previous paper we concluded that the temperature sensors aboard the Viking landers (VL-1 and VL-2) were detecting the water vapor frost point. Analysis of one Mars year of data at both lander sites substantiates this conclusion. At VL-1 it is found that the water vapor mixing ratio is constant with height through the bulk of the atmosphere, most of the time. Exceptions are during the onset phases of the two major dust storms when temporary enhancement of near-surface vapor occurs (the same phenomenon is observed at VL-2), and some depletion of near-surface vapor during the decay phase of the first storm, possibly the second storm as well. The former suggests near-surface, northward transport of water vapor with the storms. The latter suggests adsorption of vapor on dust particles followed by surface deposition. At VL-2, severe near-surface depletion of water vapor occurs during northern autumn and winter. The residual vapor is in equilibrium with the surface condensate observed at the site during this period, indicating that the source region for the condensate must be aloft with downward transport by dust fall-out. Since the near-surface water vapor mixing ratio and concentration at VL-1 generally parallels the column abundance over VL-1 obtained by the orbiters, this suggests that VL-1 can be used to give a measure of column abundance for as long as the temperature sensors remain operational.

  13. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  14. Water Vapor Corrosion in EBC Constituent Materials (United States)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Fox, Dennis; Jacobson, Nathan S.


    Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) materials are sought after to protect ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in high temperature turbine engines. CMCs are particularly susceptible to degradation from oxidation, Ca-Al-Mg-Silicate (CMAS), and water vapor during high temperature operation which necessitates the use of EBCs. However, the work presented here focuses on water vapor induced recession in EBC constituent materials. For example, in the presence of water vapor, silica will react to form Si(OH)4 (g) which will eventually corrode the material away. To investigate the recession rate in EBC constituent materials under high temperature water vapor conditions, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is employed. The degradation process can then be modeled through a simple boundary layer expression. Ultimately, comparisons are made between various single- and poly-crystalline materials (e.g. TiO2, SiO2) against those found in literature.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  16. Arctic Water Vapor Characteristics from Rawinsondes (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A gridded climatological monthly-mean data base of Arctic water vapor characteristics has been assembled by combining fixed station data with data from soundings...

  17. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration (United States)

    Kebabian, Paul


    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  18. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor (United States)

    Davies, D. W.


    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  19. Refraction of microwave signals by water vapor (United States)

    Goldfinger, A. D.


    Tropospheric water vapor causes a refractive path length effect which is typically 5-10% of the 'dry' tropospheric effect and as large as several meters at elevation angles below 5 deg. The vertical water vapor profile is quite variable, and measurements of intensive atmospheric parameters such as temperature and humidity limited to the surface do not adequately predict the refractive effect. It is suggested that a water vapor refraction model that is a function of the amount of precipitable water alone can be successful at low elevation angles. From an extensive study of numerical ray tracings through radiosonde balloon data, such a model has been constructed. The model predicts the effect at all latitudes and elevation angles between 2 and 10 deg to an accuracy of better than 4% (11 cm at 3 deg elevation angle).

  20. Fossil Fuel Combustion Fingerprint in High-Resolution Urban Water Vapor Isotope Measurements (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Good, S. P.; Bowen, G. J.


    Increasing energy consumption and rapid urbanization have many important and poorly understood consequences for the hydrologic cycle in urban and suburban areas. Wide use of fossil fuels for transportation and heating releases isotopically distinctive water vapor that contributes to the overall water vapor budget in varying, usually unknown, concentrations. The use of long term, high resolution isotopic measurements can help determine different sources and proportions of water vapor at various time scales. We present two months of high-resolution water vapor isotope measurements coupled with CO2 concentrations and co-located meteorological observations from December 2013 - January 2014 in Salt Lake City, UT. Periods of atmospheric stagnation (cold-air inversions) show a buildup of CO2 from baseline values of 420 ppm to as high as 600 ppm and an associated decrease in water vapor deuterium-excess values from a baseline of approx. 10‰ to values as low as -10‰ (where d = δ2H - 8*δ18O, in per mil units). We suggest that the strong relationship between CO2and d during inversion periods is driven by the build-up of fossil fuel combustion-derived water vapor with very low d values (≤ -150‰). Based on our measurements of its isotopic composition, combustion-derived water vapor could contribute as much as 15% to the total water vapor budget during inversion periods. We present evidence of this effect at both the multi-day scale and the diurnal scale, where periods of increased automobile use and home heating can be identified. This study provides the first isotopic evidence that accumulation of water of combustion can be identified in boundary layer water vapor, suggests that an appreciable fraction of boundary layer vapor can be derived from combustion under certain atmospheric conditions, and indicates that the distinctive d values of combustion-derived vapor may be a useful tracer for this component of the atmospheric water budget in other urban regions.

  1. Dynamic water vapor and temperature calibration system. (United States)

    Montague, F W; Primiano, F P; Saidel, G M


    The objective evaluation of thermal and humidification processes in the pulmonary system requires accurate dynamic measurements of temperature and water vapor concentration of a flowing gas mixture. The adequacy of instruments used for such measurements can only be determined by dynamic calibration techniques. We have developed a method of producing step changes in temperature and water vapor content of a gas mixture undergoing controlled steady flow. The system consists of two reservoirs and a slide valve that switches a test section between them. The inlet (usually a probe or catheter tip) of the device to be calibrated is positioned in the test section. The flow rate through the test section is minimally changed during the transition between gas from one reservoir to that of the other. The system has been used to analyze the response of a thermistor and a respiratory mass spectrometer to changes in gas temperature and water vapor.

  2. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials. (United States)


    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  3. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.


    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  4. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.


    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  5. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob


    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is < 2 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2 x 10-4 requirement. The observable gain stability is < 2.5 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2.5 x 10-4 requirement.Overall, the test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  6. Permeability of MDT chambers to water vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Palestini, S


    Tests of MDT chambers performed at the GIF facility and in the H8 test-beam area have shown relative high levels of water vapor contamination in the gas-mixture at the detector output. This effects significantly the drift properties of the MDTs. This note shows that amount of water observed is compatible with approximate estimates based on the permeability of Noryl, used in the tube end-plugs, and of EPDM, used in the O-rings of the on-chamber gas distribution.

  7. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics (United States)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)


    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  8. Portable device for generation of ultra-pure water vapor feeds (United States)

    Velin, P.; Stenman, U.; Skoglundh, M.; Carlsson, P.-A.


    A portable device for the generation of co-feeds of water vapor has been designed, constructed, and evaluated for flexible use as an add-on component to laboratory chemical reactors. The vapor is formed by catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, which benefits the formation of well-controlled minute concentrations of ultra-pure water. Analysis of the effluent stream by on-line mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms that water vapor can be, with high precision, generated both rapidly and steadily over extended periods in the range of 100 ppm to 3 vol. % (limited by safety considerations) using a total flow of 100 to 1500 ml/min at normal temperature and pressure. Further, the device has been used complementary to a commercial water evaporator and mixing system to span water concentrations up to 12 vol. %. Finally, an operando diffuse reflective infrared Fourier transform spectroscopic measurement of palladium catalysed methane oxidation in the absence and presence of up to 1.0 vol. % water has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the device for co-feeding well-controlled low concentrations of water vapor to a common type of spectroscopic experiment. The possibilities of creating isotopically labeled water vapor as well as using tracer gases for dynamic experiments are discussed.

  9. Vapor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes reflect water of combustion in the urban atmosphere. (United States)

    Gorski, Galen; Strong, Courtenay; Good, Stephen P; Bares, Ryan; Ehleringer, James R; Bowen, Gabriel J


    Anthropogenic modification of the water cycle involves a diversity of processes, many of which have been studied intensively using models and observations. Effective tools for measuring the contribution and fate of combustion-derived water vapor in the atmosphere are lacking, however, and this flux has received relatively little attention. We provide theoretical estimates and a first set of measurements demonstrating that water of combustion is characterized by a distinctive combination of H and O isotope ratios. We show that during periods of relatively low humidity and/or atmospheric stagnation, this isotopic signature can be used to quantify the concentration of water of combustion in the atmospheric boundary layer over Salt Lake City. Combustion-derived vapor concentrations vary between periods of atmospheric stratification and mixing, both on multiday and diurnal timescales, and respond over periods of hours to variations in surface emissions. Our estimates suggest that up to 13% of the boundary layer vapor during the period of study was derived from combustion sources, and both the temporal pattern and magnitude of this contribution were closely reproduced by an independent atmospheric model forced with a fossil fuel emissions data product. Our findings suggest potential for water vapor isotope ratio measurements to be used in conjunction with other tracers to refine the apportionment of urban emissions, and imply that water vapor emissions associated with combustion may be a significant component of the water budget of the urban boundary layer, with potential implications for urban climate, ecohydrology, and photochemistry.

  10. Interpretation of Water Tracer Simulation in the H-1 Segment of the Gullfaks Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moid, Farrukh


    This thesis describes the water tracer simulation in the H-1 segment of the Gullfaks field. Three passive water tracer slugs were injected from the two producing wells during water flooding, pressure maintenance and reservoir monitoring program in the Gullfaks field. The same program is considered in this thesis. Computer Modelling Group's (CMG) simulator STARS is used for the general reservoir simulation and a separate module for tracer flow (ITRC-SIM) which is incorporated in the STARS and developed at Institute For Energy (IFE) is used for the tracer simulation. Water cut and tracer concentration data are used in history matching of the field. History matching is performed by changing the transmissibility and permeability of different layers; also the effect of changing saturations near the well bore on history matching is examined. It is noted that water cut is sensitive to transmissibility of the layers and the saturation around the well bore. Tracers are found to be moving in the most permeable layers. The corresponding history matching of water and tracer production shows a severe loss of first tracer injected because of imbibition process. Water phase velocity and areal communication between different wells are determined. Advance numerical features of tracer module ITRC-SIM such as flux limiting scheme and grid refinement scheme are evaluated and are found to be an important tool for reducing the numerical smearing. The effects of dispersion and diffusion on tracer response curve are also evaluated. Dispersion makes the tracer concentration curve smeared. Simulation results of water cut and tracer concentration show a good history match for this reservoir. The improved simulation model and the tracer module for this reservoir can be used for the prediction of future performance of the reservoir and interpretation of the tracer behaviour in the reservoir. (author)

  11. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  12. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Griffis


    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle – an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012. These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from −40.2 to −15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from −278.7 to −113.0 ‰ and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( >  25 mmol mol−1

  13. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (United States)

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Ke; Chen, Zichong; Welp, Lisa R.; Schultz, Natalie M.; Gorski, Galen; Chen, Ming; Nieber, John


    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle - an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from -40.2 to -15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from -278.7 to -113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol-1) indicate that regional evaporation can account

  14. Lunar absorption spectrophotometer for measuring atmospheric water vapor. (United States)

    Querel, Richard R; Naylor, David A


    A novel instrument has been designed to measure the nighttime atmospheric water vapor column abundance by near-infrared absorption spectrophotometry of the Moon. The instrument provides a simple, effective, portable, and inexpensive means of rapidly measuring the water vapor content along the lunar line of sight. Moreover, the instrument is relatively insensitive to the atmospheric model used and, thus, serves to provide an independent calibration for other measures of precipitable water vapor from both ground- and space-based platforms.

  15. Water vapor sorption hysteresis of ceramic bricks (United States)

    Koronthalyova, Olga


    A quantification of the hysteretic effects and their thorough analysis was carried out for three types of ceramic bricks. Water vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms were measured by the standard desiccator method. The desorption measurements were carried out from capillary moisture content as well as from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. For all three tested types of bricks the hysteretic effects were present but their significance differed depending on the particular type of brick. Significant differences were noticed also in desorption curves determined from capillary moisture content and from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. Based on the measured data a possible correlation between pore structure parameters and noticed hysteretic effects as well as relevance of the open pore model are discussed. The obtained adsorption/desorption curves were approximated by an analytical relation.

  16. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor (United States)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.


    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  17. Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor. (United States)

    Nguyen, Sonca V T; Foster, John E; Gallimore, Alec D


    A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i) approximately = n(e), where n(i) is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i+) = n(i-) + n(e). The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production.

  18. Water vapor and Gas Transport through Polymeric Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.


    Water vapor transport through polymeric materials plays an important role in a large number of applications such as: food packaging, breathable clothing, roofing membranes, diapers, and the removal of water vapor from gas streams (e.g. dehydration of natural gas or the drying of compressed air).

  19. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.


    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites.

  20. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L


    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  1. Water Vapor in the Protoplanetary Disk of DG Tau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podio, L.; Kamp, I.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Nisini, B.; Dougados, C.; Sandell, G.; Williams, J. P.; Testi, L.; Thi, W. -F.; Woitke, P.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Aresu, G.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.


    Water is key in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of comets and icy/water planets. While high-excitation water lines originating in the hot inner disk have been detected in several T Tauri stars (TTSs), water vapor from the outer disk, where most water ice reservoirs are

  2. Adsorption and Desorption of Nitrogen and Water Vapor by clay (United States)

    Cui, Deshan; Chen, Qiong; Xiang, Wei; Huang, Wei


    Adsorption and desorption of nitrogen and water vapor by clay has a significant impact on unsaturated soil physical and mechanical properties. In order to study the adsorption and desorption characteristics of nitrogen and water vapor by montmorillonite, kaolin and sliding zone soils, the Autosorb-iQ specific surface area and pore size analyzer instrument of United State was taken to carry out the analysis test. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen at 77K and water vapor at 293K on clay sample were conducted. The theories of BET, FHH and hydration energy were taken to calculate the specific surface, surface fractal dimension and adsorption energy. The results show that the calculated specific surface of water vapor by clay is bigger than nitrogen adsorption test because clay can adsorb more water vapor molecule than nitrogen. Smaller and polar water vapor molecule can access the micropore and then adsorb on the mineral surface and mineral intralayer, which make the mineral surface cations hydrate and the mineral surface smoother. Bigger and nonpolar nitrogen molecule can not enter into the micropore as water vapor molecule and has weak interaction with clay surface.

  3. Regolith water vapor sources on Mars: A historical bibliography (United States)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Huguenin, R. L.


    The regolith as a potential source and sink of atmospheric water is examined bibliographically. The controversy surrounding Solis Lacus, a region on Mars first identified by R. Huguenin as a possible regolith source of atmospheric water vapor, is reviewed. The publications listed describe the initial debate over the existence of a regolith source of atmospheric water vapor in Solis Lacus. The debate over Solis Lacus has motivated a rigorous examination of several important data sets, and helped define the limits of their interpretation.

  4. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol + hexyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce, A.; Soto, A. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Orge, B.; Tojo, J. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.


    The authors determined the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water + ethanol + hexyl acetate at 101.325 kPa using a distillation apparatus recycling both liquid and vapor phases. The results were compared with those predicted using group contribution methods. The UNIFAC method gave the best predictions.

  5. Mars: Water Vapor Observations from the Viking Orbiters (United States)

    Farmer, C. B.; Davies, D. W.; Holland, A. L.; Laporte, D. D.; Doms, P. E.


    The global distribution of the water vapor has been mapped at low resolution throughout the period from the northern summer solstice to the following equinox. During this seasonal period the water vapor underwent a gradual redistribution, the latitude of maximum column abundance moving from the northern polar area to the equatorial latitudes. The total global vapor content remained approximately constant at the equivalent of about 1.3 cu km of ice. The various data obtained indicate that the residual polar caps are composed of water ice.

  6. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  7. Water vapor increase in the northern hemispheric lower stratosphere by the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed during TACTS campaign in 2012 (United States)

    Rolf, Christian; Vogel, Bärbel; Hoor, Peter; Günther, Gebhard; Krämer, Martina; Müller, Rolf; Müller, Stephan; Riese, Martin


    Water vapor plays a key role in determining the radiative balance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and thus the climate of the Earth (Forster and Shine, 2002; Riese et al., 2012). Therefore a detailed knowledge about transport pathways and exchange processes between troposphere and stratosphere is required to understand the variability of water vapor in this region. The Asian monsoon anticyclone caused by deep convection over and India and east Asia is able to transport air masses from the troposphere into the nothern extra-tropical stratosphere (Müller et al. 2016, Vogel et al. 2016). These air masses contain pollution but also higher amounts of water vapor. An increase in water vapor of about 0.5 ppmv in the extra-tropical stratosphere above a potential temperature of 380 K was detected between August and September 2012 by in-situ instrumentation above the European northern hemisphere during the HALO aircraft mission TACTS. Here, we investigated the origin of this water vapor increase with the help of the 3D Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002). We can assign an origin of the moist air masses in the Asian region (North and South India and East China) with the help of model origin tracers. Additionally, back trajectories of these air masses with enriched water vapor are used to differentiate between transport from the Asia monsoon anticyclone and the upwelling of moister air in the tropics particularly from the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

  8. Urban emissions of water vapor in winter (United States)

    Salmon, Olivia E.; Shepson, Paul B.; Ren, Xinrong; Marquardt Collow, Allison B.; Miller, Mark A.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Cambaliza, Maria O. L.; Heimburger, Alexie; Morgan, Kristan L.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Stirm, Brian H.; Grundman, Robert; Dickerson, Russell R.


    Elevated water vapor (H2Ov) mole fractions were occasionally observed downwind of Indianapolis, IN, and the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, MD, area during airborne mass balance experiments conducted during winter months between 2012 and 2015. On days when an urban H2Ov excess signal was observed, H2Ov emission estimates range between 1.6 × 104 and 1.7 × 105 kg s-1 and account for up to 8.4% of the total (background + urban excess) advected flow of atmospheric boundary layer H2Ov from the urban study sites. Estimates of H2Ov emissions from combustion sources and electricity generation facility cooling towers are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the urban H2Ov emission rates estimated from observations. Instances of urban H2Ov enhancement could be a result of differences in snowmelt and evaporation rates within the urban area, due in part to larger wintertime anthropogenic heat flux and land cover differences, relative to surrounding rural areas. More study is needed to understand why the urban H2Ov excess signal is observed on some days, and not others. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that the observed urban enhancements in H2Ov and other greenhouse gas mole fractions contribute only 0.1°C d-1 to the urban heat island at the surface. This integrated warming through the boundary layer is offset by longwave cooling by H2Ov at the top of the boundary layer. While the radiative impacts of urban H2Ov emissions do not meaningfully influence urban heat island intensity, urban H2Ov emissions may have the potential to alter downwind aerosol and cloud properties.

  9. Enhancing our Understanding of the Arctic Atmospheric Hydrological Cycle using Observations from an International Arctic Water Vapor Isotope Network (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Werner, M.


    Due to the role of water vapor and clouds in positive feedback mechanisms, water vapor is a key player in the future of Arctic climate. Ecosystems and human societies are vulnerable to climate change through even minor changes in precipitation patterns, including the occurrence of extreme events. It is therefore essential to monitor, understand and model correctly the mechanisms of transport of moisture, at the regional scale. Water isotopes - the relative abundance of heavy and light water in the atmosphere - hold the key to understanding the physical processes influencing future Arctic climate. Water isotope observations in the atmosphere are a modern analog to the Rosetta Stone for understanding the processes involved in evaporation, moisture transport, cloud formation and to track moisture origin. Indeed, technological progress now allows continuous, in situ or remote sensing monitoring of water isotopic composition. In parallel, a growing number of atmospheric circulation models are equipped with the explicit modeling of water stable isotopes, allowing evaluation at the process scale. We present here data obtained through national or bi-national initiatives from stations onboard an icebreaker and land based stations in Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, and Siberia - together forming an emerging international Arctic water vapor isotope network. Using water tagging and back trajectories we show water vapor of Arctic origin to have a high d-excess fingerprint. This show the potential of using water vapor isotopes as tracer for changes in the Arctic hydrological cycle. Using the network of monitoring stations we quantify using the isotopes advection of air masses and the key processes affecting the water vapor en-route between stations. We have successfully used the obtained atmospheric water vapor isotope observations to benchmark isotope-enabled general circulation models. This comparison allows us to address key processes of the atmospheric hydrological cycle for

  10. Effect of Precipitable Water Vapor Amount on Radiative Cooling Performance (United States)

    Hu, Mingke; Zhao, Bin; Ao, Xianze; Pei, Gang


    A radiative cooler based on aluminum-evaporated polyvinyl-fluoride surface was employed to investigate the effect of precipitable water vapor amount on its radiative cooling performance. A mathematic model of steady heat transfer that considers the spectral radiant distribution of the sky, the transparent cover and the collecting surface was established. The results indicate that the amount of precipitable water vapor shows a remarkable and negative effect on radiative cooling performance of the radiative cooler. Both the temperature difference between the cooler and surroundings and the net radiative cooling power decrease as the precipitable water vapor amount increases. The net radiative cooling power drops by about 41.0% as the the precipitable water vapor amount changes from 1.0 cm to 7.0 cm. Besides, the radiative cooler shows better cooling performance in winter than in summer. The net radiative cooling power in summer of Hefei is about 82.2% of that in winter.

  11. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd


    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  12. Logarithmic radiative effect of water vapor and spectral kernels (United States)

    Bani Shahabadi, Maziar; Huang, Yi


    Radiative kernels have become a useful tool in climate analysis. A set of spectral kernels is calculated using a moderate resolution atmospheric transmission code MODTRAN and implemented in diagnosing spectrally decomposed global outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) changes. It is found that the effect of water vapor on the OLR is in proportion to the logarithm of its concentration. Spectral analysis discloses that this logarithmic dependency mainly results from water vapor absorption bands (0-560 cm-1 and 1250-1850 cm-1), while in the window region (800-1250 cm-1), the effect scales more linearly to its concentration. The logarithmic and linear effects in the respective spectral regions are validated by the calculations of a benchmark line-by-line radiative transfer model LBLRTM. The analysis based on LBLRTM-calculated second-order kernels shows that the nonlinear (logarithmic) effect results from the damping of the OLR sensitivity to layer-wise water vapor perturbation by both intra- and inter-layer effects. Given that different scaling approaches suit different spectral regions, it is advisable to apply the kernels in a hybrid manner in diagnosing the water vapor radiative effect. Applying logarithmic scaling in the water vapor absorption bands where absorption is strong and linear scaling in the window region where absorption is weak can generally constrain the error to within 10% of the overall OLR change for up to eightfold water vapor perturbations.

  13. Elucidating Water Contamination by Fracturing Fluids and Formation Waters from Gas Wells: Integrating Isotopic and Geochemical Tracers (United States)

    The objective of this presentation is to evaluate the potential and applicability of different geochemical and isotopic tracers for tracing the impacts of fracturing fluids and co-produced waters on water resources.

  14. In-Situ Water Vapor Probe for a Robot Arm-Mounted, Compact Water Vapor Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to test a prototype water vapor sampling end-effector in the laboratory and in the field thatwill eventually be integrated with a small, infrared...

  15. Biomarker Pigment Divinyl Chlorophyll a as a Tracer of Water Masses? (United States)

    Mejdandzic, Maja; Mihanovic, Hrvoje; Silovic, Tina; Henderiks, Jorijntje; Supraha, Luka; Polovic, Dorotea; Bosak, Suncica; Bosnjak, Ivana; Cetinic, Ivona; Olujic, Goran; hide


    The ecological preferences of different Phytoplankton types drive their temporal and spatial distributions, reflecting their dependence on certain temperature ranges, light levels, nutrient availability and other environmental gradients. Hence, some phytoplankton taxa can be used as water mass tracers (biotracers).

  16. A novel tracer technique for the assessment of fine sediment dynamics in urban water management systems. (United States)

    Spencer, K L; Droppo, I G; He, C; Grapentine, L; Exall, K


    Urban storm water run off can reduce the quality of receiving waters due to high sediment load and associated sediment-bound contaminants. Consequently, urban water management systems, such as detention ponds, that both modify water quantity through storage and improve water quality through sediment retention are frequently-used best management practices. To manage such systems effectively and to improve their efficiency, there is a need to understand the dynamics (transport and settling) of sediment, and in particular the fine sediment fraction (unrepresentative. The aim of this study was to test the application of a novel cohesive sediment tracer and to determine fine sediment transport dynamics within a storm water detention pond. The cohesive sediment tracer used was a holmium labelled montmorillonite clay which flocculated and had similar size and settling velocity to the natural pond sediment it was intended to mimic. The tracer demonstrated that fine sediment was deposited across the entire pond, with the presence of reed beds and water depth being important factors for maximising sediment retention. The results of the sediment tracer experiment were in good agreement with those of a mathematical sediment transport model. Here, the deposited sediment tracer was sampled by collecting and analysing surface pond sediments for holmium. However, analysis and sampling of the three dimensional suspended tracer 'cloud' may provide more accurate information regarding internal pond sediment dynamics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones. (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N; Herkelrath, William N


    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Rapid and fully automated Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per


    Eminent environmental challenges such as remediation of contaminated sites, the establishment and maintenance of nuclear waste repositories, or the design of surface landfill covers all require accurate quantification of the soil water characteristic at low water contents. Furthermore, several...... and pesticide volatilization, toxic organic vapor sorption kinetics, and soil water repellency are illustrated. Several methods to quantify hysteresis effects and to derive soil clay content and specific surface area from VSA-measured isotherms are presented. Besides above mentioned applications, potential...... essential but difficult-to-measure soil properties such as clay content and specific surface area are intimately related to water vapor sorption. Until recently, it was a major challenge to accurately measure detailed water vapor sorption isotherms within an acceptable time frame. This priority...

  19. Applying the Water Vapor Radiometer to Verify the Precipitable Water Vapor Measured by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Yeh


    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at the land-sea interface in a subtropical region. Because the climate is warm and moist year round, there is a large and highly variable amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we calculated the Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD of the troposphere using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS. The ZWD measured by two Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs was then used to verify the ZWD that had been calculated using GPS. We also analyzed the correlation between the ZWD and the precipitation data of these two types of station. Moreover, we used the observational data from 14 GPS and rainfall stations to evaluate three cases. The offset between the GPS-ZWD and the WVR-ZWD ranged from 1.31 to 2.57 cm. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. The results calculated from GPS and those measured using the WVR were very similar. Moreover, when there was no rain, light rain, moderate rain, or heavy rain, the flatland station ZWD was 0.31, 0.36, 0.38, or 0.40 m, respectively. The mountain station ZWD exhibited the same trend. Therefore, these results have demonstrated that the potential and strength of precipitation in a region can be estimated according to its ZWD values. Now that the precision of GPS-ZWD has been confirmed, this method can eventually be expanded to the more than 400 GPS stations in Taiwan and its surrounding islands. The near real-time ZWD data with improved spatial and temporal resolution can be provided to the city and countryside weather-forecasting system that is currently under development. Such an exchange would fundamentally improve the resources used to generate weather forecasts.

  20. Daytime Raman lidar for water vapor and ozone concentration measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Hyeon; Cha, Hyung Ki; Lee, Jong Min [Laboratory for QuantumOptics, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Veselovskii, I. [Physcis Instrumentation Center of General Physcis Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A Raman lidar system based on a quadrupled Nd : Yagi laser monitors the Raman signals from N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O molecules. To suppress the elastic backscatter, a specially designed liquid absorption edge filter is used. The water vapor concentration is calculated from the radio of water and nitrogen Raman signals. Ozone concentration is evaluated from nitrogen and oxygen Raman returns by applying Dial technique. The obtained ozone profiles can be used for water vapor data correction.

  1. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.


    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.


    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Carlson, Tyson D.; Brusseau, Mark L.


    Gas-phase miscible-displacement experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadoze-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone. PMID:23333418

  3. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Borchardt, M. A.; Richards, K.D.; Spencer, S. K.


    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Measuring Air-water Interfacial Area for Soils Using the Mass Balance Surfactant-tracer Method (United States)

    Araujo, Juliana B.; Mainhagu, Jon; Brusseau, Mark L.


    There are several methods for conducting interfacial partitioning tracer tests to measure air-water interfacial area in porous media. One such approach is the mass balance surfactant tracer method. An advantage of the mass-balance method compared to other tracer-based methods is that a single test can produce multiple interfacial area measurements over a wide range of water saturations. The mass-balance method has been used to date only for glass beads or treated quartz sand. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and implementability of the mass-balance method for application to more complex porous media. The results indicate that interfacial areas measured with the mass-balance method are consistent with values obtained with the miscible-displacement method. This includes results for a soil, for which solid-phase adsorption was a significant component of total tracer retention. PMID:25950136

  5. Measuring air-water interfacial area for soils using the mass balance surfactant-tracer method. (United States)

    Araujo, Juliana B; Mainhagu, Jon; Brusseau, Mark L


    There are several methods for conducting interfacial partitioning tracer tests to measure air-water interfacial area in porous media. One such approach is the mass balance surfactant tracer method. An advantage of the mass-balance method compared to other tracer-based methods is that a single test can produce multiple interfacial area measurements over a wide range of water saturations. The mass-balance method has been used to date only for glass beads or treated quartz sand. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and implementability of the mass-balance method for application to more complex porous media. The results indicate that interfacial areas measured with the mass-balance method are consistent with values obtained with the miscible-displacement method. This includes results for a soil, for which solid-phase adsorption was a significant component of total tracer retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  7. Water management at abandoned flooded underground mines. Fundamentals, tracer tests, modelling, water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkersdorfer, Christian [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). AG Hydrogeologie und Umweltgeologie


    Switching off the pumps of a mine is one of the last steps in the lifetime of a surface or underground mine. As the water in the open space rises, the water might become contaminated with different pollutants and eventually start to flow in the open voids. This book addresses the processes related to mine abandonment from a hydrogeological perspective. After an introduction to the relevant hydrogeochemical processes the book gives detailed information about mine closure procedures. Based on in-situ measurements the hydrodynamic processes in a flooded mine are described and some of the mine closure flow models exemplified. As all investigations are based on precise data, the book gives some key issues of monitoring and sampling, especially flow monitoring. Then the book presents some new methodologies for conducting tracer tests in flooded mines and gives some hints to passive mine water treatment. At the end of the book thirteen well investigated case studies of flooded underground mine and mine water tracer tests are described and interpreted from a hydrodynamic point of view. (orig.)

  8. Do conservative and reactive tracers take the same water flow pathways? An experimental approach (United States)

    Kasteel, Roy; Koestel, Johannes; Vereecken, Harry


    Reactive transport modelling heavily relies on the assumption that the soil's hydraulic behavior, i.e. the solute transport volume (water content) and the water flow pathways (dispersivity), can be characterized by the use of a conservative tracer. However, there exits ample experimental evidence in the literature whether this assumption holds, mainly because of the lack of detection methods that are able to monitor solute transport with a high resolution in space and time. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) supplies three-dimensional spatio-temporally resolved image data through minimally invasive measurements. ERT has proved to be a valuable tool for imaging solute transport processes in the subsurface and has the potential to resolve the above-mentioned issue. The goals of this study are to verify to what extent ERT can be used to compare flow pathways of a conservative tracer (chloride) and a reactive tracer (food-dye Brilliant Blue) in the same large soil monolith filled with an undisturbed loamy sand and eventually address the question whether they take the same flow pathways. A constant water flow field was established in the soil monolith by means of an irrigation device. The tracers chloride and Brilliant Blue were successively added to the irrigation water. The negative charge of both tracer provides an electrical conductivity contrast that can be detected by means of ERT. Time-lapse ERT provides a qualitative comparison between both tracers, by visualizing the three-dimensional transport behavior. A quantitative analysis was performed by parameterizing the voxel-scale breakthrough curves using the convection-dispersion equation, which includes retardation and sorption kinetics for the reactive tracer. At the voxel-scale, heterogeneous water flow was observed, identified by regions with different pore-water velocities. In the subsoil, these regions were aligned to soil structural features of the plough pan. We discuss the comparison of the

  9. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  10. Profiles of electrostatic potential across the water-vapor, ice-vapor and ice-water interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bryk


    Full Text Available Ice-water, water-vapor interfaces and ice surface are studied by molecular dynamics simulations with the SPC/E model of water molecules having the purpose to estimate the profiles of electrostatic potential across the interfaces. We have proposed a methodology for calculating the profiles of electrostatic potential based on a trial particle, which showed good agreement for the case of electrostatic potential profile of the water-vapor interface of TIP4P model calculated in another way. The measured profile of electrostatic potential for the pure ice-water interface decreases towards the liquid bulk region, which is in agreement with simulations of preferential direction of motion of Li^{+} and F^{-} solute ions at the liquid side of the ice-water interface. These results are discussed in connection with the Workman-Reynolds effect.

  11. Water vapor pressure versus environmental lapse rate near the tropopause (United States)

    Ferreira, Antonio; Castanheira, Jose; Gimeno, Luis


    The relationship between water vapor pressure and temperature lapse rate in the vicinity of the tropopause was investigated using in situ observations. The water vapor partial pressures and the lapse rates within a vertical distance of ±1.5 km around the first thermal tropopause were calculated from the vertical soundings conducted by the NOAA/CMDL at several locations in the last few decades (GMD Data Archive). A positive non-linear relationship between the two quantities was found to hold across the studied tropopause region at mid-latitudes and polar latitudes. A similar analysis was performed on the 300 and 250 hPa pressure levels (which often intercept the tropopause region), by collecting temperature and humidity observations within 1979-2008 from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA). A relationship having almost the same shape was detected for statically stable lapse rates at all latitude zones. Given the relevance of water vapor in the radiative transfer in the upper troposphere, the results are an indication of a local influence of water vapor on the thermal structure of the transition layer between the troposphere and stratosphere

  12. Visualization of Atmospheric Water Vapor Data for SAGE (United States)

    Kung, Mou-Liang; Chu, W. P. (Technical Monitor)


    The goal of this project was to develop visualization tools to study the water vapor dynamics using the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE 11) water vapor data. During the past years, we completed the development of a visualization tool called EZSAGE, and various Gridded Water Vapor plots, tools deployed on the web to provide users with new insight into the water vapor dynamics. Results and experiences from this project, including papers, tutorials and reviews were published on the main Web page. Additional publishing effort has been initiated to package EZSAGE software for CD production and distribution. There have been some major personnel changes since Fall, 1998. Dr. Mou-Liang Kung, a Professor of Computer Science assumed the PI position vacated by Dr. Waldo Rodriguez who was on leave. However, former PI, Dr. Rodriguez continued to serve as a research adviser to this project to assure smooth transition and project completion. Typically in each semester, five student research assistants were hired and trained. Weekly group meetings were held to discuss problems, progress, new research direction, and activity planning. Other small group meetings were also held regularly for different objectives of this project. All student research assistants were required to submit reports for conference submission.

  13. Feasibility study of non-radioactive tracers for monitoring injected water in oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Muta, T. [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mituishi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Mihama-ku (Japan); Schweitzer, J.S. [Connecticut Univ., CT (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This paper discusses the results of analyses conducted on non-radioactive tracers that can be used in combination with the sea water injected into a well for monitoring the water permeating through the oil reservoir by a nuclear logging tool utilizing a pulsed neutron generator. The model of the pulsed neutron tool is constructed to permit Monte Carlo Simulations to be performed of the tool response to the presence of non-radioactive tracers to achieve a desirable level of the neutron absorbing cross sections in the sea water injected into and permeating through the oil reservoirs. Sensitivity analyses of the tool response of the nuclear logging tool were performed for two types of non-radioactive tracers, ammonium tetraborate and gadolinium chloride. (orig.)

  14. The interaction of the theophylline metastable phase with water vapor (United States)

    Matvienko, A. A.; Boldyrev, V. V.; Sidel'Nikov, A. A.; Chizhik, S. A.


    The conditions of hydration of the stable and metastable theophylline phases were determined. Two-phase metastable phase/monohydrate and stable phase/monohydrate equilibrium pressures were measured at 25, 30, and 35°C. The metastable phase began to react with water vapor at lower relative humidities than the stable phase. Processes that occurred with the metastable and stable theophylline phases over various water pressure ranges were considered. The metastable phase exhibited an unusual behavior at 25°C and relative humidity 47%. At constant water vapor pressure and temperature, theophylline was initially hydrated and then lost water and again became anhydrous. Two consecutive processes occurred in the system, the formation of theophylline monohydrate from the metastable phase and its decomposition to the stable phase. The ratio between the rates of these processes determined the content of the monohydrate at the given time moment.

  15. 234U/238U as a ground-water tracer, SW Nevada-SE California (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Gutentag, E.D.


    The 234U/238U ratio of uranium in oxidizing ground waters is potentially an excellent ground-water tracer because of its high solubility and insensitivity to chemical reactions. Moreover, recent advances in analytical capability have made possible very precise uranium-isotopic analyses on modest (approx.100 ml) amounts of normal ground water. Preliminary results on waters from SW Nevada/Se California indicate two main mixing trends, but in detail indicate significant complexity requiring three or more main components.

  16. LBA-ECO CD-02 Oxygen Isotopes of Plant Tissue Water and Atmospheric Water Vapor (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the oxygen isotope signatures of water extracted from plant tissue (xylem from the stems and leaf tissue) and of atmospheric water vapor from...

  17. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America (United States)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara


    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  18. Proton magnetic relaxation in aromatic polyamides during water vapor sorption (United States)

    Smotrina, T. V.; Chulkova, Yu. S.; Karasev, D. V.; Lebedeva, N. P.; Perepelkin, K. E.; Grebennikov, S. F.


    The state of the components in the aromatic polyamide-water system was studied by NMR and sorption. A comparative analysis of spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation in aromatic para-polyamide ( para-aramid) technical fibers Rusar, Kevlar, and Technora was performed depending on the sorption value. The NMR results correlated with the supramolecular structure of polymers and quasi-chemical equation parameters for water vapor sorption.

  19. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase

  20. Tracking atmospheric boundary layer dynamics with water vapor D-excess observations

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen


    Stable isotope water vapor observations present a history of hydrological processes that have impacted on an air mass. Consequently, there is scope to improve our knowledge of how different processes impact on humidity budgets by determining the isotopic end members of these processes and combining them with in-situ water vapor measurements. These in-situ datasets are still rare and cover a limited geographical expanse, so expanding the available data can improve our ability to define isotopic end members and knowledge about atmospheric humidity dynamics. Using data collected from an intensive field campaign across a semi-arid grassland site in eastern Australia, we combine multiple methods including in-situ stable isotope observations to study humidity dynamics associated with the growth and decay of the atmospheric boundary layer and the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The deuterium-excess (D-excess) in water vapor is traditionally thought to reflect the sea surface temperature and relative humidity at the point of evaporation over the oceans. However, a number of recent studies suggest that land-atmosphere interactions are also important in setting the D-excess of water vapor. These studies have shown a highly robust diurnal cycle for the D-excess over a range of sites that could be exploited to better understand variations in atmospheric humidity associated with boundary layer dynamics. In this study we use surface radon concentrations as a tracer of surface layer dynamics and combine these with the D-excess observations. The radon concentrations showed an overall trend that was inversely proportional to the D-excess, with early morning entrainment of air from the residual layer of the previous day both diluting the radon concentration and increasing the D-excess, followed by accumulation of radon at the surface and a decrease in the D-excess as the stable nocturnal layer developed in the late afternoon and early evening. The stable nocturnal boundary layer

  1. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  2. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation.

  3. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment (United States)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  4. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin


    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  5. A new passive sampler for collecting atmospheric tritiated water vapor (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Zhang, Weiyuan


    A new passive sampler was developed for collecting environmental tritiated water vapor. The construction of the sampler was improved according to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in which the influence on vapor collection by the turbulence inside the sampler was considered. Through changes in temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C and relative humidity from 45% to 90%, the new sampler revealed stable performance of the sampling rate. Compared with the previous samplers, the new sampler significantly lowered the effect of wind speed. Using the adsorption kinetic curve of the sampler provided in the co-comparison experiments, the quantitative relationship between the mass of adsorbed water and the cumulative absolute humidity exposure was established. Field applications in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant show that the data obtained by the new samplers is consistent with the active measurement. The sampler was preliminarily proven to be reliable and flexible for field investigation of HTO in the atmosphere.

  6. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah


    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  7. Water vapor analysis with use of sunphotometry and radiosoundings (United States)

    Pakszys, Paulina; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomek; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Strzalkowska, Agata; Markuszewski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Jakub


    Information about vertically integrated content of water vapor in the atmosphere and type, composition and concentration of aerosols is relevant in many types of atmospheric studies. Such information is required to understand mechanisms of global climate and its further modeling (Smirnov et al., 2000). This work is devoted to the description of a basic technique of analysis and comparing the derivation of Columnar Water Vapor (CWV) from different instruments, such as a radiosonde and a sunphotometer. The measurements were carried out using Microtops II Ozone Monitor & Sunphotometer during the cruises onboard the R/V Oceania (13 cruises) and from one cruise onboard of the SY TASK in the southern Baltic Sea. Measurements were collected for the NASA program Maritime Aerosol Network. Data collected with the DiGICORA III Radiosonde (RS92) come from the webpage of the University of Wyoming, Department of Atmospheric Science. The first instrument, sunphotometer, allows us to collect data on days that are cloud-free. The Microtops II is capable of measuring the total ozone column, total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical depth at 1020 nm (Morys et al. 2001; Ichoku et al., 2002). Each of these parameters is automatically derived. Data collected by Microtops have been processed with the pre- and post-field calibration and automatic cloud clearing. Precipitable water vapor in the column was derived from the 936nm channel. Detailed data description is available on the AERONET webpage. In radiousoundings the total precipitable water is the water that occurs in a vertical column of a unit cross-sectional area between any two specified levels, commonly expressed as from the earth's surface to the 'top' of the atmosphere. The Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPWV) is the height of liquid water that would result from the condensation of all water vapor in a column. The study of one cruise (29 March - 20 April) shows that 241 Microtops measurements were made, each of

  8. Interpolating atmospheric water vapor delay by incorporating terrain elevation information (United States)

    Xu, W. B.; Li, Z. W.; Ding, X. L.; Zhu, J. J.


    In radio signal-based observing systems, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), the water vapor in the atmosphere will cause delays during the signal transmission. Such delays vary significantly with terrain elevation. In the case when atmospheric delays are to be eliminated from the measured raw signals, spatial interpolators may be needed. By taking advantage of available terrain elevation information during spatial interpolation process, the accuracy of the atmospheric delay mapping can be considerably improved. This paper first reviews three elevation-dependent water vapor interpolation models, i.e., the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator in combination with the water vapor Height Scaling Model (BLUE + HSM), the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator coupled with the Elevation-dependent Covariance Model (BLUE + ECM), and the Simple Kriging with varying local means based on the Baby semi-empirical model (SKlm + Baby for short). A revision to the SKlm + Baby model is then presented, where the Onn water vapor delay model is adopted to substitute the inaccurate Baby semi-empirical model (SKlm + Onn for short). Experiments with the zenith wet delays obtained through the GPS observations from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) demonstrate that the SKlm + Onn model outperforms the other three. The RMS of SKlm + Onn is only 0.55 cm, while those of BLUE + HSM, BLUE + ECM and SKlm + Baby amount to 1.11, 1.49 and 0.77 cm, respectively. The proposed SKlm + Onn model therefore represents an improvement of 29-63% over the other known models.

  9. Surface potential of the water liquid-vapor interface (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Pohorille, Andrew; Pratt, Lawrence R.


    An analysis of an extended molecular dynamics calculation of the surface potential (SP) of the water liquid-vapor interface is presented. The SP predicted by the TIP4P model is -(130 + or - 50) mV. This value is of reasonable magnitude but of opposite sign to the expectations based on laboratory experiments. The electrostatic potential shows a nonmonotonic variation with depth into the liquid.

  10. Surface tension of water in the presence of perfluorocarbon vapors. (United States)

    Chernyshev, Vasiliy S; Skliar, Mikhail


    Fluorocarbons are highly hydrophobic, biocompatible compounds with a variety of medical applications. Despite significant interest, the study of interfacial properties of fluorocarbons in aqueous systems has received limited attention. In this study, we investigate the influence of perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane vapors on the surface tension of water at room temperature. The results show a substantial decrease in the surface tension of water in the presence of perfluorocarbon vapors. In the investigated range of partial pressures up to the saturation value, a linear correlation between the surface tension and the partial pressure was found. This suggests that an adsorbed perfluorocarbon layer is formed on the surface of water. For comparison, the effect of the perfluorocarbon vapor on the surface tension of methanol was also investigated and a similar dependence was observed. Our results indicate that the stability and dynamic transitions of fluorocarbon colloids, which may be dispersed under physiological conditions as microdroplets, bubbles, or their combination, are likely affected by the composition of liquid and gas phases.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk


    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake behavior at assorted adsorption temperatures and pressures whilst comparing them to the commercial silica gels of AD plants. The surface characteristics are first carried out using N2 gas adsorption followed by the water vapor uptake analysis for temperature ranging from 20°C to 80°C. We propose a hybrid isotherm model, composing of the Henry and the Sips isotherms, which can be integrated to satisfactorily fit the experimental data of water adsorption on the FAM-Z01. The hybrid model is selected to fit the unusual isotherm shapes, that is, a low adsorption in the initial section and followed by a rapid vapor uptake leading to a likely micropore volume filling by hydrogen bonding and cooperative interaction in micropores. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FAM-Z01 can be up to 5 folds higher than that of conventional silica gels. Owing to the quantum increase in the adsorbate uptake, the FAM-Z01 has the potential to significantly reduce the footprint of an existing AD plant for the same output capacity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Modeling Insights into Deuterium Excess as an Indicator of Water Vapor Source Conditions (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie C.; Legrande, Allegra Nicole; Kelley, Maxwell; Schmidt, Gavin A.


    Deuterium excess (d) is interpreted in conventional paleoclimate reconstructions as a tracer of oceanic source region conditions, such as temperature, where precipitation originates. Previous studies have adopted co-isotopic approaches to estimate past changes in both site and oceanic source temperatures for ice core sites using empirical relationships derived from conceptual distillation models, particularly Mixed Cloud Isotopic Models (MCIMs). However, the relationship between d and oceanic surface conditions remains unclear in past contexts. We investigate this climate-isotope relationship for sites in Greenland and Antarctica using multiple simulations of the water isotope-enabled Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE-R general circulation model and apply a novel suite of model vapor source distribution (VSD) tracers to assess d as a proxy for source temperature variability under a range of climatic conditions. Simulated average source temperatures determined by the VSDs are compared to synthetic source temperature estimates calculated using MCIM equations linking d to source region conditions. We show that although deuterium excess is generally a faithful tracer of source temperatures as estimated by the MCIM approach, large discrepancies in the isotope-climate relationship occur around Greenland during the Last Glacial Maximum simulation, when precipitation seasonality and moisture source regions were notably different from present. This identified sensitivity in d as a source temperature proxy suggests that quantitative climate reconstructions from deuterium excess should be treated with caution for some sites when boundary conditions are significantly different from the present day. Also, the exclusion of the influence of humidity and other evaporative source changes in MCIM regressions may be a limitation of quantifying source temperature fluctuations from deuterium excess in some instances.

  13. Determination of water vapor and aerosol densities in the tropospheric atmosphere from nitrogen and water vapor raman signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D H; Lee, J M; Yeon, K H; Choi, S C


    A Raman lidar system has been developed for the measurement of the water-vapor mixing ratio and the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. To suppress the elastic scattering from the XeCl excimer laser, an acetone edge filter and narrow-band interference filters are used. By using independently calculated backscatter and extinction coefficients, we calculate the lidar ratios (extinction coefficient divided by the backscatter coefficient). The obtained ratios between 30 and 50 sr explain the special characteristics of the aerosol existing in the atmosphere. These ratios are also used as important parameters in the lidar inversion program. We have also obtained the water-vapor mixing ratio and find that big differences exist between the ratios inside the boundary layer and those of other regions.

  14. Water vapor stable isotope observations from tropical Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen


    The response of the tropical hydrological cycle to anthropogenically induced changes in radiative forcing is one of the largest discrepancies between climate models. Paleoclimate archives of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in the tropics indicate a relationship with precipitation amount that could be exploited to study past hydroclimate and improve our knowledge of how this region responds to changes in climate forcing. Recently modelling studies of convective parameterizations fitted with water isotopes and remote sensing of water vapor isotopes in the tropics have illustrated uncertainty in the assumed relationship with rainfall amount. Therefore there is a need to collect water isotope data in the tropics that can be used to evaluate these models and help identify the relationships between the isotopic composition of meteoric waters and rainfall intensity. However, data in this region is almost non-existent. Here we present in-situ water vapor isotopic measurements and the HDO retrievals from the co-located Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON) site at Darwin in Tropical Australia. The Darwin site is interestingly placed within the tropical western pacific region and is impacted upon by a clear monsoonal climate, and key climate cycles including ENSO and Madden Julian Oscillations. The analysis of the data illustrated relationships between water vapor isotopes and humidity which demonstrated the role of precipitation processes in the wet season and air mass mixing during the dry season. Further the wet season observations show complex relationships between humidity and isotopes. A simple Rayleigh distillation model was not obeyed, instead the importance of rainfall re-evaporation in generating the highly depleted signatures was demonstrated. These data potentially provide a useful tool for evaluating model parameterizations in monsoonal regions as they demonstrate relationships with precipitation processes that cannot be observed with

  15. Solute transport characterization in karst aquifers by tracer injection tests for a sustainable water resource management (United States)

    Morales, T.; Angulo, B.; Uriarte, J. A.; Olazar, M.; Arandes, J. M.; Antiguedad, I.


    Protection of water resources is a major challenge today, given that territory occupation and land use are continuously increasing. In the case of karst aquifers, its dynamic complexity requires the use of specific methodologies that allow establishing local and regional flow and transport patterns. This information is particularly necessary when springs and wells harnessed for water supply are concerned. In view of the present state of the art, this work shows a new approach based on the use of a LiCl based tracer injection test through a borehole for transport characterization from a local to a regional scale. Thus a long term tracer injection test was conducted in a particularly sensitive sector of the Egino karst massif (Basque Country, Spain). The initial displacement of tracer in the vicinity of the injection was monitored in a second borehole at a radial distance of 10.24 m. This first information, assessed by a radial divergent model, allows obtaining transport characteristic parameters in this immediate vicinity during injection. At a larger (regional) scale, the tracer reaches a highly transmissive network with mean traveling velocities to the main springs being from 4.3 to 13.7 m/h. The responses obtained, particularly clear in the main spring used for water supply, and the persistence of part of the tracer in the injection zone, pose reconsidering the need for their protection. Thus, although the test allows establishing the 24-h isochrone, which is the ceiling value in present European vulnerability approaches, the results obtained advise widening the zone to protect in order to guarantee water quality in the springs. Overall, this stimulus-response test allows furthering the knowledge on the dynamics of solute transport in karst aquifers and is a particularly useful tool in studies related to source vulnerability and protection in such a complex medium.

  16. Assessment of water vapor content from MIVIS TIR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli


    Full Text Available The main objective of land remotely sensed images is to derive biological, chemical and physical parameters by inverting sample sets of spectral data. For the above aim hyperspectral scanners on airborne platform are a powerful remote sensing instrument for both research and environmental applications because of their spectral resolution and the high operability of the platform. Fine spectral information by MIVIS (airborne hyperspectral scanner operating in 102 channels ranging from VIS to TIR allows researchers to characterize atmospheric parameters and their effects on measured data which produce undesirable features on surface spectral signatures. These effects can be estimated (and remotely sensed radiances corrected if atmospheric spectral transmittance is known at each image pixel. Usually ground-based punctual observations (atmospheric sounding balloons, sun photometers, etc. are used to estimate the main physical parameters (like water vapor and temperature profiles which permit us to estimate atmospheric spectral transmittance by using suitable radiative transfer model and a specific (often too strong assumption which enable atmospheric properties measured only in very few points to be extended to the whole image. Several atmospheric gases produce observable absorption features, but only water vapor strongly varies in time and space. In this work the authors customize a self-sufficient «split-window technique» to derive (at each image pixel atmospheric total columnar water vapor content (TWVC using only MIVIS data collected by the fourth MIVIS spectrometer (Thermal Infrared band. MIVIS radiances have been simulated by means of MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code and the coefficients of linear regression to estimate TWVC from «split-windows» MIVIS radiances, based on 450 atmospheric water vapor profiles obtained by radiosonde data provided by NOAANESDIS. The method has been applied to produce maps describing the spatial variability of

  17. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot


    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  18. Estimation water vapor content using the mixing ratio method and validated with the ANFIS PWV model (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Alhasa, K. M.; Singh, M. S. J.


    This study reported the comparison between water vapor content, the surface meteorological data (pressure, temperature, and relative humidity), and precipitable water vapor (PWV) produced by PWV from adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for areas in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi (UKMB) station. The water vapor content value was estimated with mixing ratio method and the surface meteorological data as the parameter inputs. The accuracy of water vapor content was validated with PWV from ANFIS PWV model for the period of 20-23 December 2016. The result showed that the water vapor content has a similar trend with the PWV which produced by ANFIS PWV model (r = 0.975 at the 99% confidence level). This indicates that the water vapor content that obtained with mixing ratio agreed very well with the ANFIS PWV model. In addition, this study also found, the pattern of water vapor content and PWV have more influenced by the relative humidity.

  19. Stable isotopic composition of water vapor in the tropics (United States)

    Lawrence, James Robert; Gedzelman, Stanley David; Dexheimer, Darielle; Cho, Hye-Khung; Carrie, Gordon D.; Gasparini, Robert; Anderson, Casey R.; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Biggerstaff, Mike I.


    Water vapor samples collected during tropical field experiments at Puerto Escondido, Mexico, near Kwajalein (KWAJEX), and near Key West, Florida (CAMEX 4), were analyzed for their stable isotope contents, 1H218O:1H216O and 2H1H16O:1H216O. Highest δ18O values approached isotopic equilibrium with seawater during quiescent weather or in regions of isolated or disorganized convection. Lowest δ18O values occurred in or downwind from regions of organized mesoscale weather disturbances and ranged as low as 15‰ below isotopic equilibrium with seawater. The mean δ18O value of vapor over the sea surface therefore decreases as storm activity and organization increases.

  20. Water isotope tracers of tropical hydroclimate in a warming world (United States)

    Konecky, B. L.; Noone, D.; Nusbaumer, J. M.; Cobb, K. M.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.


    The tropical water cycle is projected to undergo substantial changes under a warming climate, but direct meteorological observations to contextualize these changes are rare prior to the 20th century. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios (δ18O, δD) of environmental waters preserved in geologic archives are increasingly being used to reconstruct terrestrial rainfall over many decades to millions of years. However, a rising number of new, modern-day observations and model simulations have challenged previous interpretations of these isotopic signatures. This presentation systematically evaluates the three main influences on the δ18O and δD of modern precipitation - rainfall amount, cloud type, and moisture transport - from terrestrial stations throughout the tropics, and uses this interpretive framework to understand past changes in terrestrial tropical rainfall. Results indicate that cloud type and moisture transport have a larger influence on modern δ18O and δD of tropical precipitation than previously believed, indicating that isotope records track changes in cloud characteristics and circulation that accompany warmer and cooler climate states. We use our framework to investigate isotopic records of the land-based tropical rain belt during the Last Glacial Maximum, the period of warming following the Little Ice Age, and the 21st century. Proxy and observational data are compared with water isotope-enabled simulations with the Community Earth System Model in order to discuss how global warming and cooling may influence tropical terrestrial hydroclimate.

  1. The Use of Stable Isotope Tracers to Quantify the Transit Time Distribution of Water (United States)

    Gray, T. M.; Troch, P. A. A.


    Water pollution is an important societal problem because it can have harmful effects on human and ecological health. In order to improve water quality, scientists must develop land management methods that can avoid or mitigate environmental pollution. State of the art tools to develop such methods are flow and transport models that trace water and other solutes through the landscape. These models deliver important information that can lead to remediation efforts, and improve the quality of water for humans, plants, and animals. However, these models may be difficult to apply since many details about the catchment may not be available. Instead, a lumped approach is often used to find the water transit time using stable isotope tracers such as 18O and 2H that are naturally applied by precipitation to a catchment. The transit time distribution of water is an important indicator for the amount of solutes soil water and groundwater can contain, and thus a predictor of water quality. We conducted a 2-week long experiment using a tilted weighing lysimeter at Biosphere 2 to observe the breakthrough curves of deuterium and specific artificial DNA particles. We show that hydrological parameters can be computed in order to provide an estimate for the transit time distribution of deuterium. The convolution integral is then used to determine the distribution of the water transit time in the system. Unfortunately, stable isotopes such as deuterium make it difficult to pinpoint a specific flowpath since they naturally occur in the environment. Recent studies have shown that DNA tracers are able to trace water through the landscape. We found that DNA has a similar breakthrough curve happening at similar timescales as the deuterium. Therefore, DNA tracers may be able to identify sources of nonpoint source pollution in the future.

  2. Water vapor sorption properties of cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers using dynamic vapor sorption apparatus. (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Wu, Yiqiang; Xie, Xinfeng


    Hygroscopic behavior is an inherent characteristic of nanocellulose which strongly affects its applications. In this study, the water vapor sorption behavior of four nanocellulose samples, such as cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers with cellulose I and II structures (cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) I, CNC II, cellulose nanofibers (CNF) I, and CNF II) were studied by dynamic vapor sorption. The highly reproducible data including the running time, real-time sample mass, target relative humidity (RH), actual RH, and isotherm temperature were recorded during the sorption process. In analyzing these data, significant differences in the total running time, equilibrium moisture content, sorption hysteresis and sorption kinetics between these four nanocellulose samples were confirmed. It was important to note that CNC I, CNC II, CNF I, and CNF II had equilibrium moisture contents of 21.4, 28.6, 33.2, and 38.9%, respectively, at a RH of 95%. Then, the sorption kinetics behavior was accurately described by using the parallel exponential kinetics (PEK) model. Furthermore, the Kelvin-Voigt model was introduced to interpret the PEK behavior and calculate the modulus of these four nanocellulose samples.

  3. Using reactive tracers to detect flow field anomalies in water treatment reactors. (United States)

    Gresch, Markus; Braun, Daniel; Gujer, Willi


    The hydraulics of water and wastewater treatment reactors has a major impact on their performance and control. The residence time distribution as a measure for the hydraulics represents macroscopic mixing in an integrated way with no spatial information. However, with regard to optimal sensor location for process control and for process optimisation measures, spatial information about macro-mixing is helpful. Spatially distributed measurements of reactive tracers can provide this information. In this paper we generally discuss how reactive tracers can be used to detect and characterize distinct large scale flow structures. It is shown that tracer substances are particularly suited if their reaction time scale is similar to the time scale of the large scale flow structure. For nitrifying activated sludge systems, ammonium is identified to be a suitable tracer. In a comprehensive experimental study at a real aeration tank, two distinct large scale flow features were identified by distributed ammonium measurements. Flow velocity measurements using acoustic Doppler velocimetry clearly supported the nature of these flow field anomalies. Ion-selective electrodes are a well suited device for ammonium measurements providing the temporal resolution that is needed for such an analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman


    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  5. Tracers confirm downward mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea upper waters associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Roether


    Full Text Available Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced vertical mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upper waters, which are supplied from the Eastern Mediterranean. The downward transfer is particularly evident between 1987 and 1997. Later on, information partly rests on increasing tritium-3He ages; here we correct the observed 3He for contributions released from the ocean floor. The Tyrrhenian tracer distributions are fully compatible with data upstream of the Sicily Strait and in the Western Mediterranean. The tracer data show that mixing reached to the bottom and confirm a cyclonic nature of the deep water circulation in the Tyrrhenian. They furthermore indicate that horizontal homogenization of the deep waters occurs on a time scale of roughly 5 years. Various features point to a reduced impact of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW in the Tyrrhenian during the enhanced-mixing period. This is an important finding because it implies less upward mixing of WMDW, which has been named a major process to enable the WMDW to leave the Mediterranean via the Gibraltar Strait. On the other hand, the TDW outflow for several years represented a major influx of enhanced salinity and density waters into the deep-water range of the Western Mediterranean.

  6. Nd:Glass-Raman laser for water vapor dial (United States)

    Kagann, R. H.; Petheram, J. C.; Rosenberg, A.


    A tunable solid-state Raman shifted laser which was used in a water vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system at 9400 A is described. The DIAL transmitter is based on a tunable glass laser operating at 1.06 microns, a hydrogen Raman cell to shift the radiation to 1.88 microns, and a frequency doubling crystal. The results of measurements which characterize the output of the laser with respect to optimization of optical configuration and of Raman parameters were reported. The DIAL system was also described and preliminary atmospheric returns shown.

  7. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.


    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  8. Water vapor toward starless cores: The Herschel view (United States)

    Caselli, P.; Keto, E.; Pagani, L.; Aikawa, Y.; Yıldız, U. A.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Tafalla, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Gaier, T.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B.; Jacq, T.; Javadi, H.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kester, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Laauwen, W.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Luinge, W.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Megej, A.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Siegel, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wyrowski, F.


    Aims: Previous studies by the satellites SWAS and Odin provided stringent upper limits on the gas phase water abundance of dark clouds (x(H2O) 7000 AU and ≃2 × 10-10 toward the center. The radiative transfer analysis shows that this is consistent with a x(o-H2O) profile peaking at ≃10-8, 0.1 pc away from the core center, where both freeze-out and photodissociation are negligible. Conclusions: Herschel has provided the first measurement of water vapor in dark regions. Column densities of o-H2O are low, but prestellar cores such as L1544 (with their high central densities, strong continuum, and large envelopes) appear to be very promising tools to finally shed light on the solid/vapor balance of water in molecular clouds and oxygen chemistry in the earliest stages of star formation. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Remote sensing evidence for regolith water vapor sources on Mars (United States)

    Huguenin, R. L.; Clifford, S. M.


    McCord et al. (1977) have presented earth-based photometric imaging data of an event associated with the 1973 dust storm on Mars. The initial dust cloud in Solis Lacus and two regions to the north and south appeared anomalously bright at blue wavelengths. Water frosts, hazes, and/or clouds were identified, and it was suggested that the water responsible for these findings may have originated from Solis Lacus. More recently, a more intensive review of the observational record of Mars was undertaken. Earth-based telescope observations and data from the Mariner and Viking missions have revealed that Solis Lacus has been a center of repeated activity. Persistent activity in the vicinity of Noachis-Hellespontus and in the border regions of Syrtis Major was also discovered. A review of the observations is provided and possible interpretations are discussed. The obtained results appear to support the original proposal that Solis Lacus may be a source of water vapor. Noachis-Hellespontus seems to be a similar vapor source

  10. Ricor's Nanostar water vapor compact cryopump: applications and model overview (United States)

    Harris, Rodney S.; Nachman, Ilan; Tauber, Tomer; Kootzenko, Michael; Barak, Boris; Aminov, Eli; Gover, Dan


    Ricor Systems has developed a compact, single stage cryopump that fills the gap where GM and other type cryopumps can't fit in. Stirling cycle technology is highly efficient and is the primary cryogenic technology for use in IR, SWIR, HOT FPA, and other IR detector technology in military, security, and aerospace applications. Current GM based dual stage cryopumps have been the legacy type water vapor pumping system for more than 50 years. However, the typically large cryopanel head, compressor footprint, and power requirements make them not cost and use effective for small, tabletop evaporation / sputtering systems, portable analysis systems, and other systems requiring small volume vacuum creation from medium, high, and UHV levels. This single stage cryopump works well in-line with diffusion and molecular turbopumps. Studies have shown effective cooperation with non-evaporable getter technology as well for UHV levels. Further testing in this area are ongoing. Temperatures created by Stirling cycle cryogenic coolers develop a useful temperature range of 40 to 150K. Temperatures of approximately 100 K are sufficient to condense water and all hydrocarbons oil vapors.

  11. Raman lidar water vapor profiling over Warsaw, Poland (United States)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Althausen, Dietrich


    Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles were derived from the multi-wavelength Raman PollyXT lidar at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, using the Rayleigh molecular extinction calculation based on atmospheric temperature and pressure from three different sources: i) the standard atmosphere US 62, ii) the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) model output, and iii) the WMO 12374 radiosoundings launched at Legionowo. With each method, 136 midnight relative humidity profiles were obtained for lidar observations from July 2013 to August 2015. Comparisons of these profiles showed in favor of the latter method (iii), but it also indicated that the other two data sources could replace it, if necessary. Such use was demonstrated for an automated retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from dusk until dawn on 19/20 March 2015; a case study related to an advection of biomass burning aerosol from forest fires over Ukraine. Additionally, an algorithm that applies thresholds to the radiosounding relative humidity profiles to estimate macro-physical cloud vertical structure was used for the first time on the Raman lidar relative humidity profiles. The results, based on a subset of 66 profiles, indicate that below 6 km cloud bases/tops can be successfully obtained in 53% and 76% cases from lidar and radiosounding profiles, respectively. Finally, a contribution of the lidar derived mean relative humidity to cloudy conditions within the range of 0.8 to 6.2 km, in comparison to clear-sky conditions, was estimated.

  12. Characterization of Upper Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX using LASE (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Linne, H.; Lammert, A.


    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor (UTWV) measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. We show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UTWV measurements.

  13. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per


    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content......, cation exchange capacity) and engineering properties (e.g., swelling potential). Our objectives for this work were to: (i) evaluate the potential of several theoretical and empirical isotherm models to accurately describe measured moisture adsorption/desorption isotherms (aw range of 0.03 to 0.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...

  14. Natural radium and radon tracers to quantify water exchange and movement in reservoirs (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Baskaran, Mark


    Radon and radium isotopes are routinely used to quantify exchange rates between different hydrologic reservoirs. Since their recognition as oceanic tracers in the 1960s, both radon and radium have been used to examine processes such as air-sea exchange, deep oceanic mixing, benthic inputs, and many others. Recently, the application of radon-222 and the radium-quartet (223,224,226,228Ra) as coastal tracers has seen a revelation with the growing interest in coastal groundwater dynamics. The enrichment of these isotopes in benthic fluids including groundwater makes both radium and radon ideal tracers of coastal benthic processes (e.g. submarine groundwater discharge). In this chapter we review traditional and recent advances in the application of radon and radium isotopes to understand mixing and exchange between various hydrologic reservoirs, specifically: (1) atmosphere and ocean, (2) deep and shallow oceanic water masses, (3) coastal groundwater/benthic pore waters and surface ocean, and (4) aquifer-lakes. While the isotopes themselves and their distribution in the environment provide qualitative information about the exchange processes, it is mixing/exchange and transport models for these isotopes that provide specific quantitative information about these processes. Brief introductions of these models and mixing parameters are provided for both historical and more recent studies.

  15. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratoy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rye, B.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance and the correction of other site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. In this study, we develop system performance models and examine the potential of infrared differential absoroption lidar (DIAL) to determine the concentration of water vapor.

  16. Six-channel multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar for aerosol and water vapor profiling. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofei; Mao, Jiandong; Li, Juan; Zhao, Hu; Zhou, Chunyan; Sheng, Hongjiang


    Aerosols and water vapor are important atmospheric components, and have significant effects on both atmospheric energy conversion and climate formation. They play the important roles in balancing the radiation budget between the atmosphere and Earth, while water vapor also directly affects rainfall and other weather processes. To further research atmospheric aerosol optical properties and water vapor content, an all-time six-channel multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar has been developed at Beifang University of Nationalities. In addition to 1064, 532, and 355 nm Mie scattering channels, the lidar has a polarization channel for 532 nm return signals, a 660 nm water vapor channel, and a 607 nm nitrogen detection channel. Experiments verified the lidar's feasibility and return signals from six channels were detected. Using inversion algorithms, extinction coefficient profiles at 1064, 532 and 355 nm, Ångström exponent profiles, depolarization ratio profiles, and water vapor mixing ratio profiles were all obtained. The polarization characteristics and water vapor content of cirrus clouds, the polarization characteristics of dusty weather, and the water vapor profiles over different days were also analyzed. Results show that the lidar has the full-time detection capability for atmospheric aerosol optical properties and water vapor profiles, and real-time measurements of aerosols and water vapor over the Yinchuan area were realized, providing important information for studying the environmental quality and climate change in this area.

  17. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud (United States)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Persson, C. M.; Buckle, J. V.; Cordiner, M. A.; Takakuwa, S.


    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold ((is) approximately 10 K) water vapor has been detected-L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work-likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 110-101) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  18. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward


    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  19. Use of tracers and isotopes to evaluate vulnerability of water in domestic wells to septic waste (United States)

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Fetterman, G.S.; Meyer, M.J.; Bullen, T.; Sebree, S.K.


    In Nebraska, a large number (>200) of shallow sand-point and cased wells completed in coarse alluvial sediments along rivers and lakes still are used to obtain drinking water for human consumption, even though construction of sand-point wells for consumptive uses has been banned since 1987. The quality of water from shallow domestic wells potentially vulnerable to seepage from septic systems was evaluated by analyzing for the presence of tracers and multiple isotopes. Samples were collected from 26 sand-point and perforated, cased domestic wells and were analyzed for bacteria, coliphages, nitrogen species, nitrogen and boron isotopes, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), prescription and nonprescription drugs, or organic waste water contaminants. At least 13 of the 26 domestic well samples showed some evidence of septic system effects based on the results of several tracers including DOC, coliphages, NH4+, NO3-, N2, ?? 15N[NO3-] and boron isotopes, and antibiotics and other drugs. Sand-point wells within 30 m of a septic system and waste. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  20. DMSP SSM/T-2 microwave water vapor profiler (United States)

    Galin, Israel; Brest, Dennis H.; Martner, Glen R.


    The Special Sensor Microwave water vapor profiler (SSM/T-2) is a five channel passive microwave sensor that operates in the 90 - 190 GHz frequency band. The instrument was developed by Aerojet Electronic Systems Division (AESD) of GenCorp Aerojet under a contract to the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The first in a series of these instruments was successfully orbited in November 1991. This paper addresses details of the instrument configuration, as well as relevant information on the status of the project. A block diagram of the instrument is described in relation to its electrical, environmental and reliability requirements. Performance data measured in laboratory conditions is presented along with data from the operating unit in orbit.

  1. Development of an OF-CEAS laser spectrometer for water vapor isotope measurements at low water concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsberg, Janek


    The determination of the isotopic composition of water vapor is an important tool in atmospheric research. The isotopic composition of water in Antarctic or Arctic glacial ice can be used as a paleo-thermometer in the reconstruction of climate changes in the past. The isotope ratios of water vapor

  2. Formation and survival of water vapor in the terrestrial planet-forming region. (United States)

    Bethell, Thomas; Bergin, Edwin


    Recent astronomical observations have revealed what may prove to be the ubiquity of water vapor during the early stages of planet formation. We present here a simple mechanism showing how water vapor forms in situ and is capable of shielding itself from molecule-destroying stellar radiation. The absorption of this radiation by water can control the thermodynamics of the terrestrial planet-forming zone. Similar to Earth's ozone layer, which shelters the chemistry of life, the water layer protects other water molecules and allows for a rich organic chemistry. The total abundance of water vapor in the natal habitable zone is equal to that of several thousand oceans.

  3. Enhanced Positive Water Vapor Feedback Associated with Tropical Deep Convection: New Evidence from Aura MLS (United States)

    Su, Hui; Read, William G.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Waters, Joe W.; Wu, Dong L.; Fetzer, Eric J.


    Recent simultaneous observations of upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor and cloud ice from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite provide new evidence for tropical convective influence on UT water vapor and its associated greenhouse effect. The observations show that UT water vapor increases as cloud ice water content increases. They also show that, when sea surface temperature (SST) exceeds approx.300 K, UT cloud ice associated with tropical deep convection increases sharply with increasing SST. The moistening of the upper troposphere by deep convection leads to an enhanced positive water vapor feedback, about 3 times that implied solely by thermodynamics. Over tropical oceans when SST greater than approx.300 K, the 'convective UT water vapor feedback' inferred from the MLS observations contributes approximately 65% of the sensitivity of the clear-sky greenhouse parameter to SST.

  4. Water and water vapor sorption studies in polypropylene-zeolite composites


    Pehlivan, H.; Özmıhçı, Filiz; Tıhmınlıoğlu, Funda; Balköse, Devrim; Ülkü, Semra


    Water and water vapor sorption to porous polypropylene-zeolite composites prepared by hot pressing have been studied as a function of zeolite loading. This work presents the first report on the effect of the zeolite as a filler on the water-sorption properties of PP composites. Water swelling experiments were conducted at 25°C using pure PP and PP-zeolite films samples having different zeolite loadings (6-40 wt %). Because PP is a hydrophobic polymer, it does not sorp any water, but the compo...

  5. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.


    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  6. A steady-state analysis of the temperature responses of water vapor and aerosol lifetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, G.J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/100925375


    The dominant removal mechanism of soluble aerosol is wet deposition. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosol, relevant for aerosol radiative forcing, is therefore coupled to the atmospheric cycling time of water vapor. This study investigates the coupling between water vapor and aerosol lifetimes in a

  7. Stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor and applications to the hydrologic cycle (United States)

    Galewsky, Joseph; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Field, Robert D.; Worden, John; Risi, Camille; Schneider, Matthias


    The measurement and simulation of water vapor isotopic composition has matured rapidly over the last decade, with long-term data sets and comprehensive modeling capabilities now available. Theories for water vapor isotopic composition have been developed by extending the theories that have been used for the isotopic composition of precipitation to include a more nuanced understanding of evaporation, large-scale mixing, deep convection, and kinetic fractionation. The technologies for in situ and remote sensing measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have developed especially rapidly over the last decade, with discrete water vapor sampling methods, based on mass spectroscopy, giving way to laser spectroscopic methods and satellite- and ground-based infrared absorption techniques. The simulation of water vapor isotopic composition has evolved from General Circulation Model (GCM) methods for simulating precipitation isotopic composition to sophisticated isotope-enabled microphysics schemes using higher-order moments for water and ice size distributions. The incorporation of isotopes into GCMs has enabled more detailed diagnostics of the water cycle and has led to improvements in its simulation. The combination of improved measurement and modeling of water vapor isotopic composition opens the door to new advances in our understanding of the atmospheric water cycle, in processes ranging from the marine boundary layer, through deep convection and tropospheric mixing, and into the water cycle of the stratosphere. Finally, studies of the processes governing modern water vapor isotopic composition provide an improved framework for the interpretation of paleoclimate proxy records of the hydrological cycle.

  8. An interim reference model for the variability of the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, C.-Y.


    A reference model for the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution for some latitudes and seasons was developed using two data sets. One is the seven months of Nimbus LIMS data obtained during November 1978 to May 1979 over the range 64 deg S - 84 deg N latitude and from about 100-mb to 1-mb altitude, and the other is represented by water vapor profiles from 0.2 mb to 0.01 mb in the mid-mesosphere, measured on ground at several fixed mid-latitude sites in the Northern Hemisphere, using microwave-emission techniques. This model provides an interim water vapor profile for the entire vertical range of the middle atmosphere, with accuracies of better than 25 percent. The daily variability of stratospheric water vapor profiles about the monthly mean is demonstrated, and information is provided on the longitudinal variability of LIMS water vapor profiles about the daily, weekly, and monthly zonal means.

  9. MODIS/Aqua Granule Level 2 Water Vapor Near Infrared Jpeg image (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Jpeg image product generated from MODIS Level 2 Precipitable Water product (MYD05_L2) using WATER_VAPOR_NEAR_INFRARED parameter. For more information about...

  10. MODIS/Terra Granule Level 2 Water Vapor Near Infrared Jpeg image (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Jpeg image product generated from MODIS Level 2 Precipitable Water product (MOD05_L2) using WATER_VAPOR_NEAR_INFRARED parameter. For more information about...

  11. SAFARI 2000 MODIS MOD05_L2 Water Vapor Data, Binary Format, for Southern Africa (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS precipitable water product consists of vertical column water-vapor amounts in centimeters (cm) at 1 km spatial resolution. The SAFARI 2000 product,...

  12. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)


    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  13. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan


    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  14. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)


    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Ambient Benzene Vapor Concentrations on Product Water of Condensation Water from Air Technology (United States)


    benzene vapor concentrations representing average outdoor polluted (50 µg/m3) and indoor industrial (640 µg/m3) settings as well as two temperatures...Henry Law calculations estimate. Benzene vapor concentrations representing a polluted outdoor environment resulted in benzene product water...Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry ATM Atmosphere C Celsius CWFA Condensation Water From Air ECBC Edgewood Chemical

  16. Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmany, Andrew


    Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

  17. Material gap membrane distillation: A new design for water vapor flux enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo


    A new module design for membrane distillation, namely material gap membrane distillation (MGMD), for seawater desalination has been proposed and successfully tested. It has been observed that employing appropriate materials between the membrane and the condensation plate in an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module enhanced the water vapor flux significantly. An increase in the water vapor flux of about 200-800% was observed by filling the gap with sand and DI water at various feed water temperatures. However, insulating materials such as polypropylene and polyurethane have no effect on the water vapor flux. The influence of material thickness and characteristics has also been investigated in this study. An increase in the water gap width from 9. mm to 13. mm increases the water vapor flux. An investigation on an AGMD and MGMD performance comparison, carried out using two different commercial membranes provided by different manufacturers, is also reported in this paper. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Occurrence and distribution of bacteria indicators, chemical tracers and pathogenic vibrios in Singapore coastal waters. (United States)

    Goh, Shin Giek; Bayen, Stéphane; Burger, David; Kelly, Barry C; Han, Ping; Babovic, Vladan; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong


    Water quality in Singapore's coastal area was evaluated with microbial indicators, pathogenic vibrios, chemical tracers and physico-chemical parameters. Sampling sites were grouped into two clusters (coastal sites at (i) northern and (ii) southern part of Singapore). The coastal sites located at northern part of Singapore along the Johor Straits exhibited greater pollution. Principal component analysis revealed that sampling sites at Johor Straits have greater loading on carbamazepine, while turbidity poses greater influence on sampling sites at Singapore Straits. Detection of pathogenic vibrios was also more prominent at Johor Straits than the Singapore Straits. This study examined the spatial variations in Singapore's coastal water quality and provided the baseline information for health risk assessment and future pollution management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalytic combustion of styrene over copper based catalyst: inhibitory effect of water vapor. (United States)

    Pan, Hongyan; Xu, Mingyao; Li, Zhong; Huang, Sisi; He, Chun


    The effects of water vapor on the activity of the copper based catalysts with different supports such as CuO/gamma-Al2O3, CuO/SiO2 and CuO/TiO2 for styrene combustion were investigated. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was tested in the absence of and presence of water vapor and the catalysts were characterized. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments and diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements were conducted in order to estimate and explain the water effects. Results showed that the existence of water vapor had a significant negative effect on the catalytic activity of these copper based catalysts due to the competition adsorption of water molecule. DRIFTS studies showed that the catalyst CuO/gamma-Al2O3 had the strongest adsorption of water, while the catalyst CuO/TiO2 had the weakest adsorption of water. H2O-TPD studies also indicated that the order of desorption activation energies of water vapor on the catalysts or the strength of interactions of water molecules with the surfaces of the catalysts was CuO/gamma-Al2O3>CuO/SiO2>CuO/TiO2. As a consequence of that, the CuO/TiO2 exhibited the better durability to water vapor, while CuO/gamma-Al2O3 had the poorest durability to water vapor among these three catalysts.

  20. Water vapor adsorption isotherms of agar-based nanocomposite films. (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan


    Adsorption isotherms of agar and agar/clay nanocomposite films prepared with different types of nanoclays, that is, a natural montmorillonite (Cloisite Na(+) ) and 2 organically modified montmorillonites (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A), were determined at 3 different temperatures (10, 25, and 40 °C). The water vapor adsorption behavior of the nanocomposite films was found to be greatly influenced with the type of clay. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) isotherm model parameters were estimated by using both polynomial regression and nonlinear regression methods and it was found that the GAB model fitted adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the film samples. The monolayer moisture content (m(o) ) of the film samples was also greatly affected by the type of nanoclay used, that is, m(o) of nanocomposite films was significantly lower than that of the neat agar film. Nanocomposite films prepared with hydrophobic nanoclays (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A) exhibited lower m(o) values than those prepared with hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+) ). © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Atmospheric water vapor retrieval from Landsat 8 thermal infrared images (United States)

    Ren, Huazhong; Du, Chen; Liu, Rongyuan; Qin, Qiming; Yan, Guangjian; Li, Zhao-Liang; Meng, Jinjie


    Atmospheric water vapor (wv) is required for the accurate retrieval of the land surface temperature from remote sensing data and other applications. This work aims to estimate wv from Landsat 8 Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) images using a new modified split-window covariance-variance ratio (MSWCVR) method on the basis of the brightness temperatures of two thermal infrared bands. Results show that the MSWCVR method can theoretically retrieve wv with an accuracy better than 0.3 g/cm2 for dry atmosphere (wv Robotic Network) ground-measured data and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products. The results show that the retrieved wv from the TIRS data is highly correlated with the wv of AERONET and MODIS but is generally larger. This difference was probably attributed to the uncertainty of radiometric calibration and stray light coming outside from field of view of TIRS instrument in the current images. Consequently, the data quality and radiometric calibration of the TIRS data should be improved in the future.

  2. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Warren; J. Renée Brooks; Maria I. Dragila; Frederick C. Meinzer


    Nocturnal increases in water potential and water content in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux, a process termed hydraulic redistribution (HR). However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the daily recovery in water content, confounding efforts to determine the actual...

  3. A 3-D hydrologic transport model of a water recharge system using carbamazepine and chloride as tracers (United States)

    Rona, Michael; Gasser, Guy; Negev, Ido; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Lev, Ovadia; Gvirtzman, Haim


    Wastewater recharge facilities are often used as a final water treatment before the discharge to the sea or before water reclamation. These facilities are often located in active aquifers that supply drinking water. Thus, leakage from the water recharge facility and gradual expansion of the underground wastewater plume are of considerable health concern. Hydrological modeling of water recharge systems are widely used as operational and predictive tools. These models rely on distributed water head monitoring and at least one chemical or physical tracer to model solutes' transport. Refractory micropollutants have proven useful in qualitative identification of pollution leakages and for quantification of pollution to a specific site near water recharge facilities. However, their usefulness as tracers for hydrological modeling is still questionable. In this article, we describe a long term, 3-D hydraulic model of a large-scale wastewater effluents recharge system in which a combination of chloride and a refractory micropollutant, carbamazepine is used to trace the solute transport. The combination of the two tracers provides the model with the benefits of the high specificity of the carbamazepine and the extensive historic data base that is available for chloride. The model predicts westward expansion of the pollution plume, whereas a standing front is formed at the east. These trends can be confirmed by the time trace of the carbamazepine concentrations at specific locations. We show that the combination of two tracers accounts better (at least at some locations) for the evolution of the pollution plume than a model based on chloride or carbamazepine alone.

  4. Seasonal Trends in Stratospheric Water Vapor as Derived from SAGE II Data (United States)

    Roell, Marilee M.; Fu, Rong


    Published analysis of HALOE and Boulder balloon measurements of water vapor have shown conflicting trends in stratospheric water vapor for the periods of 1981 through 2005. Analysis of the SAGE II monthly mean water vapor data filtered for large aerosol events for time periods from 1985-1991, 1995-1999, and 2000-2005 have shown a globally decreasing water vapor trend at 17.5km. Seasonal analysis for these three time periods show a decreasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for the winter and spring seasons. The summer and autumn seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend from 1985-2005, however, there is a increasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for these seasons during 1995-2005. Latitude vs height seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend in the lower stratosphere between 20S - 20N for the autumn season, while at the latitudes of 30-50S and 30-50N there is an increasing trend in water vapor at heights up to 15km for that season. Comparison with regions of monsoon activity (Asian and North American) show that the Asian monsoon region had some effect on the lower stratospheric moistening in 1995-1999, however, for the time period of 2000-2005, there was no change in the global trend analysis due to either monsoon region. This may be due to the limitations of the SAGE II data from 2000-2005.

  5. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Different Ecosystems in Oklahoma (United States)

    Wagle, P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.


    Information on exchange of energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) for major terrestrial ecosystems is vital to quantify carbon and water balances on a large-scale. It is also necessary to develop, test, and improve crop models and satellite-based production efficiency and evapotranspiration (ET) models, and to better understand the potential of terrestrial ecosystems to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. A network (GRL-FLUXNET) of nine eddy flux towers has been established over a diverse range of terrestrial ecosystems, including native and improved perennial grasslands [unburned and grazed tallgrass prairie, burned and grazed tallgrass prairie, and burned Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.)], grazed and non-grazed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), till and no-till winter wheat and canola (Brassica napus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.), at the USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK. In this presentation, we quantify and compare net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ET between recently burned and grazed tallgrass prairie and burned and non-grazed Bermuda grass pastures, alfalfa, and soybean. Preliminary results show monthly ensembles average NEE reached seasonal peak values of -29, -35, -25, and -20 µmol m-2 s-1 in burned tallgrass prairie pasture, burned Bermuda grass pasture, alfalfa, and soybean, respectively. Similarly, monthly ensembles average ET reached seasonal peak values of 0.22, 0.27, 0.25, 0.28 mm 30-min-1 in burned tallgrass prairie pasture, burned Bermuda grass pasture, alfalfa, and soybean, respectively. Seasonal patterns and daily magnitudes of NEE and ET and their responses to the similar climatic conditions will be further investigated.

  6. Constraining Glacial Runoff Contributions to Water Resources in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia using Environmental Tracers (United States)

    Guido, Z.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.


    Warming temperatures in recent decades have contributed to substantial reductions in glaciers in many mountain regions around the globe, including the South American Andes. Melting of these glaciers taps water resources accumulated in past climates, and the diminishing ice marks a decrease in a nonrenewable water source that begs the question: how will future water supplies be impacted by climate change. Water resource management and climate adaptation efforts can be informed by knowledge of the extent to which glaciers contribute to seasonal streamflows, but remote locations and scant monitoring often limit this quantification. In Bolivia, more than two million people draw water from watersheds fed, in part, by glaciers. The amount to which these glaciers contribute to the water supply, however, is not well constrained. We apply elemental and isotopic tracers in an end-member mixing model to quantify glacial runoff contributions to local water supplies. We present oxygen and deuterium isotopes and major anion concentrations (sulfate and chloride) of shallow groundwater, streams, reservoirs, small arroyos, and glacial runoff. Isotopic and anion mixing models suggest between 45-67% of the water measured in high altitude streams originated from within the glacial footprint during the 2011 wet season, while glacial runoff contributed about 42-53% of the water in reservoirs in the 2012 dry season. Data also show that shallow groundwater is connected to glacial-fed streams. Any future decrease in glacial runoff may contribute to a reduction in surface water supplies and lower groundwater levels downstream, perhaps below the depth of hand-dug wells common in rural communities.

  7. Water Vapor as a Tracer in Remote Wind Sensing: A Feasibility Study. (United States)


    Eugene W. Bierly Orlando, FL 32813 Director, Division of Atmos Sciences National Scinece Foundation Technical Library 1800 G Street, N.W. Chemical...LY Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 Commander US Army Satellite Comm Agency The Environmental Research AT N: DRCPM-SC-3 Institute of MI Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703...Army Foreign Sci & Tech Cen Griffiss AFB, NY 13441 ATTN: DRXST-IS1 220 7th Street, NE Environmental Protection Agency Charlottesville, VA 22901

  8. Water vapor mass balance method for determining air infiltration rates in houses (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Gordon M. Heisler


    A water vapor mass balance technique that includes the use of common humidity-control equipment can be used to determine average air infiltration rates in buildings. Only measurements of the humidity inside and outside the home, the mass of vapor exchanged by a humidifier/dehumidifier, and the volume of interior air space are needed. This method gives results that...

  9. Constraining the Surficial Liquid Water and Resulting Atmospheric Water Vapor Abundance at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) Locations on Mars (United States)

    Berdis, Jodi; Murphy, Jim; Wilson, Robert John


    Possible signatures of atmospheric water vapor arising from Martian Recurring Slope Lineae (RSLs) are investigated in this study. RSLs appear during local spring and summer on downward, equator-facing slopes at southern mid-latitudes (~31-52°S Stillman et al. 2014), and have been linked to liquid water which leaves behind streaks of briny material (McEwen et al. 2011, McEwen et al. 2014). Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (VO MAWD) and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES) derived atmospheric water vapor abundance values are interrogated to determine whether four RSL locations at southern mid-latitudes (Palikir Crater, Hale Crater, Horowitz Crater, Coprates Chasma) exhibit episodic, enhanced local atmospheric water vapor abundance during southern spring and summer (Ls = 180-360°) when RSLs are observed to develop (Stillman et al. 2014, Ojha et al. 2015). Significant water vapor signals at these locations might reveal RSLs as the source of the enhanced water vapor. Detected atmospheric water vapor signals would expand upon current knowledge of RSLs, whereas non-detection could provide upper limits on RSL water source content. In order to assess how much surficial RSL water would be required to produce a detectable signal, we utilize the high spatial resolution Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Climate General Circulation Model to simulate the evaporation of RSL-producing surface water and quantify the magnitude and temporal duration of water vapor content that might be anticipated in response to inferred RSL surface water release. Finally, we will assess the ability of past and future orbiter-based instruments to detect such water vapor quantities.

  10. RFID tags as a direct tracer for water and sediment dynamics (United States)

    Sommerer, Erik; Plate, Simon; Güntner, Andreas


    RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) is a wireless automatic identification system to track objects with widespread application in industrial operations, but also selected applications in ecological research (animal tracking) and for hydro-sedimentological studies (sediment transport with RFID tags embedded in bedload material). In this study, for the first time, we test and apply RFID tags as a direct tracer to track water pathways, erosion patterns and sediment transport on the surface at the hillslope and headwater scale. The RFID system used here consists of tags with a size of 12 x 2 mm and a combination of mobile and stationary antennas. The transport pathways and velocities of the RFID tags can be individually assessed due to their unique identification numbers. The study area is a badland of easily erodible marls and carbonates located in the Villacarli catchment (42 km²) in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. The badlands have been identified as one of the main sediment sources for siltation of the downstream Barasona Reservoir. More than 700 tags were placed in different terrain units using three experimental setups, including lab experiments: (i) intensive feasibility tests ranging from laboratory flume experiments to tracer studies under natural channel and slope conditions to compare the transport of RFID tags relative to colored particles of the natural sediment; (ii) several transects across the badland to investigate sediment transfer characteristics on different morphological units (i.e. channel, rills, slopes); (iii) a raster of 99 RFID tags covering a slope flank with vegetated and unvegetated parts to reveal the influence of vegetation to erosion and transport processes. The detection of transported tags was carried out with a mobile antenna system to map the spatial distribution of tags after selected rainfall events and with two stationary antennas in channel cross-sections for time-continuous observation of tag passage. From the observations, we

  11. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chempath, Shaji [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Lawrence R [TULANE UNIV


    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  12. Isotopic Controls of Rainwater and Water Vapor on Mangrove Leaf Water and Lipid Biomarkers (United States)

    Ladd, N.; Wolfshorndl, M.; Sachs, J. P.


    Hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H or δ2H) of sedimentary mangrove lipid biomarkers can be used as a proxy of past salinity and water isotopes. This approach is based on the observation that apparent 2H/1H fractionation between surface water and mangrove lipids increases with surface water salinity in six species of mangroves with different salt management strategies growing at sites spanning a range of relative humidities throughout Australia and Micronesia. In order to more robustly apply mangrove lipid δ2H as a paleoclimate proxy, we investigated the cause of the correlation between apparent 2H fractionation and salinity. We present results from two related experiments that assessed controls on isotopes of mangrove leaf water, the direct source of hydrogen in lipids: (1) Measurements of natural δ2H in precipitation, surface water, and mangrove tissue water from a series of lakes with varying salinity and water isotope composition in Palau, and (2) measurements of mangrove tissue water and treatment water from a controlled simulation in which mangroves were treated with artificial rain of varying isotopic composition. Rainwater 2H/1H fluctuations of 30‰ over a one-month period explain up to 65% of the variance in leaf water δ2H for Bruguiera gymnorhiza mangroves from Palau despite lake water isotope differences among sites of up to 35‰. This indicates that in humid tropical settings, leaf water isotopes are more closely related to those of precipitation and water vapor than to those of lake surface water, explaining the observed change in apparent fractionation in B. gymnorhiza lipids with salinity. The relationship between leaf water and rainwater isotopes may be due to either equilibration of leaf water with water vapor in the nearly saturated air or direct foliar uptake of rain and/or dew. Foliar uptake is an important water source for many plants, but has not been documented in mangroves. We tested the capacity for mangroves to perform this function by

  13. Interannual variation of water isotopologues at Vostok indicates a contribution from stratospheric water vapor. (United States)

    Winkler, Renato; Landais, Amaelle; Risi, Camille; Baroni, Melanie; Ekaykin, Alexey; Jouzel, Jean; Petit, Jean Robert; Prie, Frederic; Minster, Benedicte; Falourd, Sonia


    Combined measurements of water isotopologues of a snow pit at Vostok over the past 60 y reveal a unique signature that cannot be explained only by climatic features as usually done. Comparisons of the data using a general circulation model and a simpler isotopic distillation model reveal a stratospheric signature in the (17)O-excess record at Vostok. Our data and theoretical considerations indicate that mass-independent fractionation imprints the isotopic signature of stratospheric water vapor, which may allow for a distinction between stratospheric and tropospheric influences at remote East Antarctic sites.

  14. Preconditioning of the YSZ-NiO Fuel Cell Anode in Hydrogenous Atmospheres Containing Water Vapor (United States)

    Vasyliv, Bogdan; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Ostash, Orest


    The YSZ-NiO ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) anode have been investigated. A series of specimens were singly reduced in a hydrogenous atmosphere (Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture) at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa or subjected to `reduction in the mixture-oxidation in air' (redox) cycling at 600 °C. The YSZ-Ni cermets formed in both treatment conditions were then aged in `water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture' atmosphere at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa. Additionally, the behaviour of the as-received material in this atmosphere was studied. It was revealed that small amount of water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture (water vapor pressure below 0.03 MPa) does not affect the reduction of the nickel phase in the YSZ-NiO ceramics, but causes some changes in the YSZ-Ni cermet structure. In particular, nanopore growth in tiny Ni particles takes place. At higher concentration of water vapor in the mixture (water vapor pressure above 0.03-0.05 MPa), converse changes in the kinetics of reduction occur. The best physical and mechanical properties were revealed for the material treated by redox cycling after holding at 600 °C in water depleted gas mixture. The dual effect of water vapor on nickel-zirconia anode behaviour is discussed basing on scanning electron microscopy analysis data, material electrical conductivity, and strength.

  15. The Effect of Water Vapor on the Thermal Decomposition of Pyrite in N2 Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin BOYABAT


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of water vapor on the thermal decomposition of pyrite mineral in nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated in a horizontal tube furnace. Temperature, time and water vapor concentration were used as experimental parameters. According to the data obtained at nitrogen/ water vapor environment, it was observed that the water vapor on the decomposition of pyrite increased the decomposition rate. The decomposition reaction is well represented by the "shrinking core" model and can be divided into two regions with different rate controlling step. The rate controlling steps were determined from the heat transfer through the gas film for the low conversions, while it was determined from the mass transfer through product ash layer for the high conversions. The activation energies of this gas and ash film mechanisms were found to be 77 and 81 kJ/mol-1, respectively.

  16. Raman Lidar Calibration for the DMSP SSM/T-2 Microwave Water Vapor Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wessel, J


    Campaigns were conducted at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, investigating Raman lidar as a method to improve calibration of the DMSP SSM/T-2 microwave water vapor profiling instrument...

  17. Nimbus-6/SCAMS Level 2 Water Vapor and Temperature V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-6 Scanning Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) Level 2 data product contains water vapor and temperature profiles. The SCAMS was designed to map tropospheric...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Aerosol and Water Vapor Lidar Quicklooks GCPEx dataset contains imagery generated from the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx)...

  19. Nanostructure Fabrication by Electron-Beam-Induced Deposition with Metal Carbonyl Precursor and Water Vapor (United States)

    Takeguchi, Masaki; Shimojo, Masayuki; Furuya, Kazuo


    Nanorod fabrication is performed by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with iron carbonyl [Fe(CO)5] and tungsten carbonyl [W(CO)6] precursors. The effects of water vapor addition to each metal carbonyl on the microstructure and composition of the obtained nanorods are studied. Normally, EBID-fabricated metal nanorods consist of an amorphous phase containing a considerable amount of carbon. However, it is found that water vapor addition to iron carbonyl can effectively reduce the carbon content of the nanorods and induce the formation of carbon-free crystalline Fe3O4 nanorods with increasing partial pressure ratio of water vapor to iron carbonyl. In contrast, for tungsten carbonyl, water vapor addition has no obvious effect on carbon content reduction. The obtained nanorods consist of a carbon-rich amorphous matrix containing tungsten oxide nanocrystals inside.

  20. MLS/Aura Level 2 Water Vapor (H2O) Mixing Ratio V004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2H2O is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for water vapor derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The current...

  1. MLS/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Mixing Ratio V002 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2H2O is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for water vapor derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The current...

  2. SAFARI 2000 AOT and Column Water Vapor, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data presented here include the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and column water vapor measurements taken at sites along the Kalahari Transect using a...

  3. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a common architecture for laser transmitters that address requirements for water vapor as well as ground and airborne ozone lidar systems. Our...

  4. Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) By Prabhakara (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMMR_IWV_PRABHAKARA data are Special Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) data by Prabhakara.The Scanning Multichannel...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km - NRT (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MYD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  6. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this Select Phase II program is to build and deliver laser components both for airborne water vapor and ozone DIAL systems. Specifically, Fibertek...

  7. Lidar Atmopheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Data Obtained During the ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LASE_AFWEX data are Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment water vapor and aerosol data measurements taken during ARM-FIRE (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement - First...

  8. EPA Method 245.1: Determination of Mercury in Water by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (United States)

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine mercuric chloride and methoxyethylmercuric acetate as total mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  9. Polymer functionalized nanostructured porous silicon for selective water vapor sensing at room temperature (United States)

    Dwivedi, Priyanka; Das, Samaresh; Dhanekar, Saakshi


    This paper highlights the surface treatment of porous silicon (PSi) for enhancing the sensitivity of water vapors at room temperature. A simple and low cost technique was used for fabrication and functionalization of PSi. Spin coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used for functionalizing PSi surface. Morphological and structural studies were conducted to analyze samples using SEM and XRD/Raman spectroscopy respectively. Contact angle measurements were performed for assessing the wettability of the surfaces. PSi and functionalized PSi samples were tested as sensors in presence of different analytes like ethanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water vapors in the range of 50-500 ppm. Electrical measurements were taken from parallel aluminium electrodes fabricated on the functionalized surface, using metal mask and thermal evaporation. Functionalized PSi sensors in comparison to non-functionalized sensors depicted selective and enhanced response to water vapor at room temperature. The results portray an efficient and selective water vapor detection at room temperature.

  10. Fuel for cyclones: How the water vapor budget of a hurricane depends on its motion

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; Chikunov, Alexander V; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio D; Li, Bai-Lian


    Tropical cyclones are fueled by water vapor. Here we estimate the oceanic evaporation within an Atlantic hurricane to be less than one sixth of the total moisture flux precipitating over the same area. So how does the hurricane get the remaining water vapor? Our analysis of TRMM rainfall, MERRA atmospheric moisture and hurricane translation velocities suggests that access to water vapor relies on the hurricane's motion -- as it moves through the atmosphere, the hurricane consumes the water vapor it encounters. This depletion of atmospheric moisture by the hurricane leaves a "dry footprint" of suppressed rainfall in its wake. The thermodynamic efficiency of hurricanes -- defined as kinetic energy production divided by total latent heat release associated with the atmospheric moisture supply -- remains several times lower than Carnot efficiency even in the most intense hurricanes. Thus, maximum observed hurricane power cannot be explained by the thermodynamic Carnot limit.

  11. Distribution Analysis of Multi GNSS Slant Delays and Simulated Water Vapor Tomography in Yangtze River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei


    Full Text Available Currently, the GNSS network of Yangtze River delta has being applied to monitor the water vapor above this region and research water vapor tomography. Studies have shown that the dictances between stations are large and inhomogeneous, that will make it difficult to get the high tomography precision. Therefore, a simulation test of multi GNSS observations on tomography is introduced. The multi GNSS observations are more homogeneous in spatial distribution than a single positioning system, which can reduce the space rate of the grid, especially increase the number of the grid with information at middle and high layers. The multi GNSS observation can provide more and better water vapor information which can patch up deficiency of a single positioning system. A simulated water vapor tomography is carried out, and the result shows that the multi GNSS observations could improve the accuracy of tomography, especially above the 5 km height layer of the atmosphere.

  12. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions (United States)

    Huang, Yu [Palo Alto, CA; Ly, Jennifer [San Jose, CA; Aldajani, Tiem [San Jose, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA


    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  13. MLS/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Mixing Ratio V003 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2H2O is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for water vapor derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The current...

  14. Using molecular-scale tracers to investigate transport of agricultural pollutants in soil and water (United States)

    Lloyd, C.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D.; Dungait, J.; Evershed, R. P.


    We explore the use of molecular-scale tracers to investigate the transport of potential pollutants due to the application of slurry to soil. The molecular-scale approach allows us to separate the pollutants which are moved to water bodies through sediment-bound and dissolved transport pathways. Slurry is applied to agricultural land to as a soil-improver across a wide-range of topographic and climatic regimes, hence a set of experiments were designed to assess the effect of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the transport of pollutants. The experiments were carried out using University of Bristol's TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) facility. The facility includes a dual axis soil slope (6 x 2.5 x 0.3 m3) and 6-nozzle rainfall simulator, which enables the manipulation of the slope to simulate different slope gradient and rainfall scenarios. Cattle slurry was applied to the top 1 metre strip of the experimental soil slope followed by four rainfall simulations, where the gradient (5° & 10°) and the rainfall intensity (60 & 120 mm hr-1) were co-varied. Leachate was sampled from different flow pathways (surface, subsurface and percolated) via multiple outlets on the slope throughout the experiments and soil cores were taken from the slope after each experiment. Novel tracers were used to trace the pollutants in both dissolved and sediment-bound forms. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to trace dissolved slurry-derived material via water flow pathways, as the slurry was found to have a distinct signature compared with the soil. The fluorescence signatures of the leachates were compared with those of many organic compounds in order to characterise the origin of the signal. This allowed the assessment of the longevity of the signal in the environment to establish if it could be used as a robust long-term tracer of slurry material in water or if would be subject to transform processes through time. 5-βstanols, organic compounds

  15. Kinetic analyses of plant water relocation using deuterium as tracer - reduced water flux of Arabidopsis pip2 aquaporin knockout mutants. (United States)

    Da Ines, O; Graf, W; Franck, K I; Albert, A; Winkler, J B; Scherb, H; Stichler, W; Schäffner, A R


    Due to reduced evaporation and diffusion of water molecules containing heavier isotopes, leaf water possesses an elevated (18)O or (2)H steady-state content. This enrichment has been exploited in plant physiology and ecology to assess transpiration and leaf water relations. In contrast to these studies, in this work the (2)H content of the medium of hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana was artificially raised, and the kinetics of (2)H increase in the aerial parts recorded during a short phase of 6-8 h, until a new equilibrium at a higher level was reached. A basic version of the enrichment models was modified to establish an equation that could be fitted to measured leaf (2)H content during uptake kinetics. The fitting parameters allowed estimation of the relative water flux q(leaf) into the Arabidopsis rosette. This approach is quasi-non-invasive, since plants are not manipulated during the uptake process, and therefore, offers a new tool for integrated analysis of plant water relations. The deuterium tracer method was employed to assess water relocation in Arabidopsis pip2;1 and pip2;2 aquaporin knockout plants. In both cases, q(leaf) was significantly reduced by about 20%. The organ and cellular expression patterns of both genes imply that changes in root hydraulic conductivity, as previously demonstrated for pip2;2 mutants, and leaf water uptake and distribution contributed in an integrated fashion to this reduced flux in intact plants.

  16. Tracing aquifer-surface water and aquifer-aquifer interactions using a multi-tracer approach (United States)

    Demuth, Myriam; Stumpp, Christine


    Conserving a good groundwater quality is a major challenge because of its importance as a reservoir for drinking water. Influxes from surface water, especially input of nitrate, can deteriorate groundwater quality. The objective of our project was to i) investigate aquifer-surface water interactions and ii) trace aquifer-aquifer interactions concerning the separation between three porous aquifers. The investigation area is located in Bavaria, Southern Germany and contains three aquifers A-C (quaternary sediment) that were described as three separated flow systems to date. Two rivers 1 -2 drain the investigation area. The sampling campaign (Apr-Oct 2012) included three sampling locations along the streams, six wells in aquifer A and three wells each in aquifers B and C. The water samples were analyzed for concentration of anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-), cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+), electrical conductivity, water temperature, pH, oxygen and stable isotopes of water (^18O, ^2H), which were used as environmental tracers. Our results showed that only one out of three groundwater wells close to river 1 indicated river water infiltration into the groundwater due to elevated concentration of sulfate and depleted concentration of calcium and magnesium compared to the rest of the aquifer. The water chemistry of all other groundwater wells at river 1 and all sites at river 2 did not show any similarity with river water. By that, we assume that no river water infiltrated into groundwater but we cannot exclude groundwater infiltration into the rivers. Contrary to prior knowledge assumptions, aquifer-aquifer interaction took place in all three monitored aquifers. The results of stable isotopes of water and ions indicated that aquifers B and C are constantly connected to aquifer A at certain sites. The monitoring of groundwater and river water sites in the investigation area points to a heterogeneous groundwater flow regime particularly in aquifer A. Regarding the conservation of a

  17. Optimization of GPS water vapor tomography technique with radiosonde and COSMIC historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye


    Full Text Available The near-real-time high spatial resolution of atmospheric water vapor distribution is vital in numerical weather prediction. GPS tomography technique has been proved effectively for three-dimensional water vapor reconstruction. In this study, the tomography processing is optimized in a few aspects by the aid of radiosonde and COSMIC historical data. Firstly, regional tropospheric zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD models are improved and thus the zenith wet delay (ZWD can be obtained at a higher accuracy. Secondly, the regional conversion factor of converting the ZWD to the precipitable water vapor (PWV is refined. Next, we develop a new method for dividing the tomography grid with an uneven voxel height and a varied water vapor layer top. Finally, we propose a Gaussian exponential vertical interpolation method which can better reflect the vertical variation characteristic of water vapor. GPS datasets collected in Hong Kong in February 2014 are employed to evaluate the optimized tomographic method by contrast with the conventional method. The radiosonde-derived and COSMIC-derived water vapor densities are utilized as references to evaluate the tomographic results. Using radiosonde products as references, the test results obtained from our optimized method indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 12 % compared to those derived from the conventional method below the height of 3.75 km and above the height of 3.75 km, respectively. Using the COSMIC products as references, the results indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 19 % below 3.75 km and above 3.75 km, respectively.

  18. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado? (United States)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.


    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10

  19. Effects of altitude on transpiration, leaf vapor pressure deficit and leaf water potential in oriental beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Bayraktar


    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of altitude on transpiration, leaf vapor pressure deficit and leaf water potential in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. The study area was located in Ortaköy, Artvin, and the experimental area had the same soil structure and aspect. The study showed that transpiration and leaf vapor pressure deficit increased but leaf water potential decreased by altitudinal gradient

  20. Water Vapor Permeability of Edible Films Based on Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Native Starches


    Adjouman, Yao Désiré; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Tetchi, F.Achille; Dalcq, Anne-Catherine; Amani, N.Georges; Sindic, Marianne


    Starch is used in the production of edible biodegradable packaging as an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers because it is a natural biopolymer of low cost and high availability. Many studies have been carried out on films based on cassava starch and the results show that these have good flexibility and low water vapor permeability. This present research was conducted to analyse the effect of glycerol, peanut oil and soybean lecithin on the water vapor permeability (WVP) of edible fi...

  1. The Potential of Water Vapor & Precipitation Estimation with a Differential-frequency Radar (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Liao, Liang; Tian, Lin


    In the presence of rain, the radar return powers from a three-frequency radar, with center frequency at 22.235 GHz and upper and lower frequencies chosen with equal water vapor absorption coefficients, can be used to estimate water vapor density and parameters of the precipitation. A linear combination of differential measurements between the center and lower frequencies on one hand and the upper and lower frequencies on the other provide an estimate of differential water vapor absorption. Conversely, the difference in radar reflectivity factors (in dB) between the upper and lower frequencies is independent of water vapor absorption and can be used to estimate the median mass diameter of the hydrometeors. For a down-looking radar, path-integrated estimates of water vapor absorption may be possible under rain-free as well as raining conditions by using the surface returns at the three frequencies. Cross-talk or interference between the precipitation and water vapor estimates depends on the frequency separation of the channels as well as on the phase state and the median mass diameter of the hydrometeors. Simulations of the retrieval of water vapor absorption show that the largest source of variability arises from the variance in the measured radar return powers while the largest biases occur in the mixed-phase region. Use of high pulse repetition frequencies and signal whitening methods may be needed to obtain the large number of independent samples required. Measurements over a fractional bandwidth, defined as the ratio of the difference between the upper and lower frequencies to the center frequency, up to about 0.2 should be passible in a differential frequency mode, where a single transceiver and antenna are used. Difficulties in frequency allocation may require alternative choices of frequency where the water vapor absorptions at the low and high frequencies are unequal. We consider the degradation in the retrieval accuracy when the frequencies are not optimum.

  2. Tritium as a Tracer for the Discrimination of Water Bodies in the German Bight (United States)

    Meyerjürgens, Jens; Badewien, Thomas; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Zielinski, Oliver


    Tritium (3H) in the atmosphere has declined to natural levels, after above ground nuclear weapon tests ended five decades ago. Currently tritium is present in the marine environment of the North Sea mainly due to liquid discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants (NRP) in La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) and different nuclear power plants (NPP) discharging their effluent to the English Channel or directly into the North Sea. This work deals with seawater samples collected in the German Bight in October 2014 onboard the research vessel Heincke that were analyzed for tritium activity concentration. The major research question of this study is the characterization of different water masses due to their tritium activity concentration. Tritium activity concentration in the coastal area is very high compared to samples taken in the central German Bight. Especially samples from the estuaries of the Elbe, Weser and Ems show high tritium activity concentrations. In correlation with salinity values, riverine freshwater masses were discriminated from oceanic influenced water masses. Activity concentrations from the coastal areas to the central bight are characterized by an exponentially decreasing gradient. It is shown that tritium can be utilized as a tracer for the discrimination of riverine freshwater from oceanic water masses.

  3. Delineation of bank filtrate and groundwater flux for drinking water production using multivariate statistics and a combined tracer approach (United States)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo


    In shallow or unconfined aquifers infiltration of contaminated river might be a major threat for ground water quality. Thus, the identification of hydrological pathways in coupled surface- and groundwater systems and specifically the delineation of areas influenced by bank filtrate are of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Tracers have the potential to elucidate both, sources and flow patterns, and are widely applied in hydrological flow. Besides conventional tracers (Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes δ18O, δ2H, etc.) only recently another class of tracers in hydrologic systems are emerging: trace contaminants as waste water markers. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants and are ubiquitously found in sewage water receiving waters. While the occurrence of waste water in aquatic systems can be confirmed by the detection of artificial sweeteners, it is still unknown whether those compounds are also suitable for the quantitative assessment of waste water and surface water in groundwater systems. The hereby presented field study aims at the identification of infiltration areas and the quantitative assessment of river bank filtrate using conventional tracers and artificial sweeteners as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer system is located in an alpine head water catchment, it consists of quaternary gravel deposits (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1, vmax 250 md-1) and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. During a sampling campaign in July 2012 water samples were collected from the entire aquatic system (2 springs, 3 surface and 40 groundwater samples). The in-situ parameters, major ions, stable water isotopes δ18O/δ2H and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE, sucralose SUC, saccharin SAC and cyclamate CYC) were measured. The water samples were

  4. Study of liquid and steam tracers at the Maritaro - La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en la zona Maritaro - La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)


    We ran two simultaneous tracer tests in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. We wished to determine whether or not fluids injected in well Az-15 recharged the productive areas of six production wells and to estimate the fractions of injected fluid recovered in them, if any. Because only three of the wells produce water and all of them produce steam, two tracers were used, sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) for the gas phase and 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonate (1,3,6-nts) for the liquid phase. All of the observation wells recorded SF{sub 6}, and the three water-producing wells recorded 1,3,6-nts, proving that fluids injected in well Az-15 do recharge the area of interest. When sampling was suspended, the three water-producing wells were still producing 1,3,6-nts at significant rates. The total recovery of 1,3,6-nts at wells Az-65D, Az-04 and Az-28, 279 days after injection when sampling was halted, were, respectively, 6.1%, 0.90% y 0.16%, for a total of 7.61%. We concluded that these quantities constitute the lower boundaries for the respective recovery factors. When sampling was halted, wells Az-65D, Az-66D and Az-30 were still producing some SF{sub 6} at lower rates, and the rest of the wells were no longer recording the gas phase tracer. The total recovery of SF{sub 6} at wells Az-65D, Az-04, Az-41, Az-30, Az-28 and Az-66D were, respectively, 4.82 e-02%, 1.37 e-03%, 1.48 e-03%, 6.38 e-04%, 1.38 e-03% y 4.31 e-04%, for a total of 5.35 e-02%. The liquid recharge occurred in orders of magnitude greater than the steam. [Spanish] Se efectuaron dos pruebas simultaneas en la zona Maritaro-La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico. Los objetivos de estas pruebas fueron determinar si la salmuera de desecho inyectada en el pozo Az-15 recarga las zonas de alimentacion de seis pozos productores designados por CFE, y estimar que fraccion de lo inyectado recarga dichos pozos productores. Debido a que solo tres de los pozos

  5. Controls on water vapor isotopes over Roorkee, India: Impact of convective activities and depression systems (United States)

    Saranya, P.; Krishan, Gopal; Rao, M. S.; Kumar, Sudhir; Kumar, Bhishm


    The study evaluates the water vapor isotopic compositions and its controls with special reference to Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) season at Roorkee, India. Precipitation is usually a discrete event spatially and temporally in this part of the country, therefore, the information provided is limited, while, the vapors have all time availability and have a significant contribution in the hydrological cycle locally or over a regional scale. Hence for understanding the processes altering the various sources, its isotopic signatures were studied. The Isotope Water Vapour Line (Iso Val) was drawn together with the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) and the best fit line was δD = 5.42 * δ18O + 27.86. The precipitation samples were also collected during the study period and were best fitted with δD = 8.20(±0.18) * δ18O + 9.04(±1.16) in the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL). From the back trajectory analysis of respective vapor samples, it is unambiguous that three major sources viz; local vapor, western disturbance and monsoon vapor are controlling the fate of moisture over Roorkee. The d-excess in ground-level vapor (GLV) reveals the supply of recycled moisture from continental water bodies and evapo-transpiration as additional moisture sources to the study area. The intensive depletion in isotopic ratios was associated with the large-scale convective activity and low-pressure/cyclonic/depression systems formed over Bay of Bengal.

  6. Colorimetric Detection of Water Vapor Using Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Purpose: Water vapor trapped in encapsulation materials or enclosed volumes leads to corrosion issues for critical NW components. Sandia National Laboratories has created a new diagnostic to indicate the presence of water in weapon systems. Impact: Component exposure to water now can be determined instantly, without need for costly, time-consuming analytical methods.

  7. Radium-226 and barium as tracers of water masses in the North Atlantic (GA01-GEOTRACES) (United States)

    Le Roy, Emilie; Sanial, Virginie; Charette, Matthew; Henderson, Paul; Jacquet, Stéphanie; García-Ibáñez, Maribel; Pérez, Fiz; Lherminer, Pascale; Souhaut, Marc; Jeandel, Catherine; Lacan, François; van Beek, Pieter


    In this study, we report concentrations of radium-226 (226Ra, t1/2=1602 y) and barium determined along the GEOVIDE section conducted in the North Atlantic (May-July 2014; Portugal-Greenland-Canda) in the framework of the international GEOTRACES program. A high vertical resolution (up to 22 depths per station) was achieved by analyzing small volumes (˜10 L) of seawater for 226Ra using a radon emanation technique. We will present the distribution of 226Ra activities and barium concentrations in contrasting biogeochemical regions of the North Atlantic (Iberian margin, West European Basin, Reykjanes Ridge, Irminger Sea, Greenland margin and Labrador Sea). These regions strongly differ in terms of boundary inputs, biogeochemistry and deep water formation. We observe a linear correlation between 226Ra and barium along the GEOVIDE section, which results from the dominantly conservative behavior of the two tracers. However, deviations from the linear correlation between 226Ra and Ba are found in several places. The potential causes for such deviations are investigated. Optimum multi-parameter (OMP) analysis was thus used to distinguish the relative importance of physical transport (i.e., water mass mixing) from non-conservative processes (sedimentary, river or hydrothermal inputs; uptake by particles) on the 226Ra and Ba distribution in the North Atlantic.

  8. Stable isotopic variations of water vapor on the winter coastal area in Korea (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Lee, Songyi; Han, Yeongcheol; Do Hur, Soon


    Studies of isotopic compositions of precipitation in Korea have been conducted for groundwater mixing and sources and residence time of water. Unravelling of water vapor isotopes will be very helpful in explaining the sources of moisture. In this work, we first present isotopic compositions of water vapor over western part of Korea in winter between December 2015 and February 2016. We collected the samples of water vapor isotopes by a cryogenic method with impingers and liquid nitrogen. We captured the water vapor for 4 to 6 hours, depending on humidity and collected 54 samples in total. The samples were analyzed by a Picarro L2130-i and the precisions were 0.06‰ and 0.7‰ for oxygen and hydrogen, respectively. The isotopic compositions of water vapor ranged from -34.04‰ to -15.27‰ for oxygen and from -221.9‰ to -100.2‰ for hydrogen. The deuterium excess (d=δD-8*δ18O) was between 17.4 and 44.0 in permil. Both air temperature (T, δ18O=0.57*T-25.5, R2=0.46) and relative humidity (RH, δ18O=0.18*RH-35.9, R2=0.38) were positively correlated with the water vapor isotopes. This is not consistent with the fact that precipitation isotopes are correlated with only temperate in winter Eastern Asia. We expect that the water vapor isotopes will be an important role to understand the origin and pathway of moistures over the Eastern Asia.

  9. Effects of water vapor on flue gas conditioning in the electric fields with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqiang, QI, E-mail:; Yajuan, Zhang


    Highlights: • The influence mechanism of water vapor humidification on SO{sub 2} oxidation was analyzed. •The effects of water vapor on the specific resistance in fly ash in ESPs were reported. • The effects of water vapor on the size distribution and specific surface area of fly ash were discussed. • The adhesive characteristic of fly ash in different water vapor was experimented. -- Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal via pulsed discharge nonthermal plasma in the absence of ammonia was investigated to determine how electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can effectively collect particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter from flue gas. SO{sub 2} removal increased as water vapor concentration increased. In a wet-type plasma reactor, directing a gas-phase discharge plasma toward the water film surface significantly enhanced the liquid-phase oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup −} to SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. Comparisons of various absorbents revealed that the hydroxyl radical is a key factor in plasma-induced liquid-phase reactions. The resistivity, size distribution, and cohesive force of fly ash at different water vapor contents were measured using a Bahco centrifuge, which is a dust electrical resistivity test instrument, as well as a cohesive force test apparatus developed by the researchers. When water vapor content increased by 5%, fly ash resistivity in flue gas decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude, adhesive force and size increased, and specific surface area decreased. Therefore, ESP efficiency increased.

  10. Measurement of Vapor Flow As an Important Source of Water in Dry Land Eco-Hydrology (United States)

    Wang, Z.; He, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.


    When the temperature of land surface is lower than that of air and deeper soils, water vapor gathers toward the ground surface where dew maybe formed depending on the prevailing dew point and wind speed. Some plants are able to absorb the dew and vapor flow while the soil can readily absorb both. Certain animals such as desert beetles and ants harvest the dew or fog for daily survival. Recently, it is also realized that the dew and vapor flow can be a life-saving amount of water for plant survival at the driest seasons of the year in arid and semi-arid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in arid and semi-arid regions in China and USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of plant is characterized by the absorption and desorption functions derived for plant physiology and water balance studies. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic vapor flow movements from the atmosphere and the groundwater table to soil surface. Results show that dew is usually formed on soil and plant surfaces during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The amount of dew harvested using gravels on the soil surface was enough to support water melon agriculture on deserts. The vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by artificially seeded plants in semi-arid regions forming new forests. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively. The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chloride instead of lithium bromide in alumina pores will determine a shorter breakthrough time and a higher adsorption rate of water vapors.

  12. Use of rare earth oxides and iron oxides as soil erosion tracers in water erosion experiments at hillslope scale (United States)

    Guzmán, G.; Cañasveras, J. C.; Barrón, V.; Boulal, H.; Gómez, H.; Conde, E.; Fernández, M.; Gómez, J. A.


    The characteristics of the ideal soil erosion have been defined by several authors, for example by Zhang et al. (2001). Despite intensive research on erosion tracers in the last decades there is not a single tracer fulfilling all these characteristics. That is why research on different soil erosion tracers remains as an active field. Two desirable characteristics in erosion tracers are that they should be relatively inexpensive (to purchase and analyze) and that they should be determined with high accuracy in soil or sediment. The availability of multiple tracers is another of the key requirements. In this communication we present our preliminary results on the use of two different sets of erosion tracers. One set are iron oxides with different magnetic and optical properties (Fe3O4, α-Fe2O3 and FeOOH) analyzed by NIRS and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The other set consists of five rare earth oxides (La2O3, Pr6O11, Nd2O3, Sm2O3 and Gd2O3) analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two groups were studied under controlled and natural conditions, through several water erosion experiments, in field plots with different soil management, crops and scale. In one experiment these tracers were used to determine the source of sediment within sprinkle irrigated fields planted with cotton on shoulders. For this purpose, rainfall simulations were performed under controlled conditions at two scales, one with a portable rainfall simulator at small scale (0.81m2) and with the sprinkler irrigation system in the whole cotton field (2450 m2). Furrows were tagged with both groups of tracers, keeping shoulders untagged (where cotton was planted). Soil samples before and after the rainfall simulations were collected as well as sediment samples. In another experiment four olive orchard plots (330 m2) with different soil managements (cover crop and conventional tillage) were also tagged with the two groups of tracers. Soil samples were taken at

  13. Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites-National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-2005 (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.


    This report documents selected age data interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers in groundwater from 1,399 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites across the United States. The tracers of interest were chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis primarily were from wells representing two types of NAWQA groundwater studies - Land-Use Studies (shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings) and Major-Aquifer Studies (wells, usually domestic supply wells, in principal aquifers and representing the shallow, used resource). Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) associated with Land-Use Studies also were included. Tracer samples were collected between 1992 and 2005, although two networks sampled from 2006 to 2007 were included because of network-specific needs. Tracer data from other NAWQA Program components (Flow System Studies, which are assessments of processes and trends along groundwater flow paths, and various topical studies) were not compiled herein. Tracer data from NAWQA Land-Use Studies and Major-Aquifer Studies that previously had been interpreted and published are compiled herein (as piston-flow ages), but have not been reinterpreted. Tracer data that previously had not been interpreted and published are evaluated using documented methods and compiled with aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages, and selected ancillary data, such as redox indicators, well construction, and major dissolved gases (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2). Tracer-based piston-flow ages documented in this report are simplistic representations of the tracer data. Tracer-based piston-flow ages are a convenient means of conceptualizing groundwater age. However, the piston

  14. The observed day-to-day variability of Mars water vapor (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Lapointe, Michael R.; Zurek, Richard W.


    The diurnal variability of atmospheric water vapor as derived from the Viking MAWD data is discussed. The detection of day to day variability of atmospheric water would be a significant finding since it would place constraints on the nature of surface reservoirs. Unfortunately, the diurnal variability seen by the MAWD experiment is well correlated with the occurrence of dust and/or ice hazes, making it difficult to separate real variations from observational effects. Analysis of the day to day variability of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggests that the observations are, at certain locations and seasons, significantly affected by the presence of water-ice hazes. Because such effects are generally limited to specific locations, such as Tharsis, Lunae Planum, and the polar cap edge during the spring, the seasonal and latitudinal trends in water vapor that have been previously reported are not significantly affected.

  15. Reduction of Legionella spp. in Water and in Soil by a Citrus Plant Extract Vapor (United States)

    Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol


    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml−1 on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and β-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml−1 reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml−1 reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources. PMID:25063652

  16. A New Technique for the Retrieval of Near Surface Water Vapor Using DIAL Measurements (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Kooi, Susan; Ferrare, Richard; Winker, David; Hair, Johnathan; Nehrir, Amin; Notari, Anthony; Hostetler, Chris


    Water vapor is one of the most important atmospheric trace gas species and influences radiation, climate, cloud formation, surface evaporation, precipitation, storm development, transport, dynamics, and chemistry. For improvements in NWP (numerical weather prediction) and climate studies, global water vapor measurements with higher accuracy and vertical resolution are needed than are currently available. Current satellite sensors are challenged to characterize the content and distribution of water vapor in the Boundary Layer (BL) and particularly near the first few hundred meters above the surface within the BL. These measurements are critically needed to infer surface evaporation rates in cloud formation and climate studies. The NASA Langley Research Center Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system, which uses the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, has demonstrated the capability to provide high quality water vapor measurements in the BL and across the troposphere. A new retrieval technique is investigated to extend these DIAL water vapor measurements to the surface. This method uses signals from both atmospheric backscattering and the strong surface returns (even over low reflectivity oceanic surfaces) using multiple gain channels to cover the large signal dynamic range. Measurements can be made between broken clouds and in presence of optically thin cirrus. Examples of LASE measurements from a variety of conditions encountered during NASA hurricane field experiments over the Atlantic Ocean are presented. Comparisons of retrieved water vapor profiles from LASE near the surface with dropsonde measurements show very good agreement. This presentation also includes a discussion of the feasibility of developing space-based DIAL capability for high resolution water vapor measurements in the BL and above and an assessment of the technology needed for developing this capability.

  17. Reduction of Legionella spp. in water and in soil by a citrus plant extract vapor. (United States)

    Laird, Katie; Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol


    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml(-1) on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and β-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml(-1) reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml(-1) reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Modeling Convection of Water Vapor into the Mid-latitude Summer Stratosphere (United States)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.


    Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002; Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [Hanisco et al., 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the mid-western United States during August of 2013 including a storm system observed by SEAC4RS. We assess the transport of water vapor into the stratosphere over the model

  19. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán


    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  20. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... scale fires can overcome these heat losses, as they typically have higher burning rates, which increase the heat feedback to the fuel surface and therefore can result in the higher burning efficiencies....

  1. Four Years of North Pacific Mode Water Evolution: A Fukushima Tracer Perspective (United States)

    Macdonald, Alison M.; Yoshida, Sachiko; Pike, Steven; Buesseler, Ken O.; Rypina, Irina I.; Jayne, Steven


    Here we presents the results of a investigation which uses the tracer information provided by the 2011 direct ocean release of radio-isotopes, (137Cs, 30-year half-life and 134Cs, 2-year half-life) from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to better understand the pathways, mixing and transport of water in the North Pacific Ocean. The main focus is the analysis of cesium observations obtained from the spring 2015 CLIVAR/GO-SHIP occupation of the P16N line in the eastern North Pacific. Nearly four hundred 20 L radionuclide samples were obtained on this cruise between 29 April and 26 June 2015 covering the 152°W line from 3°N to the Alaskan Shelf off Kodiak (56.4°N), crossing the Alaska Gyre at 55°N and making a short (200 nm) line extending from the outer edge of U.S. EEZ coming into Seattle, just to the south of the Canadian border and Line-P. Samples include both profiles from the surface to 1000 m and surface/subsurface pairs that provide an average 1° latitude spacing along 152°W. A clear Fukushima signal is apparent from the surface down to 400 m. The core signal lies at between 0-200 m at about 40°N where Subtropical Mode Water density water outcrops. The densest waters with Fukushima isotopes lie at 440 m in the bottom density range of Dense-Central Mode Water. There is a weak, but detectable signal in the Alaska Current to the north off both Kodiak and Sitka. The deepest detectable 137Cs (weapon's testing) signals are found at and to the north of 45°N at 900-1000 m. There is detectable, background level 137Cs as far south as 3°N, but as of spring 2015 the southernmost 134C signal was found above 200 m at 30°N. This horizontal and vertical pattern of Fukushima radionuclides traces the path of mode waters from their formation regions in the western North Pacific to their outcrop in eastern basin over the four years since their release.

  2. Arctic cyclone water vapor isotopes support past sea ice retreat recorded in Greenland ice. (United States)

    Klein, Eric S; Cherry, J E; Young, J; Noone, D; Leffler, A J; Welker, J M


    Rapid Arctic warming is associated with important water cycle changes: sea ice loss, increasing atmospheric humidity, permafrost thaw, and water-induced ecosystem changes. Understanding these complex modern processes is critical to interpreting past hydrologic changes preserved in paleoclimate records and predicting future Arctic changes. Cyclones are a prevalent Arctic feature and water vapor isotope ratios during these events provide insights into modern hydrologic processes that help explain past changes to the Arctic water cycle. Here we present continuous measurements of water vapor isotope ratios (δ(18)O, δ(2)H, d-excess) in Arctic Alaska from a 2013 cyclone. This cyclone resulted in a sharp d-excess decrease and disproportional δ(18)O enrichment, indicative of a higher humidity open Arctic Ocean water vapor source. Past transitions to warmer climates inferred from Greenland ice core records also reveal sharp decreases in d-excess, hypothesized to represent reduced sea ice extent and an increase in oceanic moisture source to Greenland Ice Sheet precipitation. Thus, measurements of water vapor isotope ratios during an Arctic cyclone provide a critical processed-based explanation, and the first direct confirmation, of relationships previously assumed to govern water isotope ratios during sea ice retreat and increased input of northern ocean moisture into the Arctic water cycle.

  3. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per


    properties of soils, especially on water retention at low matric potentials. To overcome this knowledge gap, the effects of combined BC (0 to 100 Mg ha-1) and manure (21 and 42 Mg ha-1) applications on water vapor sorption and specific surface area was investigated for a sandy loam soil. In addition......, potential impacts of BC aging were evaluated. All considered BC-amendment rates led to a distinct increase of water retention, especially for low matric potentials. The observed increases were attributed to a significant increase of soil organic matter contents and specific surface areas in BCamended soils....... Hysteresis of the water vapor sorption isotherms increased with increasing BC application rates. Biochar age did not significantly affect vapor sorption and SSA....

  4. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan


    Thin and robust composite membranes comprising stainless steel scaffold, fine and porous TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol/lithium chloride were fabricated and studied for air dehumidification application. Higher hydrophilicity, sorption and permeation were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor permeation process. It was specifically noted that lithium chloride significantly reduces water diffusion energy barrier, resulting in the change of permeation energy from positive to negative values. Higher water vapor permeance was observed for the membrane with higher LiCl content at lower temperature. The isothermal air dehumidification tests show that the membrane is suitable for dehumidifying air in high humid condition. Additionally, results also indicate a trade-off between the humidity ratio drop with the water vapor removal rate when varying air flowrate.

  5. Study of the effect of water vapor on a resistive plate chamber with glass electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, H H; Teramoto, Y; Nakano, E E; Takahashi, T T


    We studied the effects of water vapor on the efficiencies of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With moisture in the chamber gas that has freon as a component (water vapor approx 1000 ppm), a decrease in the efficiency (approx 20%) has been observed after operating for a period of several weeks to a few months. From our study, the cause of the efficiency decrease was identified as a change on the cathode surface. In addition, a recovery method was found: flushing for 1 day with argon bubbled through water containing >=3% ammonia, followed by a few weeks of training with dry gas.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  7. Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrare, R.A.


    The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  8. Three dimensional ray tracing technique for tropospheric water vapor tomography using GPS measurements (United States)

    Haji Aghajany, Saeid; Amerian, Yazdan


    Tropospheric water vapor has a key role in tropospheric processes and it is an important parameter in meteorology studies. Because of its non-uniform spatiotemporal distribution, modeling the spatiotemporal variations of water vapor is a challenging subject in meteorology. The GNSS tomography of the troposphere is a promising method to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of water vapor parameter in this layer. The tomography method efficiency is dependent on the ray tracing technique and GPS derived tropospheric slant wet delays. Implementing constraints and regularization methods are necessary in order to achieve the regularized solution in troposphere tomography. In this paper, the three dimensional (3D) ray tracing technique based on Eikonal equations and ERA-I data are used to perform the reconstruction the signal path, Iranian Permanent GPS Network (IPGN) measurements are used to calculate slant wet delays and the LSQR regularization technique is used to obtain a regularized tomographic solution for tropospheric water vapor. The modeled water vapor profiles are validated using radiosonde observations.

  9. Herschel observations of cold water vapor and ammonia in protoplanetary disks (United States)

    Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Brinch, Christian; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Dominik, Carsten; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Panić, Olja; Pearson, John C.; Kristensen, Lars; Yíldíz, Umut A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.


    We present the results of a Herschel/HIFI study into the presence of cold water vapor in a sample of protoplanetary disks, carried out as part of the Guaranteed Time Key Program `Water in Star Forming Regions with Herschel' (WISH). While toward most disks only upper limits are obtained, rotational ground-state emission lines of ortho-H_2O and para-H_2O are clearly detected toward the disk of TW Hya. The detection of cold water vapor, extending to at least 115 AU, in this disk indicates the presence of a vast reservoir of water ice totalling ˜ 1028 g or thousands of Earth Oceans. Photodesorption by stellar ultraviolet radiation likely liberates a small amount of water vapor from icy grains. Significant settling of such icy grains toward the disk midplane is required to match the detected amount of water vapor. The water ortho-to-para ratio of 0.77 is significantly different from that observed in Solar System comets where a range of 1.5--3 is found. If this reflects the temperature regime of the water ice (formation), this finding suggests that long-range mixing of volatiles has occured in the Solar Nebula. The same Herschel/HIFI data also detect the emission of NH_3 in TW Hya's disk, and the implications of this finding are discussed.

  10. Dissolution kinetics of volatile organic compound vapors in water : An integrated experimental and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.; Pérez Guerrero, Jesús S.; Raoof, Amir; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; van Genuchten, Martinus Th

    In this study we performed batch experiments to investigate the dissolution kinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene vapors in water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The batch systems consisted of a water reservoir and a connected headspace, the latter containing a small glass

  11. Validation of the Harvard Lyman-α in situ water vapor instrument: Implications for the mechanisms that control stratospheric water vapor (United States)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D. S.; Pittman, J. V.; Spackman, J. R.; Hintsa, E. J.; Hanisco, T. F.; Moyer, E. J.; St. Clair, J. M.; Sargent, M. R.; Anderson, J. G.


    Building on previously published details of the laboratory calibrations of the Harvard Lyman-α photofragment fluorescence hygrometer (HWV) on the NASA ER-2 and WB-57 aircraft, we describe here the validation process for HWV, which includes laboratory calibrations and intercomparisons with other Harvard water vapor instruments at water vapor mixing ratios from 0 to 10 ppmv, followed by in-flight intercomparisons with the same Harvard hygrometers. The observed agreement exhibited in the laboratory and during intercomparisons helps corroborate the accuracy of HWV. In light of the validated accuracy of HWV, we present and evaluate a series of intercomparisons with satellite and balloon borne water vapor instruments made from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere in the tropics and midlatitudes. Whether on the NASA ER-2 or WB-57 aircraft, HWV has consistently measured about 1-1.5 ppmv higher than the balloon-borne NOAA/ESRL/GMD frost point hygrometer (CMDL), the NOAA Cryogenic Frost point Hygrometer (CFH), and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite in regions of the atmosphere where water vapor is <10 ppmv. Comparisons in the tropics with the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite show large variable differences near the tropopause that converge to ˜10% above 460 K, with HWV higher. Results we show from the Aqua Validation and Intercomparison Experiment (AquaVIT) at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe do not reflect the observed in-flight differences. We illustrate that the interpretation of the results of comparisons between modeled and measured representations of the seasonal cycle of water entering the lower tropical stratosphere is dictated by which data set is used.

  12. A multi-sensor upper tropospheric ozone product (MUTOP based on TES Ozone and GOES water vapor: derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Felker


    Full Text Available The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Aura satellite, retrieves a vertical profile of tropospheric ozone. However, polar-orbiting instruments like TES provide limited nadir-view coverage. This work illustrates the value of these observations when taken in context with geostationary imagery describing synoptic-scale weather patterns. The goal of this study is to create map-view products of upper troposphere (UT ozone through the integration of TES ozone measurements with two synoptic dynamic tracers of stratospheric influence: specific humidity derived from the GOES Imager water vapor absorption channel, and potential vorticity (PV from an operational forecast model. As a mixing zone between tropospheric and stratospheric reservoirs, the upper troposphere (UT exhibits a complex chemical makeup. Determination of ozone mixing ratios in this layer is especially difficult without direct in situ measurement. However, it is well understood that UT ozone is correlated with dynamical tracers like low specific humidity and high potential vorticity. Blending the advantages of two remotely sensed quantities (GOES water vapor and TES ozone is at the core of the Multi-sensor Upper Tropospheric Ozone Product (MUTOP.

    Our results suggest that 72 % of TES-observed UT ozone variability can be explained by its correlation with dry air and high PV. MUTOP reproduces TES retrievals across the GOES-West domain with a root mean square error (RMSE of 18 ppbv (part per billion by volume. There are several advantages to this multi-sensor derived product approach: (1 it is calculated from two operational fields (GOES specific humidity and GFS PV, so maps of layer-average ozone can be created and used in near real-time; (2 the product provides the spatial resolution and coverage of a geostationary image as it depicts the variable distribution of ozone in the UT; and (3 the 6 h temporal resolution of the derived

  13. Water Isotope Tracers of Indo-Pacific Atmospheric Circulation: A Modern Take on Past Dynamics (United States)

    Konecky, B. L.; Noone, D. C.; Nusbaumer, J. M.; Cobb, K. M.; Conroy, J. L.


    Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios (δ18O, δD) in precipitation, terrestrial water bodies, groundwater, and surface seawater are powerful integrators of the atmospheric water cycle. As such, proxy archives of δ18O and δD form the basis for much of our understanding of past changes in Indo-Pacific climate. Water isotope studies of the past millennium suggest that both internal variability and forced changes in global temperature drove decadal to centennial changes in monsoons, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, ENSO, and other modes of variability. However, recent observations as well as proxy data have shown that δ18O and δD signatures are far more complex than previously believed. Testing hypotheses about the drivers of past Indo-Pacific hydroclimate therefore requires an improved understanding of modern-day isotope ratios. In this study, we present new analyses of Indo-Pacific climate/isotope relationships from satellite and in situ observations, as well as new simulations with water isotope-enabled components of the Community Earth System Model. We evaluate the mechanisms that reinforce or weaken the tropical amount effect, which is often invoked in interpreting paleo-isotope data as hydroclimate proxies. We find that the amount effect is highly variable through space and time. Generally, it is strongest at sites with large-amplitude variations in the seasonal cycle. Circulation and moisture convergence play key roles in determining the strength of the amount effect, although cloud processes such as Rayleigh distillation and rain evaporation are still important, especially in determining initial isotope ratios of transported moisture. The relative influence of these mechanisms on vapor δ18O and δD varies in different parts of the tropics, affecting how regional archives record ENSO and other circulation patterns. We discuss these differences, and their implications for reconstructing Indo-Pacific atmospheric variability on decadal and longer

  14. Study with liquid and steam tracers at the Tejamaniles area, Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en el area Tejamaniles del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Reyes Delgado, Lisette [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    The Mexican Federal Commission for Electricity injects brines produced by nearby geothermal wells into well Az-08, located in the Tejamaniles area, in the southwestern portion of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. The main goals of this study are to determine whether or not the injected fluid recharges nine producing wells in the area, and if so, to estimate the fraction of the injected fluid recharging each producing well. Five of the selected wells produce mixes of liquid and steam and the rest produce only steam. For this reason, we designed this study with simultaneous injections of liquid- and steam-tracers. The nine selected producing wells detected the steam-tracer, and the five wells producing mixes detected the liquid-phase tracer. The residence curves of both tracers present a series of peaks reflecting the known fractured nature of the reservoir. The results show the feeding areas of the nine selected wells are recharged by the fluid injected into well Az-08. When this paper was written, the arrival of steam-tracers in all wells was completed, but the wells producing mixes of liquid and steam continued to record the arrival of the liquid-tracer. Until 407 days after injecting the tracer, the total percentage recovery of liquid phase tracer in the five wells producing mixes of liquid and steam was 3.5032%. The arrival of the steam tracer ended in all nine wells 205 days after the tracer was injected, with an overall recovery rate of 2.1553 x 10-2%. The recovery rates imply the recharge rates of the monitored wells by the injector Az-08 are modest, but it appears the amounts of the recovered liquid-phase tracer will increase significantly. The modest recovery rates suggest most of the fluid injected into the well Az-08 disperses in the reservoir, contributing to recharge and maintaining the pressure. Results reveal that: (i) the injected fluid is heated at depths from 700 to over 1000 m, where it boils and rises to reach the feeding areas of the

  15. Preconditioning of the YSZ-NiO Fuel Cell Anode in Hydrogenous Atmospheres Containing Water Vapor. (United States)

    Vasyliv, Bogdan; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Ostash, Orest


    The YSZ-NiO ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) anode have been investigated. A series of specimens were singly reduced in a hydrogenous atmosphere (Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture) at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa or subjected to 'reduction in the mixture-oxidation in air' (redox) cycling at 600 °C. The YSZ-Ni cermets formed in both treatment conditions were then aged in 'water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture' atmosphere at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa. Additionally, the behaviour of the as-received material in this atmosphere was studied. It was revealed that small amount of water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture (water vapor pressure below 0.03 MPa) does not affect the reduction of the nickel phase in the YSZ-NiO ceramics, but causes some changes in the YSZ-Ni cermet structure. In particular, nanopore growth in tiny Ni particles takes place. At higher concentration of water vapor in the mixture (water vapor pressure above 0.03-0.05 MPa), converse changes in the kinetics of reduction occur. The best physical and mechanical properties were revealed for the material treated by redox cycling after holding at 600 °C in water depleted gas mixture. The dual effect of water vapor on nickel-zirconia anode behaviour is discussed basing on scanning electron microscopy analysis data, material electrical conductivity, and strength.

  16. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F


    /cm{sup 3}, in order to reduce the pore sizes and to better study the dynamic properties of water close to the water-clay interface. We compared the water dynamics in fully hydrated compacted clays, at two significantly different time-space scales, in an attempt to distinguish the relevant features of the water transport. A fundamental microscopic investigation, tracing down to the atomic level was carried out, by neutron scattering, using time-of-flight and backscattering techniques. A classical macroscopic study was performed by using tracer through-diffusion methods. At the macroscopic level (time/spatial scale of about hours/mm to cm) the water diffusion depends strongly on the clay pore size and arrangement of the particles. However, at the microscopic level (time/spatial scale of about ten to hundred picosecond/10{sup -8} cm) the diffusion is governed by the local environment, which concerns to cations and clay surfaces and less to the particle arrangement. For a further understanding of this local environment, the water diffusion in clays was also measured at different hydration states, to vary the fraction of interlayer or external layer water, as compared to free pore water. The large difference in the diffusion paths of the two selected techniques makes a direct comparison of water diffusivities impossible. Therefore, two possibilities were established: An indirect comparison by connecting the results for diffusion coefficient at the two different scales through pure geometrical and electrostatic factors; and a direct comparison through the activation energy E{sub a} which was estimated from the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the temperature. In contrast to the macroscopic diffusion coefficients, the activation energy is probably less influenced by geometrical factors and more by microscopic interactions, and thus could possibly be directly compared at the two different scales. The research was accomplished by a detailed characterization of the clay

  17. Pebax®1657/Graphene oxide composite membranes for improved water vapor separation

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan


    In this study composite mixed matrix membranes containing hydrophilic microphase-separated block copolymer (Pebax® 1657) and graphene oxide nanosheets were prepared using a dip coating method. Water vapor and N2 gas permeation were measured as a function of different parameters: (i) layer thickness, (ii) content of graphene oxide (GO), and (iii) content of reduced GO. Surprisingly, a concentration of only 2 wt% of GO nanosheets well dispersed in the Pebax layer boosted the selectivity 8 times by decreasing the water vapor permeance by only 12% whereas N2 gas permeance decreased by 70%. Using reduced GO instead, the water vapor permeance declined by up to 16% with no influence on the N2 gas permeance. We correlated the permeation properties of the mixed matrix membranes with different models and found, that both the modified Nielsen model and the Cussler model give good correlation with experimental findings.

  18. Alexandrite lidar for the atmospheric water vapor detection and development of powerful tunable sources in IR (United States)

    Uchiumi, M.; Maeda, M.; Muraoka, K.; Uchino, O.


    New tunable solid-state lasers, such as alexandrite and Ti-sapphire lasers, provide a powerful technique to detect various molecules in the atmosphere whose absorption bands are in the infrared region. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system to measure the tropospheric water vapor has been investigated by many authors, in an early stage, by dye and ruby lasers. Using the alpha band of water vapor, the longest detection range can be obtained with high accuracy, and the alexandrite laser is the most suitable laser for this purpose. In this paper, we describe the detection of water vapor in the atmosphere by an alexandrite lidar, and the development of powerful tunable sources based on Raman lasers in the infrared region.

  19. Mesospheric water vapor. Variability at different timescales observed by ground-based microwave spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Kristofer


    The importance of water vapor in Earth's atmosphere cannot be understated. It is an active green-house gas, important energy conveyer in the troposhere and a key element in many chemical reactions in the middle atmosphere. Yet, there are still many questions concerning the water vapor dynamics in the middle atmosphere. This thesis present a new, state-of-the art, microwave instrument developed in order to shed light on some of these issues. The high sensitivity and time-resolution enable us to resolve fast dynamical events which was not possible before. Furthermore it expands an already long dataset and a mean vertical distribution of water vapor for polar latitudes is presented. (orig.)

  20. Observational Constraints on the Water Vapor Feedback Using GPS Radio Occultations (United States)

    Vergados, P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Fetzer, E. J.


    The air refractive index at L-band frequencies depends on the air's density and water vapor content. Exploiting these relationships, we derive a theoretical model to infer the specific humidity response to surface temperature variations, dq/dTs, given knowledge of how the air refractive index and temperature vary with surface temperature. We validate this model using 1.2-1.6 GHz Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPS RO) observations from 2007 to 2010 at 250 hPa, where the water vapor feedback on surface warming is strongest. Current research indicates that GPS RO data sets can capture the amount of water vapor in very dry and very moist air more efficiently than other observing platforms, possibly suggesting larger water vapor feedback than previously known. Inter-comparing the dq/dTs among different data sets will provide us with additional constraints on the water vapor feedback. The dq/dTs estimation from GPS RO observations shows excellent agreement with previously published results and the responses estimated using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data sets. In particular, the GPS RO-derived dq/dTs is larger by 6% than that estimated using the AIRS data set. This agrees with past evidence that AIRS may be dry-biased in the upper troposphere. Compared to the MERRA estimations, the GPS RO-derived dq/dTs is 10% smaller, also agreeing with previous results that show that MERRA may have a wet bias in the upper troposphere. Because of their high sensitivity to fractional changes in water vapor, and their inherent long-term accuracy, current and future GPS RO observations show great promise in monitoring climate feedbacks and their trends.

  1. Temporal Variations of Telluric Water Vapor Absorption at Apache Point Observatory (United States)

    Li, Dan; Blake, Cullen H.; Nidever, David; Halverson, Samuel P.


    Time-variable absorption by water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere presents an important source of systematic error for a wide range of ground-based astronomical measurements, particularly at near-infrared wavelengths. We present results from the first study on the temporal and spatial variability of water vapor absorption at Apache Point Observatory (APO). We analyze ∼400,000 high-resolution, near-infrared (H-band) spectra of hot stars collected as calibration data for the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. We fit for the optical depths of telluric water vapor absorption features in APOGEE spectra and convert these optical depths to Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) using contemporaneous data from a GPS-based PWV monitoring station at APO. Based on simultaneous measurements obtained over a 3° field of view, we estimate that our PWV measurement precision is ±0.11 mm. We explore the statistics of PWV variations over a range of timescales from less than an hour to days. We find that the amplitude of PWV variations within an hour is less than 1 mm for most (96.5%) APOGEE field visits. By considering APOGEE observations that are close in time but separated by large distances on the sky, we find that PWV is homogeneous across the sky at a given epoch, with 90% of measurements taken up to 70° apart within 1.5 hr having ΔPWV < 1.0 mm. Our results can be used to help simulate the impact of water vapor absorption on upcoming surveys at continental observing sites like APO, and also to help plan for simultaneous water vapor metrology that may be carried out in support of upcoming photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  2. Adsorption of N-hexane, methanol and water vapor and binary mixtures of N-hexane/water vapor on super activated carbon nanoparticles (United States)

    Prado, Jesus Antonio

    Recent times have seen a large rise in the utilization of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) within a wide variety of industries due to their unique properties. Consequently, the fabrication, application and disposal of ENMs will inevitably lead to their release to the environment. Once ENMs are in the environment, they may undergo atmospheric transformations, such the sorption of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or water vapor. These transformed ENMs may then affect the general public through inhalation -- or other pathways of exposure -- and those employed by the ever-growing nanotechnology sector are of particular vulnerability. As a result, it is important to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of a common carbon-based ENM under the presence of HAPs or water vapor which may adsorb onto them. This study investigated the unary and binary gas-phase adsorption of n-hexane, methanol and water vapor on super activated carbon nanoparticles (SACNPs) with a bench-scale adsorption system. Removal efficiencies, breakthrough tests, throughput ratios, adsorption capacities and kinetics modeling were completed to assess the adsorption behavior of the SACNPs.

  3. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  4. Water Repellence and Oxygen and Water Vapor Barrier of PVOH-Coated Substrates before and after Surface Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid


    Full Text Available This study investigates chemical grafting with fatty acid chlorides as a method for the surface modification of hydrophilic web materials. The resulting changes in the water repellence and barrier properties were studied. For this purpose, different grades of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH were coated on regenerated cellulose films (“cellophane” and paper and then grafted with fatty acid chlorides. The PVOH grades varied in their degree of hydrolysis and average molecular weight. The surface was esterified with two fatty acid chlorides, palmitoyl (C16 and stearoyl chloride (C18, by chemical grafting. The chemical grafting resulted in water-repellent surfaces and reduced water vapor transmission rates by a factor of almost 19. The impact of the surface modification was greater for a higher degree of hydrolysis of the polyvinyl alcohol and for shorter fatty acid chains. Although the water vapor barrier for palmitoyl-grafted PVOH was higher than for stearoyl-grafted PVOH, the contact angle with water was lower. Additionally, it was shown that a higher degree of hydrolysis led to higher water vapor barrier improvement factors after grafting. Furthermore, the oxygen permeability decreased after grafting significantly, due to the fact that the grafting protects the PVOH against humidity when the humidity is applied on the grafted side. It can be concluded that the carbon chain length of the fatty acid chlorides is the limiting factor for water vapor adsorption, but the grafting density is the bottleneck for water diffusing in the polymer.

  5. Water vapor and gas transport through PEO PBT block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias


    Introduction At the bore well natural gas is saturated with water. Downstream the presence of water may cause: formation of methane hydrates (blocking eventually the pipeline), condensation of water in the pipeline and corrosion effects. A process used for the dehydration of natural gas is glycol

  6. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, Bolzano (Italy); Sangermano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)


    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  7. Water Vapor Desorption Characteristics of Honeycomb Type Sorption Element Composed of Organic Sorbent (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Kida, Takahisa; Horibe, Akihiko; Kaneda, Makoto; Okamoto, Tamio; Seo, Jeong-Kyun

    This paper describes the water vapor desorption characteristics of honeycomb shape type sorbent element containing new organic sorbent of the bridged complex of sodium polyacrylate. The transient experiments in which the dry air was passed into the honeycomb type sorbent element sorbed water vapor were carried out under various conditions of air velocity, temperature, relative humidity and honeycomb length. The obtained data for desorption process were compared with those for sorption process. Finally, Sherwood number of mass transfer of the organic sorbent for desorption process was derived in terms of Reynolds number, modified Stefan number and non-dimensional honeycomb length.

  8. Simulation of stratospheric water vapor trends: impact on stratospheric ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke


    Full Text Available A transient model simulation of the 40-year time period 1960 to 1999 with the coupled climate-chemistry model (CCM ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM shows a stratospheric water vapor increase over the last two decades of 0.7 ppmv and, additionally, a short-term increase after major volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, a long-term decrease in global total ozone as well as a short-term ozone decline in the tropics after volcanic eruptions are modeled. In order to understand the resulting effects of the water vapor changes on lower stratospheric ozone chemistry, different perturbation simulations were performed with the CCM ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM feeding the water vapor perturbations only to the chemistry part. Two different long-term perturbations of lower stratospheric water vapor, +1 ppmv and +5 ppmv, and a short-term perturbation of +2 ppmv with an e-folding time of two months were applied. An additional stratospheric water vapor amount of 1 ppmv results in a 5–10% OH increase in the tropical lower stratosphere between 100 and 30 hPa. As a direct consequence of the OH increase the ozone destruction by the HOx cycle becomes 6.4% more effective. Coupling processes between the HOx-family and the NOx/ClOx-family also affect the ozone destruction by other catalytic reaction cycles. The NOx cycle becomes 1.6% less effective, whereas the effectiveness of the ClOx cycle is again slightly enhanced. A long-term water vapor increase does not only affect gas-phase chemistry, but also heterogeneous ozone chemistry in polar regions. The model results indicate an enhanced heterogeneous ozone depletion during antarctic spring due to a longer PSC existence period. In contrast, PSC formation in the northern hemisphere polar vortex and therefore heterogeneous ozone depletion during arctic spring are not affected by the water vapor increase, because of the less PSC activity. Finally, this study shows that 10% of the global total ozone decline in the transient model run

  9. Measurements of the vertical profile of water vapor abundance in the Martian atmosphere from Mars Observer (United States)

    Schofield, J. T.; Mccleese, Daniel J.


    An analysis is presented of the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) capabilities along with how the vertical profiles of water vapor will be obtained. The PMIRR will employ filter and pressure modulation radiometry using nine spectral channels, in both limb scanning and nadir sounding modes, to obtain daily, global maps of temperature, dust extinction, condensate extinction, and water vapor mixing ratio profiles as a function of pressure to half scale height or 5 km vertical resolution. Surface thermal properties will also be mapped, and the polar radiactive balance will be monitored.

  10. Analysis on Characteristics of Radiosonde Bias Using GPS Precipitable Water Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Geun Park


    Full Text Available As an observation instrument of the longest record of tropospheric water vapor, radiosonde data provide upper-air pressure (geopotential height, temperature, humidity and wind. However, the data have some well-known elements related to inaccuracy. In this article, radiosonde precipitable water vapor (PWV at Sokcho observatory was compared with global positioning system (GPS PWV during each summertime of year 2007 and 2008 and the biases were calculated. As a result, the mean bias showed negative values regardless of the rainfall occurrence. In addition, on the basis of GPS PWV, the maximum root mean square error (RMSE was 5.67 mm over the radiosonde PWV.

  11. The influence of water vapor on atmospheric exchange measurements with an ICOS* based Laser absorption analyzer (United States)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Quan, Zhi; Wandel, Matthias; Yi, Zhigang; Bozem, Heiko; Kesselmeier, Jürgen


    Carbonyl sulfide and carbon monoxide are both atmospheric trace gases of high interest. Recent advances in the field of spectroscopy have enabled instruments that measure the concentration of the above and other trace gases very fast and with good precision. Increasing the effective path length by reflecting the light between two mirrors in a cavity, these instruments reach impressive sensitivities. Often it is possible to measure the concentration of more than one trace gas at the same time. The OCS/CO2 Analyzer by LGR (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measures the concentration of water vapor [H2O], carbonyl sulfide [COS], carbon dioxide [CO2] and carbon monoxide [CO] simultaneously. For that the cavity is saturated with light, than the attenuation of light is measured as in standard absorption spectroscopy. The instrument proved to be very fast with good precision and to be able to detect even very low concentrations, especially for COS (as low as 30ppt in the case of COS). However, we observed a rather strong cross sensitivity to water vapor. Altering the water vapor content of the sampled air with two different methods led to a change in the perceived concentration of COS, CO and CO2. This proved especially problematic for enclosure (cuvette) measurements, where the concentrations of one of the above species in an empty cuvette are compared to the concentration of another cuvette containing a plant whose exchange of trace gases with the atmosphere is of interest. There, the plants transpiration leads to a large difference in water vapor content between the cuvettes and that in turn produces artifacts in the concentration differences between the cuvettes for the other above mentioned trace gases. For CO, simultaneous measurement with a UV-Emission Analyzer (AL 5002, Aerolaser) and the COS/CO Analyzer showed good agreement of perceived concentrations as long as the sample gas was dry and an increasing difference in perceived concentration when the sample gas was

  12. Compact Raman Lidar Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Water Under the Influence of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiina Tatsuo


    Full Text Available A compact Raman lidar has been developed for studying phase changes of water in the atmosphere under the influence of ionization radiation. The Raman lidar is operated at the wavelength of 349 nm and backscattered Raman signals of liquid and vapor phase water are detected at 396 and 400 nm, respectively. Alpha particles emitted from 241Am of 9 MBq ionize air molecules in a scattering chamber, and the resulting ions lead to the formation of liquid water droplets. From the analysis of Raman signal intensities, it has been found that the increase in the liquid water Raman channel is approximately 3 times as much as the decrease in the vapor phase water Raman channel, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the Raman cross-sections. In addition, the radius of the water droplet is estimated to be 0.2 μm.

  13. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.


    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  14. Behaviors of sea water studied with chemical transient tracers. Lecture by the member awarded the Okada prize of the Oceanographic Society of Japan for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.W. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Chemical tracers are useful tools for clarifying the behaviors of sea water in the ocean. The present article reviews my works concerning chemical tracers. Based on my chemical tracers data, it was concluded that the turnover time of the Japan Sea deep water and the residence time of water within the Japan Sea were about 100 years and 1000 years, respectively, and that the exchange coefficient of CO{sub 2} in the Japan Sea was smaller than that in the North Pacific. Furthermore, chemical tracers and carbonate species data set in the North Pacific suggested that the production rate of intermediate water in the North Pacific was about 24 Sv and that the North Pacific subpolar region was an important sink of CO{sub 2} released from human activities after the industrial era. (author)

  15. Q Conversion Factor Models for Estimating Precipitable Water Vapor for Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin; Gurbuz, Gokhan


    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have recently proved to be one of the crucial tools for determining continuous and precise precipitable water vapor (GNSS-MET networks). GNSS, especially CORS networks such as CORS-TR (the Turkish Network-RTK), provide high temporal and spatial accuracy for the wet tropospheric zenith delays which are then converted to the precipitable water vapor due to the fact that they can operate in all weather conditions continuously and economically. The accuracy of wet tropospheric zenith delay highly depends on the accuracy of precipitable water vapor content in the troposphere. Therefore, the precipitable water vapor is an important element of the tropospheric zenith delay. A number of studies can be found in the literature on the determination of the precipitable water vapor from the tropospheric zenith delay. Studies of Hogg showed that when the precipitable water vapor is known, the tropospheric zenith delay can be computed. Askne and Nodius have developed fundamental equations between the wet tropospheric zenith delay and the precipitable water vapor from the equation of the index of refraction in the troposphere. Furthermore, Bevis have developed a linear regression model to determine the weighted mean temperature (Tm) depending on the surface temperature (Ts) in Askne and Nodius studies. For this reason, nearly 9000 radiosonde profiles in USA were analyzed and the coefficients calculated. Similarly, there are other studies on the calculation of those coefficients for different regions: Solbrig for Germany, Liou for Taiwan, Jihyun for South Korea, Dongseob for North Korea, Suresh Raju for India, Boutiouta and Lahcene for Algeria, Bokoye for Canada, Baltink for Netherlands and Baltic, Bock for Africa. It is stated that the weighted mean temperature can be found with a root mean square error of ±2-5 K. In addition, there are studies on the calculation of the coefficients globally. Another model for the determination of

  16. A Synoptic View of the Ventilation and Circulation of Antarctic Bottom Water from Chlorofluorocarbons and Natural Tracers. (United States)

    Purkey, Sarah G; Smethie, William M; Gebbie, Geoffrey; Gordon, Arnold L; Sonnerup, Rolf E; Warner, Mark J; Bullister, John L


    Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the coldest, densest, most prolific water mass in the global ocean. AABW forms at several distinct regions along the Antarctic coast and feeds into the bottom limb of the meridional overturning circulation, filling most of the global deep ocean. AABW has warmed, freshened, and declined in volume around the globe in recent decades, which has implications for the global heat and sea level rise budgets. Over the past three decades, the use of tracers, especially time-varying tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons, has been essential to our understanding of the formation, circulation, and variability of AABW. Here, we review three decades of temperature, salinity, and tracer data and analysis that have led to our current knowledge of AABW and how the southern component of deep-ocean ventilation is changing with time. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 10 is January 3, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

  17. Application of environmental tracers to mixing, evolution, and nitrate contamination of ground water in Jeju Island, Korea (United States)

    Koh, D.-C.; Niel, Plummer L.; Kip, Solomon D.; Busenberg, E.; Kim, Y.-J.; Chang, H.-W.


    Tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were investigated as environmental tracers in ground water from Jeju Island (Republic of Korea), a basaltic volcanic island. Ground-water mixing was evaluated by comparing 3H and CFC-12 concentrations with lumped-parameter dispersion models, which distinguished old water recharged before the 1950s with negligible 3H and CFC-12 from younger water. Low 3H levels in a considerable number of samples cannot be explained by the mixing models, and were interpreted as binary mixing of old and younger water; a process also identified in alkalinity and pH of ground water. The ground-water CFC-12 age is much older in water from wells completed in confined zones of the hydro-volcanic Seogwipo Formation in coastal areas than in water from the basaltic aquifer. Major cation concentrations are much higher in young water with high nitrate than those in uncontaminated old water. Chemical evolution of ground water resulting from silicate weathering in basaltic rocks reaches the zeolite-smectite phase boundary. The calcite saturation state of ground water increases with the CFC-12 apparent (piston flow) age. In agricultural areas, the temporal trend of nitrate concentration in ground water is consistent with the known history of chemical fertilizer use on the island, but increase of nitrate concentration in ground water is more abrupt after the late 1970s compared with the exponential growth of nitrogen inputs. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using 15N isotopic tracer technique (United States)

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim


    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct 15N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the 15N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. 15N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. 15N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained.

  19. Combining TES Ozone with GOES Water Vapor to Discern Dynamically Driven Stratospheric Enhancements in the Upper Troposphere (United States)

    Felker, S. R.; Moody, J. L.; Wimmers, A. J.; Bowman, K. W.; Osterman, G. B.


    As part of NASA INTEX-B we report on a satellite based empirical method for estimating the amount of stratospheric ozone present in the upper-troposphere (UT). To understand the role of anthropogenic emissions on ozone mixing ratios in the non-urban troposphere, it is vital to describe the dynamically variable background, which is influenced by the natural exchange of stratospheric ozone. Our derived product is based on the relationship between three quantities, 1) satellite measurements of UT ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), 2) estimates of GOES Layer Average Specific Humidity (GLASH) based on the GOES water vapor channel, and 3) the dynamical tracer Potential Vorticity (PV) from the Global Forecast System model. The TES instrument, on the Aura satellite, produced nadir curtains of ozone mixing ratio. TES profiles were used to create a series of layer-averaged ozone values employing the weighting function for the atmospheric layer observed in the GLASH product, with a maximum contribution from 300-400hPa. Model PV was similarly weighted such that all three products describe the same layer. Atmospheric dynamics are a major control on ozone in this layer where stratospheric enhancements are associated with dry intrusions of PV rich air. Preliminary analyses using 22 TES overpasses (2570 TES retrievals from April and May, 2006) exhibit a strong correlation to the dynamical tracers. A Reduced Major Axis (RMA) linear regression of ozone and GLASH brightness temperatures (inversely related to specific humidity) results in an r2 of 0.67; the RMA analysis of ozone and PV results in an r2 of 0.76. A multiple regression using both GLASH and PV values in a least-squares fit of TES ozone results in an r2 of 0.82. Given that over 80% of the TES variability in the UT is explained by variations in dynamical tracers, we have used this relationship, and the coverage of the GOES product to derive a satellite based image of dynamically variable ozone in the

  20. Modeling of a water vapor selective membrane unit to increase the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting (United States)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S. J.; de Lange, H. C.; van Steenhoven, A. A.


    Air humidity is a promising source of clean and safe drinking water. However, in conventional systems a lot of energy is wasted on the production of cold air, rather than the condensation of water vapor. This study examines the possibility of using a hollow fiber membrane module to make this process more energy efficient, by separating the vapor from other gases, prior to the cooling process with the help of selective membranes. The water vapor concentration within a fiber has been modeled using a random walker approach, and the membrane permeability has been implemented as a re-bounce probability for simulation particles interacting with the membrane. Considering the additional work requirement for driving a feed flow through the membrane section and the computed water vapor permeation it could be shown that the energy demand per unit water is lowest for slow flow speeds and favors short and thin fibers. The total energy requirement was estimated to be less than half of the conventional one. Comparison with other CFD simulations and a real life module has shown a good level of agreement, indicating that a membrane section could improve the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting significantly.

  1. Deuterium excess in subtropical free troposphere water vapor: Continuous measurements from the Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile (United States)

    Samuels-Crow, Kimberly E.; Galewsky, Joseph; Sharp, Zachary D.; Dennis, Kate J.


    Water vapor measured continuously by cavity ring-down spectroscopy from July 2012 to March 2013 on the hyperarid Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile (elevation = 5080 m, pressure ≈ 550 hPa), has a mean deuterium excess (d-excess = δD - 8*δ18O) of 46‰ ± 5‰ and frequently exceeds 100‰ at low water vapor mixing ratios (q ≤ 500 ppmv). These measurements provide empirical support for theoretical predictions of free troposphere d-excess. The d-excess measured at this site can be understood in terms of supersaturation with respect to ice at relative humidities between 100% and 130%, followed by mixing with moist midtropospheric or lower tropospheric air en route to the plateau. The d-excess measured at Chajnantor is consistent with predictions for d-excess in the upper troposphere from isotope-enabled general circulation models and with high vapor saturation over ice in cloud-resolving and microphysical models.

  2. Eggshell permeability: a standard technique for determining interspecific rates of water vapor conductance. (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Cassey, Phillip


    Typically, eggshell water vapor conductance is measured on whole eggs, freshly collected at the commencement of a study. At times, however, it may not be possible to obtain whole fresh eggs but rather egg fragments or previously blown eggs. Here we evaluate and describe in detail a technique for modern laboratory analysis of eggshell conductance that uses fragments from fresh and museum eggs to determine eggshell water vapor conductance. We used fresh unincubated eggs of domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) to investigate the reliability, validity, and repeatability of the technique. To assess the suitability of museum samples, museum and freshly collected black-headed gull eggs (Larus ridibundus) were used. Fragments were cut out of the eggshell from the blunt end (B), equator (E), and pointy end (P). Eggshell fragments were glued to the top of a 0.25-mL micro test tube (Eppendorf) filled with 200 μL of distilled water and placed in a desiccator at 25°C. Eppendorfs were weighed three times at 24-h intervals, and mass loss was assumed to be a result of water evaporation. We report the following results: (1) mass loss between weighing sessions was highly repeatable and consistent in all species; (2) the majority of intraspecific variability in eggshell water vapor conductance between different eggs of the same species was explained through the differences in water vapor conductance between the three eggshell parts of the same egg (B, E, and P); (3) the technique was sensitive enough to detect significant differences between the three domestic species; (4) there was no overall significant difference between water vapor conductance of museum and fresh black-headed gull eggs; (5) there was no significant difference in water vapor conductance for egg fragments taken from the same egg both between different trials and within the same trial. We conclude, therefore, that this technique

  3. Eddy Covariance measurements of stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) in water vapor (United States)

    Braden-Behrens, Jelka; Knohl, Alexander


    Stable isotopes are a promising tool to enhance our understanding of ecosystem gas exchanges. Studying 18O and 2H in water vapour (H2Ov) can e.g. help partitioning evapotranspiration into its components. With recent developments in laser spectroscopy direct Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements for investigating fluxes of stable isotopologues became feasible. So far very few case studies have applied the EC method to measure stable isotopes in water vapor. We continuously measure fluxes of water vapor isotopologues with the EC method in a managed beech forest in Thuringia, Germany, since autumn 2015 using the following setup: An off-axis integrated cavity output water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA, Los Gatos Research. Inc, USA) measures the water vapour concentration and its isotopic composition (δD and δ18O). The instrument, that was optimized for high flow rates (app. 4slpm) to generate high frequency (2Hz) measurements, showed sufficient precision with Allan Deviations of app. 0.12 ‰ for δD and 0.06 ‰ for δ18O for averaging periods of 100s. The instrument was calibrated hourly using a high-flow optimized version of the water vapor isotope standard source (WVISS, Los Gatos Research. Inc, USA) that provides water vapor with known isotopic composition for a large range of different concentrations. Our calibration scheme includes a near continuous concentration range calibration instead of a simple 2 or 3-point calibration to face the analyzers strong concentration dependency within a range of app. 6 000 to 16 000 ppm in winter and app. 8 000 to 23 000 ppm in summer. In the used setup, the high-flow and high-frequency optimized water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA) showed suitable characteristics (Allan deviation and spectral energy distribution) to perform Eddy covariance measurements of stable isotopes in H2Ov. Thus, this novel instrument for EC measurements of water vapor isotopologues provides a new opportunity for studying the hydrological cycle in long

  4. The Influence of Surface Tension Gradients on Surfactant Tracer Measurement of Air-Water Interfacial Area in Porous Media (United States)

    Costanza-Robinson, M. S.; Estabrook, B. D.; Henry, E. J.


    Air-water interfacial area (AI) in porous media is an important factor governing equilibrium contaminant retention, as well as the kinetics of interphase mass transfer, such as delivery of oxygen to roots and volatilization of methane from landfills. Despite this importance, significant method-dependence is observed among techniques used to determine AI in porous media. In this work, possible low bias in conventional aqueous interfacial-partitioning tracer methodology (IPT) was examined by comparison of IPT-AI estimates with more direct estimates obtained using synchrotron X-ray microtomographic (µCT) imaging. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and pentafluorobenzoate were used as interfacial and nonreactive tracers, respectively, to measure AI at three water saturations (Sw) in a natural fine sand. IPT-AI exhibited expected trends, with higher areas associated with drier conditions, but the magnitude of AI was as much as 50% lower than those measured by µCT. IPT-AI values for the driest system agreed most closely with microtomography data. Real-time system mass measurements revealed that upon introduction of the surfactant tracer, system Sw decreased by 15-30%; the driest system exhibited the least drainage. This drainage is consistent with a reduction in capillarity caused by the lower surface tension of the surfactant solution as compared to the surfactant-free resident fluid. Drainage in the direction of flow would lead to earlier breakthrough of the surfactant tracer and a lower AI-estimate. In fact, the magnitude of drainage and magnitude of AI-underestimation relative to µCT were qualitatively correlated. Although this effect was expected, its magnitude and potential influence on AI was previously unknown and was larger than anticipated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, Paola; Douglas, Thomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Keto, Eric [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Calle Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Pagani, Laurent [LERMA and UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Yildiz, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van der Tak, Floris F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Codella, Claudio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Nisini, Brunella, E-mail: [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)


    Water is a crucial molecule in molecular astrophysics as it controls much of the gas/grain chemistry, including the formation and evolution of more complex organic molecules in ices. Pre-stellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and its partitioning between gas and ice in the densest cores. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Herschel Space Observatory, we report on the first detection of water vapor at high spectral resolution toward a dense cloud on the verge of star formation, the pre-stellar core L1544. The line shows an inverse P-Cygni profile, characteristic of gravitational contraction. To reproduce the observations, water vapor has to be present in the cold and dense central few thousand AU of L1544, where species heavier than helium are expected to freeze out onto dust grains, and the ortho:para H{sub 2} ratio has to be around 1:1 or larger. The observed amount of water vapor within the core (about 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }) can be maintained by far-UV photons locally produced by the impact of galactic cosmic rays with H{sub 2} molecules. Such FUV photons irradiate the icy mantles, liberating water vapor in the core center. Our Herschel data, combined with radiative transfer and chemical/dynamical models, shed light on the interplay between gas and solids in dense interstellar clouds and provide the first measurement of the water vapor abundance profile across the parent cloud of a future solar-type star and its potential planetary system.

  6. First Detection of Water Vapor in a Pre-stellar Core (United States)

    Caselli, Paola; Keto, Eric; Bergin, Edwin A.; Tafalla, Mario; Aikawa, Yuri; Douglas, Thomas; Pagani, Laurent; Yíldíz, Umut A.; van der Tak, Floris F. S.; Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Codella, Claudio; Nisini, Brunella; Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.


    Water is a crucial molecule in molecular astrophysics as it controls much of the gas/grain chemistry, including the formation and evolution of more complex organic molecules in ices. Pre-stellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and its partitioning between gas and ice in the densest cores. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Herschel Space Observatory, we report on the first detection of water vapor at high spectral resolution toward a dense cloud on the verge of star formation, the pre-stellar core L1544. The line shows an inverse P-Cygni profile, characteristic of gravitational contraction. To reproduce the observations, water vapor has to be present in the cold and dense central few thousand AU of L1544, where species heavier than helium are expected to freeze out onto dust grains, and the ortho:para H2 ratio has to be around 1:1 or larger. The observed amount of water vapor within the core (about 1.5 × 10-6 M ⊙) can be maintained by far-UV photons locally produced by the impact of galactic cosmic rays with H2 molecules. Such FUV photons irradiate the icy mantles, liberating water vapor in the core center. Our Herschel data, combined with radiative transfer and chemical/dynamical models, shed light on the interplay between gas and solids in dense interstellar clouds and provide the first measurement of the water vapor abundance profile across the parent cloud of a future solar-type star and its potential planetary system.

  7. Mapping Mars water vapor with the Very Large Array (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Grossman, Arie W.; Muhleman, Duane O.


    This paper presents the first radio measurements of Mars atmospheric water, retrieved from interferometric spectral line observations with the NRAO VLA. Large atmospheric path lengths on the limb of Mars lead to an annulus of H2O line emission which provides a measure of the diurnal and latitudinal variability of atmospheric water on Mars. The measured line shapes of the observed H2O emission yield the first direct measurements of the vertical mixing profile of H2O in the Mars atmosphere. The observations indicate a very dry Mars atmosphere in which the globally averaged water column is approximately 3 pr micron.

  8. Using JPSS Retrievals to Implement a Multisensor, Synoptic, Layered Water Vapor Product for Forecasters (United States)

    Forsythe, J. M.; Jones, A. S.; Kidder, S. Q.; Fuell, K.; LeRoy, A.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.


    Forecasters have been using the NOAA operational blended total precipitable water (TPW) product, developed by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), since 2009. Blended TPW has a wide variety of uses related to heavy precipitation and flooding, such as measuring the amount of moisture in an atmospheric river originating in the tropics. But blended TPW conveys no information on the vertical distribution of moisture, which is relevant to a variety of forecast concerns. Vertical profile information is particularly lacking over the oceans for landfalling storms. A blended six-satellite, four-layer, layered water vapor product demonstrated by CIRA and the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) in allows forecasters to see the vertical distribution of water vapor in near real-time. National Weather Service (NWS) forecaster feedback indicated that this new, vertically-resolved view of water vapor has a substantial impact on forecasts. This product uses NOAA investments in polar orbiting satellite sounding retrievals from passive microwave radiances, in particular, the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS). The product currently utilizes data from the NOAA-18 and -19 spacecraft, Metop-A and -B, and the Defense Meteorological Program (DMSP) F18 spacecraft. The sounding instruments onboard the Suomi-NPP and JPSS spacecraft will be cornerstone instruments in the future evolution of this product. Applications of the product to heavy rain cases will be presented and compared to commonly used data such as radiosondes and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) water vapor channel imagery. Research is currently beginning to implement advective blending, where model winds are used to move the water vapor profiles to a common time. Interactions with the NOAA Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) centers including the Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) and Weather

  9. Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy on water vapor in the range 555-604 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Levelt, P.F.; Polyansky, O.L.; Zobov, N.F.; Tennyson, J.


    The method of pulsed cavity-ring-down spectroscopy was employed to record the water vapor absorption spectrum in the wavelength range 555-604 nm. The spectrum consists of 1830 lines, calibrated against the iodine standard with an accuracy of 0.01 cm

  10. Transport of water vapor and inert gas mixtures through highly selective and highly permeable polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; van de Ven, W.J.C.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias


    This paper studies in detail the measurement of the permeation properties of highly permeable and highly selective polymers for water vapor/nitrogen gas mixtures. The analysis of the mass transport of a highly permeable polymer is complicated by the presence of stagnant boundary layers at feed and

  11. Water vapor selective thin film nanocomposite membranes prepared by functionalized Silicon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baig, Muhammad Irshad; Ingole, Pravin G.; Jeon, Jae deok; Hong, Seong Uk; Choi, Won Kil; Jang, Boyun; Lee, Hyung Keun


    In this work, we have reported a facile method to improve the water vapor permeation performance of thin film nanocomposite membranes by tailoring the surface properties of Silicon nanoparticles. Inductively coupled plasma technique was utilized to synthesize amorphous Silicon nanoparticles (~. 10.

  12. Analysis of combined heat and mass transfer of water-vapor in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jn this paper, the combined heat and mass transfer of water-vapor into a cylindrical zeolite adsorber has been numerically simulated The twodimensional heat and mass transfer equations are numerically solved using gPROMS program - a general Process Modeling System [J] program, inserting the proper initial and ...

  13. Analysis of combined heat and mass transfer of water- Vapor in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the combined heat and mass transfer of water-vapor into a cylindrical zeolite adsorber has been numerically simulated The twodimensional heat and mass transfer equations are numerically solved using gPROMS program - a general Process Modeling System {lJ program, inserting the proper initial and ...

  14. Interpretation of TOVS Water Vapor Radiances Using a Random Strong Line Model

    CERN Document Server

    Soden, B J; Soden, Brian J.; Bretherton, Francis P.


    This study illustrates the application of a random strong line (RSL) model of radiative transfer to the interpretation of satellite observations of the upwelling radiation in the 6.3 micron water vapor absorption band. The model, based upon an assemblage of randomly overlapped, strongly absorbing, pressure broadened lines, is compared to detailed radiative transfer calculations of the upper (6.7 micron) tropospheric water vapor radiance and demonstrated to be accurate to within ~ 1.2 K. Similar levels of accuracy are found when the model is compared to detailed calculations of the middle (7.3 micron) and lower (8.3 micron) tropospheric water vapor radiance, provided that the emission from the underlying surface is taken into account. Based upon these results, the RSL model is used to interpret TOVS-observed water vapor radiances in terms of the relative humidity averaged over deep layers of the upper, middle, and lower troposphere. We then present near-global maps of the geographic distribution and climatolog...

  15. Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee


    Full Text Available We examine the co-variations of tropospheric water vapor, its isotopic composition and cloud types and relate these distributions to tropospheric mixing and distillation models using satellite observations from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES over the summertime tropical ocean. Interpretation of these process distributions must take into account the sensitivity of the TES isotope and water vapor measurements to variations in cloud, water, and temperature amount. Consequently, comparisons are made between cloud-types based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISSCP classification; these are clear sky, non-precipitating (e.g., cumulus, boundary layer (e.g., stratocumulus, and precipitating clouds (e.g. regions of deep convection. In general, we find that the free tropospheric vapor over tropical oceans does not strictly follow a Rayleigh model in which air parcels become dry and isotopically depleted through condensation. Instead, mixing processes related to convection as well as subsidence, and re-evaporation of rainfall associated with organized deep convection all play significant roles in controlling the water vapor distribution. The relative role of these moisture processes are examined for different tropical oceanic regions.

  16. Structure and Dynamical Influence of Water Vapor in the Lower Tropical Troposphere (United States)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Brogniez, Hélène; Kiemle, Christoph; Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Crevoisier, Cyril; Kiliani, Johannes


    In situ, airborne and satellite measurements are used to characterize the structure of water vapor in the lower tropical troposphere—below the height, z_*, of the triple-point isotherm, T_*. The measurements are evaluated in light of understanding of how lower-tropospheric water vapor influences clouds, convection and circulation, through both radiative and thermodynamic effects. Lower-tropospheric water vapor, which concentrates in the first few kilometers above the boundary layer, controls the radiative cooling profile of the boundary layer and lower troposphere. Elevated moist layers originating from a preferred level of convective detrainment induce a profile of radiative cooling that drives circulations which reinforce such features. A theory for this preferred level of cumulus termination is advanced, whereby the difference between T_* and the temperature at which primary ice forms gives a `first-mover advantage' to glaciating cumulus convection, thereby concentrating the regions of the deepest convection and leading to more clouds and moisture near the triple point. A preferred level of convective detrainment near T_* implies relative humidity reversals below z* which are difficult to identify using retrievals from satellite-borne microwave and infrared sounders. Isotopologues retrievals provide a hint of such features and their ability to constrain the structure of the vertical humidity profile merits further study. Nonetheless, it will likely remain challenging to resolve dynamically important aspects of the vertical structure of water vapor from space using only passive sensors.

  17. Real-Time Water Vapor Maps from a GPS Surface Network: Construction, Validation, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.; Holleman, I.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    In this paper the construction of real-time integrated water vapor (IWV) maps from a surface network of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is presented. The IWV maps are constructed using a twodimensional variational technique with a persistence background that is 15 min old. The background

  18. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax. (United States)

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  19. Conversion function between the Linke turbidity and the atmospheric water vapor and aerosol content


    Ineichen, Pierre


    This technical note presents a conversion function between the widely used Linke turbidity coefficient TL, the atmospheric water vapor and urban aerosol content. It takes into account the altitude of the application site. The function is based on radiative transfer calculations and validated with the help of an independent clear sky model. Its precision is around 0.12 units of TL.

  20. SPARC Data Initiative: Comparison of water vapor climatologies from international satellite limb sounders (United States)

    Hegglin, M. I.; Tegtmeier, S.; Anderson, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Fuller, R.; Funke, B.; Jones, A.; Lingenfelser, G.; Lumpe, J.; Pendlebury, D.; Remsberg, E.; Rozanov, A.; Toohey, M.; Urban, J.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, R.; Weigel, K.


    Within the SPARC Data Initiative, the first comprehensive assessment of the quality of 13 water vapor products from 11 limb-viewing satellite instruments (LIMS, SAGE II, UARS-MLS, HALOE, POAM III, SMR, SAGE III, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS, and Aura-MLS) obtained within the time period 1978-2010 has been performed. Each instrument's water vapor profile measurements were compiled into monthly zonal mean time series on a common latitude-pressure grid. These time series serve as basis for the "climatological" validation approach used within the project. The evaluations include comparisons of monthly or annual zonal mean cross sections and seasonal cycles in the tropical and extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere averaged over one or more years, comparisons of interannual variability, and a study of the time evolution of physical features in water vapor such as the tropical tape recorder and polar vortex dehydration. Our knowledge of the atmospheric mean state in water vapor is best in the lower and middle stratosphere of the tropics and midlatitudes, with a relative uncertainty of ±2-6% (as quantified by the standard deviation of the instruments' multiannual means). The uncertainty increases toward the polar regions (±10-15%), the mesosphere (±15%), and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere below 100 hPa (±30-50%), where sampling issues add uncertainty due to large gradients and high natural variability in water vapor. The minimum found in multiannual (1998-2008) mean water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere is 3.5 ppmv (±14%), with slightly larger uncertainties for monthly mean values. The frequently used HALOE water vapor data set shows consistently lower values than most other data sets throughout the atmosphere, with increasing deviations from the multi-instrument mean below 100 hPa in both the tropics and extratropics. The knowledge gained from these comparisons and regarding the quality of the individual data sets in different regions

  1. The relationship between tropospheric wave forcing and tropical lower stratospheric water vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhomse


    Full Text Available Using water vapor data from HALOE and SAGE II, an anti-correlation between planetary wave driving (here expressed by the mid-latitude eddy heat flux at 50 hPa added from both hemispheres and tropical lower stratospheric (TLS water vapor has been obtained. This appears to be a manifestation of the inter-annual variability of the Brewer-Dobson (BD circulation strength (the driving of which is generally measured in terms of the mid-latitude eddy heat flux, and hence amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. Some years such as 1991 and 1997 show, however, a clear departure from the anti-correlation which suggests that the water vapor changes in TLS can not be attributed solely to changes in extratropical planetary wave activity (and its effect on the BD circulation. After 2000 a sudden decrease in lower stratospheric water vapor has been reported in earlier studies based upon satellite data from HALOE, SAGE II and POAM III indicating that the lower stratosphere has become drier since then. This is consistent with a sudden rise in the combined mid-latitude eddy heat flux with nearly equal contribution from both hemispheres as shown here and with the increase in tropical upwelling and decrease in cold point temperatures found by Randel et al. (2006. The low water vapor and enhanced planetary wave activity (in turn strength of the BD circulation has persisted until the end of the satellite data records. From a multi-variate regression analysis applied to 27 years of NCEP and HadAT2 (radiosonde temperatures (up to 2005 with contributions from solar cycle, stratospheric aerosols and QBO removed, the enhancement wave driving after 2000 is estimated to contribute up to 0.7 K cooling to the overall TLS temperature change during the period 2001–2005 when compared to the period 1996–2000. NCEP cold point temperature show an average decrease of nearly 0.4 K from changes in the wave driving, which is consistent with observed mean TLS water vapor

  2. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Reactive Condensation of Glyoxal and Water Vapor (United States)

    Hastings, W. P.; Koehler, C. A.; de Haan, D. O.


    The formation of secondary organic aerosol particles by particle-phase reactions is currently of great interest. Glyoxal has been identified as a significant component in the particle phase in recent smog chamber aromatic oxidation studies. This is surprising because glyoxal has a high vapor pressure and phase partitioning theory would predict that it remain almost entirely in the gas phase. Growth of inorganic seed aerosol in a particle chamber was monitored by scanning mobility particle sizing during addition of gas-phase glyoxal and small amounts of water vapor. Glyoxal was observed to condense on inorganic seed aerosol at concentrations that are at least 100 times below its vapor pressure. This behavior can be explained by a chemical reaction: glyoxal is known to polymerize when exposed to water vapor. This polymerization may be a general mechanism for secondary aerosol formation by alpha-dicarbonyl compounds. The reactivity of hydrated and polymerized forms of glyoxal during analysis by gas chromatography was assessed. Hydrated glyoxal was found to convert to glyoxal at even slightly elevated temperatures in GC injection ports. We then showed that breakdown of solid-phase glyoxal trimer dihydrate, forming gas phase glyoxal and water vapor, occurs at temperatures just above 50 *C, the boiling point of glyoxal. These observations suggest that reports of particle-phase glyoxal are likely caused by GC sampling artifacts, and that the actual particulate species are instead polymerized forms of glyoxal. It does not appear that chemical derivatization protects glyoxal polymers from thermal breakdown during GC analysis. The existence in the particle phase of glyoxal polymers with negligable vapor pressures, rather than volatile glyoxal, is consistent with phase partitioning theory.

  3. Evidence of water vapor in excess of saturation in the atmosphere of Mars. (United States)

    Maltagliati, L; Montmessin, F; Fedorova, A; Korablev, O; Forget, F; Bertaux, J-L


    The vertical distribution of water vapor is key to the study of Mars' hydrological cycle. To date, it has been explored mainly through global climate models because of a lack of direct measurements. However, these models assume the absence of supersaturation in the atmosphere of Mars. Here, we report observations made using the SPICAM (Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars) instrument onboard Mars Express that provide evidence of the frequent presence of water vapor in excess of saturation, by an amount far surpassing that encountered in Earth's atmosphere. This result contradicts the widespread assumption that atmospheric water on Mars cannot exist in a supersaturated state, directly affecting our long-term representation of water transport, accumulation, escape, and chemistry on a global scale.

  4. Role of Water Vapor Content in the Effects of Aerosol on the Electrification of Thunderstorms: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao


    Full Text Available We explored the role of the water vapor content below the freezing level in the response of idealized supercell storm electrical processes to increased concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with parameterizations electrification and discharging, we performed 30 simulations by varying both the CCN concentration and water vapor content below the freezing level. The sensitivity simulations showed a distinct response to increased concentrations of CCN, depending on the water vapor content below the freezing level. Enhancing CCN concentrations increased electrification processes of thunderstorms and produced a new negative charge region above the main positive charge center when there were ample amounts of water vapor below the freezing level. Conversely, there were weak effects on electrification and the charge structure in numerical experiments initialized with lower water vapor content below the freezing level.

  5. Validation of MODIS integrated water vapor product against reference GPS data at the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Vaquero-Martínez, Javier; Antón, Manuel; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Cachorro, Victoria E.; Costa, Maria João; Román, Roberto; Bennouna, Yasmine S.


    In this work, the water vapor product from MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument, on-board Aqua and Terra satellites, is compared against GPS water vapor data from 21 stations in the Iberian Peninsula as reference. GPS water vapor data is obtained from ground-based receiver stations which measure the delay caused by water vapor in the GPS microwave signals. The study period extends from 2007 until 2012. Regression analysis in every GPS station show that MODIS overestimates low integrated water vapor (IWV) data and tends to underestimate high IWV data. R2 shows a fair agreement, between 0.38 and 0.71. Inter-quartile range (IQR) in every station is around 30-45%. The dependence on several parameters was also analyzed. IWV dependence showed that low IWV are highly overestimated by MODIS, with high IQR (low precision), sharply decreasing as IWV increases. Regarding dependence on solar zenith angle (SZA), performance of MODIS IWV data decreases between 50° and 90°, while night-time MODIS data (infrared) are quite stable. The seasonal cycles of IWV and SZA cause a seasonal dependence on MODIS performance. In summer and winter, MODIS IWV tends to overestimate the reference IWV value, while in spring and autumn the tendency is to underestimate. Low IWV from coastal stations is highly overestimated (∼60%) and quite imprecise (IQR around 60%). On the contrary, high IWV data show very little dependence along seasons. Cloud-fraction (CF) dependence was also studied, showing that clouds display a negligible impact on IWV over/underestimation. However, IQR increases with CF, except in night-time satellite values, which are quite stable.

  6. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS (United States)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.


    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  7. Water vaporization promotes coseismic fluid pressurization and buffers temperature rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370819071; Niemeijer, André|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132; Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli


    We investigated the frictional properties of carbonate-rich gouge layers at a slip rate of 1.3 m/s, under dry and water-saturated conditions, while monitoring temperature at different locations on one of the gouge-host rock interfaces. All experiments showed a peak frictional strength of 0.4–0.7,

  8. Velocity profile of water vapor inside a cavity with two axial inlets and two outlets (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, José; Ruiz Chavarría, Gerardo


    To study the dynamics of Breath Figure phenomenon, a control of both the rate of flow and temperature of water vapor is required. The experimental setup widely used is a non hermetically closed chamber with cylindrical geometry and axial inlets and outlets. In this work we present measurements in a cylindrical chamber with diameter 10 cm and 1.5 cm height, keeping a constant temperature (10 °C). We are focused in the velocity field when a gradient of the temperatures is produced between the base plate and the vapor. With a flux of water vapor of 250 mil/min at room temperature (21 °C), the Reynolds number measured in one inlet is 755. Otherwise, the temperatures of water vapor varies from 21 to 40 °C. The velocity profile is obtained by hot wire anemometry. We identify the stagnations and the possibly instabilities regions for an empty plate and with a well defined shape obstacle as a fashion sample. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  9. An Analytical Formula for Potential Water Vapor in an Atmosphere of Constant Lapse Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Varmaghani


    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of precipitable water vapor (PWV in the atmosphere has always been a matter of importance for meteorologists. Potential water vapor (POWV or maximum precipitable water vapor can be an appropriate base for estimation of probable maximum precipitation (PMP in an area, leading to probable maximum flood (PMF and flash flood management systems. PWV and POWV have miscellaneously been estimated by means of either discrete solutions such as tables, diagrams or empirical methods; however, there is no analytical formula for POWV even in a particular atmospherical condition. In this article, fundamental governing equations required for analytical calculation of POWV are first introduced. Then, it will be shown that this POWV calculation relies on a Riemann integral solution over a range of altitude whose integrand is merely a function of altitude. The solution of the integral gives rise to a series function which is bypassed by approximation of saturation vapor pressure in the range of -55 to 55 degrees Celsius, and an analytical formula for POWV in an atmosphere of constant lapse rate is proposed. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the suggested equation, exact calculations of saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR at different surface temperatures were performed. The formula was compared with both the diagrams from the US Weather Bureau and SALR. The results demonstrated unquestionable capability of analytical solutions and also equivalent functions.

  10. Water Resources Research Program. Transport of oily pollutants in the coastal waters of Lake Michigan. An application of rare earth tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, D. L.; Saunders, K. D.; Allender, J. H.; Ditmars, J. D.; Harrison, W.


    An experimental method was developed to tag and to trace oily pollutants in fresh water environments. The use of two rare earth element tags (Dy and Sm) permitted simultaneous tracing of small oil spills at the water surface and of the underlying water. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the tracer concentrations in numerous, small water samples collected from a moving boat. The method was applied in two field experiments with simulated oily pollutants in the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC). Tagged oily pollutants and IHC waters were traced under both floating- and sinking-plume conditions. Floating-plume results indicated that oily waste artificially mixed downward by a ship did not resurface, no differences were seen in the movement of the oily waste and the underlying water, and mixing coefficients for tagged oil and water were similar to those measured by others on the Great Lakes. Sinking-plume results gave unequivocal evidence of the intake of IHC effluent at Chicago's South Water Filtration Plant and indicated partitioning of the oily wastes and water. Simple dilution estimates for the sinking plume were supported by the tracer data and similar estimates indicated plume center-line dilution ratios for the entire IHC effluent at the water intakes could be as low as 2.8.

  11. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    CERN Document Server

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela


    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  12. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth


    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  13. Method for the production of hydrogen from water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitzer, W.H.


    The invention concerns a one-stage method for thermal water dissociation and the removal of the oxygen from the resulting oxyhydrogen gas. According to the invention a) the wet oxyhydrogen gas is led past a wall made of hard-to-melt oxide, preferably zirconium oxide, which allows the penetration of oxygen, b) the oxygen diffusing through the wall is continuously removed by reaction with a reducing gas, and c) the thus produced reaction heat is used to heat the plant.

  14. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.


    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  15. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7 (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.


    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  16. Influence of dehydration temperature on water vapor adsorption, dissolution behavior and surface property of ampicillin. (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Wongmekiat, Arpansiree; Hyakutake, Yuki; Tozuka, Yuichi; Oguchi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Keiji


    Several specimens of anhydrous ampicillin were prepared by heating the ampicillin trihydrate at 100, 120, 140 and 160 degrees C. The effects of dehydration temperature on water vapor adsorption, dissolution behavior and surface property were investigated. The water vapor adsorption of anhydrous ampicillin was studied at 89% relative humidity, 40 degrees C and the water vapor adsorption rate was found to decrease with increase of dehydration temperature. Dissolution profiles of the various anhydrous specimens were investigated in 96% ethanol at 35 degrees C by the static disk method. The anhydrous form prepared at higher dehydration temperature exhibited faster dissolution rate. Solid phase transformation from the anhydrous form to the trihydrate form occurred during the dissolution test. The rate of phase transformation during the dissolution test decreased with increasing dehydration temperature. Topographic difference of the anhydrous forms prepared at 100 and 160 degrees C was not observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM); however, difference of the microstructural properties was apparently observed by the AFM phase image. Surface free energy study revealed that when ampicillin was dehydrated at high temperature, the sample surface became more hydrophobic resulting in less interaction force with water and slow water sorption rate. From the results, we concluded that the polarity of sample surface induced by dehydration of ampicillin would affect the phase transformation and dissolution behavior.

  17. Oxidation of uranium in low partial pressures of oxygen and water vapor at 100/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirick, L J


    Oxygen isotope studies indicate that a previously proposed theory describing the oxidation of uranium is incorrect. This theory had proposed that the uranium reacted directly with water vapor to form uranium dioxide and hydrogen and the hydrogen subsequently reacted with the free oxygen to form water. This study shows that oxygen reacts directly with uranium, the role of water vapor being to affect the uranium oxide structure which is formed. The reaction rate of uranium with water vapor in the absence of oxygen was linear and proportional to the water vapor pressure for water vapor pressures between 2 and 20 Torr. Hydrogen was produced by the reaction at a rate of almost two moles for every one mole of uranium dioxide formed. The oxide was identified as UO/sub 2/ /sub 0/. The reaction of uranium with water vapor in the presence of oxygen showed three separate regions of reaction response. In one region, at low oxygen pressure, the reaction was the same as with no oxygen, a second region at oxygen pressures between 0.05 and 1 Torr was a transition stage and in the third region, at oxygen pressures above 1 Torr, the reaction rate was linear and independent of both oxygen and water vapor pressure. The oxide formed was identified as nominally U/sub 4/O/sub 9/. Only a small amount of hydrogen was produced.

  18. Water liquid-vapor interface subjected to various electric fields: A molecular dynamics study (United States)

    Nikzad, Mohammadreza; Azimian, Ahmad Reza; Rezaei, Majid; Nikzad, Safoora


    Investigation of the effects of E-fields on the liquid-vapor interface is essential for the study of floating water bridge and wetting phenomena. The present study employs the molecular dynamics method to investigate the effects of parallel and perpendicular E-fields on the water liquid-vapor interface. For this purpose, density distribution, number of hydrogen bonds, molecular orientation, and surface tension are examined to gain a better understanding of the interface structure. Results indicate enhancements in parallel E-field decrease the interface width and number of hydrogen bonds, while the opposite holds true in the case of perpendicular E-fields. Moreover, perpendicular fields disturb the water structure at the interface. Given that water molecules tend to be parallel to the interface plane, it is observed that perpendicular E-fields fail to realign water molecules in the field direction while the parallel ones easily do so. It is also shown that surface tension rises with increasing strength of parallel E-fields, while it reduces in the case of perpendicular E-fields. Enhancement of surface tension in the parallel field direction demonstrates how the floating water bridge forms between the beakers. Finally, it is found that application of external E-fields to the liquid-vapor interface does not lead to uniform changes in surface tension and that the liquid-vapor interfacial tension term in Young's equation should be calculated near the triple-line of the droplet. This is attributed to the multi-directional nature of the droplet surface, indicating that no constant value can be assigned to a droplet's surface tension in the presence of large electric fields.

  19. Airborne Lidar Observations of Water Vapor Variability in Tropical Shallow Convective Environment (United States)

    Kiemle, Christoph; Groß, Silke; Wirth, Martin; Bugliaro, Luca


    An airborne downward-pointing water vapor lidar provides two-dimensional, simultaneous curtains of atmospheric backscatter and humidity along the flight track with high accuracy and spatial resolution. In order to improve the knowledge on the coupling between clouds, circulation and climate in the trade wind region, the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) water vapor lidar was operated on board the German research aircraft HALO during the NARVAL (Next Generation Aircraft Remote Sensing for Validation Studies) field experiment in December 2013. Out of the wealth of about 30 flight hours or 25,000 km of data over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean east of Barbados, three 2-h-long, representative segments from different flights were selected. Analyses of Meteosat Second Generation images and dropsondes complement this case study. All observations indicate a high heterogeneity of the humidity in the lowest 4 km of the tropical troposphere, as well as of the depth of the cloud (1-2 km thick) and sub-cloud layer ( 1 km thick). At the winter trade inversion with its strong humidity jump of up to 9 g/kg in water vapor mixing ratio, the mixing ratio variance can attain 9 (g/kg)2, while below it typically ranges between 1 and 3 (g/kg)2. Layer depths and partial water vapor columns within the layers vary by up to a factor of 2. This affects the total tropospheric water vapor column, amounting on average to 28 kg/m2, by up to 10 kg/m2 or 36%. The dominant scale of the variability is given by the extent of regions with higher-than-average humidity and lies between 300 and 600 km. The variability mainly stems from the alternation between dry regions and moisture lifted by convection. Occasionally, up to 100-km large dry regions are observed. In between, convection pushes the trade inversion upward, sharpening the vertical moisture gradient that is colocated with the trade inversion. In most of the water vapor profiles, this gradient is stronger than the one located at the

  20. Airborne Lidar Observations of Water Vapor Variability in the Northern Atlantic Trades (United States)

    Kiemle, Christoph; Groß, Silke; Wirth, Martin; Bugliaro, Luca


    During the NARVAL (Next Generation Aircraft Remote Sensing for Validation Studies) field experiments in December 2013 and August 2016 the DLR lidar WALES (Water vapor Lidar Experiment in Space) was operated on board the German research aircraft HALO. The lidar simultaneously provided two-dimensional curtains of atmospheric backscatter and humidity along the flight track with high accuracy and spatial resolution, in order to help improve our knowledge on the coupling between water vapor, clouds, and circulation in the trades. The variability of water vapor, ubiquitous in our measurements, poses challenges to climate models because it acts on the small-scale low-cloud cover. Aloft, the very dry free troposphere in the subsiding branch of the Hadley cell acts as an open window in a greenhouse, efficiently cooling the lower troposphere. Secondary circulations between radiatively heated and cooled regions are supposed to occur, adding complexity to the situation. After recently having identified them to be mainly responsible for the uncertainty in global climate sensitivity, such interactions between shallow convection, circulation and radiation are at the heart of present scientific debate, endorsed by the WCRP (World Climate Research Programme) "Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity". Out of the wealth of about 30 winter and 60 summer flight hours totaling 75000 km of data over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean east of Barbados, several representative lidar segments from different flights are presented, together with Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) images and dropsonde profiles. All observations indicate high heterogeneity of the humidity in the lowest 5 km, as well as high variability of the depth of the cloud layer (1 - 2 km thick) and of the sub-cloud boundary layer ( 1 km thick). Layer depths and partial water vapor columns within the layers may vary by up to a factor of 2, and on a large range of horizontal scales. Occasionally, very dry, up

  1. Water vapor motion signal extraction from FY-2E longwave infrared window images for cloud-free regions: The temporal difference technique (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chu, Yanli; Zhao, Hang; Tang, Min


    The aim of this study is to calculate the low-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) in clear areas with FY-2E IR2 window (11.59-12.79 μm) channel imagery, where the traditional cloud motion wind technique fails. A new tracer selection procedure, which we call the temporal difference technique, is demonstrated in this paper. This technique makes it possible to infer low-level wind by tracking features in the moisture pattern that appear as brightness temperature ( T B) differences between consecutive sequences of 30-min-interval FY-2E IR2 images over cloud-free regions. The T B difference corresponding to a 10% change in water vapor density is computed with the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN4) radiative transfer model. The total contribution from each of the 10 layers is analyzed under four typical atmospheric conditions: tropical, midlatitude summer, U.S. standard, and midlatitude winter. The peak level of the water vapor weighting function for the four typical atmospheres is assigned as a specific height to the T B "wind". This technique is valid over cloud-free ocean areas. The proposed algorithm exhibits encouraging statistical results in terms of vector difference (VD), speed bias (BIAS), mean vector difference (MVD), standard deviation (SD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE), when compared with the wind field of NCEP reanalysis data and rawinsonde observations.

  2. In-Situ Water Vapor Probe for a Robot Arm-Mounted, Compact Water Vapor Analyzer: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Cabiran, Mike; Rossi, Chris; Sun, Tao


    This work describes the ongoing development of an instrument package for the in-situ detection and isotopic analysis of water (from ice, icy soils, and hydrated minerals) on future lunar, asteroid, or martian exploration missions. This instrument is intended to be mounted on a robotic arm and be brought to the sample, rather than necessitating expensive and complicated sample handling to bring the sample to the instrument.

  3. Use of a novel new irrigation system to observe and model water vapor flow through dry soils (United States)

    Todman, L. C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M.


    In dry soils hydraulic connectivity within the liquid water phase decreases and vapor flow becomes a significant transport mechanism for water. The temperature or solute concentration of the liquid phase affects the vapor pressure of the surrounding air, thus temperature or solute gradients can drive vapor flows. However, in extremely dry soils where water is retained by adsorption rather than capillarity, vapor flows can also occur. In such soils tiny changes in water content significantly affect the equilibrium vapor pressure in the soil, and hence small differences in water content can initiate vapor pressure gradients. In many field conditions this effect may be negligible compared to vapor flows driven by other factors. However, flows of this type are particularly significant in a new type of subsurface irrigation system which uses pervaporation, via a polymer tubing, as the mechanism for water supply. In this system, water enters the soil in vapor phase. Experiments using this system therefore provide a rare opportunity to observe vapor flows initiating from a subsurface source without significant injection of heat. A model was developed to simulate water flow through the soil in liquid and vapor phase. In this model it was assumed that the two phases were in equilibrium. The equilibrium relationship was defined by a new mathematical expression that was developed to fit experimental data collected to characterize the sorption isotherm of three soils (sand, saline sand and top soil). The osmotic potential of the saline sand was defined as a function of water content using a continuous mathematical expression. The model was then calibrated to fit the data from laboratory experiments, in which the vapor flow into and out of the soil were quantified. The model successfully reproduced experimental observations of the total water flux, relative humidity and water content distribution in three soil types. This suggests that the model, including the proposed

  4. Using isotopes to constrain water flux and age estimates in snow-influenced catchments using the STARR (Spatially distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall-Runoff) model (United States)

    Ala-aho, Pertti; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McNamara, James P.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Soulsby, Chris


    Tracer-aided hydrological models are increasingly used to reveal fundamentals of runoff generation processes and water travel times in catchments. Modelling studies integrating stable water isotopes as tracers are mostly based in temperate and warm climates, leaving catchments with strong snow influences underrepresented in the literature. Such catchments are challenging, as the isotopic tracer signals in water entering the catchments as snowmelt are typically distorted from incoming precipitation due to fractionation processes in seasonal snowpack. We used the Spatially distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall-Runoff (STARR) model to simulate fluxes, storage, and mixing of water and tracers, as well as estimating water ages in three long-term experimental catchments with varying degrees of snow influence and contrasting landscape characteristics. In the context of northern catchments the sites have exceptionally long and rich data sets of hydrometric data and - most importantly - stable water isotopes for both rain and snow conditions. To adapt the STARR model for sites with strong snow influence, we used a novel parsimonious calculation scheme that takes into account the isotopic fractionation through snow sublimation and snowmelt. The modified STARR setup simulated the streamflows, isotope ratios, and snow pack dynamics quite well in all three catchments. From this, our simulations indicated contrasting median water ages and water age distributions between catchments brought about mainly by differences in topography and soil characteristics. However, the variable degree of snow influence in catchments also had a major influence on the stream hydrograph, storage dynamics, and water age distributions, which was captured by the model. Our study suggested that snow sublimation fractionation processes can be important to include in tracer-aided modelling for catchments with seasonal snowpack, while the influence of fractionation during snowmelt could not be unequivocally

  5. Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites: National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2006-2010 (United States)

    Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.; Runkle, Donna L.


    Piston-flow age dates were interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers from 812 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites from 27 Study Units across the United States. The tracers of interest include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis were collected from 2006 to 2010 from groundwater wells in NAWQA studies, including: * Land-Use Studies (LUS, shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, located in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings), * Major-Aquifer Studies (MAS, wells, usually domestic supply wells, located in principal aquifers and representing the shallow drinking water supply), * Flow System Studies (FSS, networks of clustered wells located along a flowpath extending from a recharge zone to a discharge zone, preferably a shallow stream) associated with Land-Use Studies, and * Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) also associated with Land-Use Studies. Tracer data were evaluated using documented methods and are presented as aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), and tracer-based piston-flow ages. Selected ancillary data, such as redox data, well-construction data, and major dissolved-gas (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2) data, also are presented. Recharge temperature was inferred using climate data (approximated by mean annual air temperature plus 1°C [MAAT +1°C]) as well as major dissolved-gas data (N2-Ar-based) where available. The N2-Ar-based temperatures showed significantly more variation than the climate-based data, as well as the effects of denitrification and degassing resulting from reducing conditions. The N2-Ar-based temperatures were colder than the climate-based temperatures in networks where recharge was limited to the winter months when evapotranspiration was reduced. The tracer-based piston-flow ages

  6. Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Wozny, Sarah; Alkurd, Nooraldeen R.; Yang, Mengjin; Kovarik, Libor; Holesinger, Terry G.; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Zhu, Kai; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.


    Perovskite-based solar cells are one of the emerging candidates for radically lower cost photovoltaics. Herein, we report on the synthesis and crystallization of organic-inorganic formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite films under controlled atmospheric and environmental conditions. Using in situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, we make observations of the crystallization process of these materials in nitrogen and oxygen gas with and without the presence of water vapor. Complementary planar samples were also fabricated in the presence of water vapor and characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction. Direct observations of the material structure and final morphology indicate that the exposure to water vapor results in a porous film that is metastable, regardless of the presence of argon, nitrogen, or oxygen. However, the optimal crystallization temperature of 175 degrees C is unperturbed across conditions. Rapid modulation about the annealing temperature of 175 degrees C in +/-25 degrees C steps (150-200 degrees C) promotes crystallization and significantly improves the film morphology by overcoming the presence of impregnated water trapped in the material. Following this processing protocol, we demonstrate substantial growth to micron-size grains via observation inside of an environmentally controlled transmission electron microscope. Adapting this insight from our in situ microscopy, we are able to provide an informed materials protocol to control the structure and morphology of these organic-inorganic semiconductors, which is readily applicable to benchtop device growth strategies.

  7. Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Wozny, Sarah; Alkurd, Nooraldeen R.; Yang, Mengjin; Kovarik, Libor; Holesinger, Terry; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Zhu, Kai; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, J. J.


    Perovskite-based solar cells are one of the emerging candidates for radically lower cost photovoltaics. Herein, we report on the synthesis and crystallization of organic-inorganic formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite films under controlled atmospheric and environmental conditions. Using in situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, we make observations of the crystallization process of these materials in nitrogen and oxygen gas with and without the presence of water vapor. Complementary planar samples were also fabricated in the presence of water vapor and characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction. Direct observations of the material structure and final morphology indicate that the exposure to water vapor results in a porous film that is metastable, regardless of the presence of argon, nitrogen, or oxygen. However, the optimal crystallization temperature of 175 °C is unperturbed across conditions. Rapid modulation about the annealing temperature of 175 °C in ±25 °C steps (150-200 °C) promotes crystallization and significantly improves the film morphology by overcoming the presence of impregnated water trapped in the material. Following this processing protocol, we demonstrate substantial growth to micron-size grains via observation inside of an environmentally controlled transmission electron microscope. Adapting this insight from our in situ microscopy, we are able to provide an informed materials protocol to control the structure and morphology of these organic-inorganic semiconductors, which is readily applicable to benchtop device growth strategies.

  8. Synthesis of Hydrophobic Mesoporous Material MFS and Its Adsorption Properties of Water Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Zhao


    Full Text Available Fluorine-containing hydrophobic mesoporous material (MFS with high surface area is successfully synthesized with hydrothermal synthesis method by using a perfluorinated surfactant SURFLON S-386 template. The adsorption properties of water vapor on the synthesized MFS are also investigated by using gravimetric method. Results show that SEM image of the MFS depicted roundish morphology with the average crystal size of 1-2 μm. The BET surface area and total pore volume of the MFS are 865.4 m2 g−1 and 0.74 cm3 g−1 with a narrow pore size distribution at 4.9 nm. The amount of water vapor on the MFS is about 0.41 mmol g−1 at 303 K, which is only 52.6% and 55.4% of MCM-41 and SBA-15 under the similar conditions, separately. The isosteric adsorption heat of water on the MFS is gradually about 27.0–19.8 kJ mol−1, which decreases as the absorbed water vapor amount increases. The value is much smaller than that on MCM-41 and SBA-15. Therefore, the MFS shows more hydrophobic surface properties than the MCM-41 and SBA-15. It may be a kind of good candidate for adsorption of large molecule and catalyst carrier with high moisture resistance.

  9. Continuous monitoring of summer surface water vapor isotopic composition above the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen


    Full Text Available We present here surface water vapor isotopic measurements conducted from June to August 2010 at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Drilling Project camp, NW Greenland (77.45° N, 51.05° W, 2484 m a.s.l.. Measurements were conducted at 9 different heights from 0.1 m to 13.5 m above the snow surface using two different types of cavity-enhanced near-infrared absorption spectroscopy analyzers. For each instrument specific protocols were developed for calibration and drift corrections. The inter-comparison of corrected results from different instruments reveals excellent reproducibility, stability, and precision with a standard deviations of ~ 0.23‰ for δ18O and ~ 1.4‰ for δD. Diurnal and intraseasonal variations show strong relationships between changes in local surface humidity and water vapor isotopic composition, and with local and synoptic weather conditions. This variability probably results from the interplay between local moisture fluxes, linked with firn–air exchanges, boundary layer dynamics, and large-scale moisture advection. Particularly remarkable are several episodes characterized by high (> 40‰ surface water vapor deuterium excess. Air mass back-trajectory calculations from atmospheric analyses and water tagging in the LMDZiso (Laboratory of Meteorology Dynamics Zoom-isotopic atmospheric model reveal that these events are associated with predominant Arctic air mass origin. The analysis suggests that high deuterium excess levels are a result of strong kinetic fractionation during evaporation at the sea-ice margin.

  10. Monitoring the water vapor isotopic composition in the temperate North Atlantic (United States)

    Sveinbjörnsdottir, Arny E.; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Jonsson, Thorsteinn; Johnsen, Sigfus J.


    Water stable isotopes have during many decades been used as climate proxies and indicators for variations in the hydrological cycle. However we are to a great extent still using simple empirical relationships without any deeper theoretical understanding. In order to properly relate changes in the climate and hydrological cycle to changes in the observed stable water isotopic signal we must understand the underlying physical processes. Furthermore it is a challenge for General Climate Models to adequately represent the isotopes in the hydrological cycle because of lack of in-situ measurements of the atmospheric water-vapor composition in the source regions. During the fall of 2010 we installed an autonomous water vapor spectroscopy laser (from Los Gatos Research) in a lighthouse on the South Coast of Iceland (63.83 N 21.47W) with the plan to be operational for several years. The purpose of this installation was through monitoring of the water vapor isotopic composition to understand the physical processes governing the isotopic composition of the water vapor evaporated from the ocean as well as the processes of mixing between the free troposphere and marine boundary layer. Because of the remoteness of the monitoring site and simple topography we are able to isolate the 'fingerprint' on the isotopic signal in the water vapor from respectively the ocean and the interior highland leading to a near perfect case-study area. Using back-trajectories we find a strong influence of the origin of the air masses on the measured isotopic composition. The mixing of the marine-boundary layer is found to strongly influence the measured isotopic composition. The second order isotopic parameter, d-excess, is contrary to theory and previous observations found not to depend on the relative humidity. However we do find a good correlation between the d-excess and the measured isotopic composition. We speculate that the lack of correlation between d-excess and relative humidity can be

  11. Calculation of Liquid Water-Hydrate-Methane Vapor Phase Equilibria from Molecular Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas


    Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining fluid- and crystal-phase chemical potentials are used for the first time to calculate liquid water-methane hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from knowledge of atomistic interaction potentials alone. The water and methane molecules are modeled...... potential of the zero-occupancy hydrate system using thermodynamic integration from an Einstein crystal reference state, and (iii) thermodynamic integration to obtain the water and guest molecules' chemical potentials as a function of the hydrate occupancy. The three-phase equilibrium curve is calculated...... value at corresponding conditions. While computationally intensive, simulations such as these are essential to map the thermodynamically stable conditions for hydrate systems....

  12. Adsorptive water removal from dichloromethane and vapor-phase regeneration of a molecular sieve 3A packed bed


    Jovic, S Slavisa; Laxminarayan, Y; Keurentjes, JTF Jos; Schouten, JC Jaap; Schaaf, van der, S.


    The drying of dichloromethane with a molecular sieve 3A packed bed process is modeled and experimentally verified. In the process, the dichloromethane is dried in the liquid phase and the adsorbent is regenerated by water desorption with dried dichloromethane product in the vapor phase. Adsorption equilibrium experiments show that dichloromethane does not compete with water adsorption, because of size exclusion; the pure water vapor isotherm from literature provides an accurate representation...

  13. Water Vapor Sorption Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate over a Wide Range of Humidity and Temperature. (United States)

    Dubelley, Florence; Planes, Emilie; Bas, Corine; Pons, Emmanuelle; Yrieix, Bernard; Flandin, Lionel


    The dynamic and equilibrium water vapor sorption properties of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate were determined via gravimetric analysis over a wide range of temperatures (23-70 °C) and humidities (0-90% RH). At low temperature and relative humidity, the dynamics of the sorption process was Fickian. Increasing the temperature or relative humidity induced a distinct up-swing effect, which was associated with a plasticization/clustering phenomenon. For high temperatures and relative humidity, a densification of the polymer was evidenced. In addition to the classical Fickian diffusion, a new parameter was introduced to express the structural modifications of PET. Finally, two partial pressures were defined as thresholds that control the transition between these three phases. A simplified state diagram was finally proposed. In addition, the thermal dependence of these sorption modes was also determined and reported. The enthalpy of Henry's water sorption and the activation energy of diffusion were independent of vapor pressure and followed an Arrhenius law.

  14. Theoretical study of adsorption of water vapor on surface of metallic uranium

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong Bi Tao; Xue Wei Dong; Zhu Zheng He; Jiang Gang; Wang Hong Yan; Gao Tao


    According to the experimental data, there is an intermediate substance that formed in the initial stage of oxidation reaction when water vapor is absorbed onto the metallic uranium. The minimum energy of UOH sub 2 witch C sub 2 subupsilon configuration is obtained in the state of sup 5 A sub 1 by B3LYP method of the density function theory (DFT), which is consistent with that by statics of atoms and molecules reaction (AMRS) and group theory. The results from calculations indicate that the adsorption of water vapor on the metallic uranium is an exothermic reaction and that the adsorbed amount decreases with the elevated temperatures. The adsorptive heat at 1 atm is -205.4747 kJ centre dot mol sup - sup 1 , which indicates a typical chemical adsorption

  15. Interaction of a sodium ion with the water liquid-vapor interface (United States)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; MacElroy, R. D. (Principal Investigator)


    Molecular dynamics results are presented for the density profile of a sodium ion near the water liquid-vapor interface at 320 K. These results are compared with the predictions of a simple dielectric model for the interaction of a monovalent ion with this interface. The interfacial region described by the model profile is too narrow and the profile decreases too abruptly near the solution interface. Thus, the simple model does not provide a satisfactory description of the molecular dynamics results for ion positions within two molecular diameters from the solution interface where appreciable ion concentrations are observed. These results suggest that surfaces associated with dielectric models of ionic processes at aqueous solution interfaces should be located at least two molecular diameters inside the liquid phase. A free energy expense of about 2 kcal/mol is required to move the ion within two molecular layers of the free water liquid-vapor interface.

  16. Water-vapor conductance of testudinian and crocodilian eggs (class reptilia). (United States)

    Packard, G C; Taigen, T L; Packard, M J; Shuman, R D


    Flexible-shelled eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) have conductances to water vapor that are 55 times higher than predicted for avian eggs of similar size, whereas rigid-shelled eggs of softshell turtles (Trionyx spiniferus) and American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have conductances that are only five times higher than expected for comparable eggs of birds. The differences between empirical and predicted values result from the much higher effective pore areas in reptilian eggshells than in those of birds. The relatively high porosities of these reptilian eggs presumably facilitate the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide eggshells in later stages of incubation when air trapped inside nest chambers may become hypoxic and hypercapnic, yet seem not to lead to excessive transpiration of water vapor owing to the high humidities in nests where incubation occurs.

  17. Vapor-liquid phase equilibria of water modelled by a Kim-Gordon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerzke, K A; McGrath, M J; Kuo, I W; Tabacchi, G; Siepmann, J I; Mundy, C J


    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to investigate the properties of a frozen-electron-density (or Kim-Gordon, KG) model of water along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. Because of its theoretical basis, such a KG model provides for seamless coupling to Kohn-Sham density functional theory for use in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) implementations. The Gibbs ensemble simulations indicate rather limited transferability of such a simple KG model to other state points. Specifically, a KG model that was parameterized by Barker and Sprik to the properties of liquid water at 300 K, yields saturated vapor pressures and a critical temperature that are significantly under- and over-estimated, respectively.

  18. Effect of Water Vapor on High-Temperature Corrosion under Conditions Mimicking Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming


    The variable flue gas composition in biomass-fired plants, among other parameters, contributes to the complexityof high-temperature corrosion of materials. Systematic parameter studies are thus necessary to understand the underlyingcorrosion mechanisms. This paper investigates the effect of water...... atmospherecontaining either 3 or 13 vol % H2O vapor. Comprehensive characterization of the corrosion products was carried out by thecomplementary use of microscopic, spectroscopic, and diffraction-based techniques. To evaluate the effect of the exposure time,results were compared to previous results with longer...... isothermal exposure over 168 h and indicated that the development of aNi-rich layer as a result of selective attack was time-dependent. The increase in the water vapor decreased the measurablecorrosion attack, and in addition, decreased sulfation was observed. Results from the current investigation and from...

  19. Application of water vapor sorption measurements for porosity characterization of hardened cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Water vapor sorption can be used to study important properties of porous materials including specific surface area and pore size distribution (PSD). However, the data analysis is somewhat inconsistent in literature. In this work, the important factors influencing the analyzed results using sorption...... data were reviewed. Water vapor sorption measurements were then applied to two hardened cement pastes and one model porous material MCM-41. The specific surface area was calculated based on different equations accounting for multilayer adsorption and the PSD was analyzed from both the absorption...... and the desorption isotherms for comparison: The calculated specific surface area was quite dependent on which equation is considered for multilayer adsorption. For the studied hardened cement pastes, three characteristic peaks were found in the calculated PSD curves from the desorption isotherms with corresponding...

  20. Investigating the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture on a PBI-based high temperature PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Heidi Venstrup


    This paper investigates the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). A H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Celtec P2100 of 45 cm2 of active surface area from BASF was employed....... A long-term durability test of around 1250 h was performed, in which the concentrations of methanol-water vapor mixture in the anode feed gas were varied. The fuel cell showed a continuous performance decay in the presence of vapor mixtures of methanol and water of 5% and 8% by volume in anode feed...

  1. Atmospheric absorption model for dry air and water vapor at microwave frequencies below 100 GHz derived from spaceborne radiometer observations (United States)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Meissner, Thomas


    The Liebe and Rosenkranz atmospheric absorption models for dry air and water vapor below 100 GHz are refined based on an analysis of antenna temperature (TA) measurements taken by the Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) in the frequency range 10.7 to 89.0 GHz. The GMI TA measurements are compared to the TA predicted by a radiative transfer model (RTM), which incorporates both the atmospheric absorption model and a model for the emission and reflection from a rough-ocean surface. The inputs for the RTM are the geophysical retrievals of wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud liquid water obtained from the satellite radiometer WindSat. The Liebe and Rosenkranz absorption models are adjusted to achieve consistency with the RTM. The vapor continuum is decreased by 3% to 10%, depending on vapor. To accomplish this, the foreign-broadening part is increased by 10%, and the self-broadening part is decreased by about 40% at the higher frequencies. In addition, the strength of the water vapor line is increased by 1%, and the shape of the line at low frequencies is modified. The dry air absorption is increased, with the increase being a maximum of 20% at the 89 GHz, the highest frequency considered here. The nonresonant oxygen absorption is increased by about 6%. In addition to the RTM comparisons, our results are supported by a comparison between columnar water vapor retrievals from 12 satellite microwave radiometers and GPS-retrieved water vapor values.

  2. Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Diak, George R.; Hayden, Cristopher M.; Young, John A.


    These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation. The assimilation of satellite-observed moisture and cloud water, together withy three-mode diabatic initialization, significantly alleviates the model precipitation spinup problem, especially in the first 3 h of the forecast. Experimental forecasts indicate that the impact of satellite-observed temperature and water vapor profiles and cloud water alone in the initialization procedure shortens the spinup time for precipitation rates by 1-2 h and for regeneration of the areal coverage by 3 h. The diabatic initialization further reduces the precipitation spinup time (compared to adiabatic initialization) by 1 h.

  3. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)


    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  4. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.


    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  5. The Influence of Summertime Convection Over Southeast Asia on Water Vapor in the Tropical Stratosphere (United States)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.


    The relative contributions of Southeast Asian convective source regions during boreal summer to water vapor in the tropical stratosphere are examined using Lagrangian trajectories. Convective sources are identified using global observations of infrared brightness temperature at high space and time resolution, and water vapor transport is simulated using advection-condensation. Trajectory simulations are driven by three different reanalysis data sets, GMAO MERRA, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR, to establish points of consistency and evaluate the sensitivity of the results to differences in the underlying meteorological fields. All ensembles indicate that Southeast Asia is a prominent boreal summer source of tropospheric air to the tropical stratosphere. Three convective source domains are identified within Southeast Asia: the Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (MON), the South China and Philippine Seas (SCS), and the Tibetan Plateau and South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Water vapor transport into the stratosphere from these three domains exhibits systematic differences that are related to differences in the bulk characteristics of transport. We find air emanating from SCS to be driest, from MON slightly moister, and from TIB moistest. Analysis of pathways shows that air detrained from convection over TIB is most likely to bypass the region of minimum absolute saturation mixing ratio over the equatorial western Pacific; however, the impact of this bypass mechanism on mean water vapor in the tropical stratosphere at 68 hPa is small 0.1 ppmv). This result contrasts with previously published hypotheses, and it highlights the challenge of properly quantifying fluxes of atmospheric humidity.

  6. The origin of water-vapor rings in tropical cold pools (United States)

    Langhans, W.; Romps, D. M.


    An invigoration of deep convection by cold pools is supported by two conceptually different theories: a) mechanic lifting of air-parcels at the cold-pool boundary and b) thermodynamic preconditioning of boundary-layer air due to rings of enhanced water-vapor content (~ +1 g/kg). The latter have been associated with the leading edges of radially spreading cold pools in studies of precipitating convection over tropical oceans. Even recovered cold pools exhibit these moisture anomalies and the formation of such rings thus also plays a critical role in theory (a) through the moistening of ambient air that is later lifted by another cold-pool. Despite the described relevance, the origin of these water-vapor rings is unclear. This motivates us to conduct idealized large-eddy simulations with the purpose of explaining the origin of these water-vapor rings. The simulations are coupled with a recently designed framework to track Lagrangian water particles and allows us to decompose the emerging vapor distribution according to its origin. The emerging quasi-axisymmetric flow transitions from a vortex-dominated downdraft in the early stage to a radial gravity current in the later stage. Preliminary results highlight the dominating role of moisture that resides in the boundary layer before deep convection is initiated. A delineation of the individual contributions from boundary-layer moisture, evaporated hydrometeors, and latent heat fluxes reveals that the latter two sources may not be crucial for the anomalous moisture content over the radial distances considered. The sensitivity to the initial moisture of the boundary-layer and the effects of entrainment into the cold pool will be discussed.

  7. Water vapor mapping by fusing InSAR and GNSS remote sensing data and atmospheric simulations


    Alshawaf, F.; Fersch, B.; Hinz, S; Kunstmann, H.; Mayer, M; Meyer, F.J.


    Data fusion aims at integrating multiple data sources that can be redundant or complementary to produce complete, accurate information of the parameter of interest. In this work, data fusion of precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimated from remote sensing observations and data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system is applied to provide complete, accurate grids of PWV. Our goal is to infer spatially continuous, prec...

  8. Inter-comparison of three commercial instruments for water vapor isotope measurement (United States)

    Wen, X.; Sun, X.; Li, S.; Lee, X.


    The δ18O and δD of atmospheric water vapor provide rich information on the hydrological cycle and gaseous exchange processes between the terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere. In the past, the majority of water vapor isotope studies have relied on discrete sampling using cold-trap/mass spectrometry methods. Recent development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) has made it possible to make in-situ, continuous observations of the δ18O and δD of atmospheric water vapor. In this paper, we report the results of an inter-comparison experiment using three commercial IRIS analyzers. These analyzers were developed on the basis of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (model TGA100A, Campbell Scientific Inc., Logan, UT), off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (model DLT-100, Los Gatos Research, Mountain View, CA) and wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (models L1115-i and L1102-i, Picarro Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Each analyzer was calibrated, at factory recommended frequencies, with its own calibration device traceable to the same working standard. The experiment consisted of two parts each lasting 2 weeks. First, the δ18O and δD of ambient water vapor from a common intake were measured simultaneously with these analyzers. The data reported for hourly intervals were analyzed to reveal how well these analyzers track natural variability in ambient conditions. Second, a home-made bubbler combined with dry air was used for performance evaluation under controlled conditions. The bubbler produced a moisture stream that followed the Rayleigh prediction, and with appropriate mixing with dry air provided a sufficient range of humidity at preset levels of mixing ratio (30,000, 20,000, 10,000, 5,000 ppm). Analysis of the experimental data is underway to (1) evaluate the relative precision and accuracy among these analyzers, (2) compare the measured isotopic ratios against the Rayleigh prediction, and (3) identify appropriate calibration

  9. Thin cuprous oxide films prepared by thermal oxidation of copper foils with water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Jianbo, E-mail: [Department of Frontier Materials,Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 4668555 (Japan); Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo [Department of Frontier Materials,Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 4668555 (Japan); Jimbo, Takashi [Research Center for Nano-Device and System, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 4668555 (Japan); Ahmed, Mohsin [Department of Frontier Materials,Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 4668555 (Japan)


    We present an improved preparation method for the growth of high quality crystals of cuprous oxide films grown by thermal oxidation of cupper foils with water vapor. This method proved to be good for preparing cuprous oxide films with high purity and large grain size. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of Cu{sub 2}O films with preferred (111) orientation. The cuprous oxide diodes fabricated by the above technique have been studied using current-voltage method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu MOROIANU


    Full Text Available The vaporization and combustion characteristics of a heavy oil-water emulsion droplet are investigated with graphological method. The combustion graphology of fuel oils is defined as a new technical and scientific field which deals with the graphic transposition of the processes of fuels combustion development in a simulator. Thus, it is easy to establish the ignition-combustion characteristics, including the laws that govern their changes depending on the combustion conditions and fuel specifications

  11. Use of a tracer-aided model to identify water sources, flow paths and ages in a data sparse arctic headwater catchment (United States)

    Ilaria Piovano, Thea; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Ala-Aho, Pertti; Wookey, Philip Andrew; Soulsby, Chris


    The hydrology of arctic ecosystems is extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but the implications are difficult to assess due to limited empirical studies in these remote, logistically challenging regions. Stable water isotope tracers are invaluable tools for constraining hydrological processes. However, they have seen limited use in arctic catchments that are influenced by permafrost. Here, we present stable isotope data sampled in precipitation, snowmelt, soil water and surface water from a headwater catchment in the continuous permafrost zone of the NWT of Canada. We use this to identify the sources of water and estimate travel times through the catchment. We focus on the quantification of the water sources and flow paths during the critical, complex transition period between late snow melt and soil thaw. We also integrate the isotope data into the Spatially distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall-Runoff modelling framework (STARR) to explore the non-stationary flow and isotope response. The model simulates dynamic, spatially variable tracer concentrations in different water stores and fluxes within a catchment, which can constrain internal catchment mixing processes, flow paths and associated water ages. Our findings show that stable isotope tracers provide a useful, transferrable tool to assess the inter-annual and seasonal dynamics of arctic catchments and to understand the spatio-temporal variability of mixing and water ages for different storage components and flow paths in permafrost influenced cold regions.

  12. Water vapor flow and high thermal resistance insulation systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, R.M.


    In response to increasing energy costs, high thermal resistance insulation systems are being marketed for pre-engineered metal buildings. Historically, blanket insulation has been installed between the skin and the structure of these buildings. The new insulation systems generally are installed inside the structure; thus the structure is colder and, unless an effective retarder is included, water vapor condensation problems can result. While the vapor permeance of various insulation facing materials is documented, the effect of such field conditions as seams and penetrations is less well known. Permeance tests were performed on samples of foil-kraft paper insulation facing with two seams and two penetration configurations. The tests show that seams can multiply the permeance of the vapor retarder by factors of 1.2 or more and penetrations can multiply the permeance by 3 or more. The theory of vapor flow analysis is reviewed and compared with the test results and presented graphically. Possible applications and suggestions for further investigation are discussed.

  13. Water vapor flow and high thermal resistance insulation systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, R.M.


    In response to increasing energy costs, high thermal resistance insulation systems are being marketed for pre-engineered metal buildings. Historically, blanket insulation has been installed between the skin and the structure of these buildings. The new insulation systems generally are installed inside the structure; thus the structure is colder and, unless an effective retarder is included, water vapor condensation problems can result. While the vapor permeance of various insulation facing materials is documented, the effect of such field conditions as seams and penetrations is less well known. Permeance tests were performed on samples of foil-kraft paper insulation facing with two seams and two penetration configurations. The tests show that seams can multiply the permeance of the vapor retarder by factors of 1.2 or more and penetrations can multiply the permeance by 3 or more. The theory of vapor flow analysis is reviewed and compared with the test results and presented graphically. Possible applications and suggestions for further investigation are discussed.

  14. On the Electronic Nature of the Surface Potential at the Vapor-Liquid Interface of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathmann, S M; Kuo, I; Mundy, C J


    The surface potential at the vapor-liquid interface of water is relevant to many areas of chemical physics. Measurement of the surface potential has been experimentally attempted many times, yet there has been little agreement as to its magnitude and sign (-1.1 to +0.5 mV). We present the first computation of the surface potential of water using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find that the surface potential {chi} = -18 mV with a maximum interfacial electric field = 8.9 x 10{sup 7} V/m. A comparison is made between our quantum mechanical results and those from previous molecular simulations. We find that explicit treatment of the electronic density makes a dramatic contribution to the electric properties of the vapor-liquid interface of water. The E-field can alter interfacial reactivity and transport while the surface potential can be used to determine the 'chemical' contribution to the real and electrochemical potentials for ionic transport through the vapor-liquid interface.

  15. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.


    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  16. Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rye, B.J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.


    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

  17. Water vapor transport in the lower mesosphere of the subtropics: a trajectory analysis (United States)

    Flury, T.; Müller, S. C.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.


    The Institute of Applied Physics operates an airborne microwave radiometer that measures the rotational transition line of water vapor at 183.3 GHz. Measurements were acquired on board a Learjet once a year in the period 1998 to 2006. Water vapor profiles are retrieved for the altitude range from 15 to 75 km along the flight track. We report on a water vapor enhancement in the lower mesosphere above India and the Arabic Sea measured on our flight mission in November 2005 conducted during EC-project SCOUT-O3. The flight led from Switzerland to Australia and back. We find an enhancement of up to 25% in the lower mesospheric H2O volume mixing ratio measured on the return flight one week after the outward flight. The origin of the air is traced back by means of a trajectory model in the lower mesosphere. During the outward flight the air came from the Carribean and crossed the Atlantic Ocean. On the return flight the air came from China and orginated from mid latitudes. Thus the large variability of H2O VMR during our flight is explained by a change of the winds in the lower mesosphere.

  18. Isotopic equilibrium between precipitation and water vapor: evidence from continental rains in central Kenya (United States)

    Soderberg, K.; Gerlein, C.; Kemeny, P. C.; Caylor, K. K.


    An accurate understanding of the relationships between the isotopic composition of liquid water and that of water vapor in the environment can help describe hydrologic processes across many scales. One such relationship is the isotopic equilibrium between falling raindrops and the surrounding vapor. The degree of equilibration is used to model the isotopic composition of precipitation in isotope-enable general circulation models and land-atmosphere exchange models. Although this equilibrium has been a topic of isotope hydrology research for more than four decades, few studies have included vapor measurements to validate modeling efforts. Recent advances in laser technology have allowed for in situ vapor measurements at high temporal resolution (e.g., >1 Hz). Here we present concomitant rain and vapor measurements for a series of 17 rain events during the 'Continental' rainy season (June through August) at Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Rain samples (n=218) were collected at intervals of 2 to 35 minutes (median of 3 minutes) depending on the rain rate (0.4 to 10.5 mm/hr). The volume-weighted mean rain values for δ18O, δ2H and D-excess (δ2H - 8* δ18O) were 0.1 ‰, 10.7 ‰, and 10.1 ‰. These values are more enriched than the annual weighted means reported for the area (-2.2 ‰, -7.6 ‰, and 11.0 ‰, respectively). Vapor was measured continuously at ~2Hz (DLT-100, Los Gatos Research), with an inverted funnel intake 4m above the ground surface. The mean vapor isotopic composition during the rain events was -10.0 +/- 1.2 ‰ (1 σ) for δ18O and -73.9 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. The difference between the rain sample isotopic composition and that of liquid in isotopic equilibrium with the corresponding vapor at the ambient temperature was 0.8 +/- 2.2 ‰ for δ18O and 6.2 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. This disequilibrium was found to correlate with the natural log of rain rate (R2 of 0.26 for δ18O and 0.46 for δ2H), with lower rain rates having larger

  19. Desalination of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores (United States)

    Lee, Jongho; Karnik, Rohit


    We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport of water through a nanopore with saline water on one side and pure water on the other side under a pressure difference was theoretically analyzed under the rarefied gas assumption using a probabilistic framework that accounts for diffuse scattering from the pore walls as well as reflection from the menisci. The analysis revealed that in addition to salinity, temperature, and pressure difference, the nanopore aspect ratio and the probability of condensation of a water molecule incident on a meniscus from the vapor phase, known as the condensation coefficient, are key determinants of flux. The effect of condensation coefficient on mass flux becomes critical when the aspect ratio is small. However, the mass flux becomes independent of the condensation coefficient as the pore aspect ratio increases, converging to the Knudsen flux for long nanopores. For design of a nanopore membrane that can trap vapor, a minimum aspect ratio is derived for which coalescence of the two interfaces on either side of the nanopore remains energetically unfavorable. Based on this design criterion, the analysis suggests that mass flux in the range of 20-70 g/m2 s may be feasible if the system is operated at temperatures in the range of 30-50 °C. The proposed approach further decouples transport properties from material properties of the membrane, which opens the possibility of engineering membranes with appropriate materials that may lead to reverse osmosis membranes with improved flux, better selectivity, and high chlorine resistance.

  20. Precipitable water vapor characterization in the coastal regions of China based on ground-based GPS (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Xinghua; Liu, Yanxiong; Zhou, Dongxu; Zhang, Huayi; Sun, Weikang


    Water vapor plays an important role in climate change; thus, studying the spatial distribution and temporal variation of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in the coastal regions of China would help researchers to understand the climate characteristics of those regions. In this paper, 6-year 1-h interval PWV were derived from 27 Global Positioning System stations observations of Chinese coastal GPS observation network, surface meteorological data and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-Interim) reanalysis products. The present study provides the use of these data to investigate the spatial-temporal variability of water vapor throughout the coastal regions of China. Latitude is the main factor affecting the spatial distribution of GPS-derived PWV; that is, PWV decreased by about 1.5 mm for each 1° increase of latitude. For regions at the same latitude, a region that is relatively close to the ocean will have a higher content of PWV. The PWV in the southeastern and southwestern coastal regions of China is significantly higher in summer; this may be influenced by the southeastern and southwestern water vapor inflow corridors. The PWV obviously varies monthly, reaching a minimum in January; however, the timing of the maximum varied but usually appeared in June, July or August and was affected by the monsoons. The PWV varies largely between summer and winter with a larger gradient of change in PWV with latitude in winter than in summer. The positive correlation coefficient between PWV and the surface temperature varied in different seasons; this is related to the changes of temperature and the horizontal motion of water vapor. Use of the Fast Fourier Transform method showed that the PWV time series data have multi-scale characteristics. The amplitude and phase of the PWV time series in annual, semiannual, four month and seasonal cycles were extracted through harmonic wave analysis. The amplitude of four month and seasonal cycles did not pass

  1. GOZCARDS Source Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpH2O) contains zonal means and related...

  2. SPARC-IGAC Symposium on Climate-Chemistry Interactions. Climate Feedback by Water Vapor in the Tropical Upper Troposphere (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Minschwaner, K.


    The strong greenhouse forcing by atmospheric water vapor is expected to play an important role in shaping the direction of any future changes in climate. We present calculations that provide a new perspective on the sensitivity of upper tropospheric water vapor to changes in surface temperature. Equilibrium states of our atmospheric model show unambiguously that as the surface warms, changes in the vertical distribution and temperature of detraining air parcels from tropical convection lead to higher water vapor mixing ratios in the upper troposphere. However, the increase in mixing ratio is not as large as the increase in saturation mixing ratio due to warmer environmental temperatures, so that the relative humidity decreases. Our analysis suggests that models that maintain a fixed relative humidity are likely overestimating the magnitude of the water vapor feedback.

  3. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpH2O) contains zonal means and related...

  4. Continuous Water Vapor Mass Flux and Temperature Measurements in a Model Scramjet Combustor Using a Diode Laser Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Upschulte, B. L; Miller, M. F; Allen, M. G; Jackson, K; Gruber, M; Mathur, T


    A sensor for simultaneous measurements of water vapor density, temperature and velocity has been developed based on absorption techniques using room temperature diode lasers (InGaAsP) operating at 1.31 micrometers...

  5. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MOD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  6. MODIS/Terra Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 data collection contains derived precipitable column water vapor amounts, during daytime using a near-infrared over clear land areas and above clouds...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MYD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005 NRT (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 data collection contains derived precipitable column water vapor amounts, during daytime using a near-infrared over clear land areas and above clouds...

  9. MODIS/Terra Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005 NRT (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 data collection contains derived precipitable column water vapor amounts, during daytime using a near-infrared over clear land areas and above clouds...

  10. A feasibility study of a microwave water vapor measurement from a space probe along an occultation path (United States)

    Longbothum, R. L.


    Stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor measurements were taken using the microwave lines at 22 GHz (22.235 GHz) and 183 GHz (183.31 GHz). The resonant cross sections for both the 22 GHz and the 183 GHz lines were used to model the optical depth of atmospheric water vapor. The range of optical depths seen by a microwave radiometer through the earth's limb was determined from radiative transfer theory. Radiometer sensitivity, derived from signal theory, was compared with calculated optical depths to determine the maximum height to which water vapor can be measured using the following methods: passive emission, passive absorption, and active absorption. It was concluded that measurements using the 22 GHz line are limited to about 50 km whereas the 183 GHz line enables measurements up to and above 100 km for water vapor mixing ratios as low as 0.1 ppm under optimum conditions.

  11. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Methane with Water and Methanol. Measurements and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Michael Grynnerup; Karakatsani, Eirini; von Solms, Nicolas


    There is a need for high-quality experimental phase equilibrium data in the petroleum and chemical industries, for example, mixtures of oil and gas with gas hydrate inhibitors (methanol, glycols) and organic acids. This includes a wide range of different systems, which all deal with processes...... that rely on phase equilibrium data for optimization. The objective of this work is to provide experimental data for hydrocarbon systems with polar chemicals such as alcohols, glycols, and water. New vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reported for methane + water, methane + methanol, and methane + methanol...

  12. Evaluation of Water Vapor Sorption Hysteresis in Soils: The Role of Organic Matter and Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per


    Hysteresis of the soil water characteristic (SWC) has been extensively studied for matric potentials between zero and −1.5 MPa. However, little information is available on how to quantify, evaluate, and identify the causes of hysteresis at potentials below −10 MPa where vapor sorption plays...... an important role. It is clear that modeling physical and biological soil processes is more accurate when SWC hysteresis is considered, particularly at low potentials where small differences in water content are associated with large changes in potential energy. The objectives of the presented study were to...

  13. Electrical characteristics and hydrogen concentration of chemical vapor deposited silicon dioxide films: Effect of water treatment (United States)

    Li, S. C.; Murarka, S. P.


    The effect of exposing chemical vapor deposited silicon dioxide directly to water has been investigated. Unlike the effect of the water-related traps in thermally grown silicon dioxide, the capacitance-voltage (C-V) shift due to diffused-in water molecules is directly observed without using the method of avalanche injection. The resonate nuclear reaction technique with 15N ion beam has been used to measure the hydrogen concentration of water-boiled, as-deposited, and rapid thermal-annealed silicon dioxide films. These depth profiles show that the hydrogen-containing species, that are most likely water molecules, diffuse in and out and redistribute in the as-deposited and rapid thermal-annealed films. These hydrogen depth profiles also indicate that the amount of diffused-in water molecules in the oxide is limited by the solubility of the water in the oxide. The solubility of water in the oxide annealed at high temperatures is found to be significantly lower than that in the as-deposited oxide. It is found that diffused-in water molecules, in order to satisfy the water solubility of the oxide, play a compensating role in controlling the oxide charges. Water molecules would continue to diffuse in, and interact with oxide charges and produce charges with reverse polarity that compensate the existing oxide charges until water solubility is satisfied.

  14. Heat and Mass Diffusions in the Absorption of Water Vapor by Aqueous Solution of Lithium Bromide (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Takao; Kurosaki, Yasuo; Nikai, Isao

    The recent development of absorption-type heat pump is highly essential from the viewpoint of extracting the effective energy from waste heat or solar energy. To increase the efficiency of energy conversion, it is important to improve the performance of absorbers. The objective of this paper is to obtain an increased understanding of the fine mechanisms of vapor absorption. A system combining holographic interferometry wity thermometry is adopted to observe the progress of one-dimensional water vapor absorption by aqueous solution of lithium bromide (LiBr) and also to measure the unsteady temperature and concentration distributions in the absorption process. The experiments are carried out under the condition that the solution surface is exposed to the saturated water vapor at reduced pressure, and the effects of LiBr mass concentration on absorption mechanism are examined in the concentration range 20-60 mass%. The interference fringes are analyzed to distinguish between the layers of heat conduction and mass diffusion. The temperature and concentration distributions thus determined experimentally are compared with numerical solutions obtained by the equations for unsteady heat conduction and mass diffusion taking into consideration the effect of heat by dilution, to give reasonable values of mass diffusivity hitherto remaining unknown. Especially in the range of 40-60 mass%, the mass diffusivity decreases extremely with the increase of mass concentration of LiBr and it falls down to 0.7-0.8×10-9 m2/s in case of 60 mass% solution.

  15. Antarctic measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosol extinction by Sage 2 in the spring of 1987 (United States)

    Larsen, J. C.; Mccormick, M. Patrick


    Recent measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosol extinction from the spring of 1987 are presented and compared to 1985 and 1986. The observed changes to variations in meteorological conditions in the vortex for these three years are noted. March ozone data at similar latitudes for these three years will be used to investigate coupling between severity of the springtime depletion and early fall values. Researchers also investigate correlations between the measured species of water vapor, ozone, and aerosols throughout the vortex region.

  16. Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D 2O tracer (United States)

    Matsushima, U.; Herppich, W. B.; Kardjilov, N.; Graf, W.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.


    Water flow imaging may help to better understand various problems related to water stress of plants. It may help to fully understand the water relations of plants. The objective of this research was to estimate the velocity of water flow in plant samples. Cut roses ( Rosa hybrida, var. 'Milva') were used as samples. Cold neutron radiography (CNR) was conducted at CONRAD, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin, Germany. D 2O and H 2O were interchangeably injected into the water feeding system of the sample. After the uptake of D 2O, the neutron transmission increased due to the smaller attenuation coefficient of D 2O compared to H 2O. Replacement of D 2O in the rose peduncle was clearly observed. Three different optical flow algorithms, Block Matching, Horn-Schunck and Lucas-Kanade, were used to calculate the vector of D 2O tracer flow. The quality of sequential images providing sufficient spatial and temporal resolution allowed to estimate flow vector.

  17. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.


    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  18. Observations of water vapor by ground-based micro-wave radiometers and Raman lidar (United States)

    Han, Yong; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.


    In November to December 1991, a substantial number of remote sensors and in situ instruments were operated together in Coffeyville, Kansas, during the climate experiment FIRE II. Included in the suite of instruments were (1) the NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) three-channel microwave radiometer, (2) the NASA GSFC Raman lidar, (3) ETL radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and (4) frequent, research-quality radiosondes. The Raman lidar operated only at night and the focus of this portion of the experiment concentrated on clear conditions. The lidar data, together with frequent radiosondes and measurements of temperature profiles (every 15 min) by RASS allowed profiles of temperature and absolute humidity to be estimated every minute. We compared 2-min measurements of brightness temperature (Tb) with calculations of Tb that were based on the Liebe and Lay ton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) microwave propagation models, as well as the Waters (1976) model. The comparisons showed the best agreement at 20.6 GHz with the Waters model, with the Liebe et al. (1993) model being best at 31.65 GHz. The results at 90 GHz gave about equal success with the Liebe and Layton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) models. Comparisons of precipitable water vapor derived independently from the two instruments also showed excellent agreement, even for averages as short as 2 min. The rms difference between Raman and radiometric determinations of precipitable water vapor was 0.03 cm which is roughly 2%. The experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of simultaneous operation of radiometers and Raman lidars for fundamental physical studies of water vapor.

  19. Formation of microbeads during vapor explosions of Field's metal in water

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia


    We use high-speed video imaging to investigate vapor explosions during the impact of a molten Field\\'s metal drop onto a pool of water. These explosions occur for temperatures above the Leidenfrost temperature and are observed to occur in up to three stages as the metal temperature is increased, with each explosion being more powerful that the preceding one. The Field\\'s metal drop breaks up into numerous microbeads with an exponential size distribution, in contrast to tin droplets where the vapor explosion deforms the metal to form porous solid structures. We compare the characteristic bead size to the wavelength of the fastest growing mode of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  20. Cirrus and water vapor transport in the tropical tropopause layer – Part 1: A specific case modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dinh


    Full Text Available In a simulation of a tropical-tropopause-layer (TTL cirrus forced by a large-scale equatorial Kelvin wave, the radiatively induced mesoscale dynamics of the cloud actively contributes to the transport of water vapor in the vertical direction.

    In a typical TTL cirrus, the heating that results from absorption of radiation by ice crystals induces a mesoscale circulation. Advection of water vapor by the radiatively induced circulation leads to upward advection of the cloudy air. Upward advection of the cloudy air is equivalent to upward transport of water vapor when the air above the cloud is drier than the cloudy air. On the other hand, ice nucleation and depositional growth, followed by sedimentation and sublimation lead to downward transport of water vapor.

    Under the conditions specific to our simulation, the upward transport of water vapor by the mesoscale circulation dominates the downward transport by microphysical processes. The net result is upward transport of water vapor, which is equivalent to hydration of the lower stratosphere. Sensitivity to model conditions and parameters will be discussed in a follow-up paper.

  1. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan


    This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter

  2. Study with a steam tracer in a zone near well Az-64, in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con un trazador de vapor en la zona aledana al pozo Az-64, en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J.; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    A previous tracer study in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field concluded that injection in well Az-15 recharges a group of producing wells located east of the injector to a maximum distance of about 2000 m. The study also indicated injection in Az-15 either does not recharge wells farther east in the neighborhood of the Laguna Verde fault, or does so at very low rates over a long period. Because it is important to recharge this zone, it was decided to explore the possibility of doing it by injecting in well Az-64, located in the area. Thus the present study was designed. Six producing wells were chosen to monitor tracer arrivals. Because all the chosen wells produce steam (several also produce water) and for economic reasons, it was decided to use a steam-phase tracer. We chose sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a tracer successfully used before in the field. On October 24, 2006, we injected 96.4 kg of SF6 into well Az-64. All six chosen wells were sampled for 156 days, starting the day of injection. The tracer was detected in all six wells and for every well the shape of the residence curve clearly depicted the fractured nature of the corresponding permeability. Again in every case, the recovery curves indicated recovery was completed within the 156-day sampling period. The largest recoveries were in wells Az-05 (48.5%) and Az-43 (1.27%), those closest to the injection well and on the same side of the Maritaro fault as Az-64. Well Az-51, lying at 848 m from the injector and farthest away, registered the third-highest recovery percentage (1.01 x 10-5%), significantly higher than well Az-19 (6.95 x 10-6%), located 490 m from the injector; the two wells are on the same side of the Maritaro fault as Az-64. Well Az-32, located 423 m from the injector, but on the other side of the Maritaro fault, recovered 5.6 x 10-7% of the injected tracer, comparable to 8.67 x 10-7%, the amount recovered in well Az-13 on the same side of the Maritaro fault

  3. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  4. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, B.E.; Falge, E.; Gu, L.


    compared with forests. Ecosystem respiration was weakly correlated with mean annual temperature across biomes, in spite of within site sensitivity over shorter temporal scales. Mean annual temperature and site water balance explained much of the variation in gross photosynthesis. Water availability limits......The objective of this research was to compare seasonal and annual estimates of CO2 and water vapor exchange across sites in forests, grasslands, crops, and tundra that are part of an international network called FLUXNET, and to investigating the responses of vegetation to environmental variables...... associated with reduced temperature. The slope of the relation between monthly gross ecosystem production and evapotranspiration was similar between biomes. except for tundra vegetation, showing a strong linkage between carbon gain and water loss integrated over the year (slopes = 3.4 g CO2/kg H2O...

  5. Fuel for cyclones: The water vapor budget of a hurricane as dependent on its movement (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M.; Gorshkov, Victor G.; Nefiodov, Andrei V.; Chikunov, Alexander V.; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio Donato; Li, Bai-Lian


    Despite the dangers associated with tropical cyclones and their rainfall, the origin of the moisture in these storms, which include destructive hurricanes and typhoons, remains surprisingly uncertain. Existing studies have focused on the region 40-400 km from a cyclone's center. It is known that the rainfall within this area cannot be explained by local processes alone but requires imported moisture. Nonetheless, the dynamics of this imported moisture appears unknown. Here, considering a region up to three thousand kilometers from cyclone center, we analyze precipitation, atmospheric moisture and movement velocities for severe tropical cyclones - North Atlantic hurricanes. Our findings indicate that even over such large areas a hurricane's rainfall cannot be accounted for by concurrent evaporation. We propose instead that a hurricane consumes pre-existing atmospheric water vapor as it moves. The propagation velocity of the cyclone, i.e. the difference between its movement velocity and the mean velocity of the surrounding air (steering flow), determines the water vapor budget. Water vapor available to the hurricane through its movement makes the hurricane self-sufficient at about 700 km from the hurricane center obviating the need to concentrate moisture from greater distances. Such hurricanes leave a dry wake, whereby rainfall is suppressed by up to 40% compared to the local long-term mean. The inner radius of this dry footprint approximately coincides with the hurricane's radius of water self-sufficiency. We discuss how Carnot efficiency considerations do not constrain the power of such open systems. Our findings emphasize the incompletely understood role and importance of atmospheric moisture stocks and dynamics in the behavior of severe tropical cyclones.

  6. Conductivity as a tracer of agricultural and urban runoff to delineate water quality impacts in the northern Everglades. (United States)

    Harwell, Matthew C; Surratt, Donatto D; Barone, Dorianne M; Aumen, Nicholas G


    Agricultural and urban runoff pumped into the perimeter canals of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a 58,320-ha soft-water wetland, has elevated nutrients which impact the Refuge interior marsh. To best manage the Refuge, linkages between inflows to the perimeter canals and environmental conditions within the marsh need to be understood. Conductivity, which typically is high in the canals and lowest at the most interior sites, was used as a surrogate tracer to characterize patterns of constituent transport. The Refuge was initially classified into four zones based upon patterns and variability in conductivity data: Canal Zone; Perimeter Zone (canal to 2.5 km into the interior); Transition Zone (2.5 to 4.5 km from the canal); Interior Zone (>4.5 km from the canal). Conductivity variability declined from the Perimeter to the Interior Zone, with the highest variability in the marsh observed in the Perimeter Zone and the lowest variability observed in the Interior Zone. Analysis of other water quality parameters indicated that conditions in the Perimeter and Transition Zones were different, and more impacted, than in the Interior Zone. In general, there was a positive relationship between structure inflows and canal phosphorus concentrations, including discharges from treatment wetlands and bypasses of untreated water. This classification approach is applicable for stratified sampling designs, resolving spatial bias in water quality models, and in aiding in management decisions about resource allocation.

  7. Effects of water vapor absorption on the physical and chemical stability of amorphous sodium indomethacin. (United States)

    Tong, Ping; Zografi, George


    This study reports on the effects that water absorbed into amorphous sodium indomethacin (NaIMC) can have on simultaneous tendencies to crystallize to its trihydrate form and to undergo base-catalyzed hydrolysis because of the plasticizing effects of water on molecular mobility. Measurement of water vapor absorption at 30 degrees C and powder x-ray diffraction patterns as a function of relative humidity (RH) reveal that upon exposure to 21% RH, NaIMC does not crystallize over a 2-month period. Measurements of the glass transition temperature as a function of such exposure reveals a change in T(g) from 121 degrees C, dry, to 53 degrees C at 21% RH, such that T(g) at 21% RH is approximately 13 degrees C above the highest storage temperature of 40 degrees C used in the study. At 56% RH and higher, however, crystallization to the trihydrate occurs rapidly; although over the 2-month period, crystallization was never complete. Assessment of chemical degradation by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed significant instability at 21% RH; whereas at higher RH, the extent of chemical degradation was reduced, reflecting the greater crystallization to the more chemically stable crystalline form. It is concluded that when amorphous forms of salts occur in solid dosage forms, the simultaneous effects of enhanced water vapor sorption on crystallization and chemical degradation must be considered, particularly when assessing solid-state chemical degradation at higher temperatures and RH (eg, 40 degrees C 75% RH).

  8. Water Vapor and its Isotopic Composition in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Sherwood, S. C.


    Any theory of water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) must explain both the abundance and isotopic composition of water there. We have previously presented a model of the TTL that simulated the abundance of water vapor as well as the details of the vertical profile. That model included the effects of 'overshooting convection', which injects dry air directly into the TTL. Here, we present results for the model after modifying it to include water's stable isotope HDO. The model is capable of accurately simulating the recently observed, nearly uniform HDO depletion (delta D) in the TTL. We find that lofted ice is necessary to accurately simulate the profile of delta D in the TTL, as has been suggested previously. We also find that vertical mixing due to overshooting convection plays an important role in maintaining the observed profile. Finally, any theory of lofted ice requires a complementary source of dry air in the TTL; without that, the TTL will rapidly saturate and the lofted ice will not evaporate.

  9. Development of a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter for the determination of the water vapor pressure curve. (United States)

    Mokdad, S; Georgin, E; Hermier, Y; Sparasci, F; Himbert, M


    Progress in the knowledge of the water saturation curve is required to improve the accuracy of the calibrations in humidity. In order to achieve this objective, the LNE-CETIAT and the LNE-CNAM have jointly built a facility dedicated to the measurement of the saturation vapor pressure and temperature of pure water. The principle is based on a static measurement of the pressure and the temperature of pure water in a closed, temperature-controlled thermostat, conceived like a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter. A copper cell containing pure water is placed inside a temperature-controlled copper shield, which is mounted in a vacuum-tight stainless steel vessel immersed in a thermostated bath. The temperature of the cell is measured with capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers, calibrated with uncertainties below the millikelvin. The vapor pressure is measured by calibrated pressure sensors connected to the cell through a pressure tube whose temperature is monitored at several points. The pressure gauges are installed in a thermostatic apparatus ensuring high stability of the pressure measurement and avoiding any condensation in the tubes. Thanks to the employment of several technical solutions, the thermal contribution to the overall uncertainty budget is reduced, and the remaining major part is mainly due to pressure measurements. This paper presents a full description of this facility and the preliminary results obtained for its characterization.

  10. Modeling of the Enceladus water vapor jets for interpreting UVIS star and solar occultation observations (United States)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Hansen, Candice J.


    One of the most spectacular discoveries of the Cassini mission is jets emitting from the southern pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The composition of the jets is water vapor and salty ice grains with traces of organic compounds. Jets, merging into a wide plume at a distance, are observed by multiple instruments on Cassini. Recent observations of the visible dust plume by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) identified as many as 98 jet sources located along “tiger stripes” [Porco et al. 2014]. There is a recent controversy on the question if some of these jets are “optical illusion” caused by geometrical overlap of continuous source eruptions along the “tiger stripes” in the field of view of ISS [Spitale et al. 2015]. The Cassini’s Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed occultations of several stars and the Sun by the water vapor plume of Enceladus. During the solar occultation separate collimated gas jets were detected inside the background plume [Hansen et al., 2006 and 2011]. These observations directly provide data about water vapor column densities along the line of sight of the UVIS instrument and could help distinguish between the presence of only localized or also continuous sources. We use Monte Carlo simulations and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model the plume of Enceladus with multiple (or continuous) jet sources. The models account for molecular collisions, gravitational and Coriolis forces. The models result in the 3-D distribution of water vapor density and surface deposition patterns. Comparison between the simulation results and column densities derived from UVIS observations provide constraints on the physical characteristics of the plume and jets. The specific geometry of the UVIS observations helps to estimate the production rates and velocity distribution of the water molecules emitted by the individual jets.Hansen, C. J. et al., Science 311:1422-1425 (2006); Hansen, C. J. et al, GRL 38:L11202 (2011

  11. Circulation pathways and spreading rates of the Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean: Results from 25 years of tracer observations (United States)

    Schlosser, Peter; Pasqualini, Angelica; Newton, Robert; Koffman, Tobias; Friedrich, Ronny; Smethie, William M.


    The Atlantic Ocean supplies heat to the Arctic Ocean along two pathways: one entering through Fram Strait (Fram Strait Branch) and one entering through the St. Anna Trough after seasonal modifications on the Barents Sea shelf (Barents Sea Branch). Although shielded from direct contact with the sea ice cover by the cold mixed layer and halocline, some of the heat reaches the sea ice via turbulent exchange and thus has impact on sea ice extent and thickness. This raises the question of the stability of the Atlantic Water circulation in the Arctic Ocean in a rapidly changing Arctic system and the consequences of potential changes in its position within the water column. The presently accepted circulation scheme of Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean was first depicted by Rudels et al. (1994) based on hydrographic data and dynamical considerations and has been extensively discussed in the literature and widely used in many studies. Although the general circulation patterns seem to be robust, so far not all of its branches have been verified by direct observations such as current meter measurements or geostrophic flow estimates. Additionally, there are few direct measurements of the spreading velocities of the individual components of the overall circulation scheme. We present tritium/3He data and discuss how they add to our understanding of the circulation patterns and spreading velocities. Specifically, we use 3H/3He and hydrographic data from 21 expeditions spanning 25 years of Arctic Ocean section work (1987-2013) to estimate spreading velocities and flow paths of both Atlantic Water branches on a pan-Arctic scale. Our tracer data corroborate and add a time dimension to previously estimated circulation schemes. The results confirm the presence of a well-organized boundary current that cyclonically flows along the continental slope and add insights on the other, typically topographically steered, circulation branches of Atlantic water, most notably those following the

  12. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface (United States)

    Gallana, L.; Di Savino, S.; De Santi, F.; Iovieno, M.; Tordella, D.


    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range of the atmospheric boundary layer as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this situation, the mixing layer contains two interfacial regions with opposite kinetic energy gradient, which in turn produces two intermittent sublayers in the velocity fluctuations field. This changes the structure of the field with respect to the corresponding non-stratified shearless mixing: the communication between the two turbulent region is weak, and the growth of the mixing layer stops. These results are discussed with respect to Large Eddy Simulations data for the Planetary Boundary Layers.

  13. Interaction enthalpies of solid human serum albumin with water-dioxane mixtures: comparison with water and organic solvent vapor sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A.; Faizullin, Djihanguir A


    Enthalpy changes ({delta}H{sub tot}) on the immersion of dehydrated human serum albumin (HSA) into water-dioxane mixtures have been measured using a Setaram BT-2.15 calorimeter at 298 K. Thermodynamic activity of water was varied from 0 to 1. Calorimetric results are discussed together with the FTIR-spectroscopic data on water and organic solvent vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms on solid HSA. Dioxane sorption exhibits a pronounced hysteresis. Calorimetric and dioxane desorption dependencies consist of two parts. No dioxane sorption was observed in low water activity region (a{sub w}<0.5). At low water activities, the {delta}H{sub tot} values are close to zero. At water activity about 0.5 the sharp exothermic drop of the interaction enthalpy values was observed. This exothermic drop is accompanied by the sharp increase in the amount of sorbed dioxane and additional water sorption (compared with that for pure water). Dioxane adsorption branch resembles a smooth curve. In this case, solid HSA binds more than 300 mol dioxane/mol HSA at low water activities. By using a water activity-based comparison we distinguished between dioxane-assisted and dioxane-competitive effect on water sorption. The obtained results demonstrate that the hydration 'history' of solid protein is an important factor that controls as the state of protein macromolecule as well as the sorption of low-molecular organic molecules.

  14. Effects of water vapor on protectiveness of Cr2O3 scale at 1073 K (United States)

    Arifin, S. K.; Hamid, M.; Berahim, A. N.; Ani, M. H.


    Fe-Cr alloy is commonly being used as boiler tube’s material. It is subjected to prolonged exposure to water vapor oxidation. The ability to withstand high temperature corrosion can normally be attributed to the formation of a dense and slow growing Cr-rich-oxide scale known as chromia, Cr2O3 scale. However, oxidation may limit the alloy’s service lifetime due to decreasing of its protectiveness capability. This paper is to presents an experimental study of thermo gravimetric and Fourier transform infrared analysis of Cr2O3 at 1073 K in dry and humid environment. Samples were used from commercially available Cr2O3 powder. It was cold-pressed into pellet shape of 12 mm diameter and 3 mm thick with hydraulic press for 40 min at 48 MPa. It then sintered at 1173 K in inert gas environment for 8 h. The samples are cooled and placed in 5 mm diameter platinum pan. It is subjected to reaction in dry and wet environment at 1073 K by applying 100%-Ar and Ar-5%H2 gas. Each reaction period is 48 h utilizing Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer, TGA to quantify the mass changes. After the reaction, the samples then characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, FT-IR and Field Emission Electron Scanning Microscopy, FE-SEM. The TGA result shows mass decreasing ratio of Cr2O3 in wet (PH2O = 9.5x105Pa) and dry environment is at a factor of 1.2 while parabolic rate at 1.4. FT-IR results confirmed that water vapor significantly broaden the peaks, thus promotes the volatilization of Cr2O3 in wet sample. FESEM shows mostly packed and intact in dry while in wet sample, slightly porous particle arrangement compare to dry. It is concluded that water vapor species decreased Cr2O3 protectiveness capability.

  15. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Nedoluha


    Full Text Available As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II, we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically  ∼  1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0–1 % yr−1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr−1 and 0.7 % yr−1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr−1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and −0.1 % yr−1 (at Lauder, New Zealand.

  16. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer. (United States)

    Hurst, Dale F; Lambert, Alyn; Read, William G; Davis, Sean M; Rosenlof, Karen H; Hall, Emrys G; Jordan, Allen F; Oltmans, Samuel J


    Differences between stratospheric water vapor measurements by NOAA frost point hygrometers (FPHs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are evaluated for the period August 2004 through December 2012 at Boulder, Colorado, Hilo, Hawaii, and Lauder, New Zealand. Two groups of MLS profiles coincident with the FPH soundings at each site are identified using unique sets of spatiotemporal criteria. Before evaluating the differences between coincident FPH and MLS profiles, each FPH profile is convolved with the MLS averaging kernels for eight pressure levels from 100 to 26 hPa (~16 to 25 km) to reduce its vertical resolution to that of the MLS water vapor retrievals. The mean FPH - MLS differences at every pressure level (100 to 26 hPa) are well within the combined measurement uncertainties of the two instruments. However, the mean differences at 100 and 83 hPa are statistically significant and negative, ranging from -0.46 ± 0.22 ppmv (-10.3 ± 4.8%) to -0.10 ± 0.05 ppmv (-2.2 ± 1.2%). Mean differences at the six pressure levels from 68 to 26 hPa are on average 0.8% (0.04 ppmv), and only a few are statistically significant. The FPH - MLS differences at each site are examined for temporal trends using weighted linear regression analyses. The vast majority of trends determined here are not statistically significant, and most are smaller than the minimum trends detectable in this analysis. Except at 100 and 83 hPa, the average agreement between MLS retrievals and FPH measurements of stratospheric water vapor is better than 1%.

  17. Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor Data Using GPS Zenith Delays and Global Reanalysis Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang


    Full Text Available GPS has become a very effective tool to remotely sense precipitable water vapor (PWV information, which is important for weather forecasting and nowcasting. The number of geodetic GNSS stations set up in China has substantially increased over the last few decades. However, GPS PWV derivation requires surface pressure to calculate the precise zenith hydrostatic delay and weighted mean temperature to map the zenith wet delay to precipitable water vapor. GPS stations without collocated meteorological sensors can retrieve water vapor using standard atmosphere parameters, which lead to a decrease in accuracy. In this paper, a method of interpolating NWP reanalysis data to site locations for generating corresponding meteorological elements is explored over China. The NCEP FNL dataset provided by the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction and over 600 observed stations from different sources was selected to assess the quality of the results. A one-year experiment was performed in our study. The types of stations selected include meteorological sites, GPS stations, radio sounding stations, and a sun photometer station. Compared with real surface measurements, the accuracy of the interpolated surface pressure and air temperature both meet the requirements of GPS PWV derivation in most areas; however, the interpolated surface air temperature exhibits lower precision than the interpolated surface pressure. At more than 96% of selected stations, PWV differences caused by the differences between the interpolation results and real measurements were less than 1.0 mm. Our study also indicates that relief amplitude exerts great influence on the accuracy of the interpolation approach. Unsatisfactory interpolation results always occurred in areas of strong relief. GPS PWV data generated from interpolated meteorological parameters are consistent with other PWV products (radio soundings, the NWP reanalysis dataset, and sun photometer PWV data. The

  18. Energy recovery from waste glycerol by utilizing thermal water vapor plasma. (United States)

    Tamošiūnas, Andrius; Valatkevičius, Pranas; Gimžauskaitė, Dovilė; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Mėčius, Vladas; Aikas, Mindaugas


    Glycerol, considered as a waste feedstock resulting from biodiesel production, has received much attention in recent years due to its properties, which offer to recover energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a thermal water vapor plasma for waste (crude) glycerol conversion to synthesis gas, or syngas (H2 + CO). In parallel of crude glycerol, a pure glycerol (99.5%) was used as a reference material in order to compare the concentrations of the formed product gas. A direct current (DC) arc plasma torch stabilized by a mixture of argon/water vapor was utilized for the effective glycerol conversion to hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. It was found that after waste glycerol treatment, the main reaction products were gases with corresponding concentrations of H2 50.7%, CO 23.53%, CO2 11.45%, and CH4 3.82%, and traces of C2H2 and C2H6, which concentrations were below 0.5%. The comparable concentrations of the formed gas products were obtained after pure glycerol conversion-H2 46.4%, CO 26.25%, CO2 11.3%, and CH4 4.7%. The use of thermal water vapor plasma producing synthesis gas is an effective method to recover energy from both crude and pure glycerol. The performance of the glycerol conversion system was defined in terms of the produced gas yield, the carbon conversion efficiency, the cold gas efficiency, and the specific energy requirements.

  19. Comparison of GNSS integrated water vapor and NWM reanalysis data over Central and South America (United States)

    Fernandez, Laura Isabel; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Bianchi, Clara Eugenia


    Integrated water vapor (IWV) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Numerical Weather Models (NWM) reanalysis data were compared in order to assess the consistency between the different datasets over the extended geographical region of Central and South America. The investigation was performed for the seven-year period between 2007 and 2013. We analyzed two different reanalysis: the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA Interim) and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The statistical analysis of the differences was performed in 110 GNSS sites (GPS +GLONASS), although the most interesting results came from the 73 sites which have more than 5 years of data. The study of the spatial distribution of the differences in the selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, and it is characterized by large temporal variability of the integrated total humidity content. The inter-comparison was also performed on several time scales: from hours to years. In this study, not only the IWV values given by the different reanalysis where compared with the respective GNSS derived values but also the numeric integral of the IWV. This is nothing but the total vertically integrated water vapor of a unit air column each station but considering its real geopotential height. To that end, multilevel data from each reanalysis was also used. Moreover, the scarce coverage of operational radio sounding stations is noticeable in large areas of the selected region. Hence the contribution of IWV-GNSS is essential to improve the weather understanding. Considering that the atmospheric water vapor has a highly variable and complex distribution which knowledge is essential for weather prediction and local meteorological studies, this study aims to provide IWV-GNSS observations able to be assimilated by operational

  20. Operation of a breadboard liquid-sorbent/membrane-contactor system for removing carbon dioxide and water vapor from air (United States)

    Mccray, Scott B.; Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Millard, Douglas L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Foerg, Sandra


    Processes to remove and recover carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor from air are essential for successful long-duration space missions. This paper presents results of a developmental program focused on the use of a liquid-sorbent/membrane-contactor (LSMC) system for removal of CO2 and water vapor from air. In this system, air from the spacecraft cabin atmosphere is circulated through one side of a hollow-fiber membrane contactor. On the other side of the membrane contactor is flowed a liquid sorbent, which absorbs the CO2 and water vapor from the feed air. The liquid sorbent is then heated to desorb the CO2 and water vapor. The CO2 is subsequently removed from the system as a concentrated gas stream, whereas the water vapor is condensed, producing a water stream. A breadboard system based on this technology was designed and constructed. Tests showed that the LSMC breadboard system can produce a CO2 stream and a liquid-water stream. Details are presented on the operation of the system, as well as the effects on performance of variations in feed conditions.

  1. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.


    In this study, two hygroscopic materials, inorganic lithium chloride (LiCl) and organic triethylene glycol (TEG) were separately added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form blend membranes for air dehumidification. Water vapor permeation, dehumidification performance and long-term durability of the membranes were studied systematically. Membrane hydrophilicity and water vapor sorbability increased significantly with higher the hygroscopic material contents. Water vapor permeance of the membranes increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy when hygroscopic content increases. Comparatively, PVA/TEG has less corrosive problems and is more environmentally friendly than PVA/LiCl. A membrane with PVA/TEG is observed to be highly durable and is suitable for dehumidification applications.

  2. Transparent semiconducting amorphous cadmium-gallium-tin oxide films by magnetron sputtering with water vapor (United States)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Koyamaishi, Yusuke; Sato, Chiyuki; Kimura, Yota


    Amorphous oxide semiconductors (including transparent ones) are attractive materials for next-generation optoelectronic applications. One of the difficulties with amorphous oxide semiconductors is the lack of high mobility (>10 cm2 V-1 s-1) at low carrier density (radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with a water-vapor pressure ≥0.25 Pa. In these amorphous films, the threshold carrier density for obtaining high mobility (˜10 cm2 V-1 s-1) is possibly four orders of magnitude lower than that in conventional amorphous oxide semiconductors such as amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O.

  3. Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C., E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Dincer, I., E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada)


    In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting cycle can be lowered because the heat pump increases the working fluid temperature from 755 K up to {approx}950 K, at a high COP of {approx}6.5. Based on measured data available in past literature, the authors have determined the T-s diagram of CuCl, which is then used for the thermodynamic modeling of the cycle. In the heat pump cycle, molten CuCl is flashed in a vacuum where the vapor quality reaches {approx}2.5%, and then it is boiled to produce saturated vapor. The vapor is then compressed in stages (with inter-cooling and heat recovery), and condensed in a direct contact heat exchanger to transfer heat at a higher temperature. The heat pump is then integrated with a copper-chlorine water splitting plant. The heat pump evaporator is connected thermally with the hydrogen production reactor of the water splitting plant, which performs an exothermic reaction that generates heat at 760 K. Additional source heat is obtained from heat recovery from the hot reaction products of the oxy-decomposer. The heat pump transfers heat at {approx}950 K to the oxy-decomposer to drive its endothermic chemical reaction. It is shown that the heat required at the heat pump source can be obtained completely from internal heat recovery within the plant. First and second law analyses and a parametric study are performed for the proposed system to study the influence of the compressor's isentropic efficiency and temperature levels on the heat pump's COP. Two new indicators are presented: one represents the heat recovery ratio (the ratio between the thermal energy obtained by

  4. Venus cloud structure and water vapor abundance from Mariner 10 observations (United States)

    Taylor, F. W.


    Observations of the Venus atmosphere with the infrared radiometer on Mariner 10 have been analyzed by Taylor (1975) in terms of the vertical distribution of opacity at wavelengths near 11 microns and 45 microns in the thermal infrared. In this paper, we discuss models of the Venus atmosphere which are consistent with the inferred opacity structure. Either a two-layer cloud structure, or a single cloud deck overlaid by a layer containing approximately 40 precipitable microns of water vapor, would have the required limb-darkening characteristics at the wavelengths of observation.

  5. A corresponding-states analysis of the liquid-vapor equilibrium properties of common water models (United States)

    Fugel, Malte; Weiss, Volker C.


    Many atomistic potential models have been proposed to reproduce the properties of real water and to capture as many of its anomalies as possible. The large number of different models indicates that this task is by no means an easy one. Some models are reasonably successful for various properties, while others are designed to account for only a very few specific features of water accurately. Among the most popular models are SPC/E, TIP4P, TIP4P/2005, TIP4P/Ice, and TIP5P-E. Here, we report the equilibrium properties of the liquid-vapor coexistence, such as the densities of the liquid phase and the vapor phase, the interfacial tension between them, and the vapor pressure at saturation. From these data, the critical parameters are determined and subsequently used to cast the liquid-vapor coexistence properties into a corresponding-states form following Guggenheim's suggestions. Doing so reveals that the three TIP4P-based models display the same corresponding-states behavior and that the SPC/E model behaves quite similarly. Only the TIP5P-E model shows clear deviations from the corresponding-states properties of the other models. A comparison with data for real water shows that the reduced surface tension is well described, while the reduced coexistence curve is too wide. The models underestimate the critical compressibility factor and overestimate Guggenheim's ratio as well as the reduced boiling temperature (Guldberg's ratio). As demonstrated by the collapse of the data for the TIP4P-based models, these deviations are inherent to the specific model and cannot be corrected by a simple reparametrization. For comparison, the results for two recent polarizable models, HBP and BK3, are shown, and both models are seen to perform well in terms of absolute numbers and in a corresponding-states framework. The kind of analysis applied here can therefore be used as a guideline in the design of more accurate and yet simple multi-purpose models of water.

  6. Near-IR Direct Detection of Water Vapor in Tau Bootis b (United States)


    rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. NEAR-IR DIRECT DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN TAU BOÖTIS b Alexandra C. Lockwood1, John A. Johnson1,2, Chad F...Bender3,4, John S. Carr5, Travis Barman6, Alexander J. W. Richert3,4, and Geoffrey A. Blake1 1 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California...their host star. Hundreds of transiting planets have been discovered and characterized, and the ongoing Kepler mission has found potential exoplanet

  7. Water Vapor Sensors Based on the Swelling of Relief Gelatin Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Calixto


    Full Text Available We report on a novel device to measure relative humidity. The sensor is based on surface diffraction gratings made of gelatin. This material swells and shrinks according to the content of water vapor in air. By sending a light beam to the grating, diffracted orders appear. Due to the gelatin swelling or shrinking, first order intensity changes according to the relative humidity. Calibration curves relating intensity versus relative humidity have been found. The fabrication process of diffraction gratings and the testing of the prototype sensing devices are described.

  8. A corresponding-states analysis of the liquid-vapor equilibrium properties of common water models. (United States)

    Fugel, Malte; Weiss, Volker C


    Many atomistic potential models have been proposed to reproduce the properties of real water and to capture as many of its anomalies as possible. The large number of different models indicates that this task is by no means an easy one. Some models are reasonably successful for various properties, while others are designed to account for only a very few specific features of water accurately. Among the most popular models are SPC/E, TIP4P, TIP4P/2005, TIP4P/Ice, and TIP5P-E. Here, we report the equilibrium properties of the liquid-vapor coexistence, such as the densities of the liquid phase and the vapor phase, the interfacial tension between them, and the vapor pressure at saturation. From these data, the critical parameters are determined and subsequently used to cast the liquid-vapor coexistence properties into a corresponding-states form following Guggenheim's suggestions. Doing so reveals that the three TIP4P-based models display the same corresponding-states behavior and that the SPC/E model behaves quite similarly. Only the TIP5P-E model shows clear deviations from the corresponding-states properties of the other models. A comparison with data for real water shows that the reduced surface tension is well described, while the reduced coexistence curve is too wide. The models underestimate the critical compressibility factor and overestimate Guggenheim's ratio as well as the reduced boiling temperature (Guldberg's ratio). As demonstrated by the collapse of the data for the TIP4P-based models, these deviations are inherent to the specific model and cannot be corrected by a simple reparametrization. For comparison, the results for two recent polarizable models, HBP and BK3, are shown, and both models are seen to perform well in terms of absolute numbers and in a corresponding-states framework. The kind of analysis applied here can therefore be used as a guideline in the design of more accurate and yet simple multi-purpose models of water.

  9. Kinetics of Chronic Oxidation of NBG-17 Nuclear Graphite by Water Vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mee, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    This report presents the results of kinetic measurements during accelerated oxidation tests of NBG-17 nuclear graphite by low concentration of water vapor and hydrogen in ultra-high purity helium. The objective is to determine the parameters in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) equation describing the oxidation kinetics of nuclear graphite in the helium coolant of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). Although the helium coolant chemistry is strictly controlled during normal operating conditions, trace amounts of moisture (predictably < 0.2 ppm) cannot be avoided. Prolonged exposure of graphite components to water vapor at high temperature will cause very slow (chronic) oxidation over the lifetime of graphite components. This behavior must be understood and predicted for the design and safe operation of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. The results reported here show that, in general, oxidation by water of graphite NBG-17 obeys the L-H mechanism, previously documented for other graphite grades. However, the characteristic kinetic parameters that best describe oxidation rates measured for graphite NBG-17 are different than those reported previously for grades H-451 (General Atomics, 1978) and PCEA (ORNL, 2013). In some specific conditions, certain deviations from the generally accepted L-H model were observed for graphite NBG-17. This graphite is manufactured in Germany by SGL Carbon Group and is a possible candidate for the fuel elements and reflector blocks of HTGR.

  10. Monitoring the variability of precipitable water vapor over the Klang Valley, Malaysia during flash flood (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Rahman, R.; Singh, M. S. J.


    Klang Valley is a focal area of Malaysian economic and business activities where the local weather condition is very important to maintain its reputation. Heavy rainfalls for more than an hour were reported up to 40 mm in September 2013 and 35 mm in October 2013. Both events are monitored as the first and second cases of flash flood, respectively. Based on these cases, we investigate the water vapor, rainfall, surface meteorological data (surface pressure, relative humidity, and temperature) and river water level. The precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) is used to indicate the impact of flash flood on the rainfall. We found that PWV was dropped 4 mm in 2 hours before rainfall reached to 40 mm and dropped 3 mm in 3 hours before 35 mm of rainfall in respective cases. Variation of PWV was higher in September case compared to October case of about 2 mm. We suggest the rainfall phenomena can disturb the GPS propagation and therefore, the impact of PWV before, during and after the flash flood event at three selected GPS stations in Klang Valley is investigated for possible mitigation in the future.

  11. Electronic absorption line shapes at the water liquid/vapor interface. (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine V; Benjamin, Ilan


    In order to investigate the factors that contribute to the electronic absorption line shape of a chromophore adsorbed at the water liquid/vapor interface, molecular dynamics simulations of a series of dipolar solutes undergoing various electronic transitions at various locations along the interface normal are studied. For electronic transitions that involve a change in the permanent dipole moment of the solute, the transition from the bulk water to the liquid/vapor interface involves a spectral shift consistent with the lower polarity of the interface. The change in the spectral width relative to that in the bulk is determined by several factors, which, depending on the nature of the transition and the dipole moment of the initial state, can result in a narrowing or broadening of the spectrum. These factors include the location of the interface region (which directly correlates with local polarity), the heterogeneity of the local solvation shell, and the width of the surface region. The contribution of the heterogeneity of the local solvation shell can be determined by comparing surface water with bulk methanol, whose polarity is comparable to one of the surface regions.

  12. Adsorption tests of water vapor on synthetic zeolites for an atmospheric detritiation dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.R. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:; Lee, M.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Paek, S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Tritiated hydrogen and hydrocarbon are usually oxidized to a tritiated water vapor to make the tritium adsorbable and easy to treat. The adsorption system as a subsequent process plays an important role in a tritium recovery and its performance affects the overall detritiation efficiency significantly. In order to quantify an adsorbent's utilization and its dynamic capacity against an inlet humidity and a flow rate, a series of quantitative tests based on the breakthrough behavior were carried out in an isothermal fixed bed of synthetic zeolites such as molecular sieve 4A, 5A, 13X and mordenite. The amount of water vapor breaking during the adsorption was estimated to provide a breakthrough capacity at the various inlet flow rates and humidity conditions. The molecular sieve 13X exhibited a better adsorption performance at a given bed height. The existence of CO{sub 2} in a humid atmosphere had a minor effect on the net adsorption capacity and the hydrogen isotopic water (HDO) in the elution stream showed a delayed behavior during a thermal desorption.

  13. On the Internal Gas Dynamics and Efficiency of a Vortex Water-Vapor Plasma Generator (United States)

    Charakhovski, L.; Essiptchouk, A.; Otani, C.; Petraconi, G.; Marquesi, A.; Sauchyn, V.; Khvedchyn, I.; Olenovich, A.; Liavonchyk, A.; Skamarokhau, D.; Halinouski, A.


    Results of experimental investigations of a new-type generator of an arc water plasma, having a high thermal efficiency close to 100%, are presented. This generator represents a system comprising a vortex arc plasma generator, in which an electric arc is stabilized by water vapor and a straight-through-flow tubular electric steam generator. Such a high efficiency of the plasma generator system was achieved due to the refinement of the internal gas dynamics of the plasma generator and the heat and mass transfer in its discharge channel as a result of the improvement of the vortex stabilization and thermal insulation of an arc discharge in it by the specially organized ″instantly permeable″ channel wall cooled by only the working water used for generation of the plasma.

  14. Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bernice E.


    A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

  15. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan


    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  16. Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer and Diode Laser Hygrometer on the NASA DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Podolske, James R.; Redemann, Jens; Diskin, G. S.


    In January-February 2003 the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer 30 (AATS) and the NASA Langley/Ames Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) were flown on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. AATS measured column water vapor on the aircraft-to-sun path, while DLH measured local water vapor in the free stream between the aircraft fuselage and an outboard engine cowling. The AATS and DLH measurements were compared for two DC-8 vertical profiles by differentiating the AATS column measurement and/or integrating the DLH local measurement over the altitude range of each profile (7.7-10 km and 1.2-12.5 km). These comparisons extend, for the first time, tests of AATS water vapor retrievals to altitudes >~6 km and column contents <0.1 g cm-2. To our knowledge this is the first time suborbital spectroscopic water vapor measurements using the 940-nm band have been tested in conditions so high and dry. For both profiles layer water vapor (LWV) from AATS and DLH were highly correlated, with r2 0.998, rms difference 7.2% and bias (AATS minus DLH) 0.9%. For water vapor densities AATS and DLH had r2 0.968, rms difference 27.6%, and bias (AATS minus DLH) -4.2%. These results compare favorably with previous comparisons of AATS water vapor to in situ results for altitudes <~6 km, columns ~0.1 to 5 g cm-2 and densities ~0.1 to 17 g m-3.

  17. Radium isotopes as a tracer of sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, W.J.; Thomas, H.; Pätsch, J.; Omar, A.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.; Brenner, H.; de Baar, H.J.W.


    Sediment-water column exchange plays an important role in coastal biogeochemistry. We utilize short-lived radium isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) to understand and quantify the dominant processes governing sediment-water column exchange throughout the North Sea. Our comprehensive survey, conducted in

  18. Radium isotopes as a tracer of sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, W. J.; Thomas, H.; Paetsch, J.; Omar, A. M.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.; Brenner, H.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    Sediment-water column exchange plays an important role in coastal biogeochemistry. We utilize short-lived radium isotopes (Ra-224 and Ra-223) to understand and quantify the dominant processes governing sediment-water column exchange throughout the North Sea. Our comprehensive survey, conducted in

  19. Stable sulfur and oxygen isotopes as geochemical tracers of sulfate in karst waters (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Kobayashi, Tatsuaki; Strosnider, William H. J.; Wu, Pan


    Karst water resources, which are extremely sensitive to mining activities, are critical for the support of human societies and ecological systems in many regions worldwide. In order to determine the sources and fate of dissolved sulfate in low-pH karst waters, hydrochemical variations of karst waters with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) impacts were investigated along with stable isotope dynamics. As expected, hydrochemical characteristics and isotopic compositions of the AMD and AMD-downstream water (ADW) were dramatically different from that of the non-AMD-impacted water (NAW). The sources of sulfur isotopes in sulfate were predominantly pyrite oxidation for the AMD and ADW, and atmospheric deposition for the NAW. Based on the general isotope-balance model, the relative proportions of sulfate oxygen derived from water and air were calculated. The mean proportion of sulfate oxygen derived from water in ADW was roughly double that of AMD. This suggests that the sulfate associated with AMD is predominantly influenced by aerobic pyrite oxidation, while that of ADW is likely affected by the dissolution of pyrite under anaerobic conditions in reservoir sediment. This observation was coincident with the noted variations of hydrochemical characteristics and was supported by principal component analysis. These results provide a better understanding of how stable isotopes of sulfate and water can be used to track mining contamination in karst aquifers, which could benefit remediation planning for these distinctive systems.

  20. Stratospheric water vapour as tracer for Vortex filamentation in the Arctic winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller


    Full Text Available Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers measured three high-resolution profiles of stratospheric water vapour above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen during winter 2002/2003. The profiles obtained on 12 December 2002 and on 17 January 2003 provide an insight into the vertical distribution of water vapour in the core of the polar vortex. The water vapour sounding on 11 February 2003 was obtained within the vortex edge region of the lower stratosphere. Here, a significant reduction of water vapour mixing ratio was observed between 16 and 19 km. The stratospheric temperatures indicate that this dehydration was not caused by the presence of polar stratospheric clouds or earlier PSC particle sedimentation. Ozone observations on this day indicate a large scale movement of the polar vortex and show laminae in the same altitude range as the water vapour profile. The link between the observed water vapour reduction and filaments in the vortex edge region is indicated in the results of the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, which show that adjacent filaments of polar and mid latitude air can be identified above the Spitsbergen region. A vertical cross-section produced by the MIMOSA model reveals that the water vapour sonde flew through polar air in the lowest part of the stratosphere below 425 K, then passed through filaments of mid latitude air with lower water vapour concentrations, before it finally entered the polar vortex above 450 K. These results indicate that on 11 February 2003 the frost point hygrometer measured different water vapour concentrations as the sonde detected air with different origins. Instead of being linked to dehydration due to PSC particle sedimentation, the local reduction in the stratospheric water vapour profile was in this case caused by dynamical processes in the polar stratosphere.

  1. Sauna, sweat and science - quantifying the proportion of condensation water versus sweat using a stable water isotope ((2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O) tracer experiment. (United States)

    Zech, Michael; Bösel, Stefanie; Tuthorn, Mario; Benesch, Marianne; Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Glaser, Bruno


    Most visitors of a sauna appreciate the heat pulse that is perceived when water is poured on the stones of a sauna stove. However, probably only few bathers are aware that this pleasant heat pulse is caused by latent heat being released onto our skin due to condensation of water vapour. In order to quantify the proportion of condensation water versus sweat to dripping water of test persons we conducted sauna experiments using isotopically labelled (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) thrown water as tracer. This allows differentiating between 'pure sweat' and 'condensation water'. Two ways of isotope mass balance calculations were applied and yielded similar results for both water isotopes. Accordingly, condensation contributed considerably to dripping water with mean proportions of 52 ± 12 and 54 ± 7% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2011/12 and 30 ± 13 and 33 ± 6% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2012/13, respectively, depending on the way of calculating the isotope mass balance. It can be concluded from the results of our dual isotope labelling sauna experiment that it is not all about sweat in the sauna.

  2. Two decades of water vapor measurements with the FISH fluorescence hygrometer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meyer


    Full Text Available For almost two decades, the airborne Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH has stood for accurate and precise measurements of total water mixing ratios (WMR, gas phase + evaporated ice in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the measurement technique (Lyman-α photofragment fluorescence, calibration procedure, accuracy and reliability of FISH. Crucial for FISH measurement quality is the regular calibration to a water vapor reference, namely the commercial frost-point hygrometer DP30. In the frame of this work this frost-point hygrometer is compared to German and British traceable metrological water standards and its accuracy is found to be 2–4 %. Overall, in the range from 4 to 1000 ppmv, the total accuracy of FISH was found to be 6–8 %, as stated in previous publications. For lower mixing ratios down to 1 ppmv, the uncertainty reaches a lower limit of 0.3 ppmv. For specific, non-atmospheric conditions, as set in experiments at the AIDA chamber – namely mixing ratios below 10 and above 100 ppmv in combination with high- and low-pressure conditions – the need to apply a modified FISH calibration evaluation has been identified. The new evaluation improves the agreement of FISH with other hygrometers to ± 10 % accuracy in the respective mixing ratio ranges. Furthermore, a quality check procedure for high total water measurements in cirrus clouds at high pressures (400–500 hPa is introduced. The performance of FISH in the field is assessed by reviewing intercomparisons of FISH water vapor data with other in situ and remote sensing hygrometers over the last two decades. We find that the agreement of FISH with the other hygrometers has improved over that time span from overall up to ± 30 % or more to about ± 5–20 % @ 10 ppmv. As presented here, the robust and continuous calibration and operation procedures of the FISH instrument over the last two decades establish the

  3. An insight into the western Pacific wintertime moisture sources using dual water vapor isotopes (United States)

    Rangarajan, Ravi; Laskar, Amzad H.; Bhattacharya, Sourendra K.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Liang, Mao-Chang


    Continuous measurements of isotopic ratios in atmospheric water vapor in a western Pacific region (Taipei, Taiwan) in two winters (2011 and 2012) were made and analyzed to understand the moisture source characteristics. In wintertime, the so-called East Asian Monsoon dominates, largely affecting the climate and meteorology of this region. Being located in the subtropical region, Taipei provides an ideal opportunity for studying interactions between high latitude cold and dry continental air masses and low to mid-latitude warm and wet oceanic air. Indeed, the dual isotope function, d-excess shows the presence of two distinct moisture sources, contributing to the winter vapor isotope variability. Undoubtedly, the dominant moisture source is the high latitude continental cold air masses reaching Taipei with d-excess values of >20‰. Alongside, wet and warm air masses characterized by strong air-sea interaction from the surrounding oceans, possessing d-excess value of ∼10‰ also play a role. The interactions of these two distinct air masses cause the d-excess values to change by as much as ∼20‰ in a few days. Multiple regression analysis shows that source moisture composition and water vapor mixing ratio combined control over 60% of the observed variability. We developed a box model to show that both high and low d-excess events in the winter are primarily controlled by the humidity deficit over the ocean. The information obtained in this study could be used in interpreting the paleoclimate proxies within the East Asian region.

  4. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.


    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  5. Water vapor as an error source in microwave geodetic systems: Background and survey of calibration techniques. [very long base interferometry (United States)

    Claflin, E. S.; Resch, G. M.


    Water vapor as an error source in radio interferometry systems is briefly examined. At microwave frequencies, the delay imposed by tropospheric water vapor becomes a limiting error source for high accuracy geodetic systems. The mapping of tropospheric induced errors into 'solved-for' parameters depends upon baseline length and observing strategy. Simulation analysis (and experience) indicates that in some cases, errors in estimating tropospheric delay can be magnified in their effect on baseline components. The various techniques by which tropospheric water can be estimated or measured are surveyed with particular consideration to their possible use as a calibration technique in support to very long baseline interferometry experiments. The method of remote sensing using a microwave radiometer seems to be the most effective way to provide an accurate estimate of water vapor delay.

  6. Growth mechanism of long aligned multiwall carbon nanotube arrays by water-assisted chemical vapor deposition. (United States)

    Yun, YeoHeung; Shanov, Vesselin; Tu, Yi; Subramaniam, Srinivas; Schulz, Mark J


    Highly aligned arrays of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on layered Si substrates have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The effect of the substrate design and the process parameters on the growth mechanism were studied. Adding water vapor to the reaction gas mixture of hydrogen and ethylene enhanced the growth which led to synthesis of longer CNT arrays with high density. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the CNT morphology and composition. Quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) provided in-situ information on the gas spices within the reaction zone. On the basis of results, we verified the top growth mechanism and evaluated the reason of decline and stoppage of the CNT growth after extended period of deposition. Multilayered Si substrates with a top film of Al2O3, having appropriate roughness, provide favorable conditions to form catalyst islands with uniform distribution and size. Using water-assisted CVD process and optimized substrate design, our group succeeded to grow vertically aligned, patterned MWCNT up to 4-mm long. The arrays were of high purity and weak adhesion which allowed to be peeled off easily from the substrate.

  7. Exploring the Elevated Water Vapor Signal Associated with Biomass Burning Aerosol over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Redemann, Jens; Wood, Rob; Zuidema, Paquita; Flynn, Connor; LeBlanc, Samuel; Noone, David; Podolske, James; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Shinozuka, Yohei; hide


    The quantification of radiative forcing due to the cumulative effects of aerosols, both directly and on cloud properties, remains the biggest source of uncertainty in our understanding of the physical climate. How the magnitude of these effects may be modified by meteorological conditions is an important aspect of this question. The Southeast Atlantic Ocean (SEA), with seasonal biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes overlying a persistent stratocumulus cloud deck, offers a perfect natural observatory in which to study the complexities of aerosol-cloud interactions. The NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign consists of three field deployments over three years (2016-2018) with the goal of gaining a better understanding of the complex processes (direct and indirect) by which BB aerosols affect clouds. We present results from the first ORACLES field deployment, which took place in September 2016 out of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Two NASA aircraft were flown with a suite of aerosol, cloud, radiation, and meteorological instruments for remote-sensing and in-situ observations. A strong correlation was observed between the aircraft-measured pollution indicators (carbon monoxide and aerosol properties) and atmospheric water vapor content, at all altitudes. Atmospheric reanalysis indicates that convective dynamics over the continent, near likely contribute to this elevated signal. Understanding the mechanisms by which water vapor covaries with plume strength is important to quantifying the magnitude of the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects in the region.

  8. Attribution of the United States "warming hole": aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor. (United States)

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya


    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20(th) century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. "warming hole"). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the "warming hole". We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed "warming hole" can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin.

  9. Determining the precipitable water vapor thresholds under different rainfall strengths in Taiwan (United States)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Shih, Hsuan-Chang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Choy, Suelynn; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Hong, Jing-Shan


    Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) plays an important role for weather forecasting. It is helpful in evaluating the changes of the weather system via observing the distribution of water vapor. The ability of calculating PWV from Global Positioning System (GPS) signals is useful to understand the special weather phenomenon. In this study, 95 ground-based GPS and rainfall stations in Taiwan were utilized from 2006 to 2012 to analyze the relationship between PWV and rainfall. The PWV data were classified into four classes (no, light, moderate and heavy rainfall), and the vertical gradients of the PWV were obtained and the variations of the PWV were analyzed. The results indicated that as the GPS elevation increased every 100 m, the PWV values decreased by 9.5 mm, 11.0 mm, 12.2 mm and 12.3 mm during the no, light, moderate and heavy rainfall conditions, respectively. After applying correction using the vertical gradients mentioned above, the average PWV thresholds were 41.8 mm, 52.9 mm, 62.5 mm and 64.4 mm under the no, light, moderate and heavy rainfall conditions, respectively. This study offers another type of empirical threshold to assist the rainfall prediction and can be used to distinguish the rainfall features between different areas in Taiwan.

  10. On the correlation of water vapor and CO2: Application to flux partitioning of evapotranspiration (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Smith, James A.; Ramamurthy, Prathap; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Scanlon, Todd M.


    The partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) between plant transpiration (Et) and direct evaporation (Ed) presents one of the most important and challenging problems for characterizing ecohydrological processes. The exchange of water vapor (q) and CO2 (c) are closely coupled in ecosystem processes and knowledge of their controls can be gained through joint investigation of q and c. In this study we examine the correlation of water vapor and CO2 (Rqc) through analyses of high-frequency time series derived from eddy covariance measurements collected over a suburban grass field in Princeton, NJ during a 2 year period (2011-2013). Rqc at the study site exhibits pronounced seasonal and diurnal cycles, with maximum anticorrelation in June and maximum decorrelation in January. The diurnal cycle of Rqc varies seasonally and is characterized by a near-symmetric shape with peak anticorrelation around local noon. Wavelet and spectral analyses suggest that q and c are jointly transported for most eddy scales (1-200 m), which is important for ET partitioning methods based on flux variance similarity. The diurnal cycle of the transpiration fraction (ratio of Et to total ET) exhibits an asymmetric diurnal cycle, especially during the warm season, with peak values occurring in the afternoon. These ET partitioning results give similar diurnal and seasonal patterns compared with numerical simulations from the Noah Land Surface Model using the Jarvis canopy resistance formulation.

  11. African and Atlantic short-term climatic variations described from Meteosat water vapor channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Picon


    Full Text Available Pluriannual series of Meteosat-2 water vapor (WV images are used to build average maps of decadal and monthly brightness temperatures in the 6.3 µm channel. This processing is applied to all the 3-hourly scenes, clear or cloudy, for July 1983 to July 1987. The ISCCP cloudiness analyses confirm that the warmest spots in the monthly WV images correspond to scenes either clear or covered with low clouds, whereas the coldest areas correspond to scenes where cloud tops above 440 hPa frequently occur. The WV statistics are then used to characterize seasonal and interannual variations of both the ITCZ (InterTropical Convergence Zone and the warm (dry areas, corresponding to subtropical subsidence. Thanks mainly to the seasonal variations, relationships between the variations in the ITCZ and in dry subtropical areas can be studied. It is shown that, for the Meteosat sector, a wetter subtropical high troposphere is associated with an enhanced activity of the ITCZ, and vice versa. For this area where the north-south assymetry is large, the negative water vapor feedback previously proposed seems not to occur.

  12. Mechanical and water vapor permeability properties of biodegradables films based on methylcellulose, glucomannan, pectin and gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda Noemi Mamani Chambi


    Full Text Available Mimic biological structures such as the cell wall of plant tissues may be an alternative to obtain biodegradable films with improved mechanical and water vapor barrier properties. This study aims to evaluate the mechanical properties and water vapor permeability (WVP of films produced by using the solvent-casting technique from blended methylcellulose, glucomannan, pectin and gelatin. First, films from polysaccharides at pH 4 were produced. The film with the best mechanical performance (tensile strength = 72.63 MPa; elongation = 9.85% was obtained from methylcellulose-glucomannan-pectin at ratio 1:4:1, respectively. Then, gelatin was added to this polysaccharide blend and the pH was adjusted to 4, 5 and 6. Results showed significant improvement in WVP when films were made at pH 5 and at polysaccharides/gelatin ratio of 90/10 and 10/90, reaching 0.094 and 0.118².kPa as values, respectively. Films with the best mechanical properties were obtained from the blend of polysaccharides, whereas WVP was improved from the blend of polysaccharides and gelatin at pH 5.

  13. A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for measurement of water vapor concentration in the air (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Xie, Liang; Qi, Xiao-Qiong; Wang, Rui; Wang, Hui; Chang, Ming-Chao; Yang, Hui-Xia; Sun, Fei; Li, Guan-Peng


    A compact and highly linear quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor for the measurement of water vapor concentration in the air is demonstrated. A cost-effective quartz tuning fork (QTF) is used as the sharp transducer to convert light energy into an electrical signal based on the piezoelectric effect, thereby removing the need for a photodetector. The short optical path featured by the proposed sensing system leads to a decreased size. Furthermore, a pair of microresonators is applied in the absorbance detection module (ADM) for QTF signal enhancement. Compared with the system without microresonators, the detected QTF signal is increased to approximately 7-fold. Using this optimized QEPAS sensor with the proper modulation frequency and depth, we measure the water vapor concentration in the air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The experimental result shows that the sensor has a high sensitivity of 1.058 parts-per-million. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61107070, 61127018, and 61377071).

  14. Vapor Pressure Plus: An Experiment for Studying Phase Equilibria in Water, with Observation of Supercooling, Spontaneous Freezing, and the Triple Point (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel


    Liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and solid-liquid-vapor equilibria are studied for the pure substance water, using modern equipment that includes specially fabricated glass cells. Samples are evaporatively frozen initially, during which they typically supercool to -5 to -10 [degrees]C before spontaneously freezing. Vacuum pumping lowers the temperature…

  15. Algorithm for Recovery of Integrated Water Vapor Content in the Atmosphere over Land Surfaces Based on Satellite Spectroradiometer Data (United States)

    Lisenko, S. A.


    An algorithm is proposed for making charts of the distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere based on multispectral images of the earth by the Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) on board of the European research satellite Sentinel-3. The algorithm is based on multiple regression fits of the spectral brightness coefficients at the upper boundary of the atmosphere, the geometric parameters of the satellite location (solar and viewing angles), and the total water vapor content in the atmosphere. A regression equation is derived from experimental data on the variation in the optical characteristics of the atmosphere and underlying surface, together with Monte-Carlo calculations of the radiative transfer characteristics. The equation includes the brightness coefficients in the near IR channels of the OLCI for the absorption bands of water vapor and oxygen, as well as for the transparency windows of the atmosphere. Together these make it possible to eliminate the effect of the reflection spectrum of the underlying surface and air pressure on the accuracy of the measurements. The algorithm is tested using data from a prototype OLCI, the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS). A sample chart of the distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere over Eastern Europe is constructed without using subsatellite data and digital models of the surface relief. The water vapor contents in the atmosphere determined using MERIS images and data provided by earthbound measurements with the aerosol robotic network (AERONET) are compared with a mean square deviation of 1.24 kg/m2.

  16. Nonequilibrium numerical model of homogeneous condensation in argon and water vapor expansions. (United States)

    Jansen, Ryan; Wysong, Ingrid; Gimelshein, Sergey; Zeifman, Michael; Buck, Udo


    A computational approach capable of modeling homogeneous condensation in nonequilibrium environments is presented. The approach is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, extended as appropriate to include the most important processes of cluster nucleation and evolution at the microscopic level. The approach uses a recombination-reaction energy-dependent mechanism of the DSMC method for the characterization of dimer formation, and the RRK model for the cluster evaporation. Three-step testing and validation of the model is conducted by (i) comparison of clusterization rates in an equilibrium heat bath with theoretical predictions for argon and water vapor and adjustment of the model parameters, (ii) comparison of the nonequilibrium argon cluster size distributions with experimental data, and (iii) comparison of the nonequilibrium water cluster size distributions with experimental measurements. Reasonable agreement was observed for all three parts of the validation.

  17. [Difference-frequency generation in PPLN and water vapor detection in air]. (United States)

    Deng, Lun-Hua; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Song; Yuan, Yi-Qian; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Gong, Zhi-Ben


    The continuously tunable laser source has been realized in a periodically poled LiNO3 crystal based on difference frequency generation and quasi-phase-matching technique. The pump laser is an 1 W tunable Ti: Sapphire laser with a tunable region from 770 to 870 nm. The signal laser is an 1 W diode-pumped monolithic Nd : YAG laser. When the grating period is 20 microm and the temperature is tuned between room temperature and 200 degrees C, the generated wavelength of idler laser is around 2. 8 microm with the general power of .1-2 microW. The direct absorption spectra of (001 <-- 000) band of water in laboratory air were measured based on the laser source. The concentration of water vapor in the laboratory air was estimated with an absorption optical path of 8. 5 cm in open air.

  18. Not all water becomes wine: Sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards (United States)

    Hinckley, E.-L.S.; Kendall, C.; Loague, K.


    California's widespread and economically important vineyards offer substantial opportunities to understand the interface between hydrology and biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. The common use of native sulfur (S) as a fumigant or soil additive provides a novel way to isotopically differentiate among sulfate (SO2-4) pools, allowing the estimation of water and SO2-4 budgets. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the near-surface hydrological flow paths in a vineyard during irrigation and storm events and (2) to determine how those flow paths affect the fate and transport of SO2-4 across seasons. Integrating hydrological theory with measurements of SO2-4concentration and sulfate-S isotopic ratios (expressed as [SO 2-4] and ??34S, respectively) in inputs, soil water, and leachate provided a means of determining flow paths. Low [S04-] and ??34S in leachate during 4-h irrigation events reflect minimal engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that preferential flow was the dominant path for water in the near surface. In contrast, high [SO 2-4] and ??34S values during 8-h irrigation and storm events reflect near-complete engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that lateral flow was the dominant pathway. Because hydrologic response and SO2-4 mobility are tightly coupled in these soils, the magnitude of water fluxes through the near surface controls S cycling both on and off site. These results indicate that preferential flow is an important loss pathway to consider in managing both water resources and water quality (reactive elements) in vineyard land use systems. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer estimated from the water vapor match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Inai


    Full Text Available We apply the match technique, whereby the same air mass is observed more than once and such cases are termed a "match", to study the dehydration process associated with horizontal advection in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL over the western Pacific. The matches are obtained from profile data taken by the Soundings of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER campaign network observations using isentropic trajectories calculated from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF operational analyses. For the matches identified, extensive screening procedures are performed to verify the representativeness of the air parcel and the validity of the isentropic treatment, and to check for possible water injection by deep convection, consistency between the sonde data and analysis field referring to the ozone conservation. Among the matches that passed the screening tests, we identified some cases corresponding to the first quantitative value of dehydration associated with horizontal advection in the TTL. The statistical features of dehydration for the air parcels advected in the lower TTL are derived from the matches. The threshold of nucleation is estimated to be 146 ± 1% (1σ in relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice, while dehydration seems to continue until RHice reaches about 75 ± 23% (1σ in the altitude region from 350 to 360 K. The efficiency of dehydration expressed by the relaxation time required for the supersaturated air parcel to approach saturation is empirically determined from the matches. A relaxation time of approximately one hour reproduces the second water vapor observation reasonably well, given the first observed water vapor amount and the history of the saturation mixing ratio during advection in the lower TTL.


    It is essential that the sampling techniques utilized in groundwater monitoring provide data that accurately depicts the water quality of the sampled aquifer in the vicinity of the well. Due to the large amount of monitoring activity currently underway in the U.S.A. it is also im...

  1. A comparison of fluorescein and deuterated water as tracers for determination of constructed wetland retention time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holcová, V.; Šíma, J.; Dušek, Jiří


    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2013), s. 200-204 ISSN 1895-1066 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : environmental analytical chemistry * wastewater treatment * reed bed * water tracing * isotope-ratio mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2013

  2. Perchlorate as a Ground-Water Tracer Along the Lower Colorado River (United States)

    Justet, L.; Lico, M. S.


    Anthropogenic perchlorate was first observed in the lower Colorado River (NV and AZ) in 1997. The perchlorate source was traced upstream from Hoover Dam and Lake Mead to Las Vegas Wash. Perchlorate migrated through the local surface- and ground-water systems to the Wash from nearby manufacturing facilities in Henderson, NV, which had been operating since the 1940s. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) began monitoring perchlorate in the lower Colorado River at Willow Beach, located about 18 km south of the Dam, in 1997. A 3 μg/L reduction was observed at Willow Beach in 2003-2004, coincident with remediation at the Henderson site in 1999-2004. This observed decrease indicates that the effects of remediation rapidly propagated through the surface-water system below the Dam. In July 2008 water samples were collected and analyzed for perchlorate from eight springs along the lower Colorado River below Hoover Dam, from a discharge tunnel in the country rock at Hoover Dam, and from Lake Mead (above and below the thermocline). Lake Mead water collected above the thermocline east of Sentinel Island contained 3.9 μg/L perchlorate, while water below the thermocline contained 1.8 μg/L. Perchlorate concentrations were lower than the 2 to 4 μg/L quantitation limit for the six springs located more than 2 km south of the Dam. Samples from Pupfish Springs, about 0.9 km south of the Dam, contained 6.4-6.8 μg/L perchlorate. Water collected from the discharge tunnel in the Dam contained 8.2 μg/L perchlorate. Perchlorate concentrations observed at Pupfish Springs and the discharge tunnel in the Dam in 2008 are similar to those reported downstream at Willow Beach prior to 2003-2004 by NDEP indicating that the ground water travel time from the Dam to Pupfish Springs is between 4 and 70 years and the maximum flow velocities are between about 13-200 m/y. These rapid velocity estimates suggest that faults and fractures in the area are an important control on


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan


    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are

  4. In Situ Water Vapor Measurements Using Coupled UV Fragment Fluorescence/Absorption Spectroscopy in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE (United States)

    Anderson, James G.


    Understanding the coupling of dynamics, chemistry, and radiation within the context of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and the national Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) requires, as a first-order priority, high spatial resolution, high-accuracy observations of water in its various phases. Given the powerful diagnostic importance of the condensed phases of water for dynamics and the impact of phase changes in water on the radiation field, the accurate, in situ observation of water vapor is of central importance to CRYSTAL FACE (CF). This is clear both from the defined scientific objectives of the NRA and from developments in the coupled fields of stratosphere/troposphere exchange, cirrus cloud formation/removal and mechanisms for the distribution of water vapor in the middle/upper troposphere. Accordingly, we were funded under NASA Grant NAG5-11548 to perform the following tasks for the CF mission: 1. Prepare the water vapor instrument for integration into the WB57F and test flights scheduled for Spring 2002. 2. Calibrate and prepare the water vapor instrument for the Summer 2002 CF science flights based in Jacksonville, Florida. 3. Provide both science and engineering support for the above-mentioned efforts. 4. Analyze and interpret the CF data in collaboration with other mission scientists. 5. Attend the science workshop in Spring 2003. 6. Publish the data and analysis in peer-reviewed journals.

  5. Investigation of the heat pump water heater using economizer vapor injection system and mixture of R22/R600a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Cao; Kai, Wang; Shouguo, Wang; Ziwen, Xing; Pengcheng, Shu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianing west road, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    This paper presents the experimental study of a heat pump water heater (HPWH) using economizer vapor injection system and mixture of R22/R600a. Performances of HPWH using economizer vapor injection system are compared with that at different mixed mass ratios of R22/R600a. Study demonstrates that the heating capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the unit increased, and the discharge temperature of compressor decreased when using vapor injection and mixing refrigerant of R22/R600a. It is also found that the HPWH unit with economizer vapor injection system has a better performance for the high outlet water temperature under lower temperature conditions at 15% mass ratio of R600a for the mixing refrigerant. In addition, fundamental and practical influence of vapor injection pressure on the HPWH performance has been investigated experimentally. The simplified model is proposed for predicting the optimal vapor injection pressure of compressor using the mixing refrigerant R22/R600a. (author)

  6. Remote sensing of seasonal distribution of precipitable water vapor over the oceans and inference of boundary layer structure (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.


    Over the ocean satellite infrared spectral measurements in the 18 micrometer water vapor band and the 11 micrometer window region were used to derive precipitable water vapor, w, in the atmosphere and the sea surface temperature, SST. Seasonal maps of w on the oceans derived from these data reveal the dynamical influence of the large scale atmospheric circulation. With the help of a model for the vertical distribution of water vapor, the configuration of the atmospheric boundary layer over the oceans can be inferred from w when the information of SST is combined. The gross seasonal mean structure of the boundary layer inferred in this fashion reveals the broad areas of the trade wind inversion and the convectively active areas such as the intertropical convergence zones.

  7. Adsorptive Water Removal from Dichloromethane and Vapor-Phase Regeneration of a Molecular Sieve 3A Packed Bed. (United States)

    Jović, Slaviša; Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Keurentjes, Jos; Schouten, Jaap; van der Schaaf, John


    The drying of dichloromethane with a molecular sieve 3A packed bed process is modeled and experimentally verified. In the process, the dichloromethane is dried in the liquid phase and the adsorbent is regenerated by water desorption with dried dichloromethane product in the vapor phase. Adsorption equilibrium experiments show that dichloromethane does not compete with water adsorption, because of size exclusion; the pure water vapor isotherm from literature provides an accurate representation of the experiments. The breakthrough curves are adequately described by a mathematical model that includes external mass transfer, pore diffusion, and surface diffusion. During the desorption step, the main heat transfer mechanism is the condensation of the superheated dichloromethane vapor. The regeneration time is shortened significantly by external bed heating. Cyclic steady-state experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this novel, zero-emission drying process.

  8. Tunable Structures and Properties of Electrospun Regenerated Silk Fibroin Mats Annealed in Water Vapor at Different Times and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Huang


    Full Text Available Regenerated silk fibroin (SF mats were fabricated using electrospinning technique, followed by mild water vapor annealing to effectively tune the structures and improve the mechanical properties of the mats at different annealing times and temperatures. The breaking strength and the breaking energy of the mats treated with water vapor at 65°C for 12 h reached 6.0 MPa and 171.7 J/kg, respectively. The conformational transition of the SF mats was significantly influenced by the treating temperature, while the influence of time was comparatively limited. The influence is consistent with the time-temperature equivalent principle and would be helpful for the preparation of water-vapor-annealed silk-based biomaterials for various applications.

  9. Water-assisted growth of graphene on carbon nanotubes by the chemical vapor deposition method. (United States)

    Feng, Jian-Min; Dai, Ye-Jing


    Combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with graphene has been proved to be a feasible method for improving the performance of graphene for some practical applications. This paper reports a water-assisted route to grow graphene on CNTs from ferrocene and thiophene dissolved in ethanol by the chemical vapor deposition method in an argon flow. A double injection technique was used to separately inject ethanol solution and water for the preparation of graphene/CNTs. First, CNTs were prepared from ethanol solution and water. The injection of ethanol solution was suspended and water alone was injected into the reactor to etch the CNTs. Thereafter, ethanol solution was injected along with water, which is the key factor in obtaining graphene/CNTs. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman scattering analyses confirmed that the products were the hybrid materials of graphene/CNTs. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of oxygen rich functional groups on the surface of the graphene/CNTs. Given the activity of the graphene/CNT surface, CdS quantum dots adhered onto it uniformly through simple mechanical mixing.

  10. LBA-ECO CD-02 Oxygen Isotopes of Plant Tissue Water and Atmospheric Water Vapor (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the oxygen isotope signatures of water extracted from plant tissue (xylem from the stems and leaf tissue) and of atmospheric water...

  11. A multi-sensor upper tropospheric ozone product (MUTOP based on TES ozone and GOES water vapor: validation with ozonesondes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Moody


    Full Text Available Accurate representation of ozone in the extratropical upper troposphere (UT remains a challenge. However, the implementation of hyper-spectral remote sensing using satellite instruments such as the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES provides an avenue for mapping ozone in this region, from 500 to 300 hPa. As a polar orbiting satellite TES observations are limited, but in this paper they are combined with geostationary satellite observations of water vapor. This paper describes a validation of the Multi-sensor UT Ozone Product (MUTOP. MUTOP, based on a statistical retrieval method, is an image product derived from the multiple regression of remotely sensed TES ozone, against geostationary (GOES specific humidity (remotely sensed and potential vorticity (a modeled dynamical tracer in the UT. These TES-derived UT ozone mixing ratios are compared to coincident ozonesonde measurements of layer-average UT ozone mixing ratios made during the NASA INTEX/B field campaign in the spring of 2006; the region for this study is effectively the GOES west domain covering the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States. This intercomparison evaluates MUTOP skill at representing ozone magnitude and variability in this region of complex dynamics. In total, 11 ozonesonde launch sites were available for this study, providing 127 individual sondes for comparison; the overall mean ozone of the 500–300 hPa layer for these sondes was 78.0 ppbv. MUTOP reproduces in~situ measurements reasonably well, producing an UT mean of 82.3 ppbv, with a mean absolute error of 12.2 ppbv and a root mean square error of 16.4 ppbv relative to ozonesondes across all sites. An overall UT mean bias of 4.3 ppbv relative to sondes was determined for MUTOP. Considered in the context of past TES validation studies, these results illustrate that MUTOP is able to maintain accuracy similar to TES while expanding coverage to the entire GOES-West satellite domain. In addition

  12. The Observed Relationship Between Water Vapor and Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Saturation Layer and the Influence of Meridional Transport (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.


    We examine balloonsonde observations of water vapor and ozone from three Ticosonde campaigns over San Jose, Costa Rica [10 N, 84 W] during northern summer and a fourth during northern winter. The data from the summer campaigns show that the uppermost portion of the tropical tropopause layer between 360 and 380 K, which we term the tropopause saturation layer or TSL, is characterized by water vapor mixing ratios from proximately 3 to 15 ppmv and ozone from approximately 50 ppbv to 250 ppbv. In contrast, the atmospheric water vapor tape recorder at 380 K and above displays a more restricted 4-7 ppmv range in water vapor mixing ratio. From this perspective, most of the parcels in the TSL fall into two classes - those that need only additional radiative heating to rise into the tape recorder and those requiring some combination of additional dehydration and mixing with drier air. A substantial fraction of the latter class have ozone mixing ratios greater than 150 ppbv, and with water vapor greater than 7 ppmv this air may well have been transported into the tropics from the middle latitudes in conjunction with high-amplitude equatorial waves. We examine this possibility with both trajectory analysis and transport diagnostics based on HIRDLS ozone data. We apply the same approach to study the winter season. Here a very different regime obtains as the ozone-water vapor scatter diagram of the sonde data shows the stratosphere and troposphere to be clearly demarcated with little evidence of mixing in of middle latitude air parcels.

  13. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others


    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  14. Design, Development, and Testing of a Water Vapor Exchanger for Spacecraft Life Support Systems (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Micka, Daniel J.; Chepko, Ariane B.; Rule, Kyle C.; Anderson, Molly S.


    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Maximizing the use of regenerative systems and conserving water are critical considerations. This paper describes the design, development, and testing of an innovative water vapor exchanger (WVX) that can minimize the amount of water absorbed in, and vented from, regenerative CO2 removal systems. Key design requirements for the WVX are high air flow capacity (suitable for a crew of six), very high water recovery, and very low pressure losses. We developed fabrication and assembly methods that enable high-efficiency mass transfer in a uniform and stable array of Nafion tubes. We also developed analysis and design methods to compute mass transfer and pressure losses. We built and tested subscale units sized for flow rates of 2 and 5 cu ft/min (3.4–8.5 cu m/hr). Durability testing demonstrated that a stable core geometry was sustained over many humid/dry cycles. Pressure losses were very low (less than 0.5 in. H2O (125 Pa) total) and met requirements at prototypical flow rates. We measured water recovery efficiency across a range of flow rates and humidity levels that simulate the range of possible cabin conditions. We measured water recovery efficiencies in the range of 80 to 90%, with the best efficiency at lower flow rates and higher cabin humidity levels. We compared performance of the WVX with similar units built using an unstructured Nafion tube bundle. The WVX achieves higher water recovery efficiency with nearly an order of magnitude lower pressure drop than unstructured tube bundles. These results show that the WVX provides uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams and can meet requirements for service on future exploration spacecraft. The WVX technology will be best suited for long-duration exploration vehicles that require regenerative CO2 removal systems while

  15. Effect of ionic liquids on (vapor + liquid) equilibrium behavior of (water + 2-methyl-2-propanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lianzhong; Qiao Bingbang; Ge Yun; Deng Dongshun [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Ji Jianbing [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)], E-mail:


    Isobaric T, x, y data were reported for ternary systems of {l_brace}water + 2-methyl-2-propanol (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA) + ionic liquid (IL){r_brace} at p = 100 kPa. When the mole fraction of TBA on IL-free basis was fixed at 0.95, measurements were performed at IL mass fractions from 0.6 down to 0.05, in a way of repeated synthesis. The vapor-phase compositions were obtained by analytical methods and the liquid-phase compositions were calculated with the aid of mass balances. Activity coefficients of water and TBA were obtained without the need of a thermodynamic model of the liquid-phase. Six ILs, composed of an anion chosen from [OAc]{sup -} or [Cl]{sup -}, and a cation from [emim]{sup +}, or [bmim]{sup +}, or [hmim]{sup +}, were studied. Relative volatility and activity coefficients were presented in relation with the IL mole fraction, showing the effect of the ILs on a molar basis. The effect of the ILs on relative volatility of TBA to water was depicted by the effect of anions and cations on, respectively, the activity coefficients of water and TBA. The results indicated that, among the six ILs studied, [emim][Cl] has the most significant effect on enhancement of the relative volatility, which reaches a value of 7.2 at an IL mass fraction of 0.58. Another IL, [emim][OAc], has also significant effect, with an appreciable value of 5.2 for the relative volatility when the IL mass fraction is 0.6. Considering the relatively low viscosity and melting point of [emim][OAc], it might be a favorable candidate as solvent for the separation of water and TBA by extractive distillation. Simultaneous correlation by the NRTL model was presented for both systems of (water + ethanol + IL) and (water + TBA + IL), using consistent binary parameters for water and IL.

  16. Tritium records to trace stratospheric moisture inputs in Antarctica along with stable water isotopes and other tracers (United States)

    Fourré, Elise; Landais, Amaëlle; Cauquoin, Alexandre; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Petit, Jean-Robert


    Tritium is one of the very few proxies which can document the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. In fact natural tritium (3H) is mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation and rapidly enters the water cycle in the form of tritiated water molecules HTO. Due to the high content of H2O in the troposphere compared to the stratosphere, the present-day tritium content of the stratosphere is 105 times the tropospheric one. HTO concentration in precipitation can thus be related to stratospheric moisture input. Apart from being a key region for climate studies, the East Antarctica Plateau with its low water pressure and precipitation is especially sensitive to stratospheric inputs enriched in tritium. In turn, tritium concentrations in East Antarctica snow should ideally be used to assess the dynamics of stratosphere - troposphere exchanges, but tritium data are very sparse. In this study, we present high resolution measurements of tritium concentration over the last 50 years at the Vostok station from three different snow pits: this allows us to identify similar cyclic interannual pattern despite stratigraphic noise. For one of the pits, stable water isotopes including 17O-excess, sodium concentration, as well 10Be have been measured on the very same samples [1,2]. As for tritium, variations in 10Be are modulated by the production under the influence of solar activity and partly by the stratospheric inputs, but once produced 10Be becomes attached to ambient aerosols and are transported and deposited with them. At Vostok, a possible link between 17O-excess and stratospheric moisture inputs variability has also been suggested [2]. We explore the correlations between these different tracers to confirm the link with stratospheric moisture inputs and to investigate the mechanisms at play in relation with the climatic conditions. In this aim, confrontation with modeling outputs [3] from the LMDZ Atmospheric General Circulation Model enhanced with both stable water

  17. On the quality of the Nimbus 7 LIMS Version 6 water vapor profiles and distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Marshall


    Full Text Available This report describes the quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS water vapor (H2O profiles of 1978/79 that were processed with a Version 6 (V6 algorithm and archived in 2002. The V6 profiles incorporate a better knowledge of the instrument attitude for the LIMS measurements along its orbits, leading to improvements for its temperature profiles and for the registration of its water vapor radiances with pressure. As a result, the LIMS V6 zonal-mean distributions of H2O exhibit better hemispheric symmetry than was the case from the original Version 5 (V5 dataset that was archived in 1982. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of the V6 H2O profiles are developed and provided. Individual profiles have a precision of order 5% and an estimated accuracy of about 19% at 3 hPa, 14% at 10 hPa, and 26% at 50 hPa. Profile segments within about 2 km of the tropopause are often affected by emissions from clouds that appear in the finite field-of-view of the detector for the LIMS H2O channel. Zonally-averaged distributions of the LIMS V6 H2O are compared with those from the more recent Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite experiment for November, February, and May of 2004/05. The patterns and values of their respective distributions are similar in many respects. Effects of a strengthened Brewer-Dobson circulation are indicated in the MLS distributions of the recent decade versus those of LIMS from 1978/79. A tropical tape recorder signal is present in the 7-month time series of LIMS V6 H2O with lowest values in February 1979, and the estimated, annually-averaged "entry-level" H2O is 3.5 to 3.8 ppmv. It is judged that this historic LIMS water vapor dataset is of good quality for studies of the near global-scale chemistry and transport for pressure levels from 3 hPa to about 70 to 100 hPa.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liukang [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); McDermitt, Dayle [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Anderson, Tyler [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Riensche, Brad [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Komissarov, Anatoly [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Howe, Julie [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)


    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been

  19. Large Scale Water Vapor Sources Relative to the October 2000 Piedmont Flood (United States)

    Turato, Barbara; Reale, Oreste; Siccardi, Franco


    Very intense mesoscale or synoptic-scale rainfall events can occasionally be observed in the Mediterranean region without any deep cyclone developing over the areas affected by precipitation. In these perplexing cases the synoptic situation can superficially look similar to cases in which very little precipitation occurs. These situations could possibly baffle the operational weather forecasters. In this article, the major precipitation event that affected Piedmont (Italy) between 13 and 16 October 2000 is investigated. This is one of the cases in which no intense cyclone was observed within the Mediterranean region at any time, only a moderate system was present, and yet exceptional rainfall and flooding occurred. The emphasis of this study is on the moisture origin and transport. Moisture and energy balances are computed on different space- and time-scales, revealing that precipitation exceeds evaporation over an area inclusive of Piedmont and the northwestern Mediterranean region, on a time-scale encompassing the event and about two weeks preceding it. This is suggestive of an important moisture contribution originating from outside the region. A synoptic and dynamic analysis is then performed to outline the potential mechanisms that could have contributed to the large-scale moisture transport. The central part of the work uses a quasi-isentropic water-vapor back trajectory technique. The moisture sources obtained by this technique are compared with the results of the balances and with the synoptic situation, to unveil possible dynamic mechanisms and physical processes involved. It is found that moisture sources on a variety of atmospheric scales contribute to this event. First, an important contribution is caused by the extratropical remnants of former tropical storm Leslie. The large-scale environment related to this system allows a significant amount of moisture to be carried towards Europe. This happens on a time- scale of about 5-15 days preceding the

  20. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available The interaction of aerosol particles composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Köhler theory calculations (100-300nm particle size range, 298K, 960hPa. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compounds, which constitute a large fraction of the water-soluble organic component of air particulate matter. Pure BSA particles exhibited deliquescence and efflorescence transitions at 35% relative humidity ( and a hygroscopic diameter increase by up to 10% at 95% in good agreement with model calculations based on a simple parameterisation of the osmotic coefficient. Pure NaCl particles were converted from near-cubic to near-spherical shape upon interaction with water vapor at relative humidities below the deliquescence threshold (partial surface dissolution and recrystallisation, and the diameters of pure NH4NO3 particles decreased by up to 10% due to chemical decomposition and evaporation. Mixed NaCl-BSA and NH4NO3-BSA particles interacting with water vapor exhibited mobility equivalent diameter reductions of up to 20%, depending on particle generation, conditioning, size, and chemical composition (BSA dry mass fraction 10-90%. These observations can be explained by formation of porous agglomerates (envelope void fractions up to 50% due to ion-protein interactions and electric charge effects on the one hand, and by compaction of the agglomerate structure due to capillary condensation effects on the other. The size of NH4NO3-BSA particles was apparently also influenced by volatilisation of NH4NO3, but not as much as for pure salt particles, i.e. the protein inhibited the decomposition of NH4NO3 or the evaporation of the decomposition products NH3 and HNO3. The

  1. Effect of water vapor treatment on apatite formation on precalcified titanium and bond strength of coatings to substrates. (United States)

    Feng, B; Chen, Y; Zhang, X D


    In previous investigations, a simple method, precalcification, was developed for bioactivating titanium. After a titanium sample was precalcified in a boiling saturated Ca(OH)(2) solution and then immersed in a calcium phosphate supersaturated solution, an apatite coating rapidly precipitated onto its surface. In the present study, heat-treatment in water vapor was carried out prior to precalcification. Heat-treatment in water vapor stimulated the chemical reaction between titanium, calcium, and phosphate. Coating properties were improved, and the bond strength of the coating to substrate was enhanced. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. 3-D Modelling the effect of river excavation on surface water and groundwater relation in a bank filtration system - comparing electrical conductivity and heat as tracer (United States)

    Wang, Weishi; Oswald, Sascha; Munz, Matthias; Strasser, Daniel


    As a pretreatment for conventional drinking water supply, bank filtration (BF) is widely used in Europe, while in Germany it contributes 16% of potable water supply. There are usually two crucial issues for BF influencing its treatment effect, which are separately the spatial and temporal distribution of travelling times and distinguishing between the flow contribution of BF versus inflow from the ambient groundwater. Modelling is a strong tool for analyzing the behavior and development of the flow field, especially for quantification of the river recharge rate of BF and estimation of travel time distribution. Though 3-D modelling of the flow field as a comprehensive tool has been used in several studies, many simulations are limited to pure water flow. Since heads are only partially able to constrain the flow field, model non-uniqueness might lead to misinterpretation of the real flow field, especially in complex geological conditions. Some studies have shown that by including tracers, the model non-uniqueness could be reasonably constrained and the accuracy of flux estimation could be improved. Natural tracers thus are used in groundwater modelling, while differences in their properties or input may cause dissimilar behavior during the transport process. In this study, we have set up a numerical 3-D groundwater flow model of a bank filtration site with strong geological heterogeneity and used the data of several years monitoring activities as the data basis. We were particularly interested in the seasonal dynamics but also structural changes induced by a reconstruction of the surface water including excavation and rebuilding the bank construction. By combining separately electrical conductivity and heat as tracers in the model we were able to i) understand flow field mechanisms and its changes caused by the excavation ii) conclude from the deviations of the tracer concentrations and dynamics simulated compared to the measurements on deficiencies of the flow field

  3. Analysis of the retention of water vapor on silica gel; Analisis de la retencion del vapor de agua en silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M.; Pinilla, J. L.; Alegria, N.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.


    Among the various sampling systems tritium content in the atmosphere as water vapor, one of the most basic and, therefore, of widespread use in the environmental field, is the retention on silica gel. However, the behavior of the collection efficiency of silica gel under varying conditions of air temperature and relative humidity makes it difficult to define the amount of this necessary for proper completion of sampling, especially in situations of prolonged sampling. This paper presents partial results obtained in a study on the analysis of these efficiencies under normal conditions of sampling. (Author)

  4. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-Infrared Spectra (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; hide


    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 micron, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes. From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 +/- 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 +/- 1.3 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80S to 30N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 +/- 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 +/- 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  5. Increasing vertical resolution of three-dimensional atmospheric water vapor retrievals using a network of scanning compact microwave radiometers (United States)

    Sahoo, Swaroop


    The thermodynamic properties of the troposphere, in particular water vapor content and temperature, change in response to physical mechanisms, including frictional drag, evaporation, transpiration, heat transfer and flow modification due to terrain. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is characterized by a high rate of change in its thermodynamic state on time scales of typically less than one hour. Large horizontal gradients in vertical wind speed and steep vertical gradients in water vapor and temperature in the PBL are associated with high-impact weather. Observation of these gradients in the PBL with high vertical resolution and accuracy is important for improvement of weather prediction. Satellite remote sensing in the visible, infrared and microwave provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of many atmospheric properties, including cloud cover, precipitation, liquid water content and precipitable water vapor in the upper troposphere. However, the ability to characterize the thermodynamic properties of the PBL is limited by the confounding factors of ground emission in microwave channels and of cloud cover in visible and IR channels. Ground-based microwave radiometers are routinely used to measure thermodynamic profiles. The vertical resolution of such profiles retrieved from radiometric brightness temperatures depends on the number and choice of frequency channels, the scanning strategy and the accuracy of brightness temperature measurements. In the standard technique, which uses brightness temperatures from vertically pointing radiometers, the vertical resolution of the retrieved water vapor profile is similar to or larger than the altitude at which retrievals are performed. This study focuses on the improvement of the vertical resolution of water vapor retrievals by including scanning measurements at a variety of elevation angles. Elevation angle scanning increases the path length of the atmospheric emission, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio

  6. Reaction rates of Criegee intermediates with water vapor and hydrogen sulfide (United States)

    Smith, M. C.; Boering, K. A.


    Criegee intermediates are byproducts of the reaction of alkenes with ozone. Bimolecular reactions of Criegee intermediates can lead to the production of low-volatility organic compounds and acids in the atmosphere, which in turn play a role in determining the concentration, size, and optical properties of aerosols. Recently, a novel method for producing measurable quantities of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the laboratory paved the way for the development of new experimental techniques to study their chemical properties and predict their importance in the atmosphere. Our lab uses transient UV absorption spectroscopy to measure the formation and decay of Criegee intermediates in a flow cell, using 8-pass absorption of a bright plasma light source combined with sensitive balanced photodiode detection. Here we measured the transient absorption of CH2OO and obtained rate coefficients for its reaction with water dimer from 283 to 324 K. The fast reaction of CH2OO with water dimer is thought to dominate CH2OO removal in the atmosphere, but reaction rates can vary considerably under different conditions of temperature, humidity, and pressure. The rate of the reaction of CH2OO with water dimer was found to exhibit a strong negative temperature dependence. Due to the strong temperature dependence, and shifting competition between water dimer and water monomer (which has a positive temperature dependence), the effective loss rate of CH2OO by reaction with water vapor is highly sensitive to atmospheric conditions. We also present the first measurements of the reaction rate between CH2OO and hydrogen sulfide, which is analogous to the water molecule and may have significance in areas with volcanic activity.

  7. Correcting attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectra for water vapor and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Kohler, Achim; Adt, Isabelle


    an absorption band from either water vapor or CO(2). From two calibration data sets, gas model spectra were estimated in each of the four spectral regions, and these model spectra were applied for correction of gas absorptions in two independent test sets (spectra of aqueous solutions and a yeast biofilm (C....... albicans) growing on an ATR crystal, respectively). The amounts of the atmospheric gases as expressed by the model spectra were estimated by regression, using second-derivative transformed spectra, and the estimated gas spectra could subsequently be subtracted from the sample spectra. For spectra...... of the growing yeast biofilm, the gas correction revealed otherwise hidden variations of relevance for modeling the growth dynamics. As the presented method improved the interpretation of the principle component analysis (PCA) models, it has proven to be a valuable tool for filtering atmospheric variation in ATR...

  8. Calculation of the transport and relaxation properties of dilute water vapor (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard; Dickinson, Alan S.; Vesovic, Velisa


    Transport properties of dilute water vapor have been calculated in the rigid-rotor approximation using four different potential energy hypersurfaces and the classical-trajectory method. Results are reported for shear viscosity, self-diffusion, thermal conductivity, and volume viscosity in the dilute-gas limit for the temperature range of 250-2500 K. Of these four surfaces the CC-pol surface of Bukowski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 094314 (2008)] is in best accord with the available measurements. Very good agreement is found with the most accurate results for viscosity in the whole temperature range of the experiments. For thermal conductivity the deviations of the calculated values from the experimental data increase systematically with increasing temperature to around 5% at 1100 K. For both self-diffusion and volume viscosity, the much more limited number of available measurements are generally consistent with the calculated values, apart from the lower temperature isotopically labeled diffusion measurements.

  9. Luminescence of mesoporous silicon powders treated by high-pressure water vapor annealing (United States)

    Gelloz, Bernard; Loni, Armando; Canham, Leigh; Koshida, Nobuyoshi


    We have studied the photoluminescence of nanocrystalline silicon microparticle powders fabricated by fragmentation of PSi membranes. Several porosities were studied. Some powders have been subjected to further chemical etching in HF in order to reduce the size of the silicon skeleton and reach quantum sizes. High-pressure water vapor annealing was then used to enhance both the luminescence efficiency and stability. Two visible emission bands were observed. A red band characteristic of the emission of Si nanocrystals and a blue band related to localized centers in oxidized powders. The blue band included a long-lived component, with a lifetime exceeding 1 sec. Both emission bands depended strongly on the PSi initial porosity. The colors of the processed powders were tunable from brown to off-white, depending on the level of oxidation. The surface area and pore volume of some powders were also measured and discussed. The targeted applications are in cosmetics and medicine.

  10. Transient desorption of water vapor - A potential source of error in upper atmosphere rocket experiments (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Weeks, J. O.


    Results of measurements of the outgassing rates of samples of materials and surface finishes used on the outer skins of rocket-borne experiment packages in simulated rocket ascents. The results showed outgassing rates for anodized aluminum in the second minute of flight which are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those given in typical tables of outgassing rates. The measured rates for aluminum with chromate conversion surface coatings were also abnormally high. These abnormally high initial rates fell quickly after about five to ten minutes to values comparable with those in the published literature. It is concluded that anodized and chromate conversion coatings on the aluminum outer surfaces of a sounding rocket experiment package will cause gross distortion of the true water vapor environment.

  11. An environmental sample chamber for reliable scanning transmission x-ray microscopy measurements under water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Stephen T.; Nigge, P.; Prakash, Shruti; Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Bingbing; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Leone, Stephen R.; Gilles, Mary K.


    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a compact gas-phase reactor for performing in situ soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) measurements. The reactor accommodates many gas atmospheres, including reactive or corrosive gasses, but was designed specically to address the needs of measurements under water vapor. An on-board sensor measures the relative humidity and temperature inside the reactor, minimizing uncertainties associated with measuring these quantities outside the instrument. The reactor mounts directly to the existing sample holder used in the majority of STXM instruments around the world and installs with minimal instrument reconguration. Using the reactor contributes over 85% less additional absorption compared to lling the STXM chamber with process gas, and results in much more stable imaging conditions. The reactor is in use at the STXM instruments at beamlines 11.0.2 and at the Advanced Light Source.

  12. Measurement of Turbulent Water Vapor Fluxes from Lightweight Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Thomas, R. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Lehmann*, K.


    Scientists at the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4) at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have successfully used Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) for measurements of radiation fluxes, aerosol concentrations and cloud microphysical properties. Building on this success, a payload to measure water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC) technique has been recently developed and tested. To our knowledge this is the first UAS turbulent flux system to incorporate high-frequency water vapor measurements. The driving aim of the water vapor flux system’s development is to investigate ‘atmospheric rivers’ in the north-western Pacific Ocean, these can lead to sporadic yet extreme rainfall and flooding events upon landfall in California. Such a flux system may also be used to investigate other weather events (e.g. the formation of hurricanes) and offers a powerful aerosol-cloud-radiative forcing investigative tool when combined with the existing aerosol/radiation and cloud microphysics UAS payloads. The atmospheric vertical wind component (w) is derived by this system at up to 100Hz using data from a GPS/Inertial Measurement Unit (GPS/IMU) combined with a fast-response gust probe mounted on the UAV. Measurements of w are then combined with equally high frequency water vapor data (collected using a Campbell Scientific Krypton Hygrometer) to calculate latent heat fluxes (λE). Two test flights were conducted at the NASA Dryden test facility on 27th May 2010, located in the Mojave Desert. Horizontal flight legs were recorded at four altitudes between 1000-2500 masl within the convective boundary layer. Preliminary data analysis indicates averaged spectral data follow the theoretical -5/3 slope , and extrapolation of the flux profile to the surface resulted in λE of 1.6 W m-2; in good agreement with 1.0 W m-2 λE measured by NOAA from a surface tower using standard flux techniques. The system performance during the Dryden test, as well as subsequent

  13. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Water Vapor Profile Methodology (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Lee, Jae N.


    Additional changes in Version-6.19 include all previous updates made to the q(p) retrieval since Version-6: Modified Neural-Net q0(p) guess above the tropopause Linearly tapers the neural net guess to match climatology at 70 mb, not at the top of the atmosphereChanged the 11 trapezoid q(p) perturbation functions used in Version-6 so as to match the 24 functions used in T(p) retrieval step. These modifications resulted in improved water vapor profiles in Version-6.19 compared to Version-6.Version-6.19 is tested for all of August 2013 and August 2014, as well for select other days. Before finalized and operational in 2016, the V-6.19 can be acquired upon request for limited time intervals.

  14. Radiosonde Sensors Bias in Precipitable Water Vapor From Comparisons With Global Positioning System Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Geun Park


    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the precipitable water vapor (PWV data derived from the radiosonde observation data at Sokcho Observatory and the PWV data at Sokcho Global Positioning System (GPS Observatory provided by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, for the years of 2006, 2008, 2010, and analyzed the radiosonde seasonal, diurnal bias according to radiosonde sensor types. In the scatter diagram of the daytime and nighttime radiosonde PWV data and the GPS PWV data, dry bias was found in the daytime radiosonde observation as known in the previous study. Overall, the tendency that the wet bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV decreased and the dry bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV increased. The quantitative analysis of the bias and error of the radiosonde PWV data showed that the mean bias decreased in the nighttime except for 2006 winter, and in comparison for summer, RS92-SGP sensor showed the highest quality.

  15. Total column water vapor estimation over land using radiometer data from SAC-D/Aquarius (United States)

    Epeloa, Javier; Meza, Amalia


    The aim of this study is retrieving atmospheric total column water vapor (CWV) over land surfaces using a microwave radiometer (MWR) onboard the Scientific Argentine Satellite (SAC-D/Aquarius). To research this goal, a statistical algorithm is used for the purpose of filtering the study region according to the climate type. A log-linear relationship between the brightness temperatures of the MWR and CWV obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements was used. In this statistical algorithm, the retrieved CWV is derived from the Argentinian radiometer's brightness temperature which works at 23.8 GHz and 36.5 GHz, and taking into account CWVs observed from GNSS stations belonging to a region sharing the same climate type. We support this idea, having found a systematic effect when applying the algorithm; it was generated for one region using the previously mentioned criteria, however, it should be applied to additional regions, especially those with other climate types. The region we analyzed is in the Southeastern United States of America, where the climate type is Cfa (Köppen - Geiger classification); this climate type includes moist subtropical mid-latitude climates, with hot, muggy summers and frequent thunderstorms. However, MWR only contains measurements taken from over ocean surfaces; therefore the determination of water vapor over land is an important contribution to extend the use of the SAC-D/Aquarius radiometer measurements beyond the ocean surface. The CWVs computed by our algorithm are compared against radiosonde CWV observations and show a bias of about -0.6 mm, a root mean square (rms) of about 6 mm and a correlation of 0.89.

  16. MIAWARA-C, a new ground based water vapor radiometer for measurement campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Straub


    Full Text Available In this paper a new 22 GHz water vapor spectro-radiometer which has been specifically designed for profile measurement campaigns of the middle atmosphere is presented. The instrument is of a compact design and has a simple set up procedure. It can be operated as a standalone instrument as it maintains its own weather station and a calibration scheme that does not rely on other instruments or the use of liquid nitrogen. The optical system of MIAWARA-C combines a choked gaussian horn antenna with a parabolic mirror which reduces the size of the instrument in comparison with currently existing radiometers. For the data acquisition a correlation receiver is used together with a digital cross correlating spectrometer. The complete backend section, including the computer, is located in the same housing as the instrument. The receiver section is temperature stabilized to minimize gain fluctuations. Calibration of the instrument is achieved through a balancing scheme with the sky used as the cold load and the tropospheric properties are determined by performing regular tipping curves. Since MIAWARA-C is used in measurement campaigns it is important to be able to determine the elevation pointing in a simple manner as this is a crucial parameter in the calibration process. Here we present two different methods; scanning the sky and the Sun. Finally, we report on the first spectra and retrieved water vapor profiles acquired during the Lapbiat campaign at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre in Sodankylä, Finland. The performance of MIAWARA-C is validated here by comparison of the presented profiles against the equivalent profiles from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the EOS/Aura satellite.

  17. Water vapor in the spectrum of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. I. The transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, P. R.; Crouzet, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Deming, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Madhusudhan, N., E-mail: [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)


    We report near-infrared spectroscopy of the gas giant planet HD 189733b in transit. We used the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST WFC3) with its G141 grism covering 1.1 μm to 1.7 μm and spatially scanned the image across the detector at 2'' s{sup –1}. When smoothed to 75 nm bins, the local maxima of the transit depths in the 1.15 μm and 1.4 μm water vapor features are, respectively, 83 ± 53 ppm and 200 ± 47 ppm greater than the local minimum at 1.3 μm. We compare the WFC3 spectrum with the composite transit spectrum of HD 189733b assembled by Pont et al., extending from 0.3 μm to 24 μm. Although the water vapor features in the WFC3 spectrum are compatible with the model of non-absorbing, Rayleigh-scattering dust in the planetary atmosphere, we also re-interpret the available data with a clear planetary atmosphere. In the latter interpretation, the slope of increasing transit depth with shorter wavelengths from the near infrared, through the visible, and into the ultraviolet is caused by unocculted star spots, with a smaller contribution of Rayleigh scattering by molecular hydrogen in the planet's atmosphere. At relevant pressures along the terminator, our model planetary atmosphere's temperature is ∼700 K, which is below the condensation temperatures of sodium- and potassium-bearing molecules, causing the broad wings of the spectral lines of Na I and K I at 0.589 μm and 0.769 μm to be weak.

  18. Pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic tracers in surface water: a randomized survey of 50 Minnesota lakes. (United States)

    Ferrey, Mark L; Heiskary, Steven; Grace, Richard; Hamilton, M Coreen; Lueck, April


    Water from 50 randomly selected lakes across Minnesota, USA, was analyzed for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and other commercial or industrial chemicals in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2012 National Lakes Assessment. Thirty-eight of the 125 chemicals analyzed were detected at least once, all at parts per trillion concentrations. The most widely detected was N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, present in 48% of the lakes sampled. Amitriptyline, a widely used antidepressant, was found in 28% of the lakes. The endocrine active chemicals bisphenol A, androstenedione, and nonylphenol were found in 42%, 30%, and 10% of the lakes, respectively. Cocaine was found in 32% of the lakes, and its degradation product, benzoylecgonine, was detected at 28% of the locations. Carbadox, an antibiotic used solely in the production of swine, was also present in 28% of the lakes sampled. The means by which these and other chemicals were transported to several of the remote lakes is unclear but may involve atmospheric transport. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Investigation of water adsorption and hygroscopicity of atmospherically relevant particles using a commercial vapor sorption analyzer (United States)

    Gu, Wenjun; Li, Yongjie; Zhu, Jianxi; Jia, Xiaohong; Lin, Qinhao; Zhang, Guohua; Ding, Xiang; Song, Wei; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming; Tang, Mingjin


    Water adsorption and hygroscopicity are among the most important physicochemical properties of aerosol particles, largely determining their impacts on atmospheric chemistry, radiative forcing, and climate. Measurements of water adsorption and hygroscopicity of nonspherical particles under subsaturated conditions are nontrivial because many widely used techniques require the assumption of particle sphericity. In this work we describe a method to directly quantify water adsorption and mass hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles for temperature in the range of 5-30 °C, using a commercial vapor sorption analyzer. A detailed description of instrumental configuration and experimental procedures, including relative humidity (RH) calibration, is provided first. It is then demonstrated that for (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl, deliquescence relative humidities and mass hygroscopic growth factors measured using this method show good agreements with experimental and/or theoretical data from literature. To illustrate its ability to measure water uptake by particles with low hygroscopicity, we used this instrument to investigate water adsorption by CaSO4 ṡ 2H2O as a function of RH at 25 °C. The mass hygroscopic growth factor of CaSO4 ṡ 2H2O at 95 % RH, relative to that under dry conditions (RH < 1 %), was determined to be (0.450±0.004) % (1σ). In addition, it is shown that this instrument can reliably measure a relative mass change of 0.025 %. Overall, we have demonstrated that this commercial instrument provides a simple, sensitive, and robust method to investigate water adsorption and hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles.

  20. Analysis of heterogeneous water vapor uptake by metal iodide cluster ions via differential mobility analysis-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberreit, Derek [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Fluid Measurement Technologies, Inc., Saint Paul, Minnesota 55110 (United States); Rawat, Vivek K.; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Ouyang, Hui; McMurry, Peter H.; Hogan, Christopher J., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)


    The sorption of vapor molecules onto pre-existing nanometer sized clusters is of importance in understanding particle formation and growth in gas phase environments and devising gas phase separation schemes. Here, we apply a differential mobility analyzer-mass spectrometer based approach to observe directly the sorption of vapor molecules onto iodide cluster ions of the form (MI){sub x}M{sup +} (x = 1-13, M = Na, K, Rb, or Cs) in air at 300 K and with water saturation ratios in the 0.01-0.64 range. The extent of vapor sorption is quantified in measurements by the shift in collision cross section (CCS) for each ion. We find that CCS measurements are sensitive enough to detect the transient binding of several vapor molecules to clusters, which shift CCSs by only several percent. At the same time, for the highest saturation ratios examined, we observed CCS shifts of up to 45%. For x < 4, cesium, rubidium, and potassium iodide cluster ions are found to uptake water to a similar extent, while sodium iodide clusters uptake less water. For x ≥ 4, sodium iodide cluster ions uptake proportionally more water vapor than rubidium and potassium iodide cluster ions, while cesium iodide ions exhibit less uptake. Measured CCS shifts are compared to predictions based upon a Kelvin-Thomson-Raoult (KTR) model as well as a Langmuir adsorption model. We find that the Langmuir adsorption model can be fit well to measurements. Meanwhile, KTR predictions deviate from measurements, which suggests that the earliest stages of vapor uptake by nanometer scale species are not well described by the KTR model.

  1. Sensitive limits on the abundance of cold water vapor in the DM Tauri protoplanetary disk (United States)

    Bergin, E. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Brinch, C.; Fogel, J.; Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bell, T. A.; Blake, G. A.; Cernicharo, J.; Dominik, C.; Lis, D.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Panić, O.; Pearson, J. C.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Larsson, B.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Jellema, W.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hartogh, P.; Stützki, J.; Szczerba, R.


    We performed a sensitive search for the ground-state emission lines of ortho- and para-water vapor in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. No strong lines are detected down to 3σ levels in 0.5 km s-1 channels of 4.2 mK for the 110-101 line and 12.6 mK for the 111-000 line. We report a very tentative detection, however, of the 110-101 line in the wide band spectrometer, with a strength of Tmb = 2.7 mK, a width of 5.6 km s-1 and an integrated intensity of 16.0 mK km s-1. The latter constitutes a 6σ detection. Regardless of the reality of this tentative detection, model calculations indicate that our sensitive limits on the line strengths preclude efficient desorption of water in the UV illuminated regions of the disk. We hypothesize that more than 95-99% of the water ice is locked up in coagulated grains that have settled to the midplane. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with participation important from NASA.

  2. Adsorption and solvation of ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface: a molecular dynamics study (United States)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.


    The free energy profiles of methanol and ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface at 310K were calculated using molecular dynamics computer simulations. Both alcohols exhibit a pronounced free energy minimum at the interface and, therefore, have positive adsorption at this interface. The surface excess was computed from the Gibbs adsorption isotherm and was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. Neither compound exhibits a free energy barrier between the bulk and the surface adsorbed state. Scattering calculations of ethanol molecules from a gas phase thermal distribution indicate that the mass accommodation coefficient is 0.98, and the molecules become thermalized within 10 ps of striking the interface. It was determined that the formation of the solvation structure around the ethanol molecule at the interface is not the rate-determining step in its uptake into water droplets. The motion of an ethanol molecule in a water lamella was followed for 30 ns. The time evolution of the probability distribution of finding an ethanol molecule that was initially located at the interface is very well described by the diffusion equation on the free energy surface.

  3. Modeling Convective Injection of Water Vapor into the Lower Stratosphere in the Mid-Latitudes over North America (United States)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.


    Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002;Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [ Hanisco et al. , 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the eastern United States during August of 2007 and August of 2013. We conduct a comparison of MERRA, the reanalysis used to initialize ARW, and the model output to assess

  4. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare


    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during

  5. Remote measurement of high preeruptive water vapor emissions at Sabancaya volcano by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Masias, Pablo; Apaza, Fredy; Reath, Kevin; Platt, Ulrich


    Water (H2O) is by far the most abundant volcanic volatile species and plays a predominant role in driving volcanic eruptions. However, numerous difficulties associated with making accurate measurements of water vapor in volcanic plumes have limited their use as a diagnostic tool. Here we present the first detection of water vapor in a volcanic plume using passive visible-light differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Ultraviolet and visible-light DOAS measurements were made on 21 May 2016 at Sabancaya Volcano, Peru. We find that Sabancaya's plume contained an exceptionally high relative water vapor abundance 6 months prior to its November 2016 eruption. Our measurements yielded average sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 800–900 t/d, H2O emission rates of around 250,000 t/d, and an H2O/SO2 molecular ratio of 1000 which is about an order of magnitude larger than typically found in high-temperature volcanic gases. We attribute the high water vapor emissions to a boiling-off of Sabancaya's hydrothermal system caused by intrusion of magma to shallow depths. This hypothesis is supported by a significant increase in the thermal output of the volcanic edifice detected in infrared satellite imagery leading up to and after our measurements. Though the measurement conditions encountered at Sabancaya were very favorable for our experiment, we show that visible-light DOAS systems could be used to measure water vapor emissions at numerous other high-elevation volcanoes. Such measurements would provide observatories with additional information particularly useful for forecasting eruptions at volcanoes harboring significant hydrothermal systems.

  6. Remote measurement of high preeruptive water vapor emissions at Sabancaya volcano by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Masias, Pablo; Apaza, Fredy; Reath, Kevin A.; Platt, Ulrich


    Water (H2O) is by far the most abundant volcanic volatile species and plays a predominant role in driving volcanic eruptions. However, numerous difficulties associated with making accurate measurements of water vapor in volcanic plumes have limited their use as a diagnostic tool. Here we present the first detection of water vapor in a volcanic plume using passive visible-light differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Ultraviolet and visible-light DOAS measurements were made on 21 May 2016 at Sabancaya Volcano, Peru. We find that Sabancaya's plume contained an exceptionally high relative water vapor abundance 6 months prior to its November 2016 eruption. Our measurements yielded average sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 800-900 t/d, H2O emission rates of around 250,000 t/d, and an H2O/SO2 molecular ratio of 1000 which is about an order of magnitude larger than typically found in high-temperature volcanic gases. We attribute the high water vapor emissions to a boiling-off of Sabancaya's hydrothermal system caused by intrusion of magma to shallow depths. This hypothesis is supported by a significant increase in the thermal output of the volcanic edifice detected in infrared satellite imagery leading up to and after our measurements. Though the measurement conditions encountered at Sabancaya were very favorable for our experiment, we show that visible-light DOAS systems could be used to measure water vapor emissions at numerous other high-elevation volcanoes. Such measurements would provide observatories with additional information particularly useful for forecasting eruptions at volcanoes harboring significant hydrothermal systems.

  7. Liquid-vapor equilibrium in systems which include paraffins, naphthenes, olefins, benzene, N-methylpyrrolidone, and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroshnichenko, A.A.


    The selection of efficient separating agents for the extractive fractionation of aliphatic-aromatic hydrocarbon systems has fundamental importance in technology of preparing pure aromatic hydrocarbons. It has been shown previously that N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) can be used as an efficient separating agent for paraffin-aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthene-aromatic hydrocarbon, or olefin-aromatic hydrocarbon systems. It was previously shown that the presence of water in the NMP increases its selectivity in the heptane-benzene system. However, the limited number of systems studied which contain heptane does not allow one to make a judgment about the relative volatility of paraffins, naphthenes, olefins, and benzene in mixtures with NMP containing water. Moreover, the complexity of the indicated systems causes definite difficulties in the experimental study of the isobaric liquid-vapor equilbrium for determining the relative volatility ..cap alpha../sub i-j/ of nonaromatic hydrocarbons, i, and benzene, j, as a function of the concentration of an extractant containing water, X/sub r/. The author has previously made studies of methods of calculating liquid-vapor equilibrium in the analogous systems with anhydrous NMP from a limited amount of information about liquid-vapor equilibrium. Therefore the objective of this work was to perform analytical calculations and an experimental check of liquid-vapor equilibrium in systems which included paraffins, naphthenes, olefins, benzene, NMP, and water.

  8. MLS/Aura Near-Real-Time L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Mixing Ratio V003 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CO_NRT is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Near-Real-Time (NRT) product for water vapor (H2O). This product contains daily H2O profiles taken from the...

  9. Kinetic Requirements for the Measurement of Mesospheric Water Vapor at 6.8 (microns) under Non-LTE Conditions (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Russell, James M., III


    We present accuracy requirements for specific kinetic parameters used to calculate the populations and vibrational temperatures of the H2O(010) and H2O(020) states in the terrestrial mesosphere. The requirements are based on rigorous simulations of the retrieval of mesospheric water vapor profiles from measurements of water vapor infrared emission made by limb scanning instruments on orbiting satellites. Major improvements in the rate constants that describe vibration-to- vibration exchange between the H2O(010) and 02(1) states are required in addition to improved specification of the rate of quenching Of O2(1) by atomic oxygen (0). It is also necessary to more accurately determine the yield of vibrationally excited O2(l) resulting from ozone photolysis. A contemporary measurement of the rate of quenching of H2O(010) by N2 and O2 is also desirable. These rates are either highly uncertain or have never before been measured at atmospheric temperatures. The suggested improvements are necessary for the interpretation of water vapor emission measurements at 6.8 microns to be made from a new spaceflight experiment in less than 2 years. The approach to retrieving water vapor under non-LTE conditions is also presented.

  10. Surfactat’s Impact on the Evaporation Intensity and a Vapor Embryos Generation Kinetics within the Water Droplets (United States)

    Anisimov, M. P.; Terekhov, V. I.; Shishkin, N. E.


    The research of water-surfactant droplets evaporation was provided. The sodium dodecylsulfate was taken as a surfactant (SAS). The initial SAS mass contain was ~ 0,15%. Water and water-surfactant solution droplets were evaporated under the dry air flow blowing at temperatures T0 ~ (20 ÷ 90)0C and air linear velocity VO ~ 2 ÷ 5 m/s. The droplet initial diameter (d0) was equal to ~ 2 mm, Reynolds number was within the interval of Re = 500 ÷ 2000. The droplet evaporation rate and their surface temperature were measured by an Infrared Microscope. The measurements display that the temperature heterogeneity on the droplet surface is initiated by the vapor fluctuating bursts at the local centers. A surfactant admixture into the base liquid (water) has a considerable impact on the vapor centre generation kinetics as well as on the time behavior of the droplets evaporating surfaces. The environmental conditions have the weak impact on the vapor formation, but the inner conditions, i.e. droplet’s temperature and pressure in it and physical properties of the base liquid have the considerable impact on the vapor generation kinetics. A surfactant adding makes surface tension higher. That depresses a heat-mass transfer and rises an average temperature of droplets.

  11. Forward modeling and retrieval of water vapor from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Treatment of narrowband absorption spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; Maurellis, A.N.; van der Zande, W.J.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    [1] We present the algorithm and results for a new fast forward modeling technique applied to the retrieval of atmospheric water vapor from satellite measurements using a weak ro-vibrational overtone band in the visible. The algorithm uses an Optical Absorption Coefficient Spectroscopy (OACS) method

  12. Profiling water vapor mixing ratios in Finland by means of a Raman lidar, a satellite and a model (United States)

    Filioglou, Maria; Nikandrova, Anna; Niemelä, Sami; Baars, Holger; Mielonen, Tero; Leskinen, Ari; Brus, David; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Giannakaki, Elina; Komppula, Mika


    We present tropospheric water vapor profiles measured with a Raman lidar during three field campaigns held in Finland. Co-located radio soundings are available throughout the period for the calibration of the lidar signals. We investigate the possibility of calibrating the lidar water vapor profiles in the absence of co-existing on-site soundings using water vapor profiles from the combined Advanced InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) satellite product; the Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement INternational and High Resolution Limited Area Model (ALADIN/HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) system, and the nearest radio sounding station located 100 km away from the lidar site (only for the permanent location of the lidar). The uncertainties of the calibration factor derived from the soundings, the satellite and the model data are change in disagreement between the lidar and the model has been studied. The analysis showed that, on average, the model underestimates water vapor mixing ratios at high altitudes during spring and summer.

  13. Long-Term Measurement for Low-Tropospheric Water Vapor and Aerosol by Raman Lidar in Wuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available A Raman Lidar (RL system is developed to measure the water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR and aerosol optical property in Wuhan with high temporal-spatial resolution during rainless nights. The principle of the self-developed lidar system and data processing method are discussed. WVMR profiles of a representative case retrieved by RL, Radiosonde (RS, and microwave radiometer (MR are in good agreement. The relationship of WVMR and aerosol optical depth (AOD indicates that water vapor dramatically reduces with the decline of the AOD. Moreover, the mean relative difference of mean WVMRs at low-troposphere obtained by RL and RS (MR is about 5.17% (9.47% during the analyzed year. The agreement certifies that the self-developed RL system can stably provide accurate and high temporal-spatial resolution data for the fundamental physical studies on water vapor. Furthermore, the maximum AOD from 0.5 km to 3 km is 0.41 at night in spring, which indicates that the air quality in Wuhan is heavily influenced by aerosols that are transported by air mass from the north during this time. Moreover, abundant rainfall led to relatively low AOD in summer (0.22, which demonstrates that water vapor is crucial for air purification.

  14. A decadal time series of water vapor and D / H isotope ratios above Zugspitze: transport patterns to central Europe (United States)

    Hausmann, Petra; Sussmann, Ralf; Trickl, Thomas; Schneider, Matthias


    We present vertical soundings (2005-2015) of tropospheric water vapor (H2O) and its D / H isotope ratio (δD) derived from ground-based solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements at Zugspitze (47° N, 11° E, 2964 m a.s.l.). Beside water vapor profiles with optimized vertical resolution (degrees of freedom for signal, DOFS, = 2.8), {H2O, δD} pairs with consistent vertical resolution (DOFS = 1.6 for H2O and δD) applied in this study. The integrated water vapor (IWV) trend of 2.4 [-5.8, 10.6] % decade-1 is statistically insignificant (95 % confidence interval). Under this caveat, the IWV trend estimate is conditionally consistent with the 2005-2015 temperature increase at Zugspitze (1.3 [0.5, 2.1] K decade-1), assuming constant relative humidity. Seasonal variations in free-tropospheric H2O and δD exhibit amplitudes of 140 and 50 % of the respective overall means. The minima (maxima) in January (July) are in agreement with changing sea surface temperature of the Atlantic Ocean. Using extensive backward-trajectory analysis, distinct moisture pathways are identified depending on observed δD levels: low column-based δD values (δDcol 95th percentile: 46° N, 4.6 km). Backward-trajectory classification indicates that {H2O, δD} observations are influenced by three long-range-transport patterns towards Zugspitze assessed in previous studies: (i) intercontinental transport from North America (TUS; source region: 25-45° N, 70-110° W, 0-2 km altitude), (ii) intercontinental transport from northern Africa (TNA; source region: 15-30° N, 15° W-35° E, 0-2 km altitude), and (iii) stratospheric air intrusions (STIs; source region: > 20° N, above zonal mean tropopause). The FTIR data exhibit significantly differing signatures in free-tropospheric {H2O, δD} pairs (5 km a.s.l.) - given as the mean with uncertainty of ±2 standard error (SE) - for TUS (VMRH2O = 2.4 [2.3, 2.6] × 103 ppmv, δD = -315 [-326, -303] ‰), TNA (2.8 [2.6, 2.9] × 103 ppmv, -251 [-257

  15. Experimental study of heat transfer during pseudo-dropwise condensation of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol vapor mixtures on a vertical tube (United States)

    Chindyakov, A. A.; Smirnov, Yu B.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Mikhailova, E. V.


    In the present study experimental heat transfer data on condensation of almost immobile water-ethanol and water-isopropanol vapor mixtures on the vertical smooth copper tube 100 mm long with an outer diameter of 12.0 mm were obtained. Experiments for water-ethanol mixture were carried out at mass concentrations of ethanol from 0.4 to 16% in the vapor phase, and for a water-isopropanol mixture - from 0.6 to 8.4%. The pressure was 0.12…0.13 MPa, vapor-to-surface temperature difference varied from 2 to 40K. The experimental data are represented as dependency of heat transfer coefficient and heat flux on the vapor-to-surface temperature difference. The results of high-speed photography of the condensation process are discussed. It is noted that the transition from film mode to pseudo-dropwise condensation occurs when vapor-to-surface temperature difference is close to dew point - bubble point temperature difference for a given composition of the mixture. According to experimental data, the diffusion thermal resistance and thermal resistance of the liquid phase at different concentrations of the mixture were calculated.

  16. Assessing vulnerability mapping and protection zones of karst spring waters and validating by the joint use of natural and artificial tracers. The case of Auta Spring (Southern Spain) (United States)

    Marín, Ana Isabel; Mudarra, Matías; Andreo, Bartolomé


    Delineation of protection zones for water supply and implementation of proper land-use practices in surrounding areas are crucial aspects for a sustainable use of valuable drinking water resources. This is even more important in karst aquifers, which are particularly sensitive to contamination, having a very low self-cleaning capacity due to their structure and hydrological behavior. Consequently, specific methodologies adapted to the particular characteristics of karst media are necessary. In this work, an approach for protection zoning of the pilot site of Auta karst spring (southern Spain) is proposed, based on the application of COP+K method for contamination vulnerability and validation of results by natural (organic) tracers of infiltration (NO3-, TOC, intrinsic fluorescence) and by a dye tracer test conducted on June, 2011 (injecting 500 mg uranine). The aquifer drained by Auta spring (8.5 km2) presents a complex geological structure, formed by Jurassic dolostones and limestones highly folded and fractured. Recharge takes place by the infiltration of rainfall through karst landforms and also by losses in an adjacent river when it flows over the carbonate outcrops (dye injection point). Drainage is mainly through several springs located at the southwest, including Auta spring and 5 overflow springs. The source vulnerability map obtained by applying COP+K method can be adopted as the baseline to delineate the protection zones, through the conversion from vulnerability classes to degrees of protection. Dye tracer test and natural tracers of infiltration corroborate that aquifer sectors influenced by the river can be extremely vulnerable to pollution, but also well-developed exokarst features. In fact, slight evidences of pollution have been detected during the study period, with relatively-high NO3- contents and high fluorescence linked to bacteriological activity in Auta spring water. The jointly use of natural and artificial tracers constitute a reliable and

  17. Where do winds come from? A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, A M; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Li, B -L


    Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the latent heat release. Building from the fundamental physical principles we show that condensation is associated with a decline in air pressure in the lower atmosphere. This decline occurs up to a certain height, which ranges from 3 to 4 km for surface temperatures from 10 to 30 deg C. We then estimate the horizontal pressure differences associated with water vapor condensation and find that these are comparable in magnitude with the pressure differences driving observed circulation patterns. The water vapor delivered to the atmosphere via evaporation represents a store of potential energy available to accelerate air and thus drive winds. Our estimates suggest that the...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric precipitable water product consists of total atmospheric column water vapor amounts (and ancillary parameters) over clear land areas of...

  19. Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production


    Shchedrin, A. I.; Levko, D. S.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Chernyak, V. Ya.; Yukhymenko, V. V.; Olszewski, S. V.; Naumov, V. V.; Prysiazhnevych, I. V.; Solomenko, E. V.; Demchina, V. P.; Kudryavtsev, V. S.


    The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the dischar...

  20. Effects of the Shuttle Orbiter fuselage and elevon on the molecular distribution of water vapor from the flash evaporator system (United States)

    Richmond, R. G.; Kelso, R. M.


    A concern has arisen regarding the emissive distribution of water molecules from the shuttle orbiter flash evaporator system (FES). The role of the orbiter fuselage and elevon in affecting molecular scattering distributions was nuclear. The effect of these components were evaluated. Molecular distributions of the water vapor effluents from the FE were measured. These data were compared with analytically predicted values and the resulting implications were calculated.

  1. Measuring Total Column Water Vapor by Pointing an Infrared Thermometer at the Sky (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III; Chambers, Lin H.; Brooks, David R.


    A 2-year study affirms that the temperature (Tz) indicated by an inexpensive ($20 to $60) IR thermometer pointed at the cloud-free zenith sky provides an approximate indication of the total column water vapor (precipitable water or PW). PW was measured by a MICROTOPS II sun photometer. The coefficient of correlation (r2) of the PW and Tz was 0.90, and the rms difference was 3.2 mm. A comparison of the Tz data with the PW provided by a GPS site 31 km NNE yielded an r2 of 0.79, and an rms difference of 5.8 mm. An expanded study compared Tz from eight IR thermometers with PW at various times during the day and night from 17 May to 18 October 2010, mainly at the Texas site and 10 days at Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO). The best results of this comparison were provided by two IR thermometers models that yielded an r2 of 0.96 and an rms difference with the PW of 2.7 mm. The results of both the ongoing 2-year study and the 5-month instrument comparison show that IR thermometers can measure PW with an accuracy (rms difference/mean PW) approaching 10%, the accuracy typically ascribed to sun photometers.

  2. The Water Vapor Linestrengths between 11 600 and 12 750 cm-1 (United States)

    Flaud; Camy-Peyret; Bykov; Naumenko; Petrova; Scherbakov; Sinitsa


    The water vapor linestrengths in the region of the 3nu + delta resonance polyad of interacting vibrational states (the corresponding upper states are (310), (211), (112), (013), (131), (230), (032), and (051)) have been analyzed leading to accurate dipole moment transition parameters. The effective rotational Hamiltonian constants used to calculate the vibration-rotation wavefunctions (J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Bykov, O. Naumenko, T. Petrova, A. Scherbakov, L. Sinitsa, 1994. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 183, 300-309) take into account both strong centrifugal distortion effects and dark states presence. These effects are known to be important for the highly excited vibrational states of water-like molecules. The input data set included the line intensities measured by Toth (R. Toth, 1994. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 166, 176-183) and the line intensities of the weak bands 2nu1 + 3nu2, 3nu2 + 2nu3, and 3nu1 + nu2 derived from peak absorptions of a spectrum recorded at a pressure of 17.0 Torr and a path length of 434 m. The parameters of the effective dipole moment operator determined by least square fitting give a very satisfactory agreement with experimental values since the mean error for the 876 experimental linestrengths is only 3.9%. It is worth noticing that such an agreement could be reached only because high-order resonance couplings with dark states were explicitly taken into account. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, Alexandra C.; Johnson, John A.; Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bender, Chad F.; Richert, Alexander J. W. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carr, John S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Barman, Travis, E-mail: [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We use high dynamic range, high-resolution L-band spectroscopy to measure the radial velocity (RV) variations of the hot Jupiter in the τ Boötis planetary system. The detection of an exoplanet by the shift in the stellar spectrum alone provides a measure of the planet's minimum mass, with the true mass degenerate with the unknown orbital inclination. Treating the τ Boo system as a high flux ratio double-lined spectroscopic binary permits the direct measurement of the planet's true mass as well as its atmospheric properties. After removing telluric absorption and cross-correlating with a model planetary spectrum dominated by water opacity, we measure a 6σ detection of the planet at K{sub p} = 111 ± 5 km s{sup –1}, with a 1σ upper limit on the spectroscopic flux ratio of 10{sup –4}. This RV leads to a planetary orbital inclination of i=45{sub −4}{sup +3}° and a mass of M{sub P}=5.90{sub −0.20}{sup +0.35} M{sub Jup}. We report the first detection of water vapor in the atmosphere of a non-transiting hot Jupiter, τ Boo b.

  4. GPS water vapor and its comparison with radiosonde and ERA-Interim data in Algeria (United States)

    Namaoui, Houaria; Kahlouche, Salem; Belbachir, Ahmed Hafid; Van Malderen, Roeland; Brenot, Hugues; Pottiaux, Eric


    Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using global positioning system (GPS) data has become an effective tool in meteorology, weather forecasting and climate research. This paper presents the estimation of precipitable water (PW) from GPS observations and meteorological data in Algeria, over three stations located at Algiers, Bechar and Tamanrasset. The objective of this study is to analyze the sensitivity of the GPS PW estimates for the three sites to the weighted mean temperature ( T m), obtained separately from two types of T m- T s regression [one general, and one developed specifically for Algeria ( T s stands for surface temperature)], and calculated directly from ERA-Interim data. The results show that the differences in T m are of the order of 18 K, producing differences of 2.01 mm in the final evaluation of PW. A good agreement is found between GPS-PW and PW calculated from radiosondes, with a small mean difference with Vaisala radiosondes. A comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim shows a large difference (4 mm) in the highlands region. This difference is possibly due to the topography. These first results are encouraging, in particular for meteorological applications in this region, with good hope to extend our dataset analysis to a more complete, nationwide coverage over Algeria.

  5. Hydrogen production in a radio-frequency plasma source operating on water vapor (United States)

    Nguyen, Son-Ca Viet Thi

    The global energy and climate challenges have motivated development of innovative techniques to satisfy energy demand while minimizing emissions. To this end, hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier in the transportation sector is an attractive option. In addition, there is already a great need for hydrogen gas in several industrial processes such as hydro-cracking of crude oil to produce gasoline and production of ammonia and methanol. The current dominant methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels are well-developed and have reached relatively high energy efficiencies (up to 85%), but these methods rely on non-renewable natural resources and produce carbon dioxide emissions. This work investigates the feasibility of hydrogen production by dissociating water molecules in a radio-frequency (RF) plasma discharge. In addition to the widespread usage of hydrogen gas, applications of water plasma have permeated in many areas of research, and information on basic behaviors of a water plasma discharge will provide fruitful insights for other researchers. An RF plasma source equipped with a double-helix antenna (m = 1 mode) and an applied axial magnetic field is designed to operate on water vapor. It is shown that water molecules are being dissociated in the discharge. Experimental results show that the rate of hydrogen production increases linearly with RF power in the absence of the applied axial magnetic field. With the magnetic field, the rate of hydrogen production increases from 250 to 500 W, and begins to saturate with RF power. Despite this saturation, it is shown that hydrogen increases with magnetic field strength at a fixed RF power. Further, the rate of hydrogen production increases with water input flow rate up to 100 sccm for a fixed RF power level, and begins to decrease at 125 sccm. This dissertation characterizes the rate of hydrogen production and plasma properties as a function of RF power, applied B-field strength, and water input flow rate. A

  6. Heat transfer during pseudo-dropwise condensation of water-ethanol vapor mixture on horizontal finned tubes (United States)

    Chindyakov, A. A.; Smirnov, Yu B.; Mikhailova, E. V.


    In the present work experimental data on heat transfer are obtained for the condensation of almost immobile pure steam and water-ethanol vapor mixture on three copper horizontal finned tubes with a cooled length of 100 mm. The fins are rectangular in shape, their height and thickness are 1 mm, and the spacing between fins 1.3, 2.0 and 3.0 mm. The experiments were carried out at pressures of 0.12…0.15 MPa, the vapor-to-surface temperature difference varied from 5 to 35 K. The mass concentration of ethanol in the vapor phase varied from 8.7 to 14.5%. The experimental data are presented in the form of the dependences of heat transfer coefficient on the vapor-to-wall temperature difference. The heat transfer coefficients for the condensation of pure steam are in good agreement with the calculations by the method of Srinivasan et al. According to experimental data for the condensation of the vapor mixture, diffusion thermal resistance and thermal resistance of the liquid phase at various ethanol concentrations and the spacing between fins were calculated.

  7. Effect of tropospheric models on derived precipitable water vapor over Southeast Asia (United States)

    Rahimi, Zhoobin; Mohd Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi; Othman, Faridah; Norman, Masayu


    An interesting subject in the field of GPS technology is estimating variation of precipitable water vapor (PWV). This estimation can be used as a data source to assess and monitor rapid changes in meteorological conditions. So far, numerous GPS stations are distributed across the world and the number of GPS networks is increasing. Despite these developments, a challenging aspect of estimating PWV through GPS networks is the need of tropospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, and relative humidity (Liu et al., 2015). To estimate the tropospheric parameters, global pressure temperature (GPT) model developed by Boehm et al. (2007) is widely used in geodetic analysis for GPS observations. To improve the accuracy, Lagler et al. (2013) introduced GPT2 model by adding annual and semi-annual variation effects to GPT model. Furthermore, Boehm et al. (2015) proposed the GPT2 wet (GPT2w) model which uses water vapor pressure to improve the calculations. The global accuracy of GPT2 and GPT2w models has been evaluated by previous researches (Fund et al., 2011; Munekane and Boehm, 2010); however, investigations to assess the accuracy of global tropospheric models in tropical regions such as Southeast Asia is not sufficient. This study tests and examines the accuracy of GPT2w as one of the most recent versions of tropospheric models (Boehm et al., 2015). We developed a new regional model called Malaysian Pressure Temperature (MPT) model, and compared this model with GPT2w model. The compared results at one international GNSS service (IGS) station located in the south of Peninsula Malaysia shows that MPT model has a better performance than GPT2w model to produce PWV during monsoon season. According to the results, MPT has improved the accuracy of estimated pressure and temperature by 30% and 10%, respectively, in comparison with GPT2w model. These results indicate that MPT model can be a good alternative tool in the absence of meteorological sensors at GPS stations in

  8. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids with Cyano Containing Anions with Water and Ethanol. (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Batista, Marta L S; Carvalho, Pedro J; Santos, Luís M N B F; Gomes, José R B; Coutinho, João A P


    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([C4C1im][SCN]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([C4C1im][N(CN)2]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([C4C1im][C(CN)3]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate ([C2C1im][B(CN)4]), with water and ethanol were measured over the whole concentration range at 0.1, 0.07, and 0.05 MPa. Activity coefficients were estimated from the boiling temperatures of the binary systems, and the data were used to evaluate the ability of COSMO-RS for describing these molecular systems. Aiming at further understanding the molecular interactions on these systems, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed. On the basis of the interpretation of the radial and spatial distribution functions along with coordination numbers obtained through MD simulations, the effect of the increase of CN-groups in the IL anion in its capability to establish hydrogen bonds with water and ethanol was evaluated. The results obtained suggest that, for both water and ethanol systems, the anion [N(CN)2](-) presents the higher ability to establish favorable interactions due to its charge, and that the ability of the anions to interact with the solvent, decreases with further increasing of the number of cyano groups in the anion. The ordering of the partial charges in the nitrogen atoms from the CN-groups in the anions agrees with the ordering obtained for VLE and activity coefficient data.

  9. Sensitivity of chemical tracers to meteorological parameters in the MOZART-3 chemical transport model (United States)

    Kinnison, D. E.; Brasseur, G. P.; Walters, S.; Garcia, R. R.; Marsh, D. R.; Sassi, F.; Harvey, V. L.; Randall, C. E.; Emmons, L.; Lamarque, J. F.; Hess, P.; Orlando, J. J.; Tie, X. X.; Randel, W.; Pan, L. L.; Gettelman, A.; Granier, C.; Diehl, T.; Niemeier, U.; Simmons, A. J.


    The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 3 (MOZART-3), which represents the chemical and physical processes from the troposphere through the lower mesosphere, was used to evaluate the representation of long-lived tracers and ozone using three different meteorological fields. The meteorological fields are based on (1) the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, version 1b (WACCM1b), (2) the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis, and (3) a new reanalysis for year 2000 from ECMWF called EXP471. Model-derived tracers (methane, water vapor, and total inorganic nitrogen) and ozone are compared to data climatologies from satellites. Model mean age of air was also derived and compared to in situ CO2 and SF6 data. A detailed analysis of the chemical fields simulated by MOZART-3 shows that even though the general features characterizing the three dynamical sets are rather similar, slight differences in winds and temperature can produce substantial differences in the calculated distributions of chemical tracers. The MOZART-3 simulations that use meteorological fields from WACCM1b and ECMWF EXP471 represented best the distribution of long-lived tracers and mean age of air in the stratosphere. There was a significant improvement using the ECMWF EXP471 reanalysis data product over the ECMWF operational data product. The effect of the quasi-biennial oscillation circulation on long-lived tracers and ozone is examined.

  10. New Insights into the Structure of the Vapor/Water Interface from Large-Scale First-Principles Simulations. (United States)

    Kühne, Thomas D; Pascal, Tod A; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Jung, Yousung


    We present extensive ab initio simulations of the molecular arrangements at the vapor/water interface, which provide valuable insights into the interface structure. In particular, the simulations address the controversy of whether there is a significant amount of nondonor configurations at this prototypical interface, using a novel Car-Parrinello-like ab initio molecular dynamics approach. The interface is modeled by a system of 384 water molecules for 125 ps in a two-dimensional periodic slab, the most extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to date. In contrast to previous theoretical simulations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, but consistent with sum-frequency generation experiments, we observe no evidence for a significant occurrence of acceptor-only species at the vapor/water interface. Besides a distinct surface relaxation effect, we find that only the topmost layers of the interface obey structural order.

  11. Improvements to water vapor transmission and capillary absorption measurements in porous materials (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Samuel V. Glass; Charles R. Boardman


    The vapor permeability (or equivalently the vapor diffusion resistance factor) and the capillary absorption coefficient are frequently used as inputs to hygrothermal or heat, air, and moisture (HAM) models. However, it has been well documented that the methods used to determine these properties are sensitive to the operator, and wide variations in the properties have...

  12. Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying. (United States)

    Gieseler, Henning; Kessler, William J; Finson, Michael; Davis, Steven J; Mulhall, Phillip A; Bons, Vincent; Debo, David J; Pikal, Michael J


    The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a noninvasive method to continuously measure the water vapor concentration and the vapor flow velocity in the spool connecting a freeze-dryer chamber and condenser. The instantaneous measurements were used to determine the water vapor mass flow rate (g/s). The mass flow determinations provided a continuous measurement of the total amount of water removed. Full load runs of pure water at different pressure and shelf temperature settings and a 5% (w/w) mannitol product run were performed in both laboratory and pilot scale freeze dryers. The ratio of "gravimetric/TDLAS" measurements of water removed was 1.02 +/- 0.06. A theoretical heat transfer model was used to predict the mass flow rate and the model results were compared to both the gravimetric and TDLAS data. Good agreement was also observed in the "gravimetric/TDLAS" ratio for the 5% mannitol runs dried in both freeze dryers. The endpoints of primary and secondary drying for the product runs were clearly identified. Comparison of the velocity and mass flux profiles between the laboratory and pilot dryers indicated a higher restriction to mass flow for the lab scale freeze dryer. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements. (United States)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.


    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  14. Biophysical controls on carbon and water vapor fluxes across a grassland climatic gradient in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Scott, Russell L.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Cook, David R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Basara, Jeffrey; Matamala, Roser; Zhou, Yuting; Bajgain, Rajen


    Understanding of the underlying causes of spatial variation in exchange of carbon and water vapor fluxes between grasslands and the atmosphere is crucial for accurate estimates of regional and global carbon and water budgets, and for predicting the impact of climate change on biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks of grasslands. We used ground-based eddy flux and meteorological data, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from 12 grasslands across the United States to examine the spatial variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and to evaluate the biophysical controls on the spatial patterns of fluxes. Precipitation was strongly associated with spatial and temporal variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and vegetation productivity. Grasslands with annual average precipitation <600 mm generally had neutral annual carbon balance or emitted small amount of carbon to the atmosphere. Despite strong coupling between gross primary production (GPP)and evapotranspiration (ET) across study sites, GPP showed larger spatial variation than ET, and EVI had a greater effect on GPP than on ET. Consequently, large spatial variation in ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE = annual GPP/ET; varying from 0.67 ± 0.55 to 2.52 ± 0.52 g C mm⁻¹ET) was observed. Greater reduction in GPP than ET at high air temperature and vapor pressure deficit caused a reduction in EWUE in dry years, indicating a response which is opposite than what has been reported for forests. Our results show that spatial and temporal variations in ecosystem carbon uptake, ET, and water use efficiency of grasslands were strongly associated with canopy greenness and coverage, as indicated by EVI.

  15. Water vapor in the middle atmosphere of Mars during the 2007 global dust storm (United States)

    Fedorova, Anna; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Betsis, Daria; Montmessin, Franck; Korablev, Oleg; Maltagliati, Luca; Clarke, John


    Recent observations of the Martian hydrogen corona in the UV H Ly-alpha emission by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (Clarke et al., 2014) and the SPICAM UV spectrometer on Mars Express (Chaffin et al., 2014) reported its rapid change by an order of magnitude over a short few months period in 2007 (MY28), which is inconsistent with the existing models. One proposed explanation of the observed increase of the coronal emission is that during the global dust storm water vapor from the lower atmosphere can be transported to higher altitudes, where its photodissociation rate by near-UV sunlight increases, providing an additional source of hydrogen for the upper atmosphere. In this work we study the water vapor vertical distribution in the middle atmosphere of Mars during the 2007 global dust storm based on solar occultation measurements by the SPICAM IR spectrometer onboard the Mars-Express spacecraft. The vertical profiles of H2O density and mixing ratio have been obtained for solar longitudes Ls = 255°-300° in MY28. In the Northern hemisphere from Ls = 268° to Ls = 285° the H2O density at altitudes of 60-80 km increased by an order of magnitude. During the dust storm the profiles extended up to 80 km, with an H2O density exceeding 1010 molecules/cm3 (mixing ratio ≥200 ppm). Two maxima of the H2O density were detected. The largest H2O densities observed at latitudes higher than 60°N, over Ls = 269°-275°, do not directly correlate with the aerosol loading and likely relate to the downwelling branch of the meridional circulation that was intensified during the dust storm, and transported water from the Southern hemisphere to high northern latitudes. The second smaller maximum coincides with the high dust loading at middle northern latitudes. The comparison with geographically close observations in the quiet Mars year MY32, when the H2O content in the Northern hemisphere did not exceed 2 × 1010 molecules/cm3 and 50 ppm at 60 km, showed that the global dust storm

  16. [A novel vapor dynamic headspace enrichment equipment for nontarget screening of volatile organic compounds in drinking water]. (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Haijun; Tian, Yuzeng; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping


    A novel vapor dynamic headspace enrichment device was set up for nontarget screening of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. The main operating parameters of this device, such as length of distillation tube, volume of collected condensate, and choice of absorbent, were optimized. In this device, vapor was utilized as a purge gas and water was utilized as a absorbent. With the help of the device, one liter of water sample could be concentrated to 5 mL and the sensitivity of traditional purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P&T-GC-MS) could be improved 1-2 orders of magnitude. Source and disinfected water samples from a water treatment plant were analyzed with this method. Compared with the traditional P&T-GC-MS analysis without pre-enrichment, the numbers of identified VOCs were improved from 0 to 16 for source water and 5 to 35 for disinfected water samples. It is also shown that there are many halide compounds in VOCs in disinfected water