WorldWideScience

Sample records for water vapor liquid

  1. Reaction of water vapor with a clean liquid uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-01-01

    To study the reaction of water vapor with uranium, we have exposed clean liquid uranium surfaces to H 2 O under UHV conditions. We have measured the surface concentration of oxygen as a function of exposure, and determined the maximum attainable surface oxygen concentration X 0 /sup s/ as a function of temperature. We have used these measurements to estimate, close to the melting point, the solubility of oxygen (X 0 /sup b/, -4 ) and its surface segregation coefficient β/sup s/(> 10 3 ). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the acetone-ethanol-n-propanol-tert-butanol-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Uchida, K.; Kojima, K.

    1981-12-01

    This study deals with the measurement of vapor-liquid equilibria for the five-component system acetone-ethanol-n-propanol-tert-butanol-water at 760 mmHg and prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria by the ASOG group contribution method. The five-component system in this work is composed of a part of the components obtained during ethanol production by vapor-phase hydration of ethylene. 6 refs.

  3. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  4. Quaternary isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the system (water + ethanol + cyclohexane + heptane) at 101.3 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pequenin, Ana; Asensi, Juan Carlos; Gomis, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Water-ethanol-cyclohexane-heptane and water-cyclohexane-heptane isobaric VLLE. → Isobaric experimental data were determined at 101.3 kPa. → A dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used. → The quaternary system does not present quaternary azeotropes. - Abstract: Experimental isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary system {water (1) + cyclohexane (2) + heptane (3)} and the quaternary system {water (1) + ethanol (2) + cyclohexane (3) + heptane (4)} were measured at 101.3 kPa. An all-glass, dynamic recirculating still equipped with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used to determine the VLLE. The results obtained show that the system does not present quaternary azeotropes. The point-by-point method by Wisniak for testing the thermodynamic consistency of isobaric measurements was used to test the equilibrium data.

  5. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Warren; J. Renée Brooks; Maria I. Dragila; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal increases in water potential and water content in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux, a process termed hydraulic redistribution (HR). However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the daily recovery in water content, confounding efforts to determine the actual...

  6. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  7. Stability limit of liquid water in metastable equilibrium with subsaturated vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tobias D; Stroock, Abraham D

    2009-07-07

    A pure liquid can reach metastable equilibrium with its subsaturated vapor across an appropriate membrane. This situation is analogous to osmotic equilibrium: the reduced chemical potential of the dilute phase (the subsaturated vapor) is compensated by a difference in pressure between the phases. To equilibrate with subsaturated vapor, the liquid phase assumes a pressure that is lower than its standard vapor pressure, such that the liquid phase is metastable with respect to the vapor phase. For sufficiently subsaturated vapors, the liquid phase can even assume negative pressures. The appropriate membrane for this metastable equilibrium must provide the necessary mechanical support to sustain the difference in pressure between the two phases, limit nonhomogeneous mechanisms of cavitation, and resist the entry of the dilutant (gases) into the pure phase (liquid). In this article, we present a study of the limit of stability of liquid water--the degree of subsaturation at which the liquid cavitates--in this metastable state within microscale voids embedded in hydrogel membranes. We refer to these structures as vapor-coupled voids (VCVs). In these VCVs, we observed that liquid water cavitated when placed in equilibrium with vapors of activity aw,vapairhumiditynucleation theory or molecular simulations (Pcav=-140 to -180 MPa). To determine the cause of the disparity between the observed and predicted stability limit, we examine experimentally the likelihood of several nonhomogeneous mechanisms of nucleation: (i) heterogeneous nucleation caused by hydrophobic patches on void walls, (ii) nucleation caused by the presence of dissolved solute, (iii) nucleation caused by the presence of pre-existing vapor nuclei, and (iv) invasion of air through the hydrogel membrane into the voids. We conclude that, of these possibilities, (i) and (ii) cannot be discounted, whereas (iii) and (iv) are unlikely to play a role in determining the stability limit.

  8. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chempath, Shaji [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Lawrence R [TULANE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  9. Small-scale experimental study of vaporization flux of liquid nitrogen released on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswami, Nirupama; Olewski, Tomasz; Véchot, Luc N; Mannan, M Sam

    2015-10-30

    A small-scale experimental study was conducted using liquid nitrogen to investigate the convective heat transfer behavior of cryogenic liquids released on water. The experiment was performed by spilling five different amounts of liquid nitrogen at different release rates and initial water temperatures. The vaporization mass fluxes of liquid nitrogen were determined directly from the mass loss measured during the experiment. A variation of initial vaporization fluxes and a subsequent shift in heat transfer mechanism were observed with changes in initial water temperature. The initial vaporization fluxes were directly dependent on the liquid nitrogen spill rate. The heat flux from water to liquid nitrogen determined from experimental data was validated with two theoretical correlations for convective boiling. It was also observed from validation with correlations that liquid nitrogen was found to be predominantly in the film boiling regime. The substantial results provide a suitable procedure for predicting the heat flux from water to cryogenic liquids that is required for source term modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Methane with Water and Methanol. Measurements and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Michael Grynnerup; Karakatsani, Eirini; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    that rely on phase equilibrium data for optimization. The objective of this work is to provide experimental data for hydrocarbon systems with polar chemicals such as alcohols, glycols, and water. New vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reported for methane + water, methane + methanol, and methane + methanol...

  11. Compact Raman Lidar Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Water Under the Influence of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiina Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact Raman lidar has been developed for studying phase changes of water in the atmosphere under the influence of ionization radiation. The Raman lidar is operated at the wavelength of 349 nm and backscattered Raman signals of liquid and vapor phase water are detected at 396 and 400 nm, respectively. Alpha particles emitted from 241Am of 9 MBq ionize air molecules in a scattering chamber, and the resulting ions lead to the formation of liquid water droplets. From the analysis of Raman signal intensities, it has been found that the increase in the liquid water Raman channel is approximately 3 times as much as the decrease in the vapor phase water Raman channel, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the Raman cross-sections. In addition, the radius of the water droplet is estimated to be 0.2 μm.

  12. Normal coordinate treatment of liquid water and calculation of vapor pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellai, B.; Van Hook, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A vibrational analysis of liquid water is reported, assuming a completely hydrogen-bonded network with continuously varying strengths of the hydrogen bonds. Frequency distribution calculations are made for intramolecular stretching and bending modes and for the intramolecular frequency region. The calculated distributions are compared with the experimental spectroscopic ones. As another test, vapor pressure isotope effects are calculated from the theoretical distributions for some isotopic water molecules. Results are compared with those of other authors obtained from a mixture model. (author)

  13. Water liquid-vapor interface subjected to various electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Mohammadreza; Azimian, Ahmad Reza; Rezaei, Majid; Nikzad, Safoora

    2017-11-01

    Investigation of the effects of E-fields on the liquid-vapor interface is essential for the study of floating water bridge and wetting phenomena. The present study employs the molecular dynamics method to investigate the effects of parallel and perpendicular E-fields on the water liquid-vapor interface. For this purpose, density distribution, number of hydrogen bonds, molecular orientation, and surface tension are examined to gain a better understanding of the interface structure. Results indicate enhancements in parallel E-field decrease the interface width and number of hydrogen bonds, while the opposite holds true in the case of perpendicular E-fields. Moreover, perpendicular fields disturb the water structure at the interface. Given that water molecules tend to be parallel to the interface plane, it is observed that perpendicular E-fields fail to realign water molecules in the field direction while the parallel ones easily do so. It is also shown that surface tension rises with increasing strength of parallel E-fields, while it reduces in the case of perpendicular E-fields. Enhancement of surface tension in the parallel field direction demonstrates how the floating water bridge forms between the beakers. Finally, it is found that application of external E-fields to the liquid-vapor interface does not lead to uniform changes in surface tension and that the liquid-vapor interfacial tension term in Young's equation should be calculated near the triple-line of the droplet. This is attributed to the multi-directional nature of the droplet surface, indicating that no constant value can be assigned to a droplet's surface tension in the presence of large electric fields.

  14. Simulation of water vapor condensation on LOX droplet surface using liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Eugene A.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of ice or water layers on liquid oxygen (LOX) droplets in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) environment was investigated. Formulation of such ice/water layers is indicated by phase-equilibrium considerations under conditions of high partial pressure of water vapor (steam) and low LOX droplet temperature prevailing in the SSME preburner or main chamber. An experimental investigation was begun using liquid nitrogen as a LOX simulant. A monodisperse liquid nitrogen droplet generator was developed which uses an acoustic driver to force the stream of liquid emerging from a capillary tube to break up into a stream of regularly space uniformly sized spherical droplets. The atmospheric pressure liquid nitrogen in the droplet generator reservoir was cooled below its boiling point to prevent two phase flow from occurring in the capillary tube. An existing steam chamber was modified for injection of liquid nitrogen droplets into atmospheric pressure superheated steam. The droplets were imaged using a stroboscopic video system and a laser shadowgraphy system. Several tests were conducted in which liquid nitrogen droplets were injected into the steam chamber. Under conditions of periodic droplet formation, images of 600 micron diameter liquid nitrogen droplets were obtained with the stroboscopic video systems.

  15. Problems of hydrogen - water vapor - inert gas mixture use in heavy liquid metal coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, V.V.; Martynov, P.N.; Gulevskij, V.A.; Teplyakov, Yu.A.; Fomin, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The reasons of slag deposit formation in circulation circuits with heavy liquid metal coolants, which can cause reactor core blockage, are considered. To prevent formation of deposits hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation circuit is used. It consists in introduction of gaseous mixtures hydrogen - water vapor - rare gas (argon or helium) directly into coolant flow. The principle scheme of hydrogen purification and the processes occurring during it are under consideration. Measures which make it completely impossible to overlap of the flow cross section of reactor core, steam generators, pumps and other equipment by lead oxides in reactor facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants are listed [ru

  16. Thermally excited capillary waves at vapor/liquid interfaces of water-alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaknin, David; Bu Wei; Sung, Jaeho; Jeon, Yoonnam; Kim, Doseok

    2009-01-01

    The density profiles of liquid/vapor interfaces of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol and propanol) mixtures were studied by surface-sensitive synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques. X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements, from the pure and mixed liquids, were analyzed in the framework of capillary wave theory to address the characteristic length scales of the intrinsic roughness and the shortest capillary wavelength (alternatively, the upper wavevector cutoff in capillary wave theory). Our results establish that the intrinsic roughness is dominated by average interatomic distances. The extracted effective upper wavevector cutoff indicates capillary wave theory breaks down at distances of the order of bulk correlation lengths.

  17. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Brooks, J Renee [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR; Dragila, Maria [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Meinzer, Rick [USDA Forest Service

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal increases in water potential ( ) and water content (WC) in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux into the soil, a process termed hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution (HR). We have previously reported HR values up to ~0.29 mm day-1 in the upper soil for a seasonally dry old-growth ponderosa pine site. However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the diurnal patterns in WC, confounding efforts to determine the actual magnitude of HR. In this study, we estimated liquid (Jl) and vapor (Jv) soil water fluxes and their impacts on quantifying HR in situ by applying existing data sets of , WC, temperature (T) and soil physical properties to soil water transport equations. Under moist conditions, Jl between layers was estimated to be larger than necessary to account for measured nocturnal increases in WC of upper soil layers. However, as soil drying progressed unsaturated hydraulic conductivity declined rapidly such that Jl was irrelevant (< 2E-06 cm hr-1 at 0-60 cm depths) to total water flux by early August. In surface soil at depths above 15 cm, large T fluctuations can impact Jv leading to uncertainty concerning the role, if any, of HR in nocturnal WC dynamics. Vapor flux was estimated to be the highest at the shallowest depths measured (20 - 30 cm) where it could contribute up to 40% of hourly increases in nocturnal soil moisture depending on thermal conditions. While both HR and net soil water flux between adjacent layers contribute to WC in the 15-65 cm soil layer, HR was the dominant process and accounted for at least 80% of the diurnal increases in WC. While the absolute magnitude of HR is not easily quantified, total diurnal fluctuations in upper soil water content can be quantified and modeled, and remain highly applicable for establishing the magnitude and temporal dynamics of total ecosystem water flux.

  18. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  19. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S Y; Lee, H

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  20. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  1. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  2. The study of water + HCl + ethanol vapor-liquid equilibrium at 78 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda Toro, Juan Carlos; Dobrosz-Gómez, Izabela; Gómez García, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Comparison between experimental and calculated saturation temperature of water + HCl + ethanol system using two rigorous electrolyte models. - Highlights: • Data for the water + HCl + ethanol VLE is reported at 78 kPa. • The VLE for the system water + HCl + ethanol was determined. • A new set of parameters for extended UNIQUAC model were correlated. • A new set of parameters for LIQUAC model were correlated. - Abstract: In this work, the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data obtained for the ternary system water + HCl + ethanol at 78 kPa, using an Ellis still, were studied. Two rigorous electrolyte models (extended UNIQUAC and LIQUAC) were fitted to the experimental data. Ethanol-H + , water-H + , ethanol-Cl − , water-Cl − , and Cl − -H + interaction parameters were determined. Likewise, Henry’s law constants for the volatile electrolyte were defined. A high goodness of fit was obtained for both electrolyte models; however, the extended UNIQUAC one showed better performance (AAD = 0.1326%). Two azeotropes observed in the system were accurately predicted (ethanol + water: x EtOH = 0.86 at 344.6 K; and HCl + water: x HCl = 0.11 at 375.5 K).

  3. Hydrated proton and hydroxide charge transfer at the liquid/vapor interface of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W., E-mail: srick@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States); Kumar, Revati [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The role of the solvated excess proton and hydroxide ions in interfacial properties is an interesting scientific question with applications in a variety of aqueous behaviors. The role that charge transfer (CT) plays in interfacial behavior is also an unsettled question. Quantum calculations are carried out on clusters of water with an excess proton or a missing proton (hydroxide) to determine their CT. The quantum results are applied to analysis of multi-state empirical valence bond trajectories. The polyatomic nature of the solvated excess proton and hydroxide ion results in directionally dependent CT, depending on whether a water molecule is a hydrogen bond donor or acceptor in relation to the ion. With polyatomic molecules, CT also depends on the intramolecular bond distances in addition to intermolecular distances. The hydrated proton and hydroxide affect water’s liquid/vapor interface in a manner similar to monatomic ions, in that they induce a hydrogen-bonding imbalance at the surface, which results in charged surface waters. This hydrogen bond imbalance, and thus the charged waters at the surface, persists until the ion is at least 10 Å away from the interface.

  4. Hydrated proton and hydroxide charge transfer at the liquid/vapor interface of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.; Kumar, Revati

    2015-01-01

    The role of the solvated excess proton and hydroxide ions in interfacial properties is an interesting scientific question with applications in a variety of aqueous behaviors. The role that charge transfer (CT) plays in interfacial behavior is also an unsettled question. Quantum calculations are carried out on clusters of water with an excess proton or a missing proton (hydroxide) to determine their CT. The quantum results are applied to analysis of multi-state empirical valence bond trajectories. The polyatomic nature of the solvated excess proton and hydroxide ion results in directionally dependent CT, depending on whether a water molecule is a hydrogen bond donor or acceptor in relation to the ion. With polyatomic molecules, CT also depends on the intramolecular bond distances in addition to intermolecular distances. The hydrated proton and hydroxide affect water’s liquid/vapor interface in a manner similar to monatomic ions, in that they induce a hydrogen-bonding imbalance at the surface, which results in charged surface waters. This hydrogen bond imbalance, and thus the charged waters at the surface, persists until the ion is at least 10 Å away from the interface

  5. Isothermal Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Quaternary Water + 2-Propanol + Acetic Acid + Isopropyl Acetate System with Chemical Reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teodorescu, M.; Aim, Karel; Wichterle, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2001), s. 261-266 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : vapor-liquid equilibrium * quaternary water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.960, year: 2001

  6. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu [Palo Alto, CA; Ly, Jennifer [San Jose, CA; Aldajani, Tiem [San Jose, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  7. Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W., E-mail: srick@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, and I{sup −}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Å away from the surface.

  8. Semiempirical self-consistent polarization description of bulk water, the liquid-vapor interface, and cubic ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdachaew, Garold; Mundy, Christopher J; Schenter, Gregory K; Laino, Teodoro; Hutter, Jürg

    2011-06-16

    We have applied an efficient electronic structure approach, the semiempirical self-consistent polarization neglect of diatomic differential overlap (SCP-NDDO) method, previously parametrized to reproduce properties of water clusters by Chang, Schenter, and Garrett [ J. Chem. Phys. 2008 , 128 , 164111 ] and now implemented in the CP2K package, to model ambient liquid water at 300 K (both the bulk and the liquid-vapor interface) and cubic ice at 15 and 250 K. The SCP-NDDO potential retains its transferability and good performance across the full range of conditions encountered in the clusters and the bulk phases of water. In particular, we obtain good results for the density, radial distribution functions, enthalpy of vaporization, self-diffusion coefficient, molecular dipole moment distribution, and hydrogen bond populations, in comparison to experimental measurements. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. X-ray studies of the liquid/vapor interface: Water and polymer and fatty acid monolayers on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossman, M.L.; Schwartz, D.K.; Kawamoto, E.H.; Kellogg, G.J.; Pershan, P.S.; Ocko, B.M.; Kim, M.W.; Chung, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray specular reflectivity is used to study the liquid-vapor interface of pure water and of fatty acid and polymer monolayers at that interface. For the pure water surface the reflectivity was measured for three different spectrometer resolutions and simultaneous fits with only one free parameter to all of the data are in excellent agreement with the prediction of capillary wave theory for the RMS surface roughness. Diffuse scattering away from the specular condition, at wavevectors corresponding to those of the capillary waves, yields intensities and line shapes in agreement with theory with no significant adjustable parameters. Reflectivity from separate monolayers of co-poly 1, 2-butadiene/butyl alcohol (50% random substitution) and lignoceric acid (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 22 COOH) at the water/vapor interface are interpreted to obtain profiles of the average electron density ρ(z) as a function of distance z along the surface normal. For the polymer monolayer we find the following: (1) a local maximum in the electron density approximately 10% larger than that of the bulk polymer and (2) the RMS roughness of the vapor/polymer interface agrees with capillary wave theory predictions for the lower surface pressures. For the highest surface pressure the RMS roughness exceeds the value predicted by the capillary wave model. Measurements of reflectivity from a lignoceric acid monolayer, as a function of surface pressure throughout an isotherm (near room temperature), reveal the following behavior: (1) the overall thickness of the monolayer increases with increasing pressure and (2) the head groups occupy a progressively larger region along the surface normal as the pressure increases, indicating that they rearrange normal to the interface. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Study of the liquid vapor equilibrium in the bromine-hydrobromic acid-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benizri, R.; Lessart, P.; Courvoisier, P.

    1984-01-01

    A glass ebullioscope was built and at atmospheric pressure, liquid-vapor equilibria relative to the Br2-HBr-H2O system, in the concentration range of interest for evaluation of the Mark 13 cycle was studied. Measurements were performed for the brome-azeotrope (HBr-H2O) pseudo-binary system and for the ternary system at temperatures lower than 125 C and in the bromine concentration range up to 13% wt.

  11. Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    The liquid-vapor equilibrium data for nitric acid and nitric acid-plutnonium nitrate-water solutions were examined to develop correlations covering the range of conditions encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing. The scanty available data for plutonium nitrate solutions are of poor quality but allow an order of magnitude estimate to be made. A formal thermodynamic analysis was attempted initially but was not successful due to the poor quality of the data as well as the complex chemical equilibria involved in the nitric acid and in the plutonium nitrate solutions. Thus, while there was no difficulty in correlating activity coefficients for nitric acid solutions over relatively narrow temperature ranges, attempts to extend the correlations over the range 25 0 C to the boiling point were not successful. The available data were then analyzed using empirical correlations from which normal boiling points and relative volatilities can be obtained over the concentration ranges 0 to 700 g/l Pu, 0 to 13 M nitric acid. Activity coefficients are required, however, if estimates of individual component vapor pressures are needed. The required ternary activity coefficients can be approximated from the correlations

  12. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  13. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm{sup −1} and a positive band centered at 1670 cm{sup −1}. We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  14. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm-1 and a positive band centered at 1670 cm-1. We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  15. Solar control on the cloud liquid water content and integrated water vapor associated with monsoon rainfall over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Adhikari, Arpita

    2014-12-01

    A long-term observation over three solar cycles indicates a perceptible influence of solar activity on rainfall and associated parameters in the Indian region. This paper attempts to reveal the solar control on the cloud liquid water content (LWC) and integrated water vapor (IWV) along with Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall during the period of 1977-2012 over nine different Indian stations. Cloud LWC and IWV are positively correlated with each other. An anti-correlation is observed between the Sunspot Number (SSN) and ISM rainfall for a majority of the stations and a poor positive correlation obtained for other locations. Cloud LWC and IWV possess positive correlations with Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and SSN respectively for most of the stations. The wavelet analyses of SSN, ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV have been performed to investigate the periodic characteristics of climatic parameters and also to indicate the varying relationship of solar activity with ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV. SSN, ISM rainfall and IWV are found to have a peak at around 10.3 years whereas a dip is observed at that particular period for cloud LWC.

  16. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling of the Propyl Mercaptan plus Methane plus Water System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Javeed; Thomsen, Kaj; Coquelet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In this work, vapor−liquid equilibrium (VLE) measurements of propyl mercaptan (PM) in pure water were performed at three different temperatures, (303, 323, and 365) K, with a pressure variation from (1 to 8) MPa. The total system pressure was maintained by CH4. The inlet mole fraction of propyl...

  17. Properties of water along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve via molecular dynamics simulations using the polarizable TIP4P-QDP-LJ water model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Brad A; Patel, Sandeep

    2009-08-28

    We present an extension of the TIP4P-QDP model, TIP4P-QDP-LJ, that is designed to couple changes in repulsive and dispersive nonbond interactions to changes in polarizability. Polarizability is intimately related to the dispersion component of classical force field models of interactions, and we explore the effect of incorporating this connection explicitly on properties along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve of pure water. Parametrized to reproduce condensed-phase liquid water properties at 298 K, the TIP4P-QDP-LJ model predicts density, enthalpy of vaporization, self-diffusion constant, and the dielectric constant at ambient conditions to about the same accuracy as TIP4P-QDP but shows remarkable improvement in reproducing the liquid-vapor coexistence curve. TIP4P-QDP-LJ predicts critical constants of T(c)=623 K, rho(c)=0.351 g/cm(3), and P(c)=250.9 atm, which are in good agreement with experimental values of T(c)=647.1 K, rho(c)=0.322 g/cm(3), and P(c)=218 atm, respectively. Applying a scaling factor correction (obtained by fitting the experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data to the law of rectilinear diameters using a three-term Wegner expansion) the model predicts critical constants (T(c)=631 K and rho(c)=0.308 g/cm(3)). Dependence of enthalpy of vaporization, self-diffusion constant, surface tension, and dielectric constant on temperature are shown to reproduce experimental trends. We also explore the interfacial potential drop across the liquid-vapor interface for the temperatures studied. The interfacial potential demonstrates little temperature dependence at lower temperatures (300-450 K) and significantly enhanced (exponential) dependence at elevated temperatures. Terms arising from the decomposition of the interfacial potential into dipole and quadrupole contributions are shown to monotonically approach zero as the temperature approaches the critical temperature. Results of this study suggest that self-consistently treating the coupling of phase

  18. Temperature distribution in the reactive jet of water vapor and liquid sodium - contribution to wastage modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, F.; Park, K.Y.; Carreau, J.L.; Gbahoue, L.; Hobbes, P.

    1984-08-01

    The possibility of water vapor leaks across the wall of one or more of the heat exchanger tubes in the steam generator constitutes one of the important problems of safety of the Fast Breeder Reactors cooled by sodium. The jet thus formed can, in fact, destroy the neighbouring tubes. The hydrodynamic, chemical and thermal factors play an important role in this phenomenon and only the last-mentionned will be studied here. The use of the integral method of analysis, complemented by an experimental study, shows that the temperature profiles are Gaussian; if the maximum temperature is less than that of the boiling point of sodium, i.e. 1155 K, and for steam flow rates less than 0,5g/s, the temperature profiles can be represented by the error function, and an approximate equation gives the difference in temperature between the jet axis and the radical far-field

  19. Vapor-liquid equilibrium ratio of trace furfural in water+1-butanol system; Mizu+1-butanorukei ni okeru biryo no furufuraru no kieki heikohi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikari, A.; Hatate, Y.; Aikou, R. [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria of a water + 1-butanol system containing a trace amount of furfural were measured at atmospheric pressure by use of a Iino-type still for systems of limited miscibility. Vapor-liquid compositions for the major components (water and 1-butanol) are shown to be nearly coincident with those of the binary system. In the partially miscible region, the vapor-liquid equilibrium ratios of the trace component (furfural) at bubble point were found to be 2.5 and 0.46. Consequently, the partition coefficient of the trace component between the two liquid phases is 5.4. The equilibrium ratio curve of the trace component is presented, in which the calculated curve within the partially miscible region is shown to be coincident with the experimental data. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture).

  1. [Coordination effect between vapor water loss through plant stomata and liquid water supply in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC): a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Min; Qi, Hua; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhang, Xuan

    2008-09-01

    Some important phenomena and behaviors concerned with the coordination effect between vapor water loss through plant stomata and liquid water supply in SPAC were discussed in this paper. A large amount of research results showed that plants show isohydric behavior when the plant hydraulic and chemical signals cooperate to promote the stomatal regulation of leaf water potential. The feedback response of stomata to the change of environmental humidity could be used to explain the midday depression of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis under drought condition, and also, to interpret the correlation between stomatal conductance and hydraulic conductance. The feed-forward response of stomata to the change of environmental humidity could be used to explain the hysteresis response of stomatal conductance to leaf-atmosphere vapor pressure deficit. The strategy for getting the most of xylem transport requires the rapid stomatal responses to avoid excess cavitation and the corresponding mechanisms for reversal of cavitation in short time.

  2. Gibbs Ensemble Simulation on Polarizable Models: Vapor-liquid Equilibrium in Baranyai-Kiss Models of Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moučka, F.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 360, DEC 25 (2013), s. 472-476 ISSN 0378-3812 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) LH12019 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : multi-particle move monte carlo * Gibbs ensemble * vapor-liquid-equilibria Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013

  3. Obtention of selective membranes for water and hydrophobic liquids by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on porous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankovic, P.; Demarquette, N.R.; Silva, M.L.P. da

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of obtaining selective membranes for water and hydrophobic liquids by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) or double layers of HMDS and n-hexane on porous substrates using a capacitive plasma reactor was investigated. The porous substrates used were paper filter, diatomite and polyester textiles. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle measurements. The membranes obtained were characterized by the Cobb test. Their efficiency to separate hydrocarbon compounds from water was evaluated through filtration experiments and Karl-Fischer titration tests. The reagents used in the filtration experiments were: chloroform, n-hexane, n-heptane, ethyl ether, benzene and diesel. XPS analysis showed that Si, N, C and O were present at the surface of the film. C peak was dominant in the double layer film spectra. C-H n , CH 2 , Si-H, Si-CH 3 , N-H, Si-CH 2 -Si, Si-N-Si and Si-C bonds were identified in both types of the films by ATR-FTIR. The relative intensities of the corresponding peaks in the two spectra were different. The XPS and FTIR results indicated that C was most likely present in a CH n form at the surface of double layer film. The average contact angles formed by drops of water on the film surface ranged from 135 deg. to 155 deg. . Water adsorption measured by Cobb test decreased from average values ranging from 300 to 9000 g m -2 (for nonmodified surfaces) to values ranging from 0 to 20 g m -2 (for treated surfaces). The Karl-Fischer titration indicated that between 90 and 1000 ppm (depending on the reagent used) of water remained in the hydrocarbon compound after filtration

  4. Ultra-trace determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water by surfactant assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction coupled with electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    A new method by coupling surfactant assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (SA-DLLME) with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) was proposed for the analysis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in environmental water samples. Effective separation of AuNPs from ionic gold species was achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. Various experimental parameters affecting SA-DLLME of AuNPs, such as the organic solvent, organic solvent volume, pH of the sample, the kind of surfactant, surfactant concentration, vortex time, speed of centrifugation, centrifugation time, and different coating as well as sizes of AuNPs were investigated carefully. Furthermore, the interference of coexisting ions, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other metal nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. Under the optimal conditions, a detection limit of 2.2 ng L- 1 and an enrichment factor of 152-fold was achieved for AuNPs, and the original morphology of the AuNPs could be maintained during the extraction process. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of AuNPs in environmental water samples, including tap water, the East Lake water, and the Yangtze River water, with recoveries in the range of 89.6-102%. Compared with the established methods for metal NPs analysis, the proposed method has the merits of simple and fast operation, low detection limit, high selectivity, good tolerance to the sample matrix and no digestion or dilution required. It provides an efficient quantification methodology for monitoring AuNPs' pollution in the environmental water and evaluating its toxicity.

  5. Experimental evidence supporting the insensitivity of cloud droplet formation to the mass accommodation coefficient for condensation of water vapor to liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Richardson, Mathews S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    The mass accommodation coefficient for uptake of water vapor to liquid water, αM, has been constrained using photoacoustic measurements of aqueous absorbing aerosol. Measurements performed over a range of relative humidities and pressures were compared to detailed model calculations treating coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during photoacoustic laser heating cycles. The strengths and weaknesses of this technique are very different to those for droplet growth/evaporation experiments that have typically been applied to these measurements, making this a useful complement to existing studies. Our measurements provide robust evidence that αM is greater than 0.1 for all humidities tested and greater than 0.3 for data obtained at relative humidities greater than 88% where the aerosol surface was most like pure water. These values of αM are above the threshold at which kinetic limitations are expected to impact the activation and growth of aerosol particles in warm cloud formation.

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibria of a minute amount of furfural in water-methanol-ethanol system; Mizu-methanol-ethanol keichu no biryo no furfural no kieki heiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikari, A.; Hatate, Y.; Uemura, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-10

    Vapor-liquid equilibria of a water-methanol-ethanol system containing a minute amount of furfural were measured at atmospheric pressure by use of an Othmer-type still. The experimental results are represented by four triangular diagrams against the liquid compositions of the major components (water, methanol and ethanol), in which three diagrams show the vapor composition of the major components, respectively, and one diagram shows the equilibrium ratio of the trace component (furfural). The curved surface of the equilibrium ratio of the trace component exhibits a gentle downward slope in most areas, but shows a half-saddle face in the neighborhood of the water-ethanol side. 4 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Rate theory of ion pairing at the water liquid-vapor interface: A case of sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liem X.; Schenter, Gregory K.

    2018-06-01

    Studies on ion pairing at interfaces have been intensified recently because of their importance in many chemical reactive phenomena, such as ion-ion interactions that are affected by interfaces and their influence on kinetic processes. In this study, we performed simulations to examine the thermodynamics and kinetics of small polarizable sodium iodide ions in the bulk and near the water liquid-vapor interface. Using classical transition state theory, we calculated the dissociation rates and corrected them with transmission coefficients obtained from the reactive flux formalism and Grote-Hynes theory. Our results show that in addition to affecting the free energy of ions in solution, the interfacial environments significantly influence the kinetics of ion pairing. The results on the relaxation time obtained using the reactive flux formalism and Grote-Hynes theory present an unequivocal picture that the interface suppresses ion dissociation. The effects of the use of molecular models on the ion interactions as well as the ion-pair configurations at the interface are also quantified and discussed.

  8. Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibria for the ternary system of (ethanol + water + 1,3-propanediol) and three constituent binary systems at P = 101.3 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Hung-Sheng; Lin, Yi-Feng; Tu, Chein-Hsiun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report VLE data at 101.3 kPa for mixtures of ethanol, water, and 1,3-propanediol. • The VLE data were correlated by the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. • The ternary VLE data were predicted from binary VLE data using the three models. • The VLE effect of 1,3-propanediol on the azeotropic ethanol + water mixture was studied. • The azeotropic point of ethanol + water disappears at 30 wt% of 1,3-propanediol. -- Abstract: Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) at P = 101.3 kPa have been measured for the ternary system of (ethanol + water + 1,3-propanediol) and for the corresponding binary systems of (ethanol + water), (ethanol + 1,3-propanediol), and (water + 1,3-propnaediol) using a Hunsmann-type equilibrium still with circulation of both vapor and liquid phases. The ternary mixtures were prepared by mixing ethanol and pure water with three concentrations (10, 30, and 50) wt% of 1,3-propanediol in the overall liquid mixtures in order to study the effect of 1,3-propanediol on the VLE of (ethanol + water). The equilibrium compositions of mixtures were analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography. The relative volatilities of ethanol with respect to water were also determined. The results of the investigation indicate the disappearance of the binary azeotrope between ethanol and water when the concentration of 1,3-propanediol is up to 30 wt%. The liquid activity coefficients were calculated using the modified Raoult’s law. The thermodynamic consistency of the VLE data was performed for the three binary systems using Van Ness direct test. The new binary and ternary VLE data were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models, for which the binary interaction parameters are reported

  9. Thermogravimetric measurements of liquid vapor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yunhong; Gregson, Christopher M.; Parker, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rapid determination of vapor pressure by TGA. ► Demonstration of limitations of currently available approaches in literature. ► New model for vapor pressure assessment of small size samples in TGA. ► New model accounts for vapor diffusion and sample geometry and measures vapor pressure normally within 10%. - Abstract: A method was developed using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the vapor pressure of volatile liquids. This is achieved by measuring the rate of evaporation (mass loss) of a pure liquid contained within a cylindrical pan. The influence of factors like sample geometry and vapor diffusion on evaporation rate are discussed. The measurement can be performed across a wide range of temperature yielding reasonable results up to 10 kPa. This approach may be useful as a rapid and automatable method for measuring the volatility of flavor and fragrance raw materials.

  10. Synthesis of diamond films by pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of acetone and water as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatiga, L.M.; Morales, J.

    2009-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition reactor based on the flash evaporation of an organic liquid precursor was used to grow diamond films on Si substrates. An effective pulsed liquid injection mechanism consisting of an injector, normally used for fuel injection in internal combustion engines, injects micro-doses of the precursor to the evaporation zone at 280 o C and is instantly evaporated. The resulting vapor mixture is transported by a carrier gas to the high-temperature reaction chamber where the diamond nucleates and grows on the substrate surface at temperatures ranging from 750 to 850 o C. The injection frequency, opening time, number of pulses and other injector parameters are controlled by a computer-driven system. The diamond film morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The as-deposited diamond films show a ball-shaped morphology with a grain size that varies from 100 to 400 nm, as well as the characteristic diamond Raman band at 1332 cm -1 . The effects of the experimental parameters and operation principle on the diamond films quality are analyzed and discussed in terms of crystallinity, composition, structure, and morphology.

  11. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  12. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the extractive distillation of 2-propanol + water mixtures using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchillés, A. Vicent; Miguel, Pablo J.; González-Alfaro, Vicenta; Llopis, Francisco J.; Vercher, Ernesto; Martínez-Andreu, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VLE of binary and ternary systems of 2-propanol, water and [emim][DCA] at 100 kPa. • The e-NRTL model fits the VLE data of 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] system. • [emim][DCA] breaks the 2-propanol + water azeotrope at an IL mole fraction >0.085. - Abstract: Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibria for the binary systems 2-propanol + water, 2-propanol + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][DCA]), and water + [emim][DCA] as well as the vapor–liquid equilibria for the 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] ternary system have been obtained at 100 kPa using a recirculating still. The electrolyte nonrandom two-liquid (e-NRTL) model was used for fitting successfully the experimental data. The effect of [emim][DCA] on the 2-propanol + water system has been compared with that produced by other ionic liquids reported in the literature. From the results, [emim][DCA] appears as a good entrainer for the extractive distillation of this solvent mixture, causing the azeotrope to disappear at 100 kPa when the ionic liquid mole fraction is greater than 0.085.

  13. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Estefanía M; Bertón, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF(6)]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 microl of 9.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3ngL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 microg L(-1) Hg(2+) was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  14. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A.; Altamirano, Jorgelina C.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2009-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 μl of 9.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 μg L -1 Hg 2+ was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  15. Experimental study of vapor explosion of molten salt and low boiling point liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Takeo

    1987-01-01

    Fundamental study of vapor explosion using small drops of high temperature liquid and low boiling point liquid and a series of small-scale vapor explosion tests are carried out. A single or plural drops of molten LiNO 3 are dropped into ethyl alcohol and the temperature range of two liquids wherein the fragmentation occurs is examined. The propagation phenomenon of vapor explosion between two drops is photographed and the pressure trace is proved to be well consistent with the behavior of the vapor bubble regions. A small amount of molten Flinak and tin which are enclosed in a test tube is dropped into tapped water. The temperature effect of two liquids onto the occurrence of vapor explosion is investigated. Some considerations are made with respect to the upper and lower temperature limits of vapor explosion to occur. A qualitative modeling of vapor explosion mechanism is proposed and discussed. (author)

  16. Numerical Simulation of Vapor Bubble Growth and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Jia, Tao; Xiu-Lan, Huai; Zhi-Gang, Li

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubble growth in a thin liquid film, movement of the interface between two fluids and the surface heat transfer characteristics. The model takes into account the effects of phase change between the vapor and liquid, gravity, surface tension and viscosity. The details of the multiphase now and heat transfer are discussed for two cases: (1) when a water micro-droplet impacts a thin liquid film with a vapor bubble growing and (2) when the vapor bubble grows and merges with the vapor layer above the liquid film without the droplet impacting. The development trend of the interface between the vapor and liquid is coincident qualitatively with the available literature, mostly at the first stage. We also provide an important method to better understand the mechanism of nucleate spray cooling. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  17. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  18. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  19. Vapor-Liquid Sol-Gel Approach to Fabricating Highly Durable and Robust Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane@Silica Surface on Polyester Textile for Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.

  20. Extended UNIQUAC Model for Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Aqueous Salt Systems Containing Non-Electrolytes. Part B. Alcohol (Ethanol, Propanols, Butanols) - Water-salt systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Rasmussen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte solutions is an excess Gibbs energy function consisting of a Debye-Huckel term and a term corresponding to the UNIQUAC equation. For vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, the fugacities of gas-phase components are calculated with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong......The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte solutions is an excess Gibbs energy function consisting of a Debye-Huckel term and a term corresponding to the UNIQUAC equation. For vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, the fugacities of gas-phase components are calculated with the Soave...... solid-liquid-vapor equilibrium and thermal property data for strongly non-ideal systems. In this work, the model is extended to aqueous salt systems containing higher alcohols. The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data, vapor liquid equilibrium data...

  1. Development of analytical model for condensation of vapor mixture of nitric acid and water affected volatilized ruthenium behavior in accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of reprocessed high level liquid waste at fuel reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high level liquid waste is postulated as one of the severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, continuous vaporing of nitric acid and water leads to increase Ru volatilization in liquid waste temperature over 120degC at later boiling and dry out phases. It has been observed at the experiments with actual and synthetic liquid waste that some amount of Ru volatilizes and transfers into condensed nitric acid solution at those phases. The nitric acid and water vapor flowing from waste tank are expected to condense at compartments of actual facilities building. The volatilized Ru could transfer into condensed liquid. It is key issues for quantifying the amount of transferred Ru through the facility building to simulate these thermodynamic and chemical behaviors. An analytical model has been proposed in this report based on the condensation mechanisms of nitric acid and water in vapor-liquid equilibria. It has been also carried out for the proposed model being feasible to formulate the activity coefficients and to review the thermodynamic properties of nitric acid solution. Practicability of the proposed analytical model has been shown successfully through the feasibility study with simulation of an experiment result. (author)

  2. Methylmercury in water samples at the pg/L level by online preconcentration liquid chromatography cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombach, Christoph-Cornelius; Chen, Bin; Corns, Warren T.; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-traces of methylmercury at the sub-ppt level can be magnified in the foodweb and is of concern. In environmental monitoring a routine robust analytical method is needed to determine methylmercury in water. The development of an analytical method for ultra-trace speciation analysis of methylmercury (MeHg) in water samples is described. The approach is based on HPLC-CV-AFS with on-line preconcentration of water samples up to 200 mL, resulting in a detection limit of 40 pg/L (ppq) for MeHg, expressed as Hg. The unit consists of an optimized preconcentration column filled with a sulfur-based sorption material, on which mercury species are preconcentrated and subsequently eluted, separated and detected via HPLC-CV-AFS (high performance liquid chromatography–cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry). During the method development a type of adsorbate material, the pH dependence, the sample load rate and the carry-over were investigated using breakthrough experiments. The method shows broad pH stability in the range of pH 0 to 7, without the need for buffer addition and shows limited matrix effects so that MeHg is quantitatively recovered from sewage, river and seawater directly in the acidified samples without sample preparation. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that a novel mixture of thiourea-thiolsilica shows an excellent trapping of MeHg between a broad pH range 1–6. • We develop the method so that it can potentially be automated for inorganic and methyl-mercury. • The method is matrix independent with highly accurate results for MeHg in hair CRM extracts and spiked water samples • The limit of detection is around 40 pg/L when just 200 mL sample is used, without any intensive preparation

  3. Methylmercury in water samples at the pg/L level by online preconcentration liquid chromatography cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombach, Christoph-Cornelius [Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Meston Walk, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Chen, Bin; Corns, Warren T. [PS Analytical, Arthur House, Crayfields Industrial Estate, Main Road, Orpington, Kent BR5 3HP (United Kingdom); Feldmann, Jörg [Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Meston Walk, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Krupp, Eva M., E-mail: e.krupp@abdn.ac.uk [Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Meston Walk, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-traces of methylmercury at the sub-ppt level can be magnified in the foodweb and is of concern. In environmental monitoring a routine robust analytical method is needed to determine methylmercury in water. The development of an analytical method for ultra-trace speciation analysis of methylmercury (MeHg) in water samples is described. The approach is based on HPLC-CV-AFS with on-line preconcentration of water samples up to 200 mL, resulting in a detection limit of 40 pg/L (ppq) for MeHg, expressed as Hg. The unit consists of an optimized preconcentration column filled with a sulfur-based sorption material, on which mercury species are preconcentrated and subsequently eluted, separated and detected via HPLC-CV-AFS (high performance liquid chromatography–cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry). During the method development a type of adsorbate material, the pH dependence, the sample load rate and the carry-over were investigated using breakthrough experiments. The method shows broad pH stability in the range of pH 0 to 7, without the need for buffer addition and shows limited matrix effects so that MeHg is quantitatively recovered from sewage, river and seawater directly in the acidified samples without sample preparation. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that a novel mixture of thiourea-thiolsilica shows an excellent trapping of MeHg between a broad pH range 1–6. • We develop the method so that it can potentially be automated for inorganic and methyl-mercury. • The method is matrix independent with highly accurate results for MeHg in hair CRM extracts and spiked water samples • The limit of detection is around 40 pg/L when just 200 mL sample is used, without any intensive preparation.

  4. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of systems containing ethylene glycol, water and methane - Experimental measurements and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Berg, Ole J.; Solbraa, Even

    2007-01-01

    This work presents new experimental phase equilibrium measurements of the binary MEG-methane and the ternary MEG-water-methane system at low temperatures and high pressures which are of interest to applications related to natural gas processing. Emphasis is given to MEG and water solubility...... measurements in the gas phase. The CPA and SRK EoS, the latter using either conventional or EoS/G(E) mixing rules are used to predict the solubility of the heavy components in the gas phase. It is concluded that CPA and SRK using the Huron-Vidal mixing rule perform equally satisfactory, while CPA requires...

  5. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.

    2001-05-08

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  6. Methyl and Pentyl Chloride in a Microhydrated Environment and at the Liquid Water-Vapor Interface: A Theoretical Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašalič, H.; Roeselová, Martina; Lischka, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 8 (2011), s. 1807-1816 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09064; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/10/1724 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alkyl halides * air-water interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  7. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  8. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  9. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit

    2014-09-18

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  10. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit; Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  11. Synchrotron X-ray studies of liquid-vapor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The density profile ρ(z) across a liquid-vapor interface may be determined by the reflectivity R(θ) of X-rays at grazing angle incidence θ. The relation between R(θ) and ρ(z) is discussed, and experimental examples illustrating thermal roughness of simple liquids and smectic layering of liquid...

  12. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  13. Calculating the enthalpy of vaporization for ionic liquid clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Manish S; Maginn, Edward J

    2007-08-16

    Classical atomistic simulations are used to compute the enthalpy of vaporization of a series of ionic liquids composed of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion. The calculations show that the enthalpy of vaporization is lowest for neutral ion pairs. The enthalpy of vaporization increases by about 40 kJ/mol with the addition of each ion pair to the vaporizing cluster. Non-neutral clusters have much higher vaporization enthalpies than their neutral counterparts and thus are not expected to make up a significant fraction of volatile species. The enthalpy of vaporization increases slightly as the cation alkyl chain length increases and as temperature decreases. The calculated vaporization enthalpies are consistent with two sets of recent experimental measurements as well as with previous atomistic simulations.

  14. Physical and mathematical modeling of diesel fuel liquid and vapor movement in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.; Kreamer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional physical modeling of diesel fuel leaks was conducted in sand tanks to determine liquid and vapor migration characteristics. Mathematical modeling provided estimation of vapor concentrations at discrete times and distances from the vapor source and was compared to the physical experiment. The mathematical gaseous diffusion model was analogous to the Theis equation for ground-water flow, accounted for sorptive effects of the media, and was calibrated using measured concentrations from the sand tank. Mathematically different positions of the vapor source were tested to better relate observed liquid flow rates and media configuration to gaseous concentrations. The calculated diffusion parameters were then used to estimate theoretical, three-dimensional vapor transport from a hypothetical liquid leak of 2.0 1/hr for 30 days. The associated three-dimensional vapor plume, which would be reasonably detectable by commercially available vadose zone monitors, was estimated to have a diameter of 8 m with a vapor concentration of 50 ppm at the outside edge of the vapor plume. A careful application of the method and values can be used to give a first approximation to the number of vapor monitors required at a field site as well as the optimal locations for the monitors

  15. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  16. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products spanning the 1987/1988 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...

  17. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  18. Non-equilibrium phenomena near vapor-liquid interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kryukov, Alexei; Puzina, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    This book presents information on the development of a non-equilibrium approach to the study of heat and mass transfer problems using vapor-liquid interfaces, and demonstrates its application to a broad range of problems. In the process, the following peculiarities become apparent: 1. At vapor condensation on the interface from gas-vapor mixture, non-condensable components can lock up the interface surface and condensation stops completely. 2. At the evolution of vapor film on the heater in superfluid helium (He-II), the boiling mass flux density from the vapor-liquid interface is effectively zero at the macroscopic scale. 3. In problems concerning the motion of He-II bridges inside capillaries filled by vapor, in the presence of axial heat flux the He-II bridge cannot move from the heater as would a traditional liquid, but in the opposite direction instead. Thus the heater attracts the superfluid helium bridge. 4. The shape of liquid-vapor interface at film boiling on the axis-symmetric heaters immersed in l...

  19. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1995-01-01

    Data have been reviewed to obtain thermodynamically consistent equations for thermodynamic and transport properties of saturated sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed include: enthalpy, heat capacity at constant pressure, heat capacity at constant volume, vapor pressure, boiling point, enthalpy of vaporization, density, thermal expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibility, speed of sound, critical parameters, and surface tension. Transport properties of liquid sodium that have been assessed include: viscosity and thermal conductivity. For each property, recommended values and their uncertainties are graphed and tabulated as functions of temperature. Detailed discussions of the analyses and determinations of the recommended equations include comparisons with recommendations given in other assessments and explanations of consistency requirements. The rationale and methods used in determining the uncertainties in the recommended values are also discussed

  20. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  1. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  2. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  3. Detection of water vapor on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1975-01-01

    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectroscopic observations of Jupiter at 5 microns from the NASA 91.5 cm airborne infrared telescope have revealed 14 absorptions assigned to the rotation-vibration spectrum of water vapor. Preliminary analysis indicates a mixing ratio about 1 millionth for the vapor phase of water. Estimates of temperature (greater than about 300 K) and pressure (less than 20 atm) suggest observation of water deep in Jupiter's hot spots responsible for its 5 micron flux. Model-atmosphere calculations based on radiative-transfer theory may change these initial estimates and provide a better physical picture of Jupiter's atmosphere below the visible cloud tops.

  4. Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmany, Andrew

    2006-11-09

    Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

  5. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  6. Molecular interpretation of Trouton's and Hildebrand's rules for the entropy of vaporization of a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, James A.; Irudayam, Sheeba Jem; Henchman, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A method to calculate a liquid's entropy of vaporization is proposed. → The entropy of vaporisation depends on force magnitudes from computer simulation. → Calculated values agree with experiment, Trouton's rule and Hildebrand's rule. → Free volumes decrease for larger molecules or those with stronger interactions. - Abstract: The entropy of vaporization at a liquid's boiling point is well approximated by Trouton's rule and even more accurately by Hildebrand's rule. A cell method is used here to calculate the entropy of vaporization for a range of liquids by subtracting the entropy of the gas from that of the liquid. The liquid's entropy is calculated from the force magnitudes measured in a molecular dynamics simulation based on the harmonic approximation. The change in rotational entropy is not accounted for except in the case of liquid water. The predicted entropies of vaporization agree well with experiment and Trouton's and Hildebrand's rules for most liquids and for water except other liquids with hydrogen bonds. This supports the idea that molecular rotation is close to ideal at a liquid's boiling point if hydrogen bonds are absent; if they are present, then the rotational entropy gain must be included. The method provides a molecular interpretation of those rules by providing an equation in terms of a molecule's free volume in a liquid which depends on the force magnitudes. Free volumes at each liquid's boiling point are calculated to be ∼1 A 3 for liquids lacking hydrogen bonds, lower at ∼0.3 A 3 for those with hydrogen bonds, and they decrease weakly with increasing molecular size.

  7. Shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangju ZHAO; Fei WANG; Hong GAO; Jingwen TANG; Yuexiang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    The shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in a pressure-gain steam injector is studied by build-ing a mathematic model and making calculations. The results show that after the shock, the vapor is nearly com-pletely condensed. The upstream Mach number and the volume ratio of vapor have a great effect on the shock. The pressure and Mach number of two-phase shock con-form to the shock of ideal gas. The analysis of available energy shows that the shock is an irreversible process with entropy increase.

  8. On the vapor-liquid equilibrium in hydroprocessing reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Munteanu, M.; Farooqi, H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    When petroleum distillates undergo hydrotreating and hydrocracking, the feedstock and hydrogen pass through trickle-bed catalytic reactors at high temperatures and pressures with large hydrogen flow. As such, the oil is partially vaporized and the hydrogen is partially dissolved in liquid to form a vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) system with both vapor and liquid phases containing oil and hydrogen. This may result in considerable changes in flow rates, physical properties and chemical compositions of both phases. Flow dynamics, mass transfer, heat transfer and reaction kinetics may also be modified. Experimental observations of VLE behaviours in distillates with different feedstocks under a range of operating conditions were presented. In addition, VLE was predicted along with its effects on distillates in pilot and commercial scale plants. tabs., figs.

  9. Molecular dynamics study on condensation/evaporation coefficients of chain molecules at liquid-vapor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Gyoko; Takematsu, Masaki; Mizuguchi, Hirotaka; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    2015-07-07

    The structure and thermodynamic properties of the liquid-vapor interface are of fundamental interest for numerous technological implications. For simple molecules, e.g., argon and water, the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior depends strongly on their translational motion and the system temperature. Existing molecular dynamics (MD) results are consistent with the theoretical predictions based on the assumption that the liquid and vapor states in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interface are isotropic. Additionally, similar molecular condensation/evaporation characteristics have been found for long-chain molecules, e.g., dodecane. It is unclear, however, whether the isotropic assumption is valid and whether the molecular orientation or the chain length of the molecules affects the condensation/evaporation behavior at the liquid-vapor interface. In this study, MD simulations were performed to study the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior of the straight-chain alkanes, i.e., butane, octane, and dodecane, at the liquid-vapor interface, and the effects of the molecular orientation and chain length were investigated in equilibrium systems. The results showed that the condensation/evaporation behavior of chain molecules primarily depends on the molecular translational energy and the surface temperature and is independent of the molecular chain length. Furthermore, the orientation at the liquid-vapor interface was disordered when the surface temperature was sufficiently higher than the triple point and had no significant effect on the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior. The validity of the isotropic assumption was confirmed, and we conclude that the condensation/evaporation coefficients can be predicted by the liquid-to-vapor translational length ratio, even for chain molecules.

  10. Correlations between water-soluble organic aerosol and water vapor: a synergistic effect from biogenic emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Christopher J; Bergin, Michael H; Weber, Rodney J

    2008-12-15

    Ground-based measurements of meteorological parameters and water-soluble organic carbon in the gas(WSOCg) and particle (WSOCp) phases were carried out in Atlanta, Georgia, from May to September 2007. Fourteen separate events were observed throughout the summer in which WSOCp and water vapor concentrations were highly correlated (average WSOCp-water vapor r = 0.92); however, for the entire summer, no well-defined relationship existed between the two. The correlation events, which lasted on average 19 h, were characterized by a wide range of WSOCp and water vapor concentrations. Several hypotheses for the correlation are explored, including heterogeneous liquid phase SOA formation and the co-emission of biogenic VOCs and water vapor. The data provide supporting evidence for contributions from both and suggest the possibility of a synergistic effect between the co-emission of water vapor and VOCs from biogenic sources on SOA formation. Median WSOCp concentrations were also correlated with elemental carbon (EC), although this correlation extended over the entire summer. Despite the emission of water vapor from anthropogenic mobile sources and the WSOCp-EC correlation, mobile sources were not considered a potential cause for the WSOCp-water vapor correlations because of their low contribution to the water vapor budget. Meteorology could perhaps have influenced the WSOCp-EC correlation, but other factors are implicated as well. Overall, the results suggest that the temperature-dependent co-emission of water vapor through evapotranspiration and SOA precursor-VOCs by vegetation may be an important process contributing to SOA in some environments.

  11. Vapor bubble growth in highly superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamics of the bubble growth in the volume of the uniformally superheated liquid is considered. It is supposed that its growth is hampered by heat transfer. An asymptotic expression for the bubble growth rate at high superheatings when heat hold by liquid is comparable with heat of steam formation, is found by the automodel solution of the heat transfer equation. Writing the radius square in the form of a functional applicable for the calculation of steam formation at the pressure change in superheated liquid is suggested for eveluation calculations [ru

  12. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  13. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  14. Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

  15. Combination downflow-upflow vapor-liquid separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, John H. (Uniontown, OH); Prueter, William P. (Alliance, OH); Eaton, Andrew M. (Alliance, OH)

    1987-03-10

    An improved vapor-liquid separator having a vertically disposed conduit for flow of a mixture. A first, second and third plurality of curved arms penetrate and extend within the conduit. A cylindrical member is radially spaced from the conduit forming an annulus therewith and having perforations and a retaining lip at its upper end.

  16. Combination downflow-upflow vapor-liquid separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.H.; Prueter, W.P.; Eaton, A.M.

    1987-03-10

    An improved vapor-liquid separator is described having a vertically disposed conduit for flow of a mixture. A first, second and third plurality of curved arms penetrate and extend within the conduit. A cylindrical member is radially spaced from the conduit forming an annulus therewith and having perforations and a retaining lip at its upper end. 11 figs.

  17. Apparatus of vaporizing and condensing liquid radioactive wastes and its operation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiromitsu; Tajima, Fumio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent corrosion of material for a vapor-condenser and a vapor heater and to prevent radioactive contamination of heated vapor. Structure: Liquid waste is fed from a liquid feeding tank to a vapor-condenser to vaporize and condense the waste. Uncondensed liquid waste, which is not in a level of a given density, is temporally stored in a batch tank through a switching valve and a pipe. Prior to successive feeding from the liquid feeding tank, the uncondensed liquid waste within the batch tank is returned by a return pump to the condenser, after which a new liquid is fed from the liquid feeding tank for re-vaporization and condensation in the vapor-condenser. Then, similar operation is repeated until the uncondensed liquid waste assumes a given density, and when the uncondensed liquid waste reaches a given density, the condensed liquid waste is discharged into the storage tank through the switching valve. (Ohara, T.)

  18. Modeling of vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria in binary mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzabar, Nir; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vapor compression and Joule–Thomson (JT) cycles provide cooling power at the boiling temperatures of the refrigerants. Maintaining a fixed pressure in the evaporator allows for a stable cooling temperature at the boiling point of a pure refrigerant. In these coolers enhanced cooling power can be

  19. Development of backward equations T(p,h), T(p,s) and p(h,s) for heavy water liquid and vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick P Petropoulos; Simos E Simopoulos

    2005-01-01

    equations can be used for the calculation of very accurate starting values. Charts included in this work comprehensively present the absolute deviations of heavy water temperatures and pressures calculated using the developed functions from the temperatures and pressures calculated iteratively from the heavy water equations of state. Use of all three developed equations should be explicitly limited within their validity range provided for liquid and steam. References: [1] 'The IAPS Formulation 1984 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Heavy Water Substance', The 10. International Conference on the Properties of Steam, Moscow, USSR, 1984. [2] Wagner W., Cooper J.R., Dittmann A., Kijima J., Kretzschmar H.-J., Kruse A., Mares R., Oguchi K., Sato H., Stoecker I, Sifner O, Takaishi Y., Tanishita I., Truebenbach J., Willkommen Th., 'The IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam', Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 122:150-182, 2000. (authors)

  20. Exchange reaction between tritiated hydrogen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koichi; Takano, Kenichi; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange reaction of tritiated hydrogen to water vapor under the condition of tritium gas concentration between 1 μCi/l and 1 mCi/l was studied. Tritium gas with hydrogen gas of 5 Torr and water of 20 mg were enclosed in a Pyrex glass ampule with volume of about 100 ml. The mixed gas with water vapor was heated with electric furnace. The heating time was between 2 and 100 hr, and the temperature was 776, 725, 675, 621, and 570.5 0 K. After heating, tritiated water was trapped with liquid nitrogen, and counted with a liquid scintillation counter. The radioactive concentration of initial tritiated hydrogen was measured with a calibrated ionization chamber. The main results obtained are as follows; 1) the concentration of produced tritiated water is well proportioned to that of initial tritiated hydrogen, 2) the activation energy of exchange reaction from tritiated hydrogen to tritiated water is 26.2 kcal/mol and that of inverse reaction is 27.4 kcal/mol, 3) the reaction rate at room temperature which calculated with activation energy is 1.04 x 10 -13 day -1 , and then exchange reaction at room temperature is negligible. (author)

  1. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  2. (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the binary systems {l_brace}water + glycerol{r_brace} and {l_brace}ethanol + glycerol, ethyl stearate, and ethyl palmitate{r_brace} at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Renata; Santos, Priscilla G. dos; Mafra, Marcos R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Corazza, Marcos L., E-mail: corazza@ufpr.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measured VLE for the binary system {l_brace}ethyl stearate and palmitate + ethanol{r_brace}. > The boiling temperatures were obtained using Othmer-type ebuliometer. > The experimental data were modeled using NRTL, UNIQUAC, and UNIFAC models. - Abstract: This work reports the experimental measurements {l_brace}(vapor + liquid) equilibrium{r_brace} for the systems {l_brace}water(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl stearate(2){r_brace}, and {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl palmitate(2){r_brace}. Boiling temperatures were measured using an Othmer-type ebulliometer over a pressure range of 14 kPa to 96 kPa. The experimental data were well correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The performance of the UNIFAC-Dortmund model in relation to predicting the phase equilibrium of the systems was also studied.

  3. Harvesting liquid from unsaturated vapor - nanoflows induced by capillary condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Olivier; Marguet, Bastien; Stroock, Abraham

    2016-11-01

    A vapor, even subsaturated, can spontaneously form liquid in nanoscale spaces. This process, known as capillary condensation, plays a fundamental role in various contexts, such as the formation of clouds or the dynamics of hydrocarbons in the geological subsurface. However, large uncertainties remain on the thermodynamics and fluid mechanics of the phenomenon, due to experimental challenges as well as outstanding questions about the validity of macroscale physics at the nanometer scale. We studied experimentally the spatio-temporal dynamics of water condensation in a model nanoporous medium (pore radius 2 nm), taking advantage of the color change of the material upon hydration. We found that at low relative humidities ( 60 % RH, driven by a balance between the pore capillary pressure and the condensation stress given by Kelvin equation. Further analyzing the imbibition dynamics as a function of saturation allowed us to extract detailed information about the physics of nano-confined fluids. Our results suggest excellent extension of macroscale fluid dynamics and thermodynamics even in pores 10 molecules in diameter.

  4. Improved cell for water-vapor electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous-flow electrolytic cells decompose water vapor in steam and room air into hydrogen and oxygen. Sintered iridium oxide catalytic anode coating yields dissociation rates hundredfold greater than those obtained using platinum black. Cell consists of two mirror-image cells, with dual cathode sandwiched between two anodes. Gas traverses serpentine channels within cell and is dissociated at anode. Oxygen mingles with gas stream, while hydrogen migrates through porous matrix and is liberated as gas at cathode.

  5. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  6. Water: The Strangest Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2009-02-24

    Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

  7. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of test, the diode detectors were operated in the square-law region, and a K-band noise diode was used as the broadband input power source to the CWVR over a period of 64 hours. Results indicate that the fluctuations in output counts are negatively correlated to the CWVR enclosure ambient temperature, with a change of ~ 405 counts per 1° C change in temperature.A correction for the CWVR ambient temperature makes a considerable improvement in stability for τ > 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  8. Wavelength dependence of liquid-vapor interfacial tension of Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxu; Yang Bin; Rice, Stuart A.; Lin Binhua; Meron, Mati; Gebhardt, Jeff; Graber, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The wave-vector dependence of the liquid-vapor interfacial tension of Ga, γ(q), has been determined from diffuse x-ray scattering measurements. The ratio γ(q)/γ(0)=1 for q -1 decreases to 0.5 near q=0.22 Angstrom -1 , and increases strongly for larger q. The observed form for γ(q)/γ(0) is consistent with the prediction from the Mecke-Dietrich theory when the known stratified liquid-vapor interfacial density profile of Ga and a pseudopotential based pair interaction with appropriate asymptotic (r→∞) behavior are used. The detailed behavior of γ(q)/γ(0) depends on the particular forms of both the interfacial density profile and the asymptotic falloff of the atomic pair interaction

  9. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  10. Reaction rate constant for uranium in water and water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    The literature on uranium oxidation in water and oxygen free water vapor was reviewed. Arrhenius rate equations were developed from the review data. These data and equations will be used as a baseline from which to compare reaction rates measured for K Basin fuel.

  11. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Etch of Semiconductor Surface Channels by Running Gold Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Babak; Herzing, Andrew; Muramoto, Shin; Tersoff, Jerry

    2015-12-09

    We show that Au nanoparticles spontaneously move across the (001) surface of InP, InAs, and GaP when heated in the presence of water vapor. As they move, the particles etch crystallographically aligned grooves into the surface. We show that this process is a negative analogue of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires: the semiconductor dissolves into the catalyst and reacts with water vapor at the catalyst surface to create volatile oxides, depleting the dissolved cations and anions and thus sustaining the dissolution process. This VLS etching process provides a new tool for directed assembly of structures with sublithographic dimensions, as small as a few nanometers in diameter. Au particles above 100 nm in size do not exhibit this process but remain stationary, with oxide accumulating around the particles.

  12. Vapor Pressure Plus: An Experiment for Studying Phase Equilibria in Water, with Observation of Supercooling, Spontaneous Freezing, and the Triple Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and solid-liquid-vapor equilibria are studied for the pure substance water, using modern equipment that includes specially fabricated glass cells. Samples are evaporatively frozen initially, during which they typically supercool to -5 to -10 [degrees]C before spontaneously freezing. Vacuum pumping lowers the temperature…

  13. Gas scavenging of insoluble vapors: Condensation of methyl salicylate vapor onto evaporating drops of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, Mark; Peele, J. R.; Rubel, Glenn O.

    We have observed the evaporation of acoustically levitated water drops at 0 and 32% relative humidity in a moving gas stream which is nearly saturated with methyl salicylate vapor. The initial evaporation rate is characteristic of a pure water drop and gradually slows until the evaporation rate becomes that of pure methyl salicylate. The quantity of condensed methyl salicylate exceeds its Henry's law solubility in water by factors of more than 30-50. This apparent violation of Henry's law agrees with the concentration enhancements in the liquid phase found by glotfelty et al. (1987, Nature235, 602-605) during their field measurements of organophorus pesticides in fog water. Under our conditions, visual evidence demonstrates the presence of two liquid phases, thus invalidating the use of Henry's law. A continuum evaporation-condensation model for an immiscible two-component system which accounts for evaporative self-cooling of the drop correctly predicts the amount of methyl salicylate condensed onto the water drops.

  14. Water Phase Diagram Is Significantly Altered by Imidazolium Ionic Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    We report unusually large changes in the boiling temperature, saturated vapor pressure, and structure of the liquid-vapor interface for a range of 1-butyl-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1IM][BF4]-water mixtures. Even modest molar fractions of [C4C1IM][BF4] significantly affect the phase behavior...... of water, as represented, for instance, by strong negative deviations from Raoult's law, extending far beyond the standard descriptions. The investigation was carried out using classical molecular dynamics employing a specifically refined force field. The changes in the liquid-vapor interface and saturated...

  15. Behavior of hydroxide at the water/vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Bernd; Faubel, Manfred; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxide and hydronium, which represent the ionic products of water autolysis, exhibit a peculiar surface behavior. While consensus has been established that the concentration of hydronium cations is enhanced at the surface with respect to the bulk, the affinity of hydroxide anions for the water/vapor interface has been a subject of an ongoing controversy. On the one hand, electrophoretic and titration measurements of air bubbles or oil droplets in water have been interpreted in terms of a dramatic interfacial accumulation of OH -. On the other hand, surface-selective non-linear spectroscopies, surface tension measurements, and molecular simulations show no or at most a weak surface affinity of hydroxide ions. Here, we summarize the current situation and provide new evidence for the lack of appreciable surface enhancement of OH -, based on photoelectron spectroscopy from a liquid jet and on molecular dynamics simulations with polarizable potentials at varying hydroxide concentrations.

  16. Modeling vapor-liquid interfaces with the gradient theory in combination with the CPA equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Miqueu, C; Marrucho, IM

    2005-01-01

    and the correct phase equilibrium of water + hydrocarbon systems already obtained from CPA. In this work, preliminary studies involving the vapor-liquid interfacial tensions of some selected associating and non-associating pure components (water, ethanol, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane) are presented...

  17. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  18. Thermophysical properties of hydrogen along the liquid-vapor coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, S. M.; Sulaiman, N.; Bahaa Khedr, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present Theoretical Calculations for the Liquid-Vapor Coexistence (LVC) curve of fluid Hydrogen within the first order perturbation theory with a suitable first order quantum correction to the free energy. In the present equation of state, we incorporate the dimerization of H2 molecule by treating the fluid as a hard convex body fluid. The thermophysical properties of fluid H2 along the LVC curve, including the pressure-temperature dependence, density-temperature asymmetry, volume expansivity, entropy and enthalpy, are calculated and compared with computer simulation and empirical results.

  19. Water Vapor Remote Sensing Techniques: Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.

    The high variability of atmospheric water vapor content plays an important role in space geodesy, climatology and meteorology. Water vapor has a strong influence on transatmospheric satellite signals, the Earth's climate and thus the weather forecasting. Several remote sensing techniques have been developed for the determination of inte- grated precipitable water vapor (IPWV). The Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL) utilizes the methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry to quantify the amount of tropospheric water vapor and its temporal variations. The Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) measures the radiation intensity of the atmosphere in a frequency band ranging from 20 to 32 GHz. The Solar Atmospheric MOnitoring Spectrome- ter (SAMOS) of GGL is designed for high-resolution measurements of water vapor absorption lines using solar radiation. In the framework of the ESCOMPTE (ExpÊrience sur Site pour COntraindre les Mod- Éles de Pollution atmosphÊrique et de Transport d'Emissions) field campaign these instruments have been operated near Marseille in 2001. They have aquired a long time series of integrated precipitable water vapor content (IPWV). The accuracy of IPWV measured by WVR and SAMOS is 1 kg/m2. Furthermore meteorological data from radiosondes were used to calculate the IPWV in order to provide comparisons with the results of WVR and SAMOS. The methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and So- lar Spectrometry will be discussed and first preliminary results retrieved from WVR, SAMOS and radiosondes during the ESCOMPTE field campaign will be presented.

  20. Water vapor permeabilities through polymers: diffusivities from experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seethamraju, Sindhu; Ramamurthy, Praveen Chandrashekarapura; Madras, Giridhar

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally determines water vapor permeabilities, which are subsequently correlated with the diffusivities obtained from simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used for determining the diffusion of water vapor in various polymeric systems such as polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (vinyl acetate), poly (vinyl butyral), poly (vinylidene chloride), poly (vinyl chloride) and poly (methyl methacrylate). Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) based methodology has been used to determine the water vapor transmission rates. These values were then used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for water vapor through these polymers. A comparative analysis is provided for diffusivities calculated from CRDS and MD based results by correlating the free volumes. (paper)

  1. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  2. The Planck-Benzinger thermal work function in the condensation of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Paul W.

    Based on the Planck-Benzinger thermal work function using Chun's method, the innate temperature-invariant enthalpy at 0 K, ?H0(T0), for the condensation of water vapor as well as the dimer, trimer, tetramer, and pentamer form in the vapor phase, was determined to be 0.447 kcal mol-1 for vapor, 1.127 for the dimer, 0.555 for the trimer, 0.236 for the tetramer, and 0.079 kcal mol-1 for the pentamer using ?G(T) data reported by Kell et al. in 1968 and Kell and McLaurin in 1969. These results suggest that the predominant dimeric form is the most stable of these n-mers. Using Nemethy and Scheraga's 1962 data for the Helmholtz free energy of liquid water, the value of ?H0(T0) was determined to be 1.21 kcal mol-1. This is very close to the value for the energy of the hydrogen bond EH of 1.32 kcal mol-1 reported by Nemethy and Scheraga, using statistical thermodynamics. It seems clear that very little energy is required for interconversion between the hypothetical supercooled water vapor and glassy water at 0 K. A hypothetical supercooled water vapor at 0 K is apparently almost as highly associated as glassy water at that temperature, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium between vapor and liquid. This water vapor condensation is highly similar in its thermodynamic behavior to that of sequence-specific pairwise (dipeptide) hydrophobic interaction, except that the negative Gibbs free energy change minimum at ?Ts?, the thermal setpoint for vapor condensation, where T?S = 0, occurs at a considerably lower temperature, 270 K (below 0°C) compared with ?350 K. The temperature of condensation ?Tcond? at which ?G(T) = 0, where water vapor begins to condense, was found to be 383 K. In the case of a sequence-specific pairwise hydrophobic interaction, the melting temperature, ?Tm?, where ?G(Tm) = 0 was found to be 460 K. Only between two temperature limits, ?Th? = 99 K and ?Tcond? = 383 K, where ?G(Tcond) = 0, is the net chemical driving force favorable for polymorphism of glassy water

  3. Raman scattering temperature measurements for water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasia, C.M.; Neti, S.; Smith, W.R.; Chen, J.C.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the feasibility of using Raman scattering as a nonintrusive technique to measure vapor temperatures in dispersed two-phase flow. The Raman system developed for this investigation is described, including alignment of optics and optimization of the photodetector for photon pulse counting. Experimentally obtained Raman spectra are presented for the following single- and two-phase samples: liquid water, atmospheric nitrogen, superheated steam, nitrogen and water droplets in a high void fraction air/water mist, and superheated water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed flow

  4. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  5. Trends of total water vapor column above the Arctic from satellites observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraddawi, Dunya; Sarkissian, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Bock, Olivier; Claud, Chantal; Irbah, Abdenour

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapor (H2O) is the most important natural (as opposed to man-made) greenhouse gas, accounting for about two-thirds of the natural greenhouse effect. Despite this importance, its role in climate and its reaction to climate change are still difficult to assess. Many details of the hydrological cycle are poorly understood, such as the process of cloud formation and the transport and release of latent heat contained in the water vapor. In contrast to other important greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, water vapor has a much higher temporal and spatial variability. Total precipitable water (TPW) or the total column of water vapor (TCWV) is the amount of liquid water that would result if all the water vapor in the atmospheric column of unit area were condensed. TCWV distribution contains valuable information on the vigor of the hydrological processes and moisture transport in the atmosphere. Measurement of TPW can be obtained based on atmospheric water vapor absorption or emission of radiation in the spectral range from UV to MW. TRENDS were found over the terrestrial Arctic by means of TCWV retrievals (using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) near-infrared (2001-2015) records). More detailed approach was made for comparisons with ground based instruments over Sodankyla - Finland (TCWV from: SCIAMACHY 2003-2011, GOME-2A 2007-2011, SAOZ 2003-2011, GPS 2003-2011, MODIS 2003-2011)

  6. The processes of vaporization in the porous structures working with the excess of liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genbach Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of vaporization in porous structures, working with the excess of liquid are investigated. With regard to the thermal power plants new porous cooling system is proposed and investigated, in which the supply of coolant is conducted by the combined action of gravity and capillary forces. The cooling surface is made of stainless steel, brass, copper, bronze, nickel, alundum and glass, with wall thickness of (0.05-2•10-3 m. Visualizations of the processes of vaporization were carried out using holographic interferometry with the laser system and high speed camera. The operating conditions of the experiments were: water pressures (0.01-10 MPa, the temperature difference of sub-cooling (0-20°C, an excess of liquid (1-14 of the steam flow, the heat load (1-60•104 W/m2, the temperature difference (1-60°C and orientation of the system (± 0 - ± 90 degrees. Studies have revealed three areas of liquid vaporization process (transitional, developed and crisis. The impact of operating and design parameters on the integrated and thermal hydraulic characteristics was defined. The optimum (minimum flow rate of cooling fluid and the most effective type of mesh porous structure were also defined.

  7. Investigating the effects of water vaporization on the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simulations show that water vaporization increases productivity of well by increasing gas saturation and relative permeability near the well walls and improving the mobility of gas; and this effect is stronger in rich gas condensate reservoir than the lean ones. Keywords: Well, Gas, Pressure Drop, Vapor pressure of water ...

  8. Water vapor and Gas Transport through Polymeric Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water vapor transport through polymeric materials plays an important role in a large number of applications such as: food packaging, breathable clothing, roofing membranes, diapers, and the removal of water vapor from gas streams (e.g. dehydration of natural gas or the drying of compressed air).

  9. Field campaign LINEX 96/1 - possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, H.; Dier, H.; Engelbart, D.; Goersdorf, U.; Lehmann, V.; Leiterer, U.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium; Bakan, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Boesenberg, J.; Jansen, F.; Wulfmeyer, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Fischer, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften; Gendt, G. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Gueldner, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Potsdam (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium

    1998-12-01

    LINEX 96/1 was a field experiment to assess information content, accuracy, and availability for different remote sensing techniques measuring water vapor. An important goal of LINEX 96/1 was the test of a new differential absorption lidar (DIAL) developed by the MPI fuer meteorologie Hamburg. Comparisons of DIAL with rawinsonde and tethersonde measurements showed an excellent accuracy of the DIAL method in the determination of water vapor with high vertical and temporal resolution. The operation of the microwave radiometer WVR-1100 showed a high availability of water vapor and liquid water column content measurements except during rain. Microwave radiometers are reliable systems to measure the precipitable water vapor and liquid water content under unattended operational conditions with high accuracy and temporal resolution. Measurements of the water vapor column content by ground-based GPS receivers proved highly reliable. Comparisons with corresponding values of the microwave radiometer showed a bias less than 0.6 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.9 mm. The main problem of an operational use of this new information is that the evaluated data are not available in real-time because, at present, the data have to be postprocessed in a ground control center. During LINEX 96/1, possibilities for estimation of water vapor column content from sun and star photometer measurements were also demonstrated. The comparison of the precipitable water vapor content measurements of sun and star photometers, microwave radiometer, and rawinsondes RS 80 showed a good agreement. Unfortunately, the use of optical methods like sun and star photometers is restricted by cloudy conditions. 28 refs.

  10. Analyses on Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Xiao, T.; Wang, C.; Chen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Chengdu is located in the Sichuan basin, and it is the most famous inland city in China. With suitable temperatures and rainfall, Chengdu is the most livable cities in China. With the development of urban economy and society, the population has now risen to 16 million, and it will up to 22 million in 2030. This will cause the city water resources demand, and the carrying capacity of water resources become more and more serious. In order to improve the contradiction between urban waterlogging and water shortage, sponge city planning was proposed by Chengdu government, and this is of great practical significance for promoting the healthy development of the city. Base on the reanalysis data from NCEP during 2007-2016, the characters of Water Vapor Resources was analyzed, and the main contents of this research are summarized as follows: The water vapor resource in Chengdu plain is more than that in Southeast China and less in Northwest China. The annual average water vapor resource is approximately 160 mm -320 mm, and the water vapor resource in summer can reach 3 times in winter. But the annual average precipitation in Chengdu is about 800 mm -1200 mm and it is far greater than the water vapor resource, this is because of the transport of water vapor. Using the formula of water vapor flux, the water vapor in Chengdu is comes from the west and the south, and the value is around 50kg/(ms). Base on the calculation of boundary vapor budget, the water vapor transport under 500hPa accounted for 97% of the total. Consider the water vapor transport, transformation and urban humidification effect, the Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu is 2500mm, and it can be used by artificial precipitation enhancement. Therefore, coordinated development of weather modification and sponge city construction, the shortage of water resources in Chengdu plain can be solved. Key words: Chengdu; Sponge city; Water vapor resource; Precipitation; Artificial precipitation enhancement Acknowledgements

  11. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for five binary systems of methanol, tert-butylalcohol, tert-butylmethylether and water, and quaternary reactive system producing tert-butylmethylether from methanol and tert-butylalcohol; Metanoru, tert-buchiruarukoru, tert-buchirumechirueteru oyobi mizu wo kumiawaseta 5shu no niseibunkei to metanoru to tert-buchiruarukoru ni yoru eteruka hannokei no taikiatsuka ni okeru kieki heiko deta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H.; Nakamura, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Hirai, C. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    At atmospheric pressure, vapor-liquid equilibrium relationships for five binary systems of methanol-tert-butylalcohol, methanol-tert-butylmethylether, tert-butylalcohol-tert-butylmethylether, water-tert-butylalcohol and water-tert-butylmethylether are observed. The Wilson parameters for the binary systems have been obtained. Comparisons between the Wilson method, The ASOG method and the UNIFAC method are made. Vapor-liquid equilibrium relationships of the quaternary reactive system producing tert-butylmethylether by use of methanol and tert-butylalcohol are also observed, and it is confirmed that the Wilson parameters resulting from the data of binary systems can be used to estimate the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the quaternary reactive system of methanol-tert-butylalcohol-tert-butylmethylether-water. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Pressurization of a Flightweight, Liquid Hydrogen Tank: Evaporation & Condensation at a Liquid/Vapor Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and simulation of evaporation and condensation at a motionless liquid/vapor interface. A 1-D model equation, emphasizing heat and mass transfer at the interface, is solved in two ways, and incorporated into a subgrid interface model within a CFD simulation. Simulation predictions are compared with experimental data from the CPST Engineering Design Unit tank, a cryogenic fluid management test tank in 1-g. The numerical challenge here is the physics of the liquid/vapor interface; pressurizing the ullage heats it by several degrees, and sets up an interfacial temperature gradient that transfers heat to the liquid phase-the rate limiting step of condensation is heat conducted through the liquid and vapor. This physics occurs in thin thermal layers O(1 mm) on either side of the interface which is resolved by the subgrid interface model. An accommodation coefficient of 1.0 is used in the simulations which is consistent with theory and measurements. This model is predictive of evaporation/condensation rates, that is, there is no parameter tuning.

  13. Toward a Monte Carlo program for simulating vapor-liquid phase equilibria from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M; Siepmann, J I; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J; Vandevondele, J; Sprik, M; Hutter, J; Mohamed, F; Krack, M; Parrinello, M

    2004-10-20

    Efficient Monte Carlo algorithms are combined with the Quickstep energy routines of CP2K to develop a program that allows for Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical, isobaric-isothermal, and Gibbs ensembles using a first principles description of the physical system. Configurational-bias Monte Carlo techniques and pre-biasing using an inexpensive approximate potential are employed to increase the sampling efficiency and to reduce the frequency of expensive ab initio energy evaluations. The new Monte Carlo program has been validated through extensive comparison with molecular dynamics simulations using the programs CPMD and CP2K. Preliminary results for the vapor-liquid coexistence properties (T = 473 K) of water using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange and correlation energy functionals, a triple-zeta valence basis set augmented with two sets of d-type or p-type polarization functions, and Goedecker-Teter-Hutter pseudopotentials are presented. The preliminary results indicate that this description of water leads to an underestimation of the saturated liquid density and heat of vaporization and, correspondingly, an overestimation of the saturated vapor pressure.

  14. Thermal behaviour of agitated gas-liquid reactors with a vaporizing solvent/air oxidation of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Crombeen, P.R.J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many highly exothermic gas-liquid reactions are carried out with a vaporizing solvent, which after condensation is returned to the reactor. In this way the liberated reaction heat for a large part is absorbed by the cooling water flowing through the condenser. In order to determine the influence of

  15. Modelling and numerical simulation of liquid-vapor phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, F.

    2004-11-01

    This work deals with the modelling and numerical simulation of liquid-vapor phase transition phenomena. The study is divided into two part: first we investigate phase transition phenomena with a Van Der Waals equation of state (non monotonic equation of state), then we adopt an alternative approach with two equations of state. In the first part, we study the classical viscous criteria for selecting weak solutions of the system used when the equation of state is non monotonic. Those criteria do not select physical solutions and therefore we focus a more recent criterion: the visco-capillary criterion. We use this criterion to exactly solve the Riemann problem (which imposes solving an algebraic scalar non linear equation). Unfortunately, this step is quite costly in term of CPU which prevent from using this method as a ground for building Godunov solvers. That is why we propose an alternative approach two equations of state. Using the least action principle, we propose a phase changing two-phase flow model which is based on the second thermodynamic principle. We shall then describe two equilibrium submodels issued from the relaxations processes when instantaneous equilibrium is assumed. Despite the weak hyperbolicity of the last sub-model, we propose stable numerical schemes based on a two-step strategy involving a convective step followed by a relaxation step. We show the ability of the system to simulate vapor bubbles nucleation. (author)

  16. Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon carbide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, John Anthuvan; Pandurangan, Arumugam

    2014-04-01

    We developed an alloy catalytic method to explain extended vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of silicon carbide nanowires (SiC NWs) by a simple thermal evaporation of silicon and activated carbon mixture using lanthanum nickel (LaNi5) alloy as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition process. The LaNi5 alloy binary phase diagram and the phase relationships in the La-Ni-Si ternary system were play a key role to determine the growth parameters in this VLS mechanism. Different reaction temperatures (1300, 1350 and 1400 degrees C) were applied to prove the established growth process by experimentally. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the crystalline quality of the SiC NWs increases with the temperature at which they have been synthesized. La-Ni alloyed catalyst particles observed on the top of the SiC NWs confirms that the growth process follows this extended VLS mechanism. The X-ray diffraction and confocal Raman spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the crystalline structure of the SiC NWs was zinc blende 3C-SiC. Optical property of the SiC NWs was investigated by photoluminescence technique at room temperature. Such a new alloy catalytic method may be extended to synthesis other one-dimensional nanostructures.

  17. Liquid-vapor coexistence by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, Andras; Cummings, Peter T.

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple and consistent molecular dynamics algorithm for determining the equilibrium properties of a bulk liquid and its coexisting vapor phase. The simulation follows the dynamics of the two systems simultaneously while maintaining the volume and the number of particles of the composite system fixed. The thermostat can constrain either the total energy or the temperature at a desired value. Division of the extensive properties between the two phases is governed by the difference of the corresponding intensive state variables. Particle numbers are continuous variables and vary only in virtual sense, i.e., the real sizes of the two systems are the same and do not change during the course of the simulation. Calculation of the chemical potential is separate from the dynamics; thus, one can replace the particle exchange step with other method if it improves the efficiency of the code. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Effects of water vapor on flue gas conditioning in the electric fields with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqiang, QI, E-mail: qi_liqiang@163.com; Yajuan, Zhang

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • The influence mechanism of water vapor humidification on SO{sub 2} oxidation was analyzed. •The effects of water vapor on the specific resistance in fly ash in ESPs were reported. • The effects of water vapor on the size distribution and specific surface area of fly ash were discussed. • The adhesive characteristic of fly ash in different water vapor was experimented. -- Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal via pulsed discharge nonthermal plasma in the absence of ammonia was investigated to determine how electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can effectively collect particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter from flue gas. SO{sub 2} removal increased as water vapor concentration increased. In a wet-type plasma reactor, directing a gas-phase discharge plasma toward the water film surface significantly enhanced the liquid-phase oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup −} to SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. Comparisons of various absorbents revealed that the hydroxyl radical is a key factor in plasma-induced liquid-phase reactions. The resistivity, size distribution, and cohesive force of fly ash at different water vapor contents were measured using a Bahco centrifuge, which is a dust electrical resistivity test instrument, as well as a cohesive force test apparatus developed by the researchers. When water vapor content increased by 5%, fly ash resistivity in flue gas decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude, adhesive force and size increased, and specific surface area decreased. Therefore, ESP efficiency increased.

  19. Eddy transport of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. R.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Viking orbiter measurements of the Martian atmosphere suggest that the residual north polar water-ice cap is the primary source of atmospheric water vapor, which appears at successively lower northern latitudes as the summer season progresses. Zonally symmetric studies of water vapor transport indicate that the zonal mean meridional circulation is incapable of transporting from north polar regions to low latitudes the quantity of water vapor observed. This result has been interpreted as implying the presence of nonpolar sources of water. Another possibility is the ability of atmospheric wave motions, which are not accounted for in a zonally symmetric framework, to efficiently accomplish the transport from a north polar source to the entirety of the Northern Hemisphere. The ability or inability of the full range of atmospheric motions to accomplish this transport has important implications regarding the questions of water sources and sinks on Mars: if the full spectrum of atmospheric motions proves to be incapable of accomplishing the transport, it strengthens arguments in favor of additional water sources. Preliminary results from a three dimensional atmospheric dynamical/water vapor transport numerical model are presented. The model accounts for the physics of a subliming water-ice cap, but does not yet incorporate recondensation of this sublimed water. Transport of vapor away from this water-ice cap in this three dimensional framework is compared with previously obtained zonally symmetric (two dimensional) results to quantify effects of water vapor transport by atmospheric eddies.

  20. Precipitable water and vapor flux between Belem and Manaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.

    1977-01-01

    The water vapor flux and precipitable water was computated over the natural Amazon forest in the stretch between Belem and Manaus for 1972. The atmospheric branch of hidrological cycle theory was applied and the most significant conclusions on an annual basis are: Atlantic Ocean water vapor contributes 52% to the regional precipitation and is significant the role played by local evapotranspiration in the precipitation in the area; there were signs of the phenomenon of water vapor recycling nearly throughout the year. Evapotranspiration contributes to 48% of the precipitations in the area studied. The real evapotranspiration estimated by this method was 1,000mm year - 1 [pt

  1. Novel catalysts for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Rolston, J.H.; Stevens, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Catalytic isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water offers many inherent potential advantages for the separation of hydrogen isotopes which is of great importance in the Canadian nuclear program. Active catalysts for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water vapor have long been available, but these catalysts are essentially inactive in the presence of liquid water. New, water-repellent platinum catalysts have been prepared by: (1) treating supported catalysts with silicone, (2) depositing platinum on inherently hydrophobic polymeric supports, and (3) treating platinized carbon with Teflon and bonding to a carrier. The activity of these catalysts for isotopic exchange between countercurrent streams of liquid water and hydrogen saturated with water vapor has been measured in a packed trickle bed integral reactor. The performance of these hydrophobic catalysts is compared with nonwetproofed catalysts. The mechanism of the overall exchange reaction is briefly discussed. 6 figures

  2. CFD modeling of condensation process of water vapor in supersonic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Walther, Jens Honore; Yan, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    The condensation phenomenon of vapor plays an important role in various industries, such as the steam flow in turbines and refrigeration system. A mathematical model is developed to predict the spontaneous condensing phenomenon in the supersonic flows using the nucleation and droplet growth...... theories. The numerical approach is validated with the experimental data, which shows a good agreement between them. The condensation characteristics of water vapor in the Laval nozzle are described in detail. The results show that the condensation process is a rapid variation of the vapor-liquid phase...... change both in the space and in time. The spontaneous condensation of water vapor will not appear immediately when the steam reaches the saturation state. Instead, it occurs further downstream the nozzle throat, where the steam is in the state of supersaturation....

  3. Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

  4. Quantitative liquid and vapor distribution measurements in evaporating fuel sprays using laser-induced exciplex fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fansler, Todd D; Drake, Michael C; Gajdeczko, Boguslaw; Düwel, Isabell; Koban, Wieland; Zimmermann, Frank P; Schulz, Christof

    2009-01-01

    Fully quantitative two-dimensional measurements of liquid- and vapor-phase fuel distributions (mass per unit volume) from high-pressure direct-injection gasoline injectors are reported for conditions of both slow and rapid vaporization in a heated, high-pressure spray chamber. The measurements employ the coevaporative gasoline-like fluorobenzene (FB)/diethylmethylamine (DEMA)/hexane exciplex tracer/fuel system. In contrast to most previous laser-induced exciplex-fluorescence (LIEF) experiments, the quantitative results here include regions in which liquid and vapor fuel coexist (e.g. near the injector exit). A unique aspect is evaluation of both vapor- and liquid-phase distributions at varying temperature and pressure using only in situ vapor-phase fluorescence calibration measurements at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This approach draws on recent extensive measurements of the temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of the FB–DEMA exciplex system, in particular on knowledge of the quantum efficiencies of the vapor-phase and liquid-phase (exciplex) fluorescence. In addition to procedures necessary for quantitative measurements, we discuss corrections for liquid–vapor crosstalk (liquid fluorescence that overlaps the vapor-fluorescence bandpass), the unknown local temperature due to vaporization-induced cooling, and laser-sheet attenuation by scattering and absorption

  5. Waste storage in the vadose zone affected by water vapor condensation and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.W.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1990-08-01

    One of the major concerns associated with waste storage in the vadose zone is that toxic materials may somehow be leached and transported by advecting water down to the water table and reach the accessible environment through either a well or discharge to a river. Consequently, care is taken to provide barriers over and around the storage sites to reduce contact between infiltrating water and the buried waste form. In some cases, it is important to consider the intrusion of water vapor as well as water in the liquid phase. Water vapor diffuses through porous material along vapor pressure gradients. A slightly low temperature, or the presence of water-soluble components in the waste, favors water condensation resulting in leaching of the waste form and advection of water-soluble components to the water table. A simple analysis is presented that allows one to estimate the rate of vapor condensation as a function of waste composition and backfill materials. An example using a waste form surrounded by concrete and gravel layers is presented. The use of thermal gradients to offset condensation effects of water-soluble components in the waste form is discussed. Thermal gradients may be controlled by design factors that alter the atmospheric energy exchange across the soil surface or that interrupt the geothermal heat field. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Tritium-gas/water-vapor monitor. Tests and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    A tritium gas/water-vapor monitor was designed and built by the Health Physics Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In its prototype configuration, the monitor took the shape of two separate instruments: a (total) tritium monitor and a water-vapor monitor. Both instruments were tested and evaluated. The tests of the (total) tritium monitor, basically an improved version of the standard flow-through ion-chamber instrument, are briefly reported here and more completely elsewhere. The tests of the water-vapor monitor indicated that the novel approach used to condense water vapor for scintillation counting has a number of serious drawbacks and that further development of the instrument is unwarranted

  7. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake

  8. Fabrication and performance evaluation of a high temperature co-fired ceramic vaporizing liquid microthruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, Kean How; Low, Kay-Soon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-scaled microthruster using ceramic as the structural material. A vaporizing liquid microthruster (VLM) has been fabricated using the high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) technology. The developed microthruster consists of five components, i.e. inlet, injector, vaporizing chamber, micronozzle and microheater, all integrated in a chip with a dimension of 30 mm × 26 mm × 8 mm. In the dry test, the newly developed microheater which is deposited on zirconia substrate consumes 21% less electrical power than those deposited on silicon substrate to achieve a temperature of 100 °C. Heating temperature as high as 409.1 °C can be achieved using just 5 W of electrical power. For simplicity and safety, a functional test of the VLM with water as propellant has been conducted in the laboratory. Full vaporization of water propellant feeding at different flow rates has been successfully demonstrated. A maximum thrust of 633.5 µN at 1 µl s −1 propellant consumption rate was measured using a torsional thrust stand. (paper)

  9. Modeling UTLS water vapor: Transport/Chemistry interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulstad, Line

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was initially meant to be a study on the impact on chemistry and climate from UTLS water vapor. However, the complexity of the UTLS water vapor and its recent changes turned out to be a challenge by it self. In the light of this, the overall motivation for the thesis became to study the processes controlling UTLS water vapor and its changes. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, involved in important climate feedback loops. Thus, a good understanding of the chemical and dynamical behavior of water vapor in the atmosphere is crucial for understanding the climate changes in the last century. Additionally, parts of the work was motivated by the development of a coupled climate chemistry model based on the CAM3 model coupled with the Chemical Transport Model Oslo CTM2. The future work will be concentrated on the UTLS water vapor impact on chemistry and climate. We are currently studying long term trends in UTLS water vapor, focusing on identification of the different processes involved in the determination of such trends. The study is based on natural as well as anthropogenic climate forcings. The ongoing work on the development of a coupled climate chemistry model will continue within our group, in collaboration with Prof. Wei-Chyung Wang at the State University of New York, Albany. Valuable contacts with observational groups are established during the work on this thesis. These collaborations will be continued focusing on continuous model validation, as well as identification of trends and new features in UTLS water vapor, and other tracers in this region. (Author)

  10. Water-vapor pressure control in a volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The variation with time of the partial pressure of water in a volume that has openings to the outside environment and includes vapor sources was evaluated as a function of the purging flow and its vapor content. Experimental tests to estimate the diffusion of ambient humidity through openings and to validate calculated results were included. The purging flows required to produce and maintain a certain humidity in shipping containers, storage rooms, and clean rooms can be estimated with the relationship developed here. These purging flows are necessary to prevent the contamination, degradation, and other effects of water vapor on the systems inside these volumes.

  11. Building blocks for ionic liquids: Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Portnova, Svetlana V.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Schubert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressures of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles by transpiration method. → Variations on the alkyl chain length n were C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 . → Enthalpies of vaporization were derived from (p, T) dependencies. → Enthalpies of vaporization at 298.15 K were linear dependent on the chain length. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the linear 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the alkyl chain C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 have been measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m (298.15 K) of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the chain length has been found.

  12. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  13. Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: vapor pressure and boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Hans W; Swope, William C; Pitera, Jed W

    2005-11-15

    The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3+/-1.9 K, about 7 K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7+/-5.1 K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15 K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water.

  14. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuniwa, Fumio; Maekoya, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Watahiki, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  16. Monitoring tropospheric water vapor changes using radiosonde data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, W.P.; Smith, M.E.; Angell, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Significant increases in the water vapor content of the troposphere are expected to accompany temperature increases due to rising concentrations of the greenhouse gases. Thus it is important to follow changes in water vapor over time. There are a number of difficulties in developing a homogeneous data set, however, because of changes in radiosonde instrumentation and reporting practices. The authors report here on preliminary attempts to establish indices of water vapor which can be monitored. The precipitable water between the surface and 500 mb is the first candidate. They describe their method for calculating this quantity from radiosonde data for a network very similar to the network Angell uses for detecting temperature trends. Preliminary results suggest that the noise level is low enough to detect trends in water vapor at the individual stations. While a slight increase in global water vapor is hinted at in the data, and the data suggest there may have been a net transfer of water from the Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere, these conclusions are tentative. The authors also discuss the future course of this investigation

  17. Apparatus to measure vapor pressure, differential vapor pressure, liquid molar volume, and compressibility of liquids and solutions to the critical point. Vapor pressures, molar volumes, and compressibilities of protiobenzene and deuteriobenzene at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooner, Z.S.; Van Hook, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure differences between two similar liquids, such as isotopic isomers, or between a solution and its reference solvent at temperatures and pressures extending to the critical point is described. Vapor-phase volume is minimized and pressure is transmitted to the transducer through the liquid, thereby avoiding several experimental difficulties. Liquid can be injected into the heated part of the system by volumetrically calibrated screw injectors, thus permitting measurements of liquid molar volume, compressibility, and expansivity. The addition of a high-pressure circulating pump and injection valve allows the apparatus to be employed as a continuous dilution differential vapor pressure apparatus for determining partial molar free energies of solution. In the second part of the paper data on the vapor pressure, molar volume, compressibility, and expansivity and their isotope effects for C 6 H 6 and C 6 D 6 from room temperature to near the critical temperature are reported

  18. Applying the Water Vapor Radiometer to Verify the Precipitable Water Vapor Measured by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at the land-sea interface in a subtropical region. Because the climate is warm and moist year round, there is a large and highly variable amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we calculated the Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD of the troposphere using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS. The ZWD measured by two Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs was then used to verify the ZWD that had been calculated using GPS. We also analyzed the correlation between the ZWD and the precipitation data of these two types of station. Moreover, we used the observational data from 14 GPS and rainfall stations to evaluate three cases. The offset between the GPS-ZWD and the WVR-ZWD ranged from 1.31 to 2.57 cm. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. The results calculated from GPS and those measured using the WVR were very similar. Moreover, when there was no rain, light rain, moderate rain, or heavy rain, the flatland station ZWD was 0.31, 0.36, 0.38, or 0.40 m, respectively. The mountain station ZWD exhibited the same trend. Therefore, these results have demonstrated that the potential and strength of precipitation in a region can be estimated according to its ZWD values. Now that the precision of GPS-ZWD has been confirmed, this method can eventually be expanded to the more than 400 GPS stations in Taiwan and its surrounding islands. The near real-time ZWD data with improved spatial and temporal resolution can be provided to the city and countryside weather-forecasting system that is currently under development. Such an exchange would fundamentally improve the resources used to generate weather forecasts.

  19. Shallow Water Tuned Liquid Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Jørgen

    that for realistic roughness parameters the bottom friction has very limited effect on the liquid sloshing behavior and can be neglected. Herby the postulate is verified. Based on the mathematical model three dimensionless parameters are derived showing that the response of the damper depends solely on ratio......The use of sloshing liquid as a passive means of suppressing the rolling motion of ships was proposed already in the late 19th century. Some hundred years later the use of liquid sloshing devices, often termed Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLD), began to find use in the civil engineering community....... The TLDs studied in this thesis essentially consist of a rectangular container partially filled with liquid in the form of plain tap water. The frequency of the liquid sloshing motion, which is adjusted by varying the length of the tank and the depth of the wa- ter, is tuned to the structural frequency...

  20. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  1. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70

  2. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  3. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer's classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation

  4. Computer simulation of the NASA water vapor electrolysis reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The water vapor electrolysis (WVE) reactor is a spacecraft waste reclamation system for extended-mission manned spacecraft. The WVE reactor's raw material is water, its product oxygen. A computer simulation of the WVE operational processes provided the data required for an optimal design of the WVE unit. The simulation process was implemented with the aid of a FORTRAN IV routine.

  5. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alkanol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Araus, Karina A.; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO 2 + C 5 alcohol) binary systems were measured. → Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. → No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. → Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. → Correlation results showed relative deviations ≤8 % (liquid) and ≤2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO 2 + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO 2 + 2-pentanol), and (CO 2 + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  6. Tritiated water vapor in the surface air at Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hisayuki; Katsuragi, Yukio; Shigehara, Koji

    1984-01-01

    Tritium concentration in water vapor in the air near the surface and in the precipitation at Tokyo was measured during the period from 9 August to 20 November in 1974. From August to the middle of October, tritium mixing ratios in the surface air had relatively higher values except those in air masses which were associated with a typhoon. The mixing ratios of tritium in the air decreased abruptly at the middle of October, which indicates the decrease of tritium influx from aloft. These data exhibit the salient feature that variations in tritium concentration in TR are linear to the reciprocal of the content of water vapor during each period. Tritium concentrations in vapor and rain water collected simultaneously show nearly equal values. One of the reasons for the good correlation of tritium concentration between falling drops and ambient air is considered to be the result of the rapid isotopic exchange. (author)

  7. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  8. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  9. Water vapor absorption of carbon dioxide laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.; Margolis, J. S.; Rosengren, L.-G.

    1976-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector or spectrophone has been used to perform detailed measurements of the absorptivity of mixtures of water vapor in air. A (C-12) (O-16)2 laser was used as the source, and measurements were made at forty-nine different wavelengths from 9.2 to 10.7 microns. The details of the optoacoustic detector and its calibration are presented, along with a discussion of its performance characteristics. The results of the measurements of water vapor absorption show that the continuum absorption in the wavelength range covered is 5-10% lower than previous measurements.

  10. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

  11. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  12. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  13. Ion clustering in aqueous salt solutions near the liquid/vapor interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous NaCl, KCl, NaI, and KI solutions are used to study the effects of salts on the properties of the liquid/vapor interface. The simulations use the models which include both charge transfer and polarization effects. Pairing and the formation of larger ion clusters occurs both in the bulk and surface region, with a decreased tendency to form larger clusters near the interface. An analysis of the roughness of the surface reveals that the chloride salts, which have less tendency to be near the surface, have a roughness that is less than pure water, while the iodide salts, which have a greater surface affinity, have a larger roughness. This suggests that ions away from the surface and ions near the surface affect the interface in opposite ways.

  14. Density Relaxation of Liquid-Vapor Critical Fluids Examined in Earth's Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2000-01-01

    This work shows quantitatively the pronounced differences between the density equilibration of very compressible dense fluids in Earth's gravity and those in microgravity. The work was performed onsite at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and is complete. Full details are given in references 1 and 2. Liquid-vapor critical fluids (e.g., water) at their critical temperature and pressure, are very compressible. They collapse under their own weight in Earth's gravity, allowing only a thin meniscus-like layer with the critical pressure to survive. This critical layer, however, greatly slows down the equilibration process of the entire sample. A complicating feature is the buoyancy-driven slow flows of layers of heavier and lighter fluid. This work highlights the incomplete understanding of the hydrodynamics involved in these fluids.

  15. Multiphase flow modeling of molten material-vapor-liquid mixtures in thermal nonequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Park, Goon Cherl; Bang, Kwang Hyun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of multiphase flow of the mixtures of molten material-liquid-vapor, particularly in thermal nonequilibrium. It is a two-dimensional, transient, three-fluid model in Eulerian coordinates. The equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method that implicitly couples the rates of phase changes, momentum, and energy exchange to determine the pressure, density, and velocity fields. To examine the model's ability to predict an experimental data, calculations have been performed for tests of pouring hot particles and molten material into a water pool. The predictions show good agreement with the experimental data. It appears, however, that the interfacial heat transfer and breakup of molten material need improved models that can be applied to such high temperature, high pressure, multiphase flow conditions

  16. Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond in Vapor of Methanol-Based Liquid Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2000-01-01

    .... Liquid solutions are prepared by mixing methanol with other carbon containing liquid compounds which contain a greater than one ratio of carbon to oxygen such as acetone, ethanol, and iso-propanol...

  17. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  18. Effects of water vapor on flue gas conditioning in the electric fields with corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqiang, Qi; Yajuan, Zhang

    2013-07-15

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal via pulsed discharge nonthermal plasma in the absence of ammonia was investigated to determine how electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can effectively collect particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter from flue gas. SO2 removal increased as water vapor concentration increased. In a wet-type plasma reactor, directing a gas-phase discharge plasma toward the water film surface significantly enhanced the liquid-phase oxidation of HSO3(-) to SO4(2-). Comparisons of various absorbents revealed that the hydroxyl radical is a key factor in plasma-induced liquid-phase reactions. The resistivity, size distribution, and cohesive force of fly ash at different water vapor contents were measured using a Bahco centrifuge, which is a dust electrical resistivity test instrument, as well as a cohesive force test apparatus developed by the researchers. When water vapor content increased by 5%, fly ash resistivity in flue gas decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude, adhesive force and size increased, and specific surface area decreased. Therefore, ESP efficiency increased. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of the vaporization heat of organic liquids. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, M.; Sannier, H.

    1982-01-01

    In our previous publications it has been shown that the method of Benson's group permits the estimation of the enthalpies of vaporization of organic compounds. In the present paper we have applied this method for unsaturated hydrocarbons, thus completing our previous work on acyclic alkenes. For the alkylbenzenes we have changed the values of the groups C-(Csub(b))(C)(H) 2 and C-(Csub(b))(C) 2 (H) previously determined. A more accurate value for the enthalpies of vaporization of the alkylbenzenes of higher molecular weight is obtained. (orig.)

  20. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  1. Interaction of water vapor with erbium and erbium dideuteride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.M.; Swartz, W.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of water vapor with erbium and erbium dideuteride thin films was studied by x-ray diffraction, mass spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. The data indicate that significant reactions take place above 573 K forming both the hydride and the oxide. The data also indicate that isotopic displacement occurs. These are important considerations in hydrogen storage applications

  2. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  3. Uranium/water vapor reactions in gaseous atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.L.; Condon, J.B.; Steckel, L.M.

    1977-07-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the effect of varying humidities, gaseous atmospheres, and temperatures on the uranium/water vapor reaction. A balance, which allowed continuous in-system weighings, was used to determine the rates of the uranium/water vapor reactions at water vapor pressures of 383, 1586, and 2853 Pa and at temperatures of 80, 100, and 150 0 C in atmospheres of hydrogen, argon, or argon/oxygen mixtures. Based on rate data, the reactions were characterized as hydriding or nonhydriding. Hydriding reactions were found to be preferred in moist hydrogen systems at the higher temperatures and the lower humidities. The presence of hydrogen in hydriding systems was found to initially inhibit the reaction, but causes an acceleration of the rate in the final stages. In general, reaction rates of hydriding systems approached the hydriding rates calculated and observed in dry hydrogen. Hydriding and nonhydriding reaction rates showed a positive correlation to temperature and water vapor pressure. Final reaction rates in moist argon/oxygen mixtures of 1.93, 4.57, and 9.08 mole percent oxygen were greater than the rates observed in moist hydrogen or argon. Final reaction rates were negatively correlated to the oxygen concentration

  4. Galactic water vapor emission: further observations of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S H; Mayer, C H; Sullivan, W T; Cheung, A C

    1969-10-10

    Recent observations of the 1.35-centimeter line emission of water vapor from galactic sources show short-term variability in the spectra of several sources. Two additional sources, Cygnus 1 and NGC 6334N, have been observed, and the spectra of W49 and VY Canis Majoris were measured over a wider range of radial velocity.

  5. Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Mcllrath, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system is described which has been developed for vertical range-resolved measurements of water vapor. The laser transmitter consists of a ruby-pumped dye laser, which is operated on a water vapor absorption line at 724.372 nm. Part of the ruby laser output is transmitted simultaneously with the dye laser output to determine atmospheric scattering and attenuation characteristics. The dye and ruby laser backscattered light is collected by a 0.5-m diam telescope, optically separated in the receiver package, and independently detected using photomultiplier tubes. Measurements of vertical water vapor concentration profiles using the DIAL system at night are discussed, and comparisons are made between the water vapor DIAL measurements and data obtained from locally launched rawinsondes. Agreement between these measurements was found to be within the uncertainty of the rawinsonde data to an altitude of 3 km. Theoretical simulations of this measurement were found to give reasonably accurate predictions of the random error of the DIAL measurements. Confidence in these calculations will permit the design of aircraft and Shuttle DIAL systems and experiments using simulation results as the basis for defining lidar system performance requirements

  6. Visualization of Atmospheric Water Vapor Data for SAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mou-Liang; Chu, W. P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop visualization tools to study the water vapor dynamics using the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE 11) water vapor data. During the past years, we completed the development of a visualization tool called EZSAGE, and various Gridded Water Vapor plots, tools deployed on the web to provide users with new insight into the water vapor dynamics. Results and experiences from this project, including papers, tutorials and reviews were published on the main Web page. Additional publishing effort has been initiated to package EZSAGE software for CD production and distribution. There have been some major personnel changes since Fall, 1998. Dr. Mou-Liang Kung, a Professor of Computer Science assumed the PI position vacated by Dr. Waldo Rodriguez who was on leave. However, former PI, Dr. Rodriguez continued to serve as a research adviser to this project to assure smooth transition and project completion. Typically in each semester, five student research assistants were hired and trained. Weekly group meetings were held to discuss problems, progress, new research direction, and activity planning. Other small group meetings were also held regularly for different objectives of this project. All student research assistants were required to submit reports for conference submission.

  7. Venera-15: water vapor at altitudes of 55 - 65 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L. V.; Ignat'ev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.; Khatuntsev, I. V.

    1999-02-01

    Spectra of Venus outgoing thermal radiation were measured in 1983 onboard the Venera-15 spacecraft (Venus' artificial satellite) in the 6 - 40 μm range at different latitudes and longitudes. Results of a new analysis of these spectra are presented, which have been elaborated in order to revise the water vapor content estimates.

  8. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  9. Development of an Airborne Micropulse Water Vapor DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Ismail, S.

    2012-12-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in many atmospheric processes affecting both weather and climate. Airborne measurements of tropospheric water vapor profiles have been a longstanding observational need to not only the active remote sensing community but also to the meteorological, weather forecasting, and climate/radiation science communities. Microscale measurements of tropospheric water vapor are important for enhancing near term meteorological forecasting capabilities while mesoscale and synopticscale measurements can lead to an enhanced understanding of the complex coupled feedback mechanisms between water vapor, temperature, aerosols, and clouds. To realize tropospheric measurements of water vapor profiles over the microscale-synopticscale areas of meteorological interest, a compact and cost effective airborne micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is being investigated using newly emerging semiconductor based laser technology. Ground based micropulse DIAL (MPD) measurements of tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiles up to 6 km and 15 km, respectively, have been previously demonstrated using an all semiconductor based laser transmitter. The DIAL transmitter utilizes a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration where two semiconductor seed lasers are used to seed a single pass traveling wave tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA), producing up to 7μJ pulse energies over a 1 μs pulse duration at a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Intercomparisons between the ground based instrument measurements and radiosonde profiles demonstrating the MPD performance under varying atmospheric conditions will be presented. Work is currently ongoing to expand upon the ground based MPD concept and to develop a compact and cost effective system capable of deployment on a mid-low altitude aircraft such as the NASA Langley B200 King Air. Initial lab experiments show that a two-three fold increase in the laser energy compared to the ground

  10. Microwave measurements of water vapor partial pressure at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the desired parameters in the Yucca Mountain Project is the capillary pressure of the rock comprising the repository. This parameter is related to the partial pressure of water vapor in the air when in equilibrium with the rock mass. Although there are a number of devices that will measure the relative humidity (directly related to the water vapor partial pressure), they generally will fail at temperatures on the order of 150C. Since thee author has observed borehole temperatures considerably in excess of this value in G-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a different scheme is required to obtain the desired partial pressure data at higher temperatures. This chapter presents a microwave technique that has been developed to measure water vapor partial pressure in boreholes at temperatures up to 250C. The heart of the system is a microwave coaxial resonator whose resonant frequency is inversely proportional to the square root of the real part of the complex dielectric constant of the medium (air) filling the resonator. The real part of the dielectric constant of air is approximately equal to the square of the refractive index which, in turn, is proportional to the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air. Thus, a microwave resonant cavity can be used to measure changes in the relative humidity or partial pressure of water vapor in the air. Since this type of device is constructed of metal, it is able to withstand very high temperatures. The actual limitation is the temperature limit of the dielectric material in the cable connecting the resonator to its driving and monitoring equipment-an automatic network analyzer in our case. In the following sections, the theory of operation, design, construction, calibration and installation of the microwave diagnostics system is presented. The results and conclusions are also presented, along with suggestions for future work

  11. Water vapor as a perspective coolant for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalafati, D.D.; Petrov, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    Based on analysis of foreign projects of nuclear power plants with steam-cooled fast reactors, it is shown that low breeding ratio and large doubling time were caused by using nickel alloys, high vapor pressure and small volume heat release. The possibility is shown of obtaining doubling time in the necessary limits of T 2 =10-12 years when the above reasons for steam-cooled reactors are eliminated. Favourable combination of thermophysical and thermodynamic properties of water vapor makes it perspective coolant for power fast reactors

  12. Effects of thermal vapor diffusion on seasonal dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The response of water in the unsaturated zone to seasonal changes of temperature (T) is determined analytically using the theory of nonisothermal water transport in porous media, and the solutions are tested against field observations of moisture potential and bomb fallout isotopic (36Cl and 3H) concentrations. Seasonally varying land surface temperatures and the resulting subsurface temperature gradients induce thermal vapor diffusion. The annual mean vertical temperature gradient is close to zero; however, the annual mean thermal vapor flux is downward, because the temperature‐dependent vapor diffusion coefficient is larger, on average, during downward diffusion (occurring at high T) than during upward diffusion (low T). The annual mean thermal vapor flux is shown to decay exponentially with depth; the depth (about 1 m) at which it decays to e−1of its surface value is one half of the corresponding decay depth for the amplitude of seasonal temperature changes. This depth‐dependent annual mean flux is effectively a source of water, which must be balanced by a flux divergence associated with other transport processes. In a relatively humid environment the liquid fluxes greatly exceed the thermal vapor fluxes, so such a balance is readily achieved without measurable effect on the dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone. However, if the mean vertical water flux through the unsaturated zone is very small (theoretical prediction is supported by long‐term field measurements in the Chihuahuan Desert. The analysis also makes predictions, confirmed by the field observations, regarding the seasonal variations of matric potential at a given depth. The conceptual model of unsaturated zone water transport developed here implies the possibility of near‐surface trapping of any aqueous constituent introduced at the surface.

  13. Liquid-Vapor Phase Transition: Thermomechanical Theory, Entropy Stable Numerical Formulation, and Boiling Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    vapor bubbles may generate near blades [40]. This is the phenomenon of cavitation and it is still a limiting factor for ship propeller design. Phase...van der Waals theory with hydrodynamics [39]. The fluid equations based on the van der Waals theory are called the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations... cavitating flows, the liquid- vapor phase transition induced by pressure variations. A potential challenge for such a simulation is a proper design of open

  14. Microspheres for the Growth of Silicon Nanowires via Vapor-Liquid-Solid Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arancha Gómez-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires have been synthesized by a simple process using a suitable support containing silica and carbon microspheres. Nanowires were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with only the substrate as silicon source. The curved surface of the microsized spheres allows arranging the gold catalyst as nanoparticles with appropriate dimensions to catalyze the growth of nanowires. The resulting material is composed of the microspheres with the silicon nanowires attached on their surface.

  15. Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.

  16. Liquid water transport mechanism in the gas diffusion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Wu, C.W. [State Key Laboratory of Structure Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-03-01

    We developed an equivalent capillary model of a microscale fiber-fence structure to study the microscale evolution and transport of liquid in a porous media and to reveal the basic principles of water transport in gas diffusion layer (GDL). Analytical solutions using the model show that a positive hydraulic pressure is needed to drive the liquid water to penetrate through the porous GDL even consisting of the hydrophilic fibers. Several possible contributions for the water configuration, such as capillary pressure, gravity, vapor condensation, wettability and microstructures of the GDL, are discussed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). It is found that the distribution manners of the fibers and the spatial mixed-wettability in the GDL also play an important role in the transport of liquid water. (author)

  17. The influence of liquid/vapor phase change onto the Nusselt number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Elena-Roxana; Colin, Catherine; Tanguy, Sebastien

    2017-11-01

    In spite of its significant interest in various fields, there is currently a very few information on how an external flow will modify the evaporation or the condensation of a liquid surface. Although most applications involve turbulent flows, the simpler configuration where a laminar superheated or subcooled vapor flow is shearing a saturated liquid interface has still never been solved. Based on a numerical approach, we propose to characterize the interaction between a laminar boundary layer of a superheated or subcooled vapor flow and a static liquid pool at saturation temperature. By performing a full set of simulations sweeping the parameters space, correlations are proposed for the first time on the Nusselt number depending on the dimensionless numbers that characterize both vaporization and condensation. As attended, the Nusselt number decreases or increases in the configurations involving respectively vaporization or condensation. More unexpected is the behaviour of the friction of the vapor flow on the liquid pool, for which we report that it is weakly affected by the phase change, despite the important variation of the local flow structure due to evaporation or condensation.

  18. Motion of liquid plugs between vapor bubbles in capillary tubes: a comparison between fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossi, Rémi; Ayel, Vincent; Mehta, Balkrishna; Romestant, Cyril; Bertin, Yves; Khandekar, Sameer

    2017-11-01

    Pulsating heat pipes (PHP) are now well-known devices in which liquid/vapor slug flow oscillates in a capillary tube wound between hot and cold sources. In this context, this paper focuses on the motion of the liquid plug, trapped between vapor bubbles, moving in capillary tubes, to try to better understand the thermo-physical phenomena involved in such devices. This study is divided into three parts. In the first part, an experimental study presents the evolution of the vapor pressure during the evaporation process of a liquid thin film deposited from a liquid plug flowing in a heated capillary tube: it is found that the behavior of the generated and removed vapor can be very different, according to the thermophysical properties of the fluids. In the second part, a transient model allows to compare, in terms of pressure and duration, the motion of a constant-length liquid plug trapped between two bubbles subjected to a constant difference of vapor pressure: the results highlight that the performances of the four fluids are also very different. Finally, a third model that can be considered as an improvement of the second one, is also presented: here, the liquid slug is surrounded by two vapor bubbles, one subjected to evaporation, the pressure in both bubbles is now a result of the calculation. This model still allows comparing the behaviors of the fluid. Even if our models are quite far from a complete model of a real PHP, results do indicate towards the applicability of different fluids as suitable working fluids for PHPs, particularly in terms of the flow instabilities which they generate.

  19. Deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolston, J.H.; den Hartog, J.; Butler, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The overall deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water, α, has been measured directly for the first time between 280 and 370 0 K. The data are in good agreement with values of α calculated from literature data on the equilibrium constant for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water vapor, K 1 , and the liquid-vapor separation factor, α/sub V/. The temperature dependence of α over the range 273-473 0 K based upon these new experimental results and existing literature data is given by the equation ln α = -0.2143 + (368.9/T) + (27,870/T 2 ). Measurements on α/sub V/ given in the literature have been surveyed and the results are summarized over the same temperature range by the equation ln α/sub V/ = 0.0592 - (80.3/T) +

  20. Prediction of the vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhofen, Michael; Klamt, Andreas; Marsh, Kenneth; Schäfer, Ansgar

    2007-09-07

    The vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of a series of 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide ionic liquids have been predicted with two different approaches using the COSMO-RS method and quantum chemical gas phase calculations. While the calculated enthalpies are in good agreement with the experimental data, COSMO-RS seems to underestimate the vapor pressures by roughly 0.5-4 log units dependent on the IL and approach used.

  1. Catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons with water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklin, T.; Farrington, F.; Whittaker, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The catalyst should reform hydrocarbons with water vapour. It consists of a carrier substance (preferably clay) on whose surface the catalytically active substances are formed. By impregnation one obtains this with a mixture of thermally destructable nickel and uranium compounds and calcination of the impregnated carrier. The catalyst is marked by a definite weight ratio of uranium to nickel (about 0.6 to 1), the addition of barium compounds and a maximum limit of these additives. All details of manufacture and the range of variations are described in detail. (UWI) [de

  2. Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of surface evaporation on precipitation, or recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view of the inherent limitations of diagnostic recycling calculations. The current study describes a calculation of the amount of local and remote geographic sources of surface evaporation for precipitation, based on the implementation of three-dimensional constituent tracers of regional water vapor sources (termed water vapor tracers, WVT) in a general circulation model. The major limitation on the accuracy of the recycling estimates is the veracity of the numerically simulated hydrological cycle, though we note that this approach can also be implemented within the context of a data assimilation system. In the WVT approach, each tracer is associated with an evaporative source region for a prognostic three-dimensional variable that represents a partial amount of the total atmospheric water vapor. The physical processes that act on a WVT are determined in proportion to those that act on the model's prognostic water vapor. In this way, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation can be predicted within the model simulation, and can be validated against the model's prognostic water vapor. As a demonstration of the method, the regional hydrologic cycles for North America and India are evaluated for six summers (June, July and August) of model simulation. More than 50% of the precipitation in the Midwestern United States came from continental regional sources, and the local source was the largest of the regional tracers (14%). The Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic regions contributed 18% of the water for Midwestern precipitation, but further analysis suggests that the greater region of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean may also contribute significantly. In most North American continental regions, the local source of precipitation is

  3. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium thermodynamics of N2 + CH4 - Model and Titan applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. R.; Zollweg, John A.; Gabis, David H.

    1992-01-01

    A thermodynamic model is presented for vapor-liquid equilibrium in the N2 + CH4 system, which is implicated in calculations of the Titan tropospheric clouds' vapor-liquid equilibrium thermodynamics. This model imposes constraints on the consistency of experimental equilibrium data, and embodies temperature effects by encompassing enthalpy data; it readily calculates the saturation criteria, condensate composition, and latent heat for a given pressure-temperature profile of the Titan atmosphere. The N2 content of condensate is about half of that computed from Raoult's law, and about 30 percent greater than that computed from Henry's law.

  5. Vapor pressure determination of liquid UO/sub 2/ using a boiling point technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, M.; Singer, J.

    1987-01-01

    By analogy with the classic boiling point method, a quasi-stationary millisecond laser-heating technique was applied to measure the saturated vapor pressure curve of liquid UO/sub 2/ in the temperature range of 3500 to 4500 K. The results are represented by log rho (MPa)=5.049 - 23 042/T (K), which gives an average heat of vaporization of 441 kJ/mol and a normal boiling point of 3808 K. In addition, spectral emissivities of liquid UO/sub 2/ were determined as a function of the temperature at the pyrometer wavelengths of 752 and 1064 nm

  6. Liquid-vapor phase transition upon pressure decrease in the lead-bismuth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.

    2009-11-01

    The liquid-vapor phase transitions boundaries were calculated on the basis of the values of vapor pressure of the components in the lead-bismuth system during the stepwise pressure decrease by one order of magnitude from 105 down to 1 Pa. The emergence of azeotropic liquid under pressure lower than 19.3 kPa was ascertained. The emergence of azeotropic mixture near the lead edge of the phase diagram was concluded to be the reason for technological difficulties in the distillation separation of the system into the components in a vacuum.

  7. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation

  8. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation.

  9. Mathematical prediction of freezing times of bovine semen in straws placed in static vapor over liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2013-02-01

    A widespread practice in cryopreservation is to freeze spermatozoa by suspending the straws in stagnant nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen (N(2)V/LN(2)) for variable periods of time before plunging into liquid nitrogen (-196°C) for indefinite storage. A mathematical heat transfer model was developed to predict freezing times (phase change was considered) required for bull semen and extender packaged in 0.5ml plastic straws and suspended in static liquid nitrogen vapor. Thermophysical properties (i.e. thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, initial freezing temperature) of bovine semen and extender as a function of temperature were determined considering the water change of phase. The non-stationary heat transfer partial differential equations with variable properties (nonlinear mathematical problem) were numerically solved considering in series thermal resistances (semen suspension-straw) and the temperature profiles were obtained for both semen suspension and plastic straw. It was observed both the external heat transfer coefficient in stagnant nitrogen vapor and its temperature (controlled by the distance from the surface of liquid nitrogen to the straw) affected freezing times. The accuracy of the model to estimate freezing times of the straws was further confirmed by comparing with experimental literature data. Results of this study will be useful to select "safe" holding times of bull semen in plastic straws placed N(2)V/LN(2) to ensure that complete freezing of the sample has occurred in the nitrogen vapor and avoid cryodamage when plunging in LN(2). Freezing times predicted by the numerical model can be applied to optimize freezing protocols of bull semen in straws. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical property, phase equilibrium, distillation. Measurement and prediction of vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria; Bussei / heiko / joryu. Kieki, ekieki heiko no sokutei to suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-05

    The data on vapor-liquid equilibrium are basic data indispensable to the designing of a distillation process. The stage required for separation depends greatly upon the x-y curve, and the existence/nonexistence of an azeotropic point is also an important item to be checked. This paper describes the measurement of vapor-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium, and then introduces reliable data on vapor-liquid equilibrium and parameters of an activity coefficient formula. For the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibrium, the ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified NIFAC, all being group contributive methods are utilized. The differences between these group contributive methods are based on the differences between the contributive items based on the differences in size of molecules influencing the activity coefficients and the expression of the group activity coefficient formula. The applicable number of groups of the ASOG is 43, while that of groups of the UNIFAC is 50. The modified UNIFAC covers 43 groups. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium by using a group contributive method has little progressed since the of the results of the study of Magnussen et al. using the UNIFAC. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Thermal-hydraulic behaviors of vapor-liquid interface due to arrival of a pressure wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    In the vapor explosion, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role for triggering, propagation and enhancement of the explosion. Energy of the explosion is related to the magnitude of heat transfer rate from hot liquid to cold volatile one. This is related to an increasing rate of interface area and to an amount of transient heat flux between the liquids. In this study, the characteristics of transient heat transfer and behaviors of vapor film both on the platinum tube and on the hot melt tin drop, under same boundary conditions have been investigated. It is considered that there exists a fundamental mechanism of the explosion in the initial expansion process of the hot liquid drop immediately after arrival of pressure wave. The growth rate of the vapor film is much faster on the hot liquid than that on the solid surface. Two kinds of roughness were observed, one due to the Taylor instability, by rapid growth of the explosion bubble, and another, nucleation sites were observed at the vapor-liquid interface. Based on detailed observation of early stage interface behaviors after arrival of a pressure wave, the thermal fragmentation mechanism is proposed.

  12. Comparison of cryopreserved human sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen: effect on motility parameters, morphology, and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyatanasakchai, Piyaphan; Sophonsritsuk, Areephan; Weerakiet, Sawaek; Wansumrit, Surapee; Chompurat, Deonthip

    2008-11-01

    To compare the effects of cryopreserved sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen on sperm motility, morphology, and sperm function. Experimental study. Andrology laboratory at Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Thirty-eight semen samples with normal motility and sperm count were collected from 38 men who were either patients of an infertility clinic or had donated sperm for research. Each semen sample was divided into two aliquots. Samples were frozen with static-phase vapor cooling. One aliquot was plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), and the other was stored in vapor-phase nitrogen (-179 degrees C) for 3 days. Thawing was performed at room temperature. Motility was determined by using computer-assisted semen analysis, sperm morphology was determined by using eosin-methylene blue staining, and sperm function was determined by using a hemizona binding test. Most of the motility parameters of sperm stored in the vapor phase were not significantly different from those stored in the liquid phase of liquid nitrogen, except in amplitude of lateral head displacement. The percentages of normal sperm morphology in both vapor and liquid phases also were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the number of bound sperm in hemizona between sperm cryopreserved in both vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of human sperm in a vapor phase of liquid nitrogen was comparable to cryopreservation in a liquid phase of liquid nitrogen.

  13. Partitioning Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes using Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    A variety of methods are currently available to partition water vapor fluxes (into components of transpiration and direct evaporation) and carbon dioxide fluxes (into components of photosynthesis and respiration), using chambers, isotopes, and regression modeling approaches. Here, a methodology is presented that accounts for correlations between high-frequency measurements of water vapor (q) and carbon dioxide (c) concentrations being influenced by their non-identical source-sink distributions and the relative magnitude of their constituent fluxes. Flux-variance similarity assumptions are applied separately to the stomatal and the non-stomatal exchange, and the flux components are identified by considering the q-c correlation. Water use efficiency for the vegetation, and how it varies with respect to vapor pressure deficit, is the only input needed for this approach that uses standard eddy covariance measurements. The method is demonstrated using data collected over a corn field throughout a growing season. In particular, the research focuses on the partitioning of the water flux with the aim of improving how direct evaporation is handled in soil-vegetation- atmosphere transfer models over the course of wetting and dry-down cycles.

  14. The structure of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, B.

    1969-01-01

    We have tried to expose a bibliography so complete as possible on structure of liquid water. One synthesis of the different models of water structure is presently impossible, so, we have exposed the main properties of water. We have pointed out the new hypotheses on the electronic structure of water molecule and on the theory of hydrogen bond. After that, we have put together the studies of structure by spectroscopy and given the main deductions of some workers on this subject. We have also exposed the characteristics of processes: relaxation and dielectric constant, influence of temperature on structure. At last, we have considered briefly the partition and thermodynamic functions established from the various models proposed. (author) [fr

  15. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  16. Low-gravity sensing of liquid/vapor interface and transient liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Saul A.; Korba, James M.; Lynnworth, Lawrence C.; Nguyen, Toan H.; Orton, George F.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here deals mainly with tests on internally vaned cylindrical shell acrylic containers capped by hemispherical acrylic or aluminum end domes. Three different ultrasonic sensor techniques and one nucleonic technique presently are evaluated as possible solutions to the low-gravity liquid gauging problem. The ultrasonic techniques are as follows: use of a torsional wave sensor in which transit time is proportional to the integral of wetted distance x liquid density; integration of the flow rate output signal of a fast-response ultrasonic flowmeter; and use of multiplexed externally mounted 'point-sensor' transducers that sense transit times to liquid-gas interfaces. Using two commercial flowmeters and a thickness gauge modified for this particular project, bench tests were conducted at 1 g on liquids such as water, freon, and solvent 140, including both steady flow and pulsating flow with 40, 80, and 120 ms flow pulses. Subsequently, flight tests were conducted in the NASA KC-135 aircraft in which nearly 0-g conditions are obtainable for up to about 5 s in each of a number of repetitive parabolic flight trajectories. In some of these brief low-gravity flight tests freon was replaced with a higher-viscosity fuel to reduce sloshing and thereby obtain settled surfaces more quickly.

  17. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  18. Rigorous determination of stratospheric water vapor trends from MIPAS observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera; Ridolfi, Marco

    2011-05-09

    The trend of stratospheric water vapor as a function of latitude is estimated by the MIPAS measurements by means of a new method that uses the measurement space solution. The method uses all the information provided by the observations avoiding the artifacts introduced by the a priori information and by the interpolation to different vertical grids. The analysis provides very precise values of the trends that, however, are limited by a relatively large systematic error induced by the radiometric calibration error of the instrument. The results show in the five years from 2005 to 2009 a dependence on latitude of the stratospheric (from 37 to 53 km) water vapor trend with a positive value of (0.41 ± 0.16)%yr-1 in the northern hemisphere and less than 0.16%yr-1 in the southern hemisphere.

  19. Energetic particle induced desorption of water vapor cryo-condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Owen, L.W.; Simpkins, J.E.; Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    An in-vessel cryo-condensation pump is being designed for the Advanced Divertor configuration of the DIII-D tokamak. To assess the importance of possible desorption of water vapor from the cryogenic surfaces of the pump due to impingement of energetic particles from the plasma, a 77 K surface on which a thin layer of water vapor was condensed was exposed to a tenuous plasma (density = 2 x 10 10 cm -3 , electron temperature = 3 eV). Significant desorption of the condensate occurred, suggesting that impingement of energeticparticles (10 eV) at flux levels of ∼10 16 cm 2 s -1 on cryogenic surfaces could potentially induce impurity problems in the tokamak plasma. A pumping configuration is presented in which this problem is minimized without sacrificing the pumping speed

  20. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1986-01-01

    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  1. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  2. Raman Thermometry Measurements of Free Evaporation from Liquid Water Droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jared D.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies of evaporation have suggested that on average, molecules in the higher-energy tail of the Boltzmann distribution are more readily transferred into the vapor during evaporation. To test these conclusions, the evaporative cooling rates of a droplet train of liquid water injected into vacuum have been studied via Raman thermometry. The resulting cooling rates are fit to an evaporative cooling model based on Knudsen's maximum rate of evaporation, in which we explicitly account for surface cooling. We have determined that the value of the evaporation coefficient (γ e ) of liquid water is 0.62 ± 0.09, confirming that a rate-limiting barrier impedes the evaporation rate. Such insight will facilitate the formulation of a microscopic mechanism for the evaporation of liquid water

  3. Rapid increases in permeability and porosity of bentonite-sand mixtures due to alteration by water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Packed columns of canister packing material containing 25% bentonite and 75% quartz or basalt sand, were exposed to water vapor at temperatures up t 260 0 C. The permeabilities of the columns were subsequently measured after complete saturation with liquid water in a pressurized system. Exposure to water vapor caused irreversible increases in permeability by factors of up to 10 5 . After saturation with liquid water, the permeability was nearly independent of temperature. The increases in permeability were due to a large decrease in the ability of the bentonite to swell in water. Calculations suggest that swelling of bentonite altered at 250 0 C was not sufficient to fill the pore spaces. If the pore spaces are filled, the mixture will form an effective barrier against flow, diffusion, and transport of colloids. The results suggest that if bentonite-based canister packing material is exposed even briefly to water vapor at high temperatures in a high-level nuclear waste repository, its performance will be seriously impaired. The problem is less severe if the proportion of bentonite is high and the material is highly compacted. Previous results show significant degradation of bentonite by water vapor at temperatures as low as 150 0 C. This suggests that in some repositories, backfill in tunnels and drifts may also be affected. 9 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  4. Impact of groundwater levels on evaporation and water-vapor fluxes in highly saline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J. F.; Hernández, M. F.; Braud, I.; Gironas, J. A.; Suarez, F. I.

    2012-12-01

    In aquifers of arid and hyper-arid zones, such as those occurring in the Chilean Andes high plateau, it is important to determine both the quantity and location of water discharges at the temporal scales of interest to close the basin's water budget and thus, to manage the water resource properly. In zones where shallow aquifers are the main source of water, overexploitation of the water resource changes the dynamics of water, heat and solute transport in the vadose zone. As aquifers are exploited, fluctuations in depth to groundwater are exacerbated. These fluctuations modify both soil structure and evaporation from the ground, which is typically the most important discharge from the water budget and is very difficult to estimate. Therefore, a correct quantification of evaporation from these soils is essential to improve the accuracy of the water balance estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate the evaporation processes and water-vapor fluxes in a soil column filled with a saline soil from the Salar del Huasco basin, Chile. Water content, electrical conductivity and temperature at different depths in the soil profile were monitored to determine the liquid and vapor fluxes within the soil column. The results showed that evaporation is negligible when the groundwater table is deeper than 1 m. For shallower groundwater levels, evaporation increases in an exponential fashion reaching a value of 3 mm/day when the groundwater table is near the surface of the ground. These evaporation rates are on the same order of magnitude than the field measurements, but slightly lower due to the controlled conditions maintained in the laboratory. Isothermal fluid fluxes were predominant over the non-isothermal fluid and water vapor fluxes. The net flux for all the phreatic levels tested in the laboratory showed different behaviors, with ascending or descending flows as a consequence of changes in water content and temperature distribution within the soil. It was

  5. Mars atmospheric water vapor abundance: 1996-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, A. L.; Hunten, D. M.; Doose, L. R.; Hill, R. E.

    2003-05-01

    Measurements of martian atmospheric water vapor made throughout Ls = 18.0°-146.4° (October 3, 1996-July 12, 1997) show changes in Mars humidity on hourly, daily, and seasonal time scales. Because our observing program during the 1996-1997 Mars apparition did not include concomitant measurement of nearby CO 2 bands, high northern latitude data were corrected for dust and aerosol extinction assuming an optical depth of 0.8, consistent with ground-based and HST imaging of northern dust storms. All other measurements with airmass greater than 3.5 were corrected using a total optical depth of 0.5. Three dominant results from this data set are as follows: (1) pre- and post-opposition measurements made with the slit crossing many hours of local time on Mars' Earth-facing disk show a distinct diurnal pattern with highest abundances around and slightly after noon with low abundances in the late afternoon, (2) measurements of water vapor over the Mars Pathfinder landing site (Carl Sagan Memorial Station) on July 12, 1997, found 21 ppt μm in the spatial sector centered near 19° latitude, 36° longitude while abundances around the site varied from as low as 6 to as high as 28 ppt μm, and (3) water vapor abundance is patchy on hourly and daily time scales but follows the usual seasonal trends.

  6. Water vapor emission from H II regions and infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cato, B.T.; Ronnang, B.O.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Lewin, P.T.; Yngvesson, K.S.; Cardiasmenos, A.G.; Shanley, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The spatial structure of water vapor microwave line emission has been investigated with moderate angular resolution in several well-known H II regions. New H 2 O sources have been with infrared (1R) sources. One of these sources, IRC: 20411, has been investigated at optical wavelengths. It is found to be of spectral class M3-M5 and by indirect evidence the luminosity class is preliminarily determined to Ib. The distance is estimated to be approx.2 kpc, and the star must be in front of the dust complex which obscures W28 A2. In NGC 7538 new high-velocity features have been discovered. Two new weak water vapor masers, G30.1: 0.7 and G32.8: 0.3, have been detected in a search among eight class II OH/IR sources. H 2 O emission coinciding with the low-velocity OH features of VY Canis Majoris has also been detected. A search for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) water-vapor line emission in molecular clouds associated with H II regions is also reported. No line was detected with the utilized sensitivity. The physical implications of this are discussed and an upper limit of the H 2 O column density has been estimated. Gaussian analysis of the strong, narrow feature in the spectrum of ON 1 indicates a possible presence of two hyperfine components, viz., F→F'=7→6 and 6→5

  7. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake behavior at assorted adsorption temperatures and pressures whilst comparing them to the commercial silica gels of AD plants. The surface characteristics are first carried out using N2 gas adsorption followed by the water vapor uptake analysis for temperature ranging from 20°C to 80°C. We propose a hybrid isotherm model, composing of the Henry and the Sips isotherms, which can be integrated to satisfactorily fit the experimental data of water adsorption on the FAM-Z01. The hybrid model is selected to fit the unusual isotherm shapes, that is, a low adsorption in the initial section and followed by a rapid vapor uptake leading to a likely micropore volume filling by hydrogen bonding and cooperative interaction in micropores. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FAM-Z01 can be up to 5 folds higher than that of conventional silica gels. Owing to the quantum increase in the adsorbate uptake, the FAM-Z01 has the potential to significantly reduce the footprint of an existing AD plant for the same output capacity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Water vapor pressure over molten KH2PO4 and demonstration of water electrolysis at ∼300ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Petrushina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    A new potentially high-efficiency electrolyte for water electrolysis: molten monobasic potassium phosphate, KH2PO4 or KDP has been investigated at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, KH2PO4 was found to dissociate into H2O gas in equilibrium with a melt mixture of KH2PO4—K2H2P2O7—KPO3...... of water and methane or hydrogen to be 0.40 ± 0.02 or 1.2 ± 0.03. At equilibrium the vapor pressure was much lower than the vapor pressure above liquid water at the same temperature. Electrolysis was realized by passing current through closed ampoules (vacuum sealed quartz glass electrolysis cells...... with platinum electrodes and the electrolyte melt). The formation of mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen gases as well as the water vapor was detected by Raman spectroscopy. In this way it was demonstrated that water is present in the new electrolyte: molten KH2PO4 can be split by electrolysis via the reaction 2H2O...

  9. Liquid-vapor equilibrium and interfacial properties of square wells in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; Quintana-H, Jacqueline; Chapela, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-vapor coexistence and interfacial properties of square wells in two dimensions are calculated. Orthobaric densities, vapor pressures, surface tensions, and interfacial thicknesses are reported. Results are presented for a series of potential widths λ* = 1.4, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, and 5, where λ* is given in units of the hard core diameter σ. Critical and triple points are explored. No critical point was found for λ* Armas-Pérez et al. [unpublished] as a hexatic phase transition. It is located at reduced temperatures T* = 0.47 and 0.35 for λ* = 1.4 and 1.5, respectively. Properties such as the surface tension, vapor pressure, and interfacial thickness do not present any discontinuity at these points. This amorphous solid branch does not follow the corresponding state principle, which is only applied to liquids and gases.

  10. Water vapor pressure over molten KH_2PO_4 and demonstration of water electrolysis at ∼300 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.W.; Nikiforov, A.V.; Petrushina, I.M.; Bjerrum, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressure over molten KH_2PO_4 was measured by Raman spectroscopy to be about 8 bars at ∼300 °C. • Raman spectroscopy shows that molten KH_2PO_4 under its own vapor pressure contains much dissolved water. • It is demonstrated spectroscopically that water electrolysis is possible in KH_2PO_4 electrolyte forming H_2 and O_2 at 300 °C. • Molten KH_2PO_4 is a possible electrolyte for water electrolysis. - Abstract: A new potentially high-efficiency electrolyte for water electrolysis: molten monobasic potassium phosphate, KH_2PO_4 or KDP has been investigated at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, KH_2PO_4 was found to dissociate into H_2O gas in equilibrium with a melt mixture of KH_2PO_4−K_2H_2P_2O_7−KPO_3−H_2O. The water vapor pressure above the melt, when contained in a closed ampoule, was determined quantitatively vs. temperature by use of Raman spectroscopy with methane or hydrogen gas as an internal calibration standard, using newly established relative ratios of Raman scattering cross sections of water and methane or hydrogen to be 0.40 ± 0.02 or 1.2 ± 0.03. At equilibrium the vapor pressure was much lower than the vapor pressure above liquid water at the same temperature. Electrolysis was realized by passing current through closed ampoules (vacuum sealed quartz glass electrolysis cells with platinum electrodes and the electrolyte melt). The formation of mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen gases as well as the water vapor was detected by Raman spectroscopy. In this way it was demonstrated that water is present in the new electrolyte: molten KH_2PO_4 can be split by electrolysis via the reaction 2H_2O → 2H_2 + O_2 at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, before the start of the electrolysis, the KH_2PO_4 melt gives off H_2O gas that pressurizes the cell according to the following dissociations: 2KH_2PO_4 ↔ K_2H_2P_2O_7 + H_2O ↔ 2KPO_3 + 2H_2O. The spectra show however that the water by

  11. Liquid nitrogen - water interaction experiments for fusion reactor accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.; Murphy, J.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Corradini, M.

    2001-01-01

    With the implementation of superconducting magnets in fusion reactors, the possibility exists for the interaction between water and cryogenic systems. The interaction between liquid nitrogen and water was investigated experimentally and numerically. The rate of pressurization and peak pressure were found to be driven thermodynamically by the expansion of the water and the boil-off of the liquid nitrogen and did not have a vapor explosion nature. Since the peak pressure was small in comparison to previous work with stratified geometries, the role of the geometry of the interacting fluids has been shown to be significant. Comparisons of the peak pressure and the rate of pressurization with respect to the ratio of the liquid nitrogen mass to water mass reveal no functional dependence as was observed in the liquid helium-water experiments. A simple thermodynamic model provides a fairly good description of the pressure rise data. From the data, the model will allow one to extract the interaction area of the water. As with previous liquid helium-water interaction experiments, more extensive investigation of the mass ratio and interaction geometry is needed to define boundaries between explosive and non-explosive conditions. (authors)

  12. Liquid Water in the Extremely Shallow Martian Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Shivak, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of liquid water is one of the major constraints for the potential Martian biosphere. Although liquid water is unstable on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressures, it has been suggested that liquid films of water could be present in the Martian soil. Here we explored a possibility of the liquid water formation in the extremely shallow (1-3 cm) subsurface layer under low atmospheric pressures (0.1-10 mbar) and low ("Martian") surface temperatures (approx.-50 C-0 C). We used a new Goddard Martian simulation chamber to demonstrate that even in the clean frozen soil with temperatures as low as -25C the amount of mobile water can reach several percents. We also showed that during brief periods of simulated daylight warming the shallow subsurface ice sublimates, the water vapor diffuses through porous surface layer of soil temporarily producing supersaturated conditions in the soil, which leads to the formation of additional liquid water. Our results suggest that despite cold temperatures and low atmospheric pressures, Martian soil just several cm below the surface can be habitable.

  13. Improved thermal lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of liquid-vapor phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhou, P.; Yan, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an improved thermal lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for simulating liquid-vapor phase change, which is aimed at improving an existing thermal LB model for liquid-vapor phase change [S. Gong and P. Cheng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 4923 (2012), 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.04.037]. First, we emphasize that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇.(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) is an inappropriate treatment for diffuse interface modeling of liquid-vapor phase change. Furthermore, the error terms ∂t 0(T v ) +∇ .(T vv ) , which exist in the macroscopic temperature equation recovered from the previous model, are eliminated in the present model through a way that is consistent with the philosophy of the LB method. Moreover, the discrete effect of the source term is also eliminated in the present model. Numerical simulations are performed for droplet evaporation and bubble nucleation to validate the capability of the model for simulating liquid-vapor phase change. It is shown that the numerical results of the improved model agree well with those of a finite-difference scheme. Meanwhile, it is found that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇ .(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) leads to significant numerical errors and the error terms in the recovered macroscopic temperature equation also result in considerable errors.

  14. Vapor phase versus liquid phase grafting of meso-porous alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sripathi, V.G.P.; Mojet, Barbara; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Functionalization of meso-porous c-alumina has been performed by grafting of 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (3APTMS) simultaneously from either the liquid phase or from the vapor phase. In both cases, after grafting nitrogen physisorption indicates that the materials remain meso-porous with

  15. Prediction of the liquid-vapor equilibrium pressure using the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, A; Roccatano, D; Apol, M.E F; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Di Nola, A.

    1996-01-01

    We derived a method to evaluate the liquid-vapor equilibrium pressure, with high accuracy over a large range of temperature, using the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory. The final expression that we obtain for the equilibrium pressure as a function of the temperature can be considered as a very accurate

  16. Modeling of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium in gas - aqueous electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the description of vapor-liquid-solid equilibria is introduced. This model is a combination of the extended UNIQUAC model for electrolytes and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equation of state. The model has been applied to aqueous systems containing ammonia and/or carbon ...

  17. Determination of water vapor and aerosol densities in the tropospheric atmosphere from nitrogen and water vapor raman signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D H; Lee, J M; Yeon, K H; Choi, S C

    1998-01-01

    A Raman lidar system has been developed for the measurement of the water-vapor mixing ratio and the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. To suppress the elastic scattering from the XeCl excimer laser, an acetone edge filter and narrow-band interference filters are used. By using independently calculated backscatter and extinction coefficients, we calculate the lidar ratios (extinction coefficient divided by the backscatter coefficient). The obtained ratios between 30 and 50 sr explain the special characteristics of the aerosol existing in the atmosphere. These ratios are also used as important parameters in the lidar inversion program. We have also obtained the water-vapor mixing ratio and find that big differences exist between the ratios inside the boundary layer and those of other regions.

  18. Water vapor stable isotope observations from tropical Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The response of the tropical hydrological cycle to anthropogenically induced changes in radiative forcing is one of the largest discrepancies between climate models. Paleoclimate archives of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in the tropics indicate a relationship with precipitation amount that could be exploited to study past hydroclimate and improve our knowledge of how this region responds to changes in climate forcing. Recently modelling studies of convective parameterizations fitted with water isotopes and remote sensing of water vapor isotopes in the tropics have illustrated uncertainty in the assumed relationship with rainfall amount. Therefore there is a need to collect water isotope data in the tropics that can be used to evaluate these models and help identify the relationships between the isotopic composition of meteoric waters and rainfall intensity. However, data in this region is almost non-existent. Here we present in-situ water vapor isotopic measurements and the HDO retrievals from the co-located Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON) site at Darwin in Tropical Australia. The Darwin site is interestingly placed within the tropical western pacific region and is impacted upon by a clear monsoonal climate, and key climate cycles including ENSO and Madden Julian Oscillations. The analysis of the data illustrated relationships between water vapor isotopes and humidity which demonstrated the role of precipitation processes in the wet season and air mass mixing during the dry season. Further the wet season observations show complex relationships between humidity and isotopes. A simple Rayleigh distillation model was not obeyed, instead the importance of rainfall re-evaporation in generating the highly depleted signatures was demonstrated. These data potentially provide a useful tool for evaluating model parameterizations in monsoonal regions as they demonstrate relationships with precipitation processes that cannot be observed with

  19. Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band - Calibration, measurements and data applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, J. A.; Thome, K.; Herman, B.; Gall, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methods and presents results for sensing the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 0.94-micron water-vapor absorption band. Calibration and measurement techniques are presented for obtaining the water vapor transmission from the radiometer measurements. Models are also presented for retrieving the columnar water vapor amount from the estimated transmission. Example retrievals are presented for radiometer measurements made during the 1986 Arizona Monsoon Season to track temporal variations in columnar water vapor amount.

  20. Assessment of water vapor content from MIVIS TIR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of land remotely sensed images is to derive biological, chemical and physical parameters by inverting sample sets of spectral data. For the above aim hyperspectral scanners on airborne platform are a powerful remote sensing instrument for both research and environmental applications because of their spectral resolution and the high operability of the platform. Fine spectral information by MIVIS (airborne hyperspectral scanner operating in 102 channels ranging from VIS to TIR allows researchers to characterize atmospheric parameters and their effects on measured data which produce undesirable features on surface spectral signatures. These effects can be estimated (and remotely sensed radiances corrected if atmospheric spectral transmittance is known at each image pixel. Usually ground-based punctual observations (atmospheric sounding balloons, sun photometers, etc. are used to estimate the main physical parameters (like water vapor and temperature profiles which permit us to estimate atmospheric spectral transmittance by using suitable radiative transfer model and a specific (often too strong assumption which enable atmospheric properties measured only in very few points to be extended to the whole image. Several atmospheric gases produce observable absorption features, but only water vapor strongly varies in time and space. In this work the authors customize a self-sufficient «split-window technique» to derive (at each image pixel atmospheric total columnar water vapor content (TWVC using only MIVIS data collected by the fourth MIVIS spectrometer (Thermal Infrared band. MIVIS radiances have been simulated by means of MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code and the coefficients of linear regression to estimate TWVC from «split-windows» MIVIS radiances, based on 450 atmospheric water vapor profiles obtained by radiosonde data provided by NOAANESDIS. The method has been applied to produce maps describing the spatial variability of

  1. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...... directions accurately. Evaluation of the developed prediction equations showed good estimation of the sorption/desorption isotherms for tested soils....

  2. Device for sampling radioactive and aggressive liquid and vaporous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przibram, E.; Halm, G.

    1974-01-01

    The equipment enables the taking of samples even of radioactive media from a main pipeline in the through-flow in a closed system. A tap device is attached to the main pipeline which branches into two parts. The one branch contains the actual tap which is closed to both sides with snap closure coupling. It is only used for taking samples. The other branch bridges the tap position as a bypass so that a representative sample is always available. Both branches join up again and lead back to the main pipeline. The sampling can be used in a nuclear power plant for the determination of O 2 , CI, SiO 2 , and Cu. A millilitre collecting cylinder and a millipore filtration device can be connected to the tap for liquid sampling and solid analysis, respectively. The system can be extended to several tap positions. Permanent measuring equipment is attached to the bypass pipe to control the sample liquid. (DG) [de

  3. Ionic liquids as entrainers for water + ethanol, water + 2-propanol, and water + THF systems: A quantum chemical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vijay Kumar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, Assam (India); Banerjee, Tamal, E-mail: tamalb@iitg.ernet.i [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, Assam (India)

    2010-07-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are used as entrainers in azeotropic systems such as water + ethanol, water + 2-propanol, and water + tetrahydrofuran (THF). Ionic liquids consisting of a cation and an anion has limitless combinations, thereby making experimentation expensive and time taking. For the prediction of the liquid phase nonidealities resulting from molecular interactions, 'COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents' (COSMO-RS) approach is used in this work for the screening of potential ionic liquids. Initially benchmarking has been done on 12 reported isobaric IL based ternary systems with an absolute average deviation of 4.63% in vapor phase mole fraction and 1.07% in temperature. After successful benchmarking, ternary vapor + liquid equilibria for the azeotropic mixture of (a) ethanol + water, (b) 2-propanol + water, and (c) THF + water with combinations involving 10 cations (imidazolium, pyridinium, quinolium) and 24 anions were predicted. The VLE prediction, which gave the relative volatility, showed that the imidazolium based ionic liquid were the best entrainer for the separation of the three systems at their azeotropic point. ILs with [MMIM] cation in combination with acetate [OAc], chloride [Cl], and bromide [Br] anion gave the highest relative volatility.

  4. Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M A; D' Auria, R; Kuo, I W; Krisch, M J; Starr, D E; Bluhm, H; Tobias, D J; Hemminger, J C

    2008-04-23

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of x-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous-vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F{sup -} to K{sup +} atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air-water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, and this is consistent with the depletion of F{sup -} at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous-vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at a potassium fluoride aqueous solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.

  5. Disappearance of a detached vapor mass in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Shigeaki; Miyasaka, Yoshiki; Izumi, Ryotaro.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on pool transition boiling of water under atmospheric pressure on a heated surface 10 mm in diameter were conducted for subcooling 15 - 50 K. The mass flux of condensation of a detached coalescent vapor bubble was experimentally estimated by a mathematical model based on the mass transfer mechanism of condensation. As a result, it is clarified that the mass flux of condensation of the detached bubble was influenced by the initial growing velocity of a vapor bubble immediately following the detached bubble. The disappearance velocity of the detached bubble defined as a ratio of the bubble diameter at the departure to the time required until the disappearance, is in the range 0.2 to 2.0 m/sec. The disappearance velocity is proportional to the initial growing velocity of the bubble, to the square of the heat flux of the heated surface and to the cube of the wall superheat, separately. (author)

  6. Ionic liquids: differential scanning calorimetry as a new indirect method for determination of vaporization enthalpies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Ralys, Ricardas V; Schick, Christoph

    2012-04-12

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure enthalpies of synthesis reactions of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C(n)mim][Br] ionic liquids from 1-methylimidazole and n-alkyl bromides (with n = 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8). The optimal experimental conditions have been elaborated. Enthalpies of formation of these ionic liquids in the liquid state have been determined using the DSC results according to the Hess Law. The ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of [C(n)mim][Br] were calculated using the methods of quantum chemistry. They were used together with the DSC results to derive indirectly the enthalpies of vaporization of the ionic liquids under study. In order to validate the indirect determination, the experimental vaporization enthalpy of [C(4)mim][Br] was measured by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The combination of reaction enthalpy measurements by DSC with modern high-level first-principles calculations opens valuable indirect thermochemical options to obtain values of vaporization enthalpies of ionic liquids.

  7. Quantifying liquid boundary and vapor distributions in a fuel spray by rainbow schlieren deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber Wanstall, C; Agrawal, Ajay K; Bittle, Joshua A

    2017-10-20

    The rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) technique is used to determine the liquid boundary and the fuel volume fraction distributions in the vapor region of a high-pressure fuel spray. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure flow vessel, whereby a customized single-hole common-rail diesel injector is used to introduce n-heptane fuel into a coflow of low-speed ambient air at two different test conditions. Only the quasi-steady period of the fuel spray is considered, and multiple injections are performed to acquire statistically significant data at an image acquisition rate of 20 kHz. An algorithm to identify the liquid boundary using intensity recorded by the RSD images is presented. The results are compared against measurements obtained by the Mie scattering technique. Results demonstrate that the RSD can be a powerful optical diagnostics technique to simultaneously quantify both the vapor and liquid regions in the high-pressure fuel sprays.

  8. Vaporization enthalpies of imidazolium based ionic liquids. A thermogravimetric study of the alkyl chain length dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H.; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Ralys, Ricardas V.; Yermalayeu, Andrei V.; Schick, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were measured with thermogravimetry. ► We studied 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. ► The linear alkyl chain length was 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 C-atoms. ► A linear dependence on the chain length of the alkyl-imidazolium cation was found. - Abstract: Vaporization enthalpies for a series of ten ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C n mim][NTf 2 ], with the alkyl chain length n = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 were determined using the thermogravimetric method. An internally consistent set of experimental data and vaporization enthalpies at 540 K was obtained. Vaporization enthalpies at 540 K have shown a linear dependence on the chain length of the alkyl-imidazolium cation in agreement with the experimental results measured previously with a quartz crystal microbalance. Ambiguity of Δ l g C pm o -values required for the extrapolation of experimental vaporization enthalpies to the reference temperature 298 K has been discussed.

  9. A new method for the determination of vaporization enthalpies of ionic liquids at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Emelyanenko, Vladimir N; Heintz, Andreas

    2011-11-10

    A new method for the determination of vaporization enthalpies of extremely low volatile ILs has been developed using a newly constructed quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) vacuum setup. Because of the very high sensitivity of the QCM it has been possible to reduce the average temperature of the vaporization studies by approximately 100 K in comparison to other conventional techniques. The physical basis of the evaluation procedure has been developed and test measurements have been performed with the common ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C(2)mim][NTf(2)] extending the range of measuring vaporization enthalpies down to 363 K. The results obtained for [C(2)mim][NTf(2)] have been tested for thermodynamic consistency by comparison with data already available at higher temperatures. Comparison of the temperature-dependent vaporization enthalpy data taken from the literature show only acceptable agreement with the heat capacity difference of -40 J K(-1) mol(-1). The method developed in this work opens also a new way to obtain reliable values of vaporization enthalpies of thermally unstable ionic liquids.

  10. Thermodynamic and structure-property study of liquid-vapor equilibrium for aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromelin, Anne; Andriot, Isabelle; Kopjar, Mirela; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2010-04-14

    Thermodynamic parameters (T, DeltaH degrees , DeltaS degrees , K) were collected from the literature and/or calculated for five esters, four ketones, two aldehydes, and three alcohols, pure compounds and compounds in aqueous solution. Examination of correlations between these parameters and the range values of DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees puts forward the key roles of enthalpy for vaporization of pure compounds and of entropy in liquid-vapor equilibrium of compounds in aqueous solution. A structure-property relationship (SPR) study was performed using molecular descriptors on aroma compounds to better understand their vaporization behavior. In addition to the role of polarity for vapor-liquid equilibrium of compounds in aqueous solution, the structure-property study points out the role of chain length and branching, illustrated by the correlation between the connectivity index CHI-V-1 and the difference between T and log K for vaporization of pure compounds and compounds in aqueous solution. Moreover, examination of the esters' enthalpy values allowed a probable conformation adopted by ethyl octanoate in aqueous solution to be proposed.

  11. Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000K to 1200K - A high temperature mass spectrometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, U.; Mukherjee, A.; Dey, G. K.

    2017-09-01

    Liquid lead-lithium eutectic will be used as a coolant in fusion reactor blanket loop. Vapor pressure of the eutectic is an important parameter to accurately predict its in-loop behavior. Past measurements of vapor pressure of the eutectic relied on indirect methods. In this paper, we report for the first time the in-situ vaporization behavior of the liquid alloy between 1042 and 1176 K by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). It was seen that the vaporization occurred by independent evaporation of lead and lithium. No complex intermetallic vapor was seen in the mass spectra. The partial pressures and enthalpy of vaporization of Pb and Li were evaluated directly from the measured ion intensities formed from the equilibrium vapor over the alloy. The activity of Li over a temperature range of 1042-1176 K was found to be 4.8 × 10-5 to that of pure Li, indicating its very low activity in the alloy.

  12. Cassini/CIRS Observations of Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Jennings, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini spacecraft has obtained spectra of Titan during most of the 44 flybys of the Cassini prime mission. Water vapor on Titan was first detected using whole-disk observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 336, L85-L89). CIRS data permlt the retrieval of the latitudinal variation of water on Titan and some limited information on its vertical profile. Emission lines of H2O on Titan are very weak in the CIRS data. Thus, large spectral averages as well as improvements in calibration are necessary to detect water vapor. Water abundances were retrieved in nadir spectra at 55 South, the Equator, and at 19 North. Limb spectra of the Equator were also modeled to constrain the vertical distribution of water. Stratospheric temperatures in the 0.5 - 4.0 mbar range were obtained by inverting spectra of CH4 in the v4 band centered at 1304/cm. The temperature in the lower stratosphere (4 - 20 mbar) was derived from fitting pure rotation lines of CH4 between 80 and 160/cm. The origin of H2O and CO2 is believed to be from the ablation of micrometeorites containing water ice, followed by photochemistry. This external source of water originates either within the Saturn system or from the interplanetary medium. Recently, Horst et al (J. Geophys. Res. 2008, in press) developed a photochemical model of Titan in which there are two external sources of oxygen. Oxygen ions (probably from Enceladus) precipitate into Titan's atmosphere to form CO at very high altitudes (1100 km). Water ice ablation at lower altitudes (700 km) forms H2O and subsequent chemistry produces CO2. CIRS measurements of CO, CO2, and now of H2O will provide valuable constraints to these photochemical models and - improve our understanding of oxygen chemistry on Titan.

  13. Sampling tritiated water vapor from the atmosphere by an active system using silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N., E-mail: natalia.alegria@ehu.es [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Among the different methods used to collect the tritiated water vapor (HTO) contained in the atmosphere, one of the most worldwide used is its collection using an air pump, which forces the air to pass through a dry silica gel trap. The silica gel is then distilled to remove the water collected, which is measured in a liquid scintillation counting system. In this paper, an analysis of the water collection efficiency of the silica gel has been done as a function of the temperatures involved, the dimensions of the pipe driving the air into the silica gel traps, the air volume passing through the trap and the flow rates used. Among the obtained conclusions, it can be pointed out that placing the traps inside a cooled container, the amount of silica gel needed to collect all the water contained in the air passing through these traps can be estimated using a weather forecast and a psychometric chart. To do this, and as thermal equilibrium between incoming and open air should be established, a suitable design of the sampling system is proposed. - Highlights: > To recollect the atmosphere air tritiated water vapor, an active system was used. > The system is an air pump and three traps with silica gel connected by a rubber pipe. > The silica gel retention depends on the meteorological conditions and the flow rate. > The amount of water collected and the mass of silica gel need were calculated, F.

  14. Emergence of the Coherent Structure of Liquid Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bono

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine in some detail the interaction of water molecules with the radiative electromagnetic field and find the existence of phase transitions from the vapor phase to a condensed phase where all molecules oscillate in unison, in tune with a self-trapped electromagnetic field within extended mesoscopic space regions (Coherence Domains. The properties of such a condensed phase are examined and found to be compatible with the phenomenological properties of liquid water. In particular, the observed value of critical density is calculated with good accuracy.

  15. Experimental study of the spill and vaporization of a volatile liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, Douglas; Jackson, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Pool and vapor cloud characteristics of an acetone spill issuing from the downstream wall of a flow obstruction oriented perpendicular to a uniform flow were investigated experimentally. Data indicate that the spill event was largely governed by the temperature of the surface in relation to the boiling point of the spilled liquid. The free stream velocity (ranging from 0.75 to 3.0 m/s) also impacted the spreading of the spill. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to measure acetone vapor concentrations during the transient pool spreading and vaporization in a window 60 cm long by 50 cm high and located downstream of the 16 cm high obstruction. The recirculation region induced by the flow obstruction caused upstream transport of the acetone vapor along the spill surface, after which it was convected vertically along the obstruction wall before being entrained into the flow and convected downstream. The recirculating flow caused regions of vapor within the flammability limits to be localized near the flow obstruction. These regions moved into and out of the measurement plane by large three-dimensional flow structures. The flammable region of the evolved vapor cloud was observed to grow well past the downstream edge of the measurement domain. With decreasing wind speeds, both the mass of acetone vapor within the flammability limits and the total spill event time increased significantly. The data presented herein provides a basis for validating future spill models of hazardous chemical releases, where complex turbulent flow modeling must be coupled with spill spreading and vaporization dynamics

  16. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-12-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying.

  17. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-03-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying.

  18. Carbon dioxide and water vapor high temperature electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The design, fabrication, breadboard testing, and the data base obtained for solid oxide electrolysis systems that have applications for planetary manned missions and habitats are reviewed. The breadboard tested contains sixteen tubular cells in a closely packed bundle for the electrolysis of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The discussion covers energy requirements, volume, weight, and operational characteristics related to the measurement of the reactant and product gas compositions, temperature distribution along the electrolyzer tubular cells and through the bundle, and thermal energy losses. The reliability of individual cell performance in the bundle configuration is assessed.

  19. Seasonal variations of water vapor in the tropical lower statosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Philip W.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Holton, James R.; Harwood, Robert S.; Waters, Joe W.

    1995-01-01

    Measurments of stratospheric water vapor by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) show that in the tropical lower statosphere, low-frequency variations are closely related to the annual cycle in tropical tropopause temperatures. Tropical stratospheric air appears to retain information about the tropopause conditions it enconters for over a year as it rises through the stratosphere. A two-dimensional Lagrangian model is used to relate MLS measurements to the temperature that tropical air parcels encounter when crossing the 100 hPa surface.

  20. Multispectral atmospheric mapping sensor of mesoscale water vapor features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, P.; Jedlovec, G.; Wilson, G.; Atkinson, R.; Smith, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Multispectral atmospheric mapping sensor was checked out for specified spectral response and detector noise performance in the eight visible and three infrared (6.7, 11.2, 12.7 micron) spectral bands. A calibration algorithm was implemented for the infrared detectors. Engineering checkout flights on board the ER-2 produced imagery at 50 m resolution in which water vapor features in the 6.7 micron spectral band are most striking. These images were analyzed on the Man computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). Ground truth and ancillary data was accessed to verify the calibration.

  1. A theoretical study of the growth of large sodium vapor bubbles in liquid sodium, including the effect of noncondensables and of vapor convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadei, F.; Donne, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of the expansion of large bubbles of hot sodium vapor in a pool of liquid sodium plays an important role in understanding the effects of a hypothetical core disruptive accident. A model of the growth of the bubble in the pool is described. The equations of the motion of the liquid and of the nonsteady heat diffusion problem are solved together with the continuity and energy equations for the vapor phase. The first set of calculations has been performed with constant evaporation and condensation coefficients. In the second set, however, due account has been taken of the effect on condensation of noncondensable fission gases and vapor convection. Due to the very high calculated vapor velocities, noncondensable gases have little effect on the condensation rate, and the percentage amount of condensed sodium is considerably higher than previously calculated by other authors

  2. A corresponding states treatment of the liquid-vapor saturation line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Ng, K.C.; Velasco, S.; White, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Correlations arising from the maxima of products of properties in the coexistence line. → Analysis of maxima along the vapor pressure curve. → Correlations for the maximum of the saturated vapor enthalpy curve. → Prediction of properties of the new low GWP refrigerants HFO 1234yf and HFO 1234ze (E). - Abstract: In this work we analyze correlations for the maxima of products of some liquid-vapor saturation properties. These points define new characteristic properties of each fluid that are shown to exhibit linear correlations with the critical properties. We also demonstrate that some of these properties are well correlated with the acentric factor. An application is made to predict the properties of two new low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants.

  3. Isothermogravimetric determination of the enthalpies of vaporization of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A; Dai, Sheng

    2008-08-21

    Vaporization enthalpies for two series of ionic liquids (ILs) composed of 1- n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [Imm1+] (m=2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 10), paired with either the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, [Tf2N-], or the bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)amide anion, [beti-], were determined using a simple, convenient, and highly reproducible thermogravimetric approach, and from these values, Hildebrand solubility parameters were estimated. Our results reveal two interesting and unanticipated outcomes: (i) methylation at the C2 position of [Imm1+] affords a significantly higher vaporization enthalpy; (ii) in all cases, the [beti-] anion served to lower the enthalpy of vaporization relative to [Tf2N-]. The widespread availability of the apparatus required for these measurements coupled with the ease of automation suggests the broad potential of this methodology for determining this critical parameter in a multitude of ILs.

  4. Liquid scintillator mixable with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid scintillator mixable with water is described consisting of an aromatic solvent (xylene), a scintillation material and an ethoxylated alkyl phenol (as surface-active substance). So far such kinds of system have not given good measurements on counting samples with high water content. Due to the invention's composition one gets good results even with counting samples having a water content of over 30% if the alkyl substituent of the alkyl phenol contains 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 or 16 C atoms and the ratio n/x of the number n of C atoms of the alkyl substituents to the average number x of the ethoxy groups of the ethoxylated alkyl phenols lie between 0.83 and 1.67. The following alkyl phenols are mentioned: heptyl phenol (n/x between 0.83 and 1.08), decyl phenol (n/x between 0.90 and 1.17), hendecyl phenol (n/x between 0.93 and 1.22), tridecyl phenol (n/x between 0.97 and 1.34), tetradecyl phenol (n/x between 1.08 and 1.55), pentadecyl phenol (n/x between 1.15 and 1.67), hexadecyl phenol (n/x between 1.33 and 1.51). (UWI) [de

  5. Methods for calculation of engineering parameters for gas separation. [vapor pressure and solubility of gases in organic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    A group additivity method is generated which allows estimation, from the structural formulas alone, of the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. Using these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relations, the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids are predicted. It is also possible to use the data to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or liquids as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  6. Isotopic equilibrium between precipitation and water vapor: evidence from continental rains in central Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, K.; Gerlein, C.; Kemeny, P. C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate understanding of the relationships between the isotopic composition of liquid water and that of water vapor in the environment can help describe hydrologic processes across many scales. One such relationship is the isotopic equilibrium between falling raindrops and the surrounding vapor. The degree of equilibration is used to model the isotopic composition of precipitation in isotope-enable general circulation models and land-atmosphere exchange models. Although this equilibrium has been a topic of isotope hydrology research for more than four decades, few studies have included vapor measurements to validate modeling efforts. Recent advances in laser technology have allowed for in situ vapor measurements at high temporal resolution (e.g., >1 Hz). Here we present concomitant rain and vapor measurements for a series of 17 rain events during the 'Continental' rainy season (June through August) at Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Rain samples (n=218) were collected at intervals of 2 to 35 minutes (median of 3 minutes) depending on the rain rate (0.4 to 10.5 mm/hr). The volume-weighted mean rain values for δ18O, δ2H and D-excess (δ2H - 8* δ18O) were 0.1 ‰, 10.7 ‰, and 10.1 ‰. These values are more enriched than the annual weighted means reported for the area (-2.2 ‰, -7.6 ‰, and 11.0 ‰, respectively). Vapor was measured continuously at ~2Hz (DLT-100, Los Gatos Research), with an inverted funnel intake 4m above the ground surface. The mean vapor isotopic composition during the rain events was -10.0 +/- 1.2 ‰ (1 σ) for δ18O and -73.9 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. The difference between the rain sample isotopic composition and that of liquid in isotopic equilibrium with the corresponding vapor at the ambient temperature was 0.8 +/- 2.2 ‰ for δ18O and 6.2 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. This disequilibrium was found to correlate with the natural log of rain rate (R2 of 0.26 for δ18O and 0.46 for δ2H), with lower rain rates having larger

  7. Theoretical approaches and experimental evidence for liquid-vapor phase transitions in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.; Elliott, J.B.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Mader, C.M.; Chappars, A.

    2001-01-01

    The leptodermous approximation is applied to nuclear systems for T > 0. The introduction of surface corrections leads to anomalous caloric curves and to negative heat capacities in the liquid-gas coexistence region. Clusterization in the vapor is described by associating surface energy to clusters according to Fisher's formula. The three-dimensional Ising model, a leptodermous system par excellence, does obey rigorously Fisher's scaling up to the critical point. Multifragmentation data from several experiments including the ISiS and EOS Collaborations, as well as compound nucleus fragment emission at much lower energy follow the same scaling, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of liquid-vapor coexistence.

  8. Prediction of high pressure vapor-liquid equilibria with mixing rule using ASOG group contribution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K.; Kurihara, K.

    1985-02-01

    To develop a widely applicable method for predicting high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria by the equation of state, a mixing rule is proposed in which mixture energy parameter ''..cap alpha..'' of theSoave-RedlichKwong, Peng-Robinson, and Martin cubic equations of state is expressed by using the ASOG group contribution method. The group pair parameters are then determined for 14 group pairs constituted by six groups, i.e. CH/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/, CH/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ groups. By using the group pair parameters determined, high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria are predicted with good accuracy for binary and ternary systems constituted by n-paraffins, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide in the temperature range of 100 - 450K.

  9. Liquid-Vapor Argon Isotope Fractionation from the Triple Point to the Critical Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, J. T.; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1972-01-01

    are compared at the same molar volume. The isotope fractionation factor α for 36Ar∕40Ar between liquid and vapor has been measured from the triple point to the critical temperature. The results are compared with previous vapor pressure data, which cover the range 84–102°K. Although the agreement is within....... The fractionation factor approaches zero at the critical temperature with a nonclassical critical index equal to 0.42±0.02.〈∇2Uc〉/ρc in liquid argon is derived from the experimental fractionation data and calculations of 〈∇2Ug〉/ρg for a number of potential functions for gaseous argon....

  10. Thermodynamic Modeling and Mechanical Design of a Liquid Nitrogen Vaporization and Pressure Building Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leege, Brian J.

    The design of a liquid nitrogen vaporization and pressure building device that has zero product waste while recovering some of its stored energy is of interest for the cost reduction of nitrogen for use in industrial processes. Current devices may waste up to 30% of the gaseous nitrogen product by venting it to atmosphere. Furthermore, no attempt is made to recover the thermal energy available in the coldness of the cryogen. A seven step cycle with changing volumes and ambient heat addition is proposed, eliminating all product waste and providing the means of energy recovery from the nitrogen. This thesis discusses the new thermodynamic cycle and modeling as well as the mechanical design and testing of a prototype device. The prototype was able to achieve liquid nitrogen vaporization and pressurization up to 1000 psi, while full cycle validation is ongoing with promising initial results.

  11. On the critical temperature, normal boiling point, and vapor pressure of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Luis P N; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Filipe, Eduardo

    2005-04-07

    One-stage, reduced-pressure distillations at moderate temperature of 1-decyl- and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bistriflilamide ([Ntf(2)](-)) ionic liquids (ILs) have been performed. These liquid-vapor equilibria can be understood in light of predictions for normal boiling points of ILs. The predictions are based on experimental surface tension and density data, which are used to estimate the critical points of several ILs and their corresponding normal boiling temperatures. In contrast to the situation found for relatively unstable ILs at high-temperature such as those containing [BF(4)](-) or [PF(6)](-) anions, [Ntf(2)](-)-based ILs constitute a promising class in which reliable, accurate vapor pressure measurements can in principle be performed. This property is paramount for assisting in the development and testing of accurate molecular models.

  12. The measurement of water vapor permeability of glove materials using dilute tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    As fusion technology progresses, there will be an increasing need to handle tritium and tritiated compounds. Protective clothing, especially drybox gloves, must be an effective barrier to minimize worker exposure. The water vapor permeability of glove materials and finished glove constructions is a crucial property of drybox gloves and is not sufficiently well characterized. We have built an apparatus that measures water vapor permeability of elastomers using dilute tritiated water. The technique is more sensitive than other methods currently available and allows us to make measurements on materials and under conditions previously inaccessible. In particular, we present results on laminated drybox gloves for which data is not currently available. (orig.)

  13. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  14. Raman lidar water vapor profiling over Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Althausen, Dietrich

    2017-09-01

    Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles were derived from the multi-wavelength Raman PollyXT lidar at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, using the Rayleigh molecular extinction calculation based on atmospheric temperature and pressure from three different sources: i) the standard atmosphere US 62, ii) the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) model output, and iii) the WMO 12374 radiosoundings launched at Legionowo. With each method, 136 midnight relative humidity profiles were obtained for lidar observations from July 2013 to August 2015. Comparisons of these profiles showed in favor of the latter method (iii), but it also indicated that the other two data sources could replace it, if necessary. Such use was demonstrated for an automated retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from dusk until dawn on 19/20 March 2015; a case study related to an advection of biomass burning aerosol from forest fires over Ukraine. Additionally, an algorithm that applies thresholds to the radiosounding relative humidity profiles to estimate macro-physical cloud vertical structure was used for the first time on the Raman lidar relative humidity profiles. The results, based on a subset of 66 profiles, indicate that below 6 km cloud bases/tops can be successfully obtained in 53% and 76% cases from lidar and radiosounding profiles, respectively. Finally, a contribution of the lidar derived mean relative humidity to cloudy conditions within the range of 0.8 to 6.2 km, in comparison to clear-sky conditions, was estimated.

  15. Interannual Variability in the Meridional Transport of Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judah L.; Salstein, David A.; Rosen, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    The zonal-mean meridional transport of water vapor across the globe is evaluated using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis for 1948-97. The shape of the meridional profile of the climatological mean transport closely resembles that of previous mean climate descriptions, but values tend to be notably larger than in climatologies derived from radiosonde-only-based analyses. The unprecedented length of the NCEP-NCAR dataset invites a focus on interannual variations in the zonal-mean moisture transport, and these results for northern winter are highlighted here. Although interannual variability in the transport is typically small at most latitudes, a significant ENSO signal is present, marked by a strengthening of water vapor transports over much of the winter hemisphere during warm events. Because of an increase in tropical sea surface temperatures and in the frequency of warm events relative to cold events in the latter half of the 50-yr record, this interannual signal projects onto an overall trend toward enhanced meridional moisture transports in the global hydrological cycle.

  16. Nitrogen tetroxide vapor scrubber using a recirculating liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Scrubbers required to reduce N2O4 contamination of nitrogen vent gas streams to a safe level to preclude health hazard to personnel and to preclude adverse environmental effects were developed. The scrubber principle involved is to absorb and neutralize the N2O4 component in a closed circuit circulating water/chemical solution in a vertical counter-flow, packed-tower configuration. The operational and performance test requirements for the scrubbers consist of demonstrating that the exit gas contamination level from the scrubbers does not exceed 150 ppm oxidizer under any flow conditions up to 400 scfm with inlet concentrations of up to 100,000 ppm oxidizer. Several problems were encountered during the performance testing that led to a series of investigations and supplementary testing. It was finally necessary to change the scrubber liquors in oxidizer scrubber to successfully achieve performance requirements. The scrubbers, the test configuration, and the various tests performed are described.

  17. High flux diode packaging using passive microscale liquid-vapor phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd; Deri, Robert J.; Elmer, John W.; Kotovsky, Jack; Patra, Susant

    2017-09-19

    A laser diode package includes a heat pipe having a fluid chamber enclosed in part by a heat exchange wall for containing a fluid. Wicking channels in the fluid chamber is adapted to wick a liquid phase of the fluid from a condensing section of the heat pipe to an evaporating section of the heat exchanger, and a laser diode is connected to the heat exchange wall at the evaporating section of the heat exchanger so that heat produced by the laser diode is removed isothermally from the evaporating section to the condensing section by a liquid-to-vapor phase change of the fluid.

  18. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures of xylene isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Rodrigues

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Separation of aromatic C8 compounds by distillation is a difficult task due to the low relative volatilities of the compounds and to the high degree of purity required of the final commercial products. For rigorous simulation and optimization of this separation, the use of a model capable of describing vapor-liquid equilibria accurately is necessary. Nevertheless, experimental data are not available for all binaries at atmospheric pressure. Vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures were isobarically obtained with a modified Fischer cell at 100.65 kPa. The vapor and liquid phase compositions were analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The methodology was initially tested for cyclo-hexane+n-heptane data; results obtained are similar to other data in the literature. Data for xylene binary mixtures were then obtained, and after testing, were considered to be thermodynamically consistent. Experimental data were regressed with Aspen Plus® 10.1 and binary interaction parameters were reported for the most frequently used activity coefficient models and for the classic mixing rules of two cubic equations of state.

  19. Vaporization Rate Analysis of Primary Cooling Water from Reactor PUSPATI TRIGA (RTP) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonny Anak Lanyau; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Yahya Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Primary cooling system consists of pumps, heat exchangers, probes, a nitrogen-16 diffuser and associated valves is connected to the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) tank by aluminium pipes. Both the primary cooling system and the reactor tank is filled with demineralized light water (H 2 O), which serves as a coolant, moderator as well as shielding. During reactor operation, vaporization in the reactor tank will reduce the primary water and contribute to the formation of vapor in the reactor hall. The vaporization may influence the function of the water subsequently may affect the safety of the reactor operation. It is essential to know the vaporization rate of the primary water to ensure its functionality. This paper will present the vaporization rate of the primary cooling water from the reactor tank and the influence of temperature of the water in the reactor tank to the vaporization rate. (author)

  20. Vaporization of the prototypical ionic liquid BMImNTf₂ under equilibrium conditions: a multitechnique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Bruno; Ciccioli, Andrea; Gigli, Guido; Lapi, Andrea; Misceo, Nicolaemanuele; Tanzi, Luana; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2014-08-07

    The vaporization behaviour and thermodynamics of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonylimide (BMImNTf2) were studied by combining the Knudsen Effusion Mass Loss (KEML) and Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) techniques. KEML studies were carried out in a large temperature range (398-567) K by using effusion orifices with 0.3, 1, and 3 mm diameters. The vapor pressures so measured revealed no kinetically hindered vaporization effects and provided second-law vaporization enthalpies at the mean experimental temperatures in close agreement with literature. By exploiting the large temperature range covered, the heat capacity change associated with vaporization was estimated, resulting in a value of -66.8 J K(-1) mol(-1), much lower than that predicted from calorimetric measurements on the liquid phase and theoretical calculations on the gas phase. The conversion of the high temperature vaporization enthalpy to 298 K was discussed and the value Δ(l)(g)H(m)(298 K) = (128.6 ± 1.3) kJ mol(-1) assessed on the basis of data from literature and present work. Vapor pressure data were also processed by the third-law procedure using different estimations for the auxiliary thermal functions, and a Δ(l)(g)H(m)(298 K) consistent with the assessed value was obtained, although the overall agreement is sensitive to the accuracy of heat capacity data. KEMS measurements were carried out in the lower temperature range (393-467) K and showed that the largely prevailing ion species is BMIm(+), supporting the common view of BMImNTf2 vaporizing as individual, neutral ion pairs also under equilibrium conditions. By monitoring the mass spectrometric signal of this ion as a function of temperature, a second-law Δ(l)(g)H(m)(298 K) of 129.4 ± 7.3 kJ mol(-1) was obtained, well consistent with KEML and literature results. Finally, by combining KEML and KEMS measurements, the electron impact ionization cross section of BMIm(+) was estimated.

  1. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of the Mg(NO3)2-HNO3-H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.E.; Derby, J.J.; Stalzer, E.H.

    1983-06-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium of the Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -HNO 3 -H 2 O system in concentrations of 0 to 70 wt % Mg(NO 3 ) 2 and 0 to 75 wt % HNO 3 at atmospheric pressure was correlated by two approaches. One was based on a dissociation equilibrium expression in which the activities of the reacting species (HNO 3 , NO 3 - , and H + ) were approximated with mole fractions. The activity coefficients of the undissociated HNO 3 and H 2 O were correlated as functions of the concentrations of magnesium nitrate and nitric acid by second-order polynomials. The average absolute difference between predicted and experimental values was 8% for the mole fraction of acid in the vapor and 8 0 K for the bubble-point temperature. The second approach was to correlate the mean ionic rational activity coefficient of water with a form of the excess Gibbs energy composed of two terms. One term, a function of the ionic strength, accounts for the coulombic (ionic) interactions; the other term accounts for the non-coulombic (molecular) interactions. The average absolute difference between predicted and experimental values was 9% for the mole fraction of acid in the vapor, and 10 0 K for the bubble-point temperature

  2. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratoy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rye, B.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance and the correction of other site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. In this study, we develop system performance models and examine the potential of infrared differential absoroption lidar (DIAL) to determine the concentration of water vapor.

  3. Water tube liquid metal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    An improved heat exchanger for use in liquid metal cooled nuclear power reactors is described in which the heat is transferred between the flow of liquid metal which is to be cooled and a forced flow of liquid which is wholly or partly evaporated. (U.K.)

  4. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning

  5. Phase-field model of vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain

    2018-03-01

    We present a multiphase-field model to describe quantitatively nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The free-energy functional of this model depends on three nonconserved order parameters that distinguish the vapor, liquid, and solid phases and describe the energetic properties of various interfaces, including arbitrary forms of anisotropic γ plots for the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces. The evolution equations for those order parameters describe basic kinetic processes including the rapid (quasi-instantaneous) equilibration of the liquid catalyst to a droplet shape with constant mean curvature, the slow incorporation of growth atoms at the droplet surface, and crystallization within the droplet. The standard constraint that the sum of the phase fields equals unity and the conservation of the number of catalyst atoms, which relates the catalyst volume to the concentration of growth atoms inside the droplet, are handled via separate Lagrange multipliers. An analysis of the model is presented that rigorously maps the phase-field equations to a desired set of sharp-interface equations for the evolution of the phase boundaries under the constraint of force balance at three-phase junctions (triple points) given by the Young-Herring relation that includes torque term related to the anisotropy of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interface excess free energies. Numerical examples of growth in two dimensions are presented for the simplest case of vanishing crystalline anisotropy and the more realistic case of a solid-liquid γ plot with cusped minima corresponding to two sets of (10 ) and (11 ) facets. The simulations reproduce many of the salient features of nanowire growth observed experimentally, including growth normal to the substrate with tapering of the side walls, transitions between different growth orientations, and crawling growth along the substrate. They also reproduce different observed relationships between the nanowire growth

  6. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Persson, C. M.; Buckle, J. V.; Cordiner, M. A.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold ((is) approximately 10 K) water vapor has been detected-L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work-likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 110-101) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  7. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Buckle, J. V. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Takakuwa, S., E-mail: eva.wirstrom@chalmers.se [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (∼10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  8. The annual cycle of stratospheric water vapor in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Philip W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of general circulation models (GCM's) to stratospheric chemistry and transport both permits and requires a thorough investigation of stratospheric water vapor. The National Center for Atmospheric Research has redesigned its GCM, the Community Climate Model (CCM2), to enable studies of the chemistry and transport of tracers including water vapor; the importance of water vapor to the climate and chemistry of the stratosphere requires that it be better understood in the atmosphere and well represented in the model. In this study, methane is carried as a tracer and converted to water; this simple chemistry provides an adequate representation of the upper stratospheric water vapor source. The cold temperature bias in the winter polar stratosphere, which the CCM2 shares with other GCM's, produces excessive dehydration in the southern hemisphere, but this dry bias can be ameliorated by setting a minimum vapor pressure. The CCM2's water vapor distribution and seasonality compare favorably with observations in many respects, though seasonal variations including the upper stratospheric semiannual oscillation are generally too small. Southern polar dehydration affects midlatitude water vapor mixing ratios by a few tenths of a part per million, mostly after the demise of the vortex. The annual cycle of water vapor in the tropical and northern midlatitude lower stratosphere is dominated by drying at the tropical tropopause. Water vapor has a longer adjustment time than methane and had not reached equilibrium at the end of the 9 years simulated here.

  9. A Microdrop Generator for the Calibration of a Water Vapor Isotope Ratio Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannone, Rosario Q.; Romanini, Daniele; Kassi, Samir; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Kerstel, Erik R. Th.

    A microdrop generator is described that produces water vapor with a known isotopic composition and volume mixing ratio for the calibration of a near-infrared diode laser water isotope ratio spectrometer. The spectrometer is designed to measure in situ the water vapor deuterium and oxygen ((17)O and

  10. Investigation of Real-Time Two-Dimensional Visualization of Fuel Spray Liquid/Vapor Distribution via Exciplex Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-30

    EXCIPLEX FLUORESCENCE ~N 0FINAL REPORT 00 JAMES F. VERDIECK AND ARTHUR A. ROTUNNO UNITED TECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH CENTER 0 AND LYNN A. MELTON D I UNIVERSITY...DOCUMENTATION. "NWA 0. INVESTIGATION OF REAL-TINE TWO-DIMENSIONAL VISUALIZATION OF FUEL SPRAY LIQUID/VAPOR DISTRIBUTION VIA EXCIPLEX FLUORESCENCE FINAL...Spray Liquid/Vapor Distribution Via Exciplex Fluorescen , - 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J. F. Yeardierk. A- A. Rnriiunn-l L_ A. Millo - 13a TYPE OF REPORT

  11. The reaction kinetics of lithium salt with water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balooch, M.; Dinh, L.N.; Calef, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of lithium salt (LiH and/or LiD) with water vapor in the partial pressure range of 10 -5 -2657 Pa has been investigated. The reaction probability of water with LiH cleaved in an ultra high vacuum environment was obtained using the modulated molecular beam technique. This probability was 0.11 and independent of LiH surface temperature, suggesting a negligible activation energy for the reaction in agreement with quantum chemical calculations. The value gradually reduced, however, to 0.007 as the surface concentration of oxygen containing product approached full coverage. As the film grew beyond a monolayer, the phase lag of hydrogen product increased from 0 deg. C to 20 deg. C and the reaction probability reduced further until it approached our detection limit (∼10 -4 ). This phase lag was attributed to a diffusion-limited process in this regime. For micrometer thick hydroxide films grown in high moisture concentration environment on LiD and LiH, the reaction probability reduced to ∼4x10 -7 and was independent of exposure time. In this regime of thick hydroxide films (LiOH and/or LiOD), microcracks generated in the films to release stress provided easier pathways for moisture to reach the interface. A modified microscope, capable of both atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, was also employed to investigate the surface morphology of hydroxide monohydrate (LiOH · H 2 O and/or LiOD · H 2 O) grown on hydroxide at high water vapor partial pressures and the kinetics of this growth

  12. Modeling vapor liquid equilibrium of ionic liquids + gas binary systems at high pressure with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (IL have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (vdW-2. The experimental data were taken from the literature. The optimum binary interaction parameters were estimated by minimization of an objective function based on the average absolute relative deviation of liquid and vapor phases, using the modified Simplex algorithm. The solubilities of all gases studied in this work decrease as the temperature increases and increase with increasing pressure. The correlated results were highly satisfactory, with average absolute relative deviations of 2.10% and 2.25% for PR-vdW-2 and SRK-vdW-2, respectively.

  13. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  14. Site-specific and multielement approach to the determination of liquid-vapor isotope fractionation parameters. The case of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, I.; Naulet, N.; Martin, M.L.; Martin, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Isotope fractionation phenomena occurring at the natural abundance level in the course of liquid-vapor transformation have been investigated by using the SNIF-NMR method (site-specific natural isotope fractionation studied by NMR) which has a unique capability of providing simultaneous access to fractionation parameters associated with different molecular isotopomers. This new approach has been combined with the determination of overall carbon and hydrogen fractionation effects by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The results of distillation and evaporation experiments of alcohols performed in technical conditions of practical interest have been analyzed according to the Rayleigh-type model. In order to check the performance of the column, unit fractionation factors were measured beforehand for water and for the hydroxylic sites of methanol and ethanol for which liquid-vapor equilibrium constants were already known. Inverse isotope effects are determined in distillation experiments for the overall carbon isotope ratio and for the site-specific hydrogen isotope ratios associated with the methyl and methylene sites of methanol and ethanol. In contrast, normal isotope effects are produced by distillation for the hydroxylic sites and by evaporation for all the isotopic ratios

  15. Liquids - vapor and liquids - solids equilibria in the system Th(NO3)4 - UO2(NO3)2 - HNO3 - H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, V.I.; Vakhrushin, A.Yu.; Mamaev, S.L.; Zhirnov, Yu.P.

    1999-01-01

    Liquids - vapor and liquids - solids equilibria in the system Th(NO 3 ) 4 - UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 - HNO 3 - H 2 O were investigated. It was established that in this system thorium nitrate hexahydrate and uranyl nitrate hexa- and trihydrate are formed. Empiric equations of solubility isotherm at 25 deg C were found. Densities of liquid phases of the system were determined. It was established that uranyl nitrates and thorium nitrates salt out nitric acid in vapor phase just as separately so in the case of mutual presence. Empiric equation fixing relationship between nitric acid concentration in condensed phase and concentrations of all components in liquid phase was found

  16. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  17. Evaluating the Liquid Liquid Phase Transition Hypothesis of Supercoooled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2011-03-01

    To explain the anomalous behavior of supercooled water it has been conjectured that buried within an experimentally inaccessible region of liquid water's phase diagram there exists a second critical point, which is the terminus of a first order transition line between two distinct liquid phases. The so-called liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) has since generated much study, though to date there is no consensus on its existence. In this talk, we will discuss our efforts to systematically study the metastable phase diagram of supercooled water through computer simulation. By employing importance-sampling techniques, we have calculated free energies as a function of the density and long-range order to determine unambiguously if two distinct liquid phases exist. We will argue that, contrary to the LLPT hypothesis, the observed phenomenology can be understood as a consequence of the limit of stability of the liquid far away from coexistence. Our results suggest that homogeneous nucleation is the cause of the increased fluctuations present upon supercooling. Further we will show how this understanding can be extended to explain experimental observations of hysteresis in confined supercooled water systems.

  18. Laser remote sensing of water vapor: Raman lidar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Lapp, M.; Bisson, S.E.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.; Ferrare, R.A.; Evans, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is the development of a critical design for a Raman lidar system optimized to match ARM Program needs for profiling atmospheric water vapor at CART sites. This work has emphasized the development of enhanced daytime capabilities using Raman lidar techniques. This abstract touches briefly on the main components of the research program, summarizing results of the efforts. A detailed Raman lidar instrument model has been developed to predict the daytime and nighttime performance capabilities of Raman lidar systems. The model simulates key characteristics of the lidar system, using realistic atmospheric profiles, modeled background sky radiance, and lidar system parameters based on current instrument capabilities. The model is used to guide development of lidar systems based on both the solar-blind concept and the narrowband, narrow field-of-view concept for daytime optimization

  19. Global lower mesospheric water vapor revealed by LIMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordley, L. L.; Russell, J. M., III; Remsberg, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratospheric water vapor channel data analysis has been extended from the 1. mb level (about 48 km) to the .3 mb level (about 60 km) through a radiance averaging procedure and better understanding of systematic errors. The data show H2O mixing ratio peaks near the .5 mb level varying from 4 to 7 ppmv with latitude and season. Above this level the mixing ratio drops off quickly with altitude, but, due to experimental uncertainties, at an uncertain rate. The stratospheric results are virtually the same as determined from the archived LIMS results with a tropical hygropause and enhanced H2O concentration in the lower levels at high winter latitudes.

  20. A solution to water vapor in the National Transonic Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, Blair B.; Bruce, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    As cryogenic wind tunnels are utilized, problems associated with the low temperature environment are being discovered and solved. Recently, water vapor contamination was discovered in the National Transonic Facility, and the source was shown to be the internal insulation which is a closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam. After an extensive study of the absorptivity characteristics of the NTF thermal insulation, the most practical solution to the problem was shown to be the maintaining of a dry environment in the circuit at all times. Utilizing a high aspect ratio transport model, it was shown that the moisture contamination effects on the supercritical wing pressure distributions were within the accuracy of setting test conditions and as such were considered negligible for this model.

  1. Finite size and Coulomb corrections: from nuclei to nuclear liquid vapor phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Elliott, J.B.; Phair, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of obtaining the infinite symmetric uncharged nuclear matter phase diagram from a thermal nuclear reaction. In the first part we shall consider the Coulomb interaction which, because of its long range makes the definition of phases problematic. This Coulomb effect seems truly devastating since it does not allow one to define nuclear phase transitions much above A ∼ 30. However there may be a solution to this difficulty. If we consider the emission of particles with a sizable charge, we notice that a large Coulomb barrier Bc is present. For T << Bc these channels may be considered effectively closed. Consequently the unbound channels may not play a role on a suitably short time scale. Then a phase transition may still be definable in an approximate way. In the second part of the article we shall deal with the finite size problem by means of a new method, the complement method, which shall permit a straightforward extrapolation to the infinite system. The complement approach consists of evaluating the change in free energy occurring when a particle or cluster is moved from one (finite) phase to another. In the case of a liquid drop in equilibrium with its vapor, this is done by extracting a vapor particle of any given size from the drop and evaluating the energy and entropy changes associated with both the vapor particle and the residual liquid drop (complement)

  2. Determination of the solid-liquid-vapor triple point pressure of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed experimental study of the triple point pressure of carbon using laser heating techniques has been completed. Uncertainties and conflict in previous investigations have been addressed and substantial data presented which places the solid-liquid-vapor carbon triple point at 107 +- 2 atmospheres. This is in agreement with most investigations which have located the triple point pressure between 100 and 120 atmospheres, but is in disagreement with recent low pressure carbon experiments. The absence of any significant polymorphs of carbon other than graphite suggests that the graphite-liquid-vapor triple point has been measured. Graphite samples were melted in a pressure vessel using a 400 W Nd:YAG continuous-wave laser focused to a maximum power density of approximately 80 kW/cm 2 . Melt was confirmed by detailed microstructure analysis and x-ray diffraction of the recrystallized graphite. Experiments to determine the minimum melt pressure of carbon were completed as a function of sample size, type of inert gas, and laser power density to asure that laser power densities were sufficient to produce melt at the triple point pressure of carbon, and the pressure of carbon at the surface of the sample was identical to the measured pressure of the inert gas in the pressure vessel. High-speed color cinematography of the carbon heating revealed the presence of a laser-generated vapor or particle plume in front of the sample. The existence of this bright plume pevented the measurement of the carbon triple point temperature

  3. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  4. Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

  5. Indirect Determination of Vapor Pressures by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography: Analysis of the Reference Vapor-Pressure Data and Their Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Koutek, Bohumír; Fulem, M.; Hoskovec, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2012), s. 1349-1368 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vapor pressures * capillary gas–liquid chromatography * reference data * relative retention time Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2012

  6. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO{sub 2} + alkanol) binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.c [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO{sub 2} + C{sub 5} alcohol) binary systems were measured. Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. Correlation results showed relative deviations {<=}8 % (liquid) and {<=}2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO{sub 2} + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO{sub 2} + 2-pentanol), and (CO{sub 2} + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO{sub 2} + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  7. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  8. X-Ray Scattering Studies of the Liquid-Vapor Interface of Gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Eric Hitoshi

    A UHV system was developed for performing X-ray scattering studies and in situ analyses of liquid metal surfaces. A nearly ideal choice for this study, gallium has a melting point just above room temperature; is amenable to handling in both air and vacuum; its surface oxides can be removed while its cleanliness is maintained and monitored. Using argon glow-discharge sputtering techniques to remove intervening surface oxides, thin wetting layers of gallium were prepared atop nonreactive substrates, to be used as samples suited for liquid surface scattering experiments. Preliminary measurements of X-ray reflectivity from the liquid-vapor interface of gallium were performed with the X-ray UHV chamber configured for use in conjunction with liquid surface spectrometers at two synchrotron beamlines. A novel technique for carrying out and interpreting scattering measurements from curved liquid surfaces was demonstrated. The energy tunability and intense focused white beam flux from a wiggler source was shown to place within reach the large values of wavevector transfer at which specular reflectivity data yield small length scale information about surface structure. Various theoretical treatments and simulations predict quasi-lamellar ordering of atoms near the free surface of metallic liquids due to energetics particular to metals (electron delocalization, the dependence of system energy on ion and electron densities, surface tension and electrostatic energy). However, the experimental data reported to date is insufficient to distinguish between a monotonic, sigmoidal electron density profile found at the free surfaces of dielectric liquids, and the damped oscillatory layer-like profiles anticipated for metallic liquids. Out to a wavevector transfer of Q = 0.55 A ^{-1}, the reflectivity data measured from a curved Ga surface is not inconsistent with what is expected for a liquid-vapor electron density profile of Gaussian width sigma = 1.3 +/- 0.2 A. Subsequent

  9. Comment on "Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2015-01-01

    Yagasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 020301 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.020301] present results from a molecular dynamics trajectory illustrating coarsening of ice, which they interpret as evidence of transient coexistence between two distinct supercooled phases of liquid water. We point out that neither two distinct liquids nor criticality are demonstrated in this simulation study. Instead, the illustrated trajectory is consistent with coarsening behaviors analyzed and predicted in earlier work by others.

  10. Comment on "Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2015-01-01

    Yagasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 020301 (2014)] present results from a molecular dynamics trajectory illustrating coarsening of ice, which they interpret as evidence of transient coexistence between two distinct supercooled phases of liquid water. We point out that neither two distinct liquids nor criticality are demonstrated in this simulation study. Instead, the illustrated trajectory is consistent with coarsening behaviors analyzed and predicted in earlier work by others.

  11. Liquid--vapor isotope fractionation factors in argon--krypton binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.W.; Neufeld, P.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1977-01-01

    An equilibrium isotope effect has been studied as a continuous function of the potential field acting on the atom undergoing isotopic exchange. This has been accomplished through a study of the liquid vapor isotope fractionation factors for both, 36 Ar/ 40 Ar and 80 Kr/ 84 Kr in a series of binary mixtures which span the range between the pure components at 117.5 0 K. The 36 Ar/ 40 Ar fractionation factor increases (linearly) from (lnα)2.49 x 10 -3 in pure liquid argon to 2.91 x 10 -3 in an infinitely dilute solution in liquid krypton. Conversely, the 80 Kr/ 84 Kr fractionation factor decreases (linearly) from (lnα)0.98 x 10 -3 in pure liquid krypton to 0.64 x 10 -3 in an infinetely dilute solution in pure liquid argon. The mean force constants 2 U>/sub c/ on both argon and krypton atoms in the mixtures are derived from the respective isotope fractionation factors.The mean force constants for argon and krypton as a function of composition have been calculated by a modified corresponding states theory which uses the pure liquids as input parameters. The discrepancy is 8 percent at X/sub Ar/ + O. A systematic set of calculations has been made of 2 U> (Ar) and 2 U> (Kr) as a function of composition using radial distribution functions generated by the Weeks--Chandler--Anderson perturbation theory

  12. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water at 29.5 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Junichi; West, Christopher W; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2017-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water was performed using extreme ultraviolet radiation at 29.5 eV and a time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer. SiC/Mg coated mirrors were employed to select the single-order 19th harmonic from laser high harmonics, which provided a constant photon flux for different laser polarizations. The instrument was tested by measuring photoemission anisotropy for rare gases and water molecules and applied to a microjet of an aqueous NaI solution. The solute concentration was adjusted to eliminate an electric field gradient around the microjet. The observed photoelectron spectra were analyzed considering contributions from liquid water, water vapor, and an isotropic background. The anisotropy parameters of the valence bands (1 b 1 , 3 a 1 , and 1 b 2 ) of liquid water are considerably smaller than those of gaseous water, which is primarily attributed to electron scattering in liquid water.

  13. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water at 29.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Nishitani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of liquid water was performed using extreme ultraviolet radiation at 29.5 eV and a time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer. SiC/Mg coated mirrors were employed to select the single-order 19th harmonic from laser high harmonics, which provided a constant photon flux for different laser polarizations. The instrument was tested by measuring photoemission anisotropy for rare gases and water molecules and applied to a microjet of an aqueous NaI solution. The solute concentration was adjusted to eliminate an electric field gradient around the microjet. The observed photoelectron spectra were analyzed considering contributions from liquid water, water vapor, and an isotropic background. The anisotropy parameters of the valence bands (1b1, 3a1, and 1b2 of liquid water are considerably smaller than those of gaseous water, which is primarily attributed to electron scattering in liquid water.

  14. ISS modeling strategy for the numerical simulation of turbulent sub-channel liquid-vapor flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier Lebaigue; Benoit Mathieu; Didier Jamet

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The general objective is to perform numerical simulation of the liquid-vapor turbulent two-phase flows that occur in sub-channels of a nuclear plant assembly under nominal or incidental situations. Additional features concern nucleate boiling at the surface of fuel rods and the sliding of vapor bubbles on this surface with possible dynamic contact lines. The Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales (ISS) modeling strategy for numerical simulations is one of the possible two-phase equivalents for the one-phase LES concept. It consists in solving the two-phase flows features at the scales that are resolved by the grid of the numerical method, and to take into account the unresolved scales with sub-grid models. Interfaces are tracked in a DNS-like approach while specific features of the behavior of interfaces such as contact line physics, coalescence and fragmentation, and the smallest scales of turbulence within each phase have an unresolved scale part that is modeled. The problem of the modeling of the smallest scales of turbulence is rather simple even if the classical situation is altered by the presence of the interfaces. In a typical sub-channel situation (e.g., 15 MPa and 3.5 m.s -1 water flow in a PWR sub-channel), the Kolmogorov scale is ca. 1 μm whereas typical bubble size are supposed to be close to 150 μm. Therefore, the use of a simple sub-grid model between, e.g., 1 and 20 μm allows a drastic reduction of the number of nodes in the space discretization while it remains possible to validate by comparison to true DNS results. Other sub-grid models have been considered to recover physical phenomena that cannot be captured with a realistic discretization: they rely on physical scales from molecular size to 1 μm. In these cases, the use of sub-grid model is no longer a matter of CPU-time and memory saving only, but also a corner stone to recover physical behavior. From this point of view at least we are no longer performing true

  15. Influence of absorption by environmental water vapor on radiation transfer in wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Frankman; B. W. Webb; B. W. Butler

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation of radiation transfer from wildland flames to fuel by environmental water vapor is investigated. Emission is tracked from points on an idealized flame to locations along the fuel bed while accounting for absorption by environmental water vapor in the intervening medium. The Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases approach was employed for treating the...

  16. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  17. Measurements of upper atmosphere water vapor made in situ with a new moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chleck, D.

    1979-01-01

    A new thin-film aluminum oxide sensor, Aquamax II, has been developed for the measurement of stratospheric and upper tropospheric water vapor levels. The sensor is briefly described with attention given to its calibration and performance. Data obtained from six balloon flights are presented; almost all the results show a constant water vapor mixing ratio, in agreement with other data from midlatitude regions.

  18. High Temperature Corrosion of Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride in Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, E. J.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are proposed for applications in high temperature combustion environments containing water vapor. Both SiC and Si3N4 react with water vapor to form a silica (SiO2) scale. It is therefore important to understand the durability of SiC, Si3N4 and SiO2 in water vapor. Thermogravimetric analyses, furnace exposures and burner rig results were obtained for these materials in water vapor at temperatures between 1100 and 1450 C and water vapor partial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 3.1 atm. First, the oxidation of SiC and Si3N4 in water vapor is considered. The parabolic kinetic rate law, rate dependence on water vapor partial pressure, and oxidation mechanism are discussed. Second, the volatilization of silica to form Si(OH)4(g) is examined. Mass spectrometric results, the linear kinetic rate law and a volatilization model based on diffusion through a gas boundary layer are discussed. Finally, the combined oxidation and volatilization reactions, which occur when SiC or Si3N4 are exposed in a water vapor-containing environment, are presented. Both experimental evidence and a model for the paralinear kinetic rate law are shown for these simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions.

  19. Feasibility of refreezing human spermatozoa through the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Verza Jr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of refreezing human semen using the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor with static phases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty samples from 16 subjects who required disposal of their cryopreserved semen were thawed, corresponding to 6 cancer patients and 10 participants in the assisted reproduction (AR program. Samples were refrozen using the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor with static phases, identical to the one used for the initial freezing, and thawed again after 72 hours. We assessed the concentration of motile spermatozoa, total and progressive percent motility and spermatic vitality, according to criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, as well as spermatic morphology according to the strict Kruger criterion, after the first and after the second thawing. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in all the parameters evaluated between the first and the second thawing. Median values for the concentration of motile spermatozoa decreased from 2.0x10(6/mL to 0.1x10(6/mL (p < 0.01; total percent motility from 42% to 22.5% (p < 0.01; progressive percent motility from 34% to 9.5% (p < 0.01; vitality from 45% to 20% (p < 0.01; and morphology from 5% to 5% (p = 0.03. There was no significant difference in the spermatic parameters between the cancer and assisted reproduction groups, both after the first and after the second thawing. We observed that in 100% of cases there was retrieval of motile spermatozoa after the second thawing. CONCLUSIONS: Refreezing of human semen by the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor allows the retrieval of viable spermatozoa after thawing.

  20. A modified free-volume-based model for predicting vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for size asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to present a free-volume combinatorial term in predicting vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of polymer/solvent and light and heavy hydrocarbon/hydrocarbon mixtures. The proposed term is based on a modification of the original Freed ...

  1. Radioactive liquid water processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Noda, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Fumio.

    1993-01-01

    Alkaline earth metals and heavy metals are added to radioactive liquid wastes containing a surface active agent comprising alkali metal salts of higher fatty acids. These metals form metal soaps with the surface active agent dissolved in the liquid wastes and crystallized. The crystallized metal soaps are introduced to a filtering column filled with a burnable polymeric fibrous filtering material. The filtering material is burnt. This can remove the surface active agent to remove COD without using an active carbon. (T.M.)

  2. An interim reference model for the variability of the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, C.-Y.

    1990-01-01

    A reference model for the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution for some latitudes and seasons was developed using two data sets. One is the seven months of Nimbus LIMS data obtained during November 1978 to May 1979 over the range 64 deg S - 84 deg N latitude and from about 100-mb to 1-mb altitude, and the other is represented by water vapor profiles from 0.2 mb to 0.01 mb in the mid-mesosphere, measured on ground at several fixed mid-latitude sites in the Northern Hemisphere, using microwave-emission techniques. This model provides an interim water vapor profile for the entire vertical range of the middle atmosphere, with accuracies of better than 25 percent. The daily variability of stratospheric water vapor profiles about the monthly mean is demonstrated, and information is provided on the longitudinal variability of LIMS water vapor profiles about the daily, weekly, and monthly zonal means.

  3. Application of an automatic cloud tracking technique to Meteosat water vapor and infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The automatic cloud tracking system was applied to METEOSAT 6.7 micrometers water vapor measurements to learn whether the system can track the motions of water vapor patterns. Data for the midlatitudes, subtropics, and tropics were selected from a sequence of METEOSAT pictures for 25 April 1978. Trackable features in the water vapor patterns were identified using a clustering technique and the features were tracked by two different methods. In flat (low contrast) water vapor fields, the automatic motion computations were not reliable, but in areas where the water vapor fields contained small scale structure (such as in the vicinity of active weather phenomena) the computations were successful. Cloud motions were computed using METEOSAT infrared observations (including tropical convective systems and midlatitude jet stream cirrus).

  4. Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy, which explains discrepancies between actual growth results and predictions on the basis of the bulk-phase equilibria. Our findings provide the basis for tailoring vapor-liquid-solid growth to achieve complex one-dimensional materials geometries.

  5. The performance of simulated annealing in parameter estimation for vapor-liquid equilibrium modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonilla-Petriciolet

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the application and evaluation of the simulated annealing (SA optimization method in parameter estimation for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE modeling. We tested this optimization method using the classical least squares and error-in-variable approaches. The reliability and efficiency of the data-fitting procedure are also considered using different values for algorithm parameters of the SA method. Our results indicate that this method, when properly implemented, is a robust procedure for nonlinear parameter estimation in thermodynamic models. However, in difficult problems it still can converge to local optimums of the objective function.

  6. Equilibrium vapor-liquid-crystal in Sn-In-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermilin, V.N.; Selin, A.A.; Khukhryanskij, Yu.P.

    1991-01-01

    Using flow method the dependence of phosphorus vapor pressure was investigated on the composition of equilibrium with indium phosphide crystal of Sn-In-P system melt (x P l ≤x In l ) and temperature (in the range 918 to 978 K). Its multiplicative character conditioned by change in phosphorus solubility in liquid phase and reconstruction of internal structure of the melt was established. It is revealed that in the considered melts phosphorus is in atomic form (possible as In n P complexes)

  7. Separation coefficients of liquid-vapor in systems formed by yttrium chloride with some impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.T.; Nikiforova, T.V.; Nisel'son, L.A.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Using equilibrium Rayleigh distillation in the 800-950 deg C temperature range, separation coefficients of liquid-vapor for systems, formed by yttrium chloride with Co, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Li impurities are determined. The impurity concentration lies within 0.02-0.4 mass. % limits of each impurity, and total impurity concentration does not exceed 1 mass. %. The tested impurities, except for calcium, are more volatile than the base, yttrium trichloride. In most systems negative deviation from the Raoult's law is observed

  8. Experimental investigations on performance of liquid desiccant-vapor compression hybrid air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, B. Shaji; Tiwari, Shaligram; Maiya, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    A coupled desiccant column is integrated with a conventional room air conditioner (AC) to enhance dehumidification of the room air. One desiccant column (absorber) is placed after the evaporator the other (regenerator) after the condenser of the AC unit. Such a novel liquid desiccant vapour compression hybrid air conditioning system has been fabricated and tested in a balanced ambient room type calorimeter for very low flow rates of liquid desiccant (lithium bromide solution). The moisture from the cold supply air is transferred to the hot condenser air by the desiccant flowing in the loop, thereby complimenting the dehumidification of the room air at the evaporator. The supply air is also sensibly heated during the dehumidification process by liquid desiccant in the absorber, which together enables the hybrid system to maintain low humidity in the room. Whereas the liquid desiccant is regenerated by the condenser waste heat, the entire cooling is derived only by the AC unit. The experimental results show that an increase of room temperature reduces both dehumidification of process air and regeneration of liquid desiccant, whereas an increase of room specific humidity enhances both these for the flow rate of the liquid desiccant in the range of 0.2–1.6% of the air flow rate through the absorber. - Highlights: • A liquid desiccant vapor compression hybrid system is fabricated and tested. • The liquid desiccant reduces latent load but equally increases sensible load. • Hybrid system performance is studied for varying room temperature and humidity. • Higher room temperature lowers air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration. • Increase of room specific humidity enhances dehumidification and also regeneration

  9. Atmospheric water vapor: Distribution and Empirical estimation in the atmosphere of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phokate, S.

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a crucial component of the Earth’s atmosphere, which is shown by precipitable water vapor. It is calculated from the upper air data. In Thailand, the data were collected from four measuring stations located in Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Bangkok, and Songkhla during the years 1998-2013. The precipitable water vapor obtained from this investigation were used to define an empirical model associated with the vapor pressure, which is a surface data at the same stations. The result shows that the relationship has a relatively high level of reliability. The precipitable water vapor obtained from the upper air data is nearly equal to the value from the model. The model was used to calculate the precipitable water vapor from the surface data 85 stations across the country. The result shows that seasonal change of the precipitable water vapor was low in the dry season (November-April) and high in the rainy season (May-October). In addition, precipitable water vapor varies along the latitudes of the stations. The high value obtains for low latitudes, but it is low for high latitudes.

  10. The Effect of Cirrus Clouds on Water Vapor Transport in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L.; McCormick, M. P.; Anderson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in the Earth's radiation budget and stratospheric chemistry. It is widely accepted that a large percentage of water vapor entering the stratosphere travels through the tropical tropopause and is dehydrated by the cold tropopause temperature. The vertical transport of water vapor is also affected by the radiative effects of cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer. This latter effect of cirrus clouds was investigated in this research. The work focuses on the tropical and mid-latitude region (50N-50S). Water vapor data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and cirrus cloud data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) instruments were used to investigate the relationship between the water vapor and the occurrence of cirrus cloud. A 10-degree in longitude by 10-degree in latitude resolution was chosen to bin the MLS and CALIPSO data. The result shows that the maximum water vapor in the upper troposphere (below 146 hPa) is matched very well with the highest frequency of cirrus cloud occurrences. Maximum water vapor in the lower stratosphere (100 hPa) is partly matched with the maximum cirrus cloud occurrence in the summer time. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Interpolated Outgoing Longwave Radiation data and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 wind data were used also to investigate the relationship between the water vapor entering the stratosphere, deep convection, and wind. Results show that maximum water vapor at 100 hPa coincides with the northern hemisphere summer-time anticyclone. The effects from both single-layer cirrus clouds and cirrus clouds above the anvil top on the water vapor entering the stratosphere were also studied and will be presented.

  11. Studies on micro-structures at vapor-liquid interfaces of film boiling on hot liquid surface at arriving of a shock pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Lee, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    In vapor explosions, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role in the generation, propagation and escalation of the explosion. Transient volume change by rapid heat flow from a high temperature liquid to a low temperature volatile one and phase change generate micro-scale flow and the pressure wave. One of key issues for the vapor explosion is to make clear the mechanism to support the explosive energy release from hot drop to cold liquid. According to our observations by an Image Converter Camera, growth rate of vapor film around a hot tin drop became several times higher than that around a hot Platinum tube at the same conditions when a pressure pulse collapsed the film. The thermally induced fragmentation was followed by the explosive growth rate of the hot drop. In the previous report, we have proposed that the interface instability and fragmentation model in which the fine Taylor instability of vapor-liquid interface at the collapsing and re-growth phase of vapor film and the instability induced by the high pressure spots at the drop surface were assumed. In this study, the behavior of the vapor-liquid interface region at arrival of a pressure pulse was investigated by the CIPRIS code which is able to simulate dynamics of transient multi-phase interface regions. It is compared with the observation results. Through detailed investigations of these results, the mechanisms of the thermal fragmentation of single drop are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  12. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  13. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Kumar, Mahendra; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Shevate, Rahul; Vovusha, Hakkim; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  14. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  15. Vapor-liquid Phase Equilibria for CO2+Tertpentanol Binary System at Elevated Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; LUO Jian-cheng; YANG Hao; CHEN Kai-xun

    2011-01-01

    Vapor-liquid phase equilibrium data of tertpentanol in carbon dioxide were measured at temperatures of 313.4,323.4,333.5 and 343.5 K and in the pressure range of 4.56-11.44 MPa.The phase equilibium apparatus used in the work was a variable-volume high-pressure cell.The experimental data were reasonably correlated with Peng-Robinson equation of state(PR-EOS) together with van der Waals-2 two-parameter mixing rules.Henry's Law constants and partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution were estimated with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation,and Henry's Law constants increase with increasing temperature,however,partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution are negative whose magnitudes decrease with temperature.Partial molar volumes of CO2 and tertpentanol in liquid phase at equilibrium were calculated.

  16. Conical evaporator and liquid-return wick model for vapor anode, multi-tube AMTEC cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed, 2-D thermal-hydraulic model for conical and flat evaporators and the liquid sodium return artery in PX-type AMTEC cells was developed, which predicts incipient dryout at the evaporator wick surface. Results obtained at fixed hot and cold side temperatures showed that the flat evaporator provided a slightly lower vapor pressure, but reached the capillary limit at higher temperature. The loss of performance due to partial recondensation over up to 20% of the wick surface of the deep conical evaporators was offset by the larger surface area available for evaporation, providing a slightly higher vapor pressure. Model results matched the PX-3A cell's experimental data of electrical power output, but the predicted temperature of the cell's conical evaporator was consistently ~50 K above measurements. A preliminary analysis indicated that sodium vapor leakage in the cell (through microcracks in the BASE tubes' walls or brazes) may explain the difference between predicted and measured evaporator temperatures in PX-3A. .

  17. Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis

  18. Material gap membrane distillation: A new design for water vapor flux enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-08-19

    A new module design for membrane distillation, namely material gap membrane distillation (MGMD), for seawater desalination has been proposed and successfully tested. It has been observed that employing appropriate materials between the membrane and the condensation plate in an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module enhanced the water vapor flux significantly. An increase in the water vapor flux of about 200-800% was observed by filling the gap with sand and DI water at various feed water temperatures. However, insulating materials such as polypropylene and polyurethane have no effect on the water vapor flux. The influence of material thickness and characteristics has also been investigated in this study. An increase in the water gap width from 9. mm to 13. mm increases the water vapor flux. An investigation on an AGMD and MGMD performance comparison, carried out using two different commercial membranes provided by different manufacturers, is also reported in this paper. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. On the spatial stability of a liquid jet in the presence of vapor cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Ming; Ning, Zhi, E-mail: zhining@bjtu.edu.cn; Lu, Mei; Yan, Kai; Fu, Juan; Sun, Chunhua [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2013-11-15

    A dispersion equation describing the effect of temperature differences on the stability of three-dimensional cylindrical liquid jets in the presence of vapor cavities is presented by the use of linear stability analysis. The mathematical model and its solving method are verified by comparing them with the data in the literature, and then the effect of temperature differences between jet and surrounding gas on the spatial stability of liquid jet is investigated. Some conclusions can be drawn from the results of this investigation: (1) the temperature difference destabilizes the liquid jet when the jet liquid is cooler than the surrounding gas, (2) the smallest atomized droplet without taking into account the effect of temperature differences is significantly larger than that when the effect of temperature differences is taken into account, (3) the effect of temperature differences on the stability of liquid jet has little relationship with azimuthal wave modes, (4) cavitation destabilizes the liquid jet when the value of the bubble volume fraction is not greater than 0.1 (0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1), and the temperature difference can weaken this effect of cavitation on the stability of liquid jet, and (5) cavitation is responsible for generating smaller droplets, the effect of cavitation on the critical wave number with and without taking into account the effect of temperature differences is quite different, and temperature difference is likely to fully restrain the effect of cavitation on the critical wave number; however, cavitation is again responsible for generating smaller droplets despite the effect of temperature differences when the bubble volume fraction α = 0.1. These findings may explain some observations of practical atomizer performance.

  20. Measurements of the vapor-liquid coexistence curve and the critical parameters for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Y.; Tanikawa, S.; Uematsu, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1989-05-01

    Measurements of the vapor-liquid coexistence curve in the critical region for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a; CH2FCF3), which is currently considered as a prospective substitute for conventional refrigerant R12, have been performed by visual observation of the disappearance of the meniscus at the vapor-liquid interface within an optical cell. Twenty-seven saturated densities along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve between 208 and 999 kg·m-3 have been obtained in the temperature range 343 K to the critical temperature. The experimental uncertainties in temperature and density measurements have been estimated to be within ±10mK and ±0.55%, respectively. On the basis of these measurements near the critical point, the critical temperature and the critical density for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane were determined in consideration of the meniscus disappearing level as well as the intensity of the critical opalescence. In addition, the critical exponent ß along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve has been determined in accord with the difference between the density of the saturated liquid and that of the saturated vapor.

  1. Structure of the liquid-vapor interface of a dilute ternary alloy: Pb and In in Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bin; Li Dongxu; Rice, Stuart A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of experimental studies of how the competition between two solutes to segregate in the liquid-vapor interface of a dilute ternary alloy influences the composition and structure of that interface. The system studied has small amounts of Pb and In dissolved in Ga; it differs from a previous study of dilute alloys containing small amounts of Pb and Sn dissolved in Ga by the addition of a new variable, namely, the valence difference between the solute atoms Pb and In. This valence difference influences the electron density distribution in the alloy liquid-vapor interface in proportion to the excess concentrations of the solute species in the interface, and thereby should affect the structure of the interface. We find that for a ternary PbInGa alloy that contains 0.039 at. % Pb and 6.31 at. % In, the Pb that segregates in the liquid-vapor interface forms a two-dimensional hexagonal crystal phase that undergoes a first-order transition to a disordered phase at T=29.0±0.1 deg. C. The two-dimensional crystalline Pb forms about 0.6 of a full monolayer; the remainder of the outer stratum of the liquid-vapor interface is filled with two-dimensional liquid In. For a ternary PbInGa alloy that contains the same amount of Pb and 12.2 at. % In, the Pb that segregates in the liquid-vapor interface forms a two-dimensional liquid down to 26.0 deg. C, the lowest temperature at which data were taken. For temperatures in excess of 29.0 deg. C two-dimensional liquid Pb and two-dimensional liquid In coexist in the interface, with the fractional occupation of the monolayer by In exceeding the fractional occupation by Pb

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture in ultrasonic intensified environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan Nasef; Mohamed, Mahmoud [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    A vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) study was conducted on ethanol/ethylacetate mixture as a preliminary step towards developing an ultrasonic-assisted distillation process for separating azeotropic mixtures. The influence of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the mixture was examined using a combination of four ultrasonic intensities in range of 100-400W/cm{sup 2} and three frequencies ranging from 25-68 kHz. The sonication was found to have significant impacts on the VLE of the system as it alters both the relative volatility and azeotrope point, with preference to lower frequency operation. A maximum relative volatility of 2.32 was obtained at an intensity of 300 W/cm{sup 2} and a frequency of 25 kHz coupled with complete elimination of ethanol-ethyl acetate azeotrope. Results from this work were also congruent with some experimental and theoretical works presented in the literature. These findings set a good beginning towards the development of an ultrasonic assisted distillation that is currently in progress.

  3. High-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria in the (nitrogen + n-heptane) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Fernando [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: fgarcias@imp.mx; Eliosa-Jimenez, Gaudencio [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Silva-Oliver, Guadalupe [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Godinez-Silva, Armando [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this work, new (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the (N{sub 2} + n-heptane) system were experimentally measured over a wide temperature range from (313.6 to 523.7) K and pressures up to 50 MPa. A static-analytic apparatus with visual sapphire windows and pneumatic capillary samplers was used in the experimental measurements. Equilibrium phase compositions and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium ratios are reported. The new results were compared with those reported by other authors. The comparison showed that the pressure-composition data reported in this work are less scattered than those determined by others. Hence, the results demonstrate the reliability of the experimental apparatus at high temperatures and pressures. The experimental data were represented with the PR and PC-SAFT equations of state by using one-fluid mixing rules and a single temperature independent interaction parameter. Results of the representation showed that the PC-SAFT equation was superior to the PR equation in correlating the experimental data of the (N{sub 2} + n-heptane) system.

  4. High Pressure Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide + n-Hexane System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinglin; TIAN Yiling; ZHU Rongjiao; LIU Zhihua

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of supercritical carbon dioxide + n-hexane system were measured at 313.15 K,333.15 K,353.15 K,and 373.15 K and their molar volumes and densities were measured both in the subcritical and supercritical regions ranging from 2.15 to 12.63 MPa using a variable-volume autoclave.The thermodynamic properties including mole fractions,densities,and molar volumes of the system were calculated with an equation of state by Heilig and Franck,in which a repulsion term and a square-well potential attraction term for intermolecular interaction was used.The pairwise combination rule was used to calculate the square-well molecular interaction potential and three adjustable parameters (ω,kε,kσ) were obtained.The Heilig-Franck equation of state is found to have good correlation with binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the carbon dioxide + n-hexane system.

  5. High-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria in the (nitrogen + n-heptane) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Fernando; Eliosa-Jimenez, Gaudencio; Silva-Oliver, Guadalupe; Godinez-Silva, Armando

    2007-01-01

    In this work, new (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the (N 2 + n-heptane) system were experimentally measured over a wide temperature range from (313.6 to 523.7) K and pressures up to 50 MPa. A static-analytic apparatus with visual sapphire windows and pneumatic capillary samplers was used in the experimental measurements. Equilibrium phase compositions and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium ratios are reported. The new results were compared with those reported by other authors. The comparison showed that the pressure-composition data reported in this work are less scattered than those determined by others. Hence, the results demonstrate the reliability of the experimental apparatus at high temperatures and pressures. The experimental data were represented with the PR and PC-SAFT equations of state by using one-fluid mixing rules and a single temperature independent interaction parameter. Results of the representation showed that the PC-SAFT equation was superior to the PR equation in correlating the experimental data of the (N 2 + n-heptane) system

  6. Liquid and vapor phase fluids visualization using an exciplex chemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Uk; Kim, Guang Hoon; Kim, Chang Bum; Suk, Hyyong

    2001-01-01

    Two dimensional slices of the cross-sectional distributions of fuel images in the combustion chamber were visualized quantitatively using a laser-induced exciplex (excited state complex) fluorescence technique. A new exciplex visualization system consisting of 5%DMA (N, N-dimethylaniline) · 5%1, 4,6-TMN (trimethylnaphthalene) in 90% isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) fuel was employed. In this method, the vapor phase was tagged by the monomer fluorescence while the liquid phase was tracked by the red-shifted exciplex fluorescence with good spectral and spatial resolution. The direct calibration of the fluorescence intensity as a function of the fluorescing dopant concentrations then permitted the determination of quantitative concentration maps of liquid and vapor phases in the fuel. The 308 nm (XeCl) line of the excimer laser was used to excite the doped molecules in the fuel and the resulting fluorescence images were obtained with an ICCD detector as a function time. In this paper, the spectroscopy of the exciplex chemical sensors as well as the optical diagnostic method of the fluid distribution is discussed in detail.

  7. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture in ultrasonic intensified environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan Nasef; Mohamed, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    A vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) study was conducted on ethanol/ethylacetate mixture as a preliminary step towards developing an ultrasonic-assisted distillation process for separating azeotropic mixtures. The influence of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the mixture was examined using a combination of four ultrasonic intensities in range of 100-400W/cm 2 and three frequencies ranging from 25-68 kHz. The sonication was found to have significant impacts on the VLE of the system as it alters both the relative volatility and azeotrope point, with preference to lower frequency operation. A maximum relative volatility of 2.32 was obtained at an intensity of 300 W/cm 2 and a frequency of 25 kHz coupled with complete elimination of ethanol-ethyl acetate azeotrope. Results from this work were also congruent with some experimental and theoretical works presented in the literature. These findings set a good beginning towards the development of an ultrasonic assisted distillation that is currently in progress

  8. Numerical modelling of multiphase liquid-vapor-gas flows with interfaces and cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanti, Marica

    2017-11-01

    We are interested in the simulation of multiphase flows where the dynamical appearance of vapor cavities and evaporation fronts in a liquid is coupled to the dynamics of a third non-condensable gaseous phase. We describe these flows by a single-velocity three-phase compressible flow model composed of the phasic mass and total energy equations, the volume fraction equations, and the mixture momentum equation. The model includes stiff mechanical and thermal relaxation source terms for all the phases, and chemical relaxation terms to describe mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of the species that may undergo transition. The flow equations are solved by a mixture-energy-consistent finite volume wave propagation scheme, combined with simple and robust procedures for the treatment of the stiff relaxation terms. An analytical study of the characteristic wave speeds of the hierarchy of relaxed models associated to the parent model system is also presented. We show several numerical experiments, including two-dimensional simulations of underwater explosive phenomena where highly pressurized gases trigger cavitation processes close to a rigid surface or to a free surface. This work was supported by the French Government Grant DGA N. 2012.60.0011.00.470.75.01, and partially by the Norwegian Grant RCN N. 234126/E30.

  9. Vapor-droplet flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    General features of a vapor-droplet flow are discussed and the equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for the vapor, liquid, and mixture using the control volume approach are derived. The phenomenological laws describing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between phases are also reviewed. The results have application to development of water-dominated geothermal resources

  10. Electrode kinetics of a water vapor electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G.

    1974-01-01

    The anodic electrochemical behavior of the water vapor electrolysis cell was investigated. A theoretical review of various aspects of cell overvoltage is presented with special emphasis on concentration overvoltage and activation overvoltage. Other sources of overvoltage are described. The experimental apparatus controlled and measured anode potential and cell current. Potentials between 1.10 and 2.60 V (vs NHE) and currents between 0.1 and 3000 mA were investigated. Different behavior was observed between the standard cell and the free electrolyte cell. The free electrolyte cell followed typical Tafel behavior (i.e. activation overvoltage) with Tafel slopes of about 0.15, and the exchange current densities of 10 to the minus 9th power A/sq cm, both in good agreement with literature values. The standard cell exhibitied this same Tafel behavior at lower current densities but deviated toward lower than expected current densities at higher potentials. This behavior and other results were examined to determine their origin.

  11. Analysis of graphite gasification by water vapor at different conversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Luo; Xiaoyu, Yu; Suyuan, Yu; Jean-Charles, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite was gasified at different conversions. • The reaction temperature influences on the dimensionless the reaction rate. • The thickness or radius influence on the dimensionless reaction rate. - Abstract: The gasification rate of porous solids varies with the conversions with the rate increasing to a maximum and then decreasing. Many graphite gasification experiments have illustrated that the maximum gasification rates occur at different conversions for different temperatures and sample geometries. Thus, the gasification rate is related to the conversion, temperature and geometry of the graphite. The influences of those factors were studied for the graphite gasification by water vapor. A theoretical analysis was done on the basis of several logical assumptions. The influence of temperatures on the reaction rate was investigated for plate-like and cylindrical graphite. The effects of thickness for a plate-like graphite sample and of radius for a cylindrical sample on the reaction rate were also studied theoretically. The results reveal that the maximum dimensionless reaction rate decreases with reaction temperature. The plate thickness or the cylinder radius also affects the maximum dimensionless reaction rate

  12. Space-Time Variations in Water Vapor as Observed by the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Lee S.; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Mote, Philip W.; Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Harwood, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere has a significant impact on the climate system. Difficulties in making accurate global measurements have led to uncertainty in understanding water vapor's coupling to the hydrologic cycle in the lower troposphere and its role in radiative energy balance. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is able to retrieve water vapor concentration in the upper troposphere with good sensitivity and nearly global coverage. An analysis of these preliminary retrievals based on 3 years of observations shows the water vapor distribution to be similar to that measured by other techniques and to model results. The primary MLS water vapor measurements were made in the stratosphere, where this species acts as a conserved tracer under certain conditions. As is the case for the upper troposphere, most of the stratospheric discussion focuses on the time evolution of the zonal mean and zonally varying water vapor. Stratospheric results span a 19-month period and tropospheric results a 36-month period, both beginning in October of 1991. Comparisons with stratospheric model calculations show general agreement, with some differences in the amplitude and phase of long-term variations. At certain times and places, the evolution of water vapor distributions in the lower stratosphere suggests the presence of meridional transport.

  13. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-01-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm 3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  14. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-06-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  15. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide based ionic liquids + butan-1-ol + water}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Wlazło, Michał; Gawkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for 3 ionic liquid + butanol + water systems. • The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase diagrams is discussed. • Influence of IL structure on S and β for butanol/water separation is discussed. - Abstract: Ternary (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria for 3 systems containing bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquids (1-buthyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide, {1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluorylsulfonyl)-amide) + butan-1-ol + water} have been determined at T = 298.15 K. The selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated for investigated systems and compared with literature data for other systems containing ionic liquids. In each system total solubility of butan-1-ol and low solubility of water in the ionic liquid is observed. The experimental results have been correlated using NRTL model. The influence of the structure of ionic liquid on phase equilibria, selectivity and solute distribution ratio is shortly discussed.

  16. Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium of benzene between 300 K and 530 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Janeček

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The inhomogeneous Monte Carlo technique is used in studying the vapor-liquid interface of benzene in a broad range of temperatures using the TraPPE potential field. The obtained values of the VLE parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values as well as with the results from GEMC simulations. In contrast to the GEMC, within one simulation box the inhomogeneous MC technique also yields information on the structural properties of the interphase between the two phases. The values of the vaporization enthalpy and the vapor pressure very well satisfy the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

  17. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  18. (Vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium measurements and correlation for {1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134) + isobutane (R600a)} system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanxing; Gong, Maoqiong; Dong, Xueqiang; Guo, Hao; Wu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • VLLE data for the (R134 + R600a) system at temperatures ranging from (235.311 to 241.720) K was measured. • The experiment was carried out using an apparatus based on the recirculation of vapor into liquid. • Correlation of VLE data was made using PR−HV−NRTL model. • A strong critical opalescence was observed. - Abstract: In this work, a study on the (vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (VLLE) for the (R134 + R600a) system was carried out using an apparatus based on the recirculation of vapor into liquid at temperatures ranging from (235.311 to 241.720) K. The uncertainties of the composition, temperature, and pressure were less than ±0.005, ±5 mK and ±0.5 kPa, respectively. Thirty-eight experimental p–T–x data covering both branches of the binodal boundary and nineteen experimental p–T–y data were presented. Three numerical methods were used to obtain the second liquid phase compositions coexisting in equilibrium, and all the three methods lead to consistent results. Moreover, all of the experimental data were correlated by the Peng–Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) with the Huron–Vidal (HV) mixing rule involving the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. Then the vapor phase compositions were calculated. The results show good agreement with the experimental data, and the maximum deviation is less than 0.006

  19. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  20. Water vapor mass balance method for determining air infiltration rates in houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Gordon M. Heisler

    1980-01-01

    A water vapor mass balance technique that includes the use of common humidity-control equipment can be used to determine average air infiltration rates in buildings. Only measurements of the humidity inside and outside the home, the mass of vapor exchanged by a humidifier/dehumidifier, and the volume of interior air space are needed. This method gives results that...

  1. Relative spectral absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and cloud droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.; Ridgway, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    A moderate (20/cm) spectral resolution model which accounts for both the highly variable spectral transmission of solar radiation through water vapor within and above cloud, as well as the more slowly varying features of absorption and anisotropic multiple scattering by the cloud droplets, is presented. Results from this model as applied to the case of a typical 1 km thick stratus cloud in a standard atmosphere, with cloud top altitude of 2 km and overhead sun, are discussed, showing the relative importance of water vapor above the cloud, water vapor within the cloud, and cloud droplets on the spectral absorption of solar radiation.

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibrium for the system ethyl alcohol + ester; Equilibrio liquido-vapor para o sistema alcool etilico+ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Humberto Neves Maia de; Nascimento, Yuri Corsino do; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work consists of the experimental determination of a series of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, for mixtures of ethyl alcohol + ester (ethyl acetate), prepared synthetically, that may be present in the production of biodiesel. The separation of the ethyl alcohol from esters by distillation is an important stage of this process, and therefore it demands accurate data for an appropriate modelling, and later optimization via simulators. FISCHER'S ebulliometer, with digital control (Model 602), was used for measurement of VLE data for the system ethyl alcohol + ester. It consists of a recirculation cell of the both vapor and liquid phases, providing complete data, i.e., pressure, temperature and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases that were obtained by gaseous chromatography (PTxy). This apparatus is coupled to a thermostatic bath with cooling (TE-184 TECNAL) that aims to condense the coming steams of the ebullition in order to return to the mixture camera. The VLE data obtained experimentally were submitted to the test of thermodynamic consistence of the deviations, where the equation of Gibbs-Duhem is used, through the model UNIQUAC. The parameters obtained from the experimental data can be applied in the simulators of processes with the purpose of optimizing the separation of the ethyl alcohol of Ester. (author)

  3. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  4. Liquid metals replace water steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, V

    1976-12-01

    The techniques are described of power generation with regard to their effectiveness which depends on the efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy into electric energy. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion of energy is based on the use of induced electromotive force which results from the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. The use of liquid metal as the working medium makes it possible to increase the initial temperature of the magnetohydrodynamic cycle to the limit of the highest technically attainable temperatures. The total efficiency of energy conversion in magnetohydrodynamic converters is 2 to 6%.

  5. Liquid metals replace water steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques are described of power generation with regard to their effectiveness which depends on the efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy into electric energy. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion of energy is based on the use of induced electromotive force which results from the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. The use of liquid metal as the working medium makes it possible to increase the initial temperature of the magnetohydrodynamic cycle to the limit of the highest technically attainable temperatures. The total efficiency of energy conversion in magnetohydrodynamic converters is 2 to 6%. (J.B.)

  6. Towards Cryogenic Liquid-Vapor Energy Storage Units for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Josiana Prado

    With the development of mechanical coolers and very sensitive cryogenic sensors, it could be interesting to use Energy Storage Units (ESU) and turn off the cryocooler to operate in a free micro vibration environment. An ESU would also avoid cryogenic systems oversized to attenuate temperature fluctuations due to thermal load variations which is useful particularly for space applications. In both cases, the temperature drift must remain limited to keep good detector performances. In this thesis, ESUs based on the high latent heat associated to liquid-vapor phase change to store energy have been studied. To limit temperature drifts while keeping small size cell at low temperature, a potential solution consists in splitting the ESU in two volumes: a low temperature cell coupled to a cryocooler cold finger through a thermal heat switch and an expansion volume at room temperature to reduce the temperature increase occurring during liquid evaporation. To obtain a vanishing temperature drift, a new improvement has been tested using two-phase nitrogen: a controlled valve was inserted between the two volumes in order to control the cold cell pressure. In addition, a porous material was used inside the cell to turn the ESU gravity independent and suitable for space applications. In this case, experiments reveal not fully understood results concerning both energy storage and liquid-wall temperature difference. To capture the thermal influence of the porous media, a dedicated cell with poorly conductive lateral wall was built and operated with two-phase helium. After its characterization outside the saturation conditions (conduction, convection), experiments were performed, with and without porous media, heating at the top or the bottom of the cell with various heat fluxes and for different saturation temperatures. In parallel, a model describing the thermal response for a cell containing liquid and vapor with a porous medium heated at the top ("against gravity") was developed

  7. Liquid Water Restricts Habitability in Extreme Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Brown, Sarah; Landenmark, Hanna; Samuels, Toby; Siddall, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp. In the presence of water, short-wavelength UV radiation more effectively kills Gloeocapsa sp. colonies, which we hypothesize is caused by factors including the greater penetration of UV radiation into hydrated colonies compared to desiccated colonies. The data predict that deserts where maximum thermal stress or irradiation occurs in conjunction with the presence of liquid water may be less habitable to some organisms than more extreme arid deserts where organisms can dehydrate prior to being exposed to these extremes, thus minimizing thermal and radiation damage. Life in extreme deserts is poised between the deleterious effects of the presence and the lack of liquid water.

  8. Liquid Water Restricts Habitability in Extreme Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Brown, Sarah; Landenmark, Hanna; Samuels, Toby; Siddall, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp. In the presence of water, short-wavelength UV radiation more effectively kills Gloeocapsa sp. colonies, which we hypothesize is caused by factors including the greater penetration of UV radiation into hydrated colonies compared to desiccated colonies. The data predict that deserts where maximum thermal stress or irradiation occurs in conjunction with the presence of liquid water may be less habitable to some organisms than more extreme arid deserts where organisms can dehydrate prior to being exposed to these extremes, thus minimizing thermal and radiation damage. Life in extreme deserts is poised between the deleterious effects of the presence and the lack of liquid water. Key Words: Deserts-Extremophiles-Stress-High temperatures-UV radiation-Desiccation. Astrobiology 17, 309-318.

  9. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure and Ultra-High Vacuum Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids (2) Mixtures and Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Koch, Victor R.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Richard, Ryan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids are salts, many of which are typically viscous fluids at room temperature. The fluids are characterized by negligible vapor pressures under ambient conditions. These properties have led us to study the effectiveness of ionic liquids containing both organic cations and anions for use as space lubricants. In the previous paper we have measured the vapor pressure and some tribological properties of two distinct ionic liquids under simulated space conditions. In this paper we will present vapor pressure measurements for two new ionic liquids and friction coefficient data for boundary lubrication conditions in a spiral orbit tribometer using stainless steel tribocouples. In addition we present the first tribological data on mixed ionic liquids and an ionic liquid additive. Post mortem infrared and Raman analysis of the balls and races indicates the major degradation pathway for these two organic ionic liquids is similar to those of other carbon based lubricants, i.e. deterioration of the organic structure into amorphous graphitic carbon. The coefficients of friction and lifetimes of these lubricants are comparable to or exceed these properties for several commonly used space oils.

  10. Revisiting a many-body model for water based on a single polarizable site: from gas phase clusters to liquid and air/liquid water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel

    2013-09-21

    We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.

  11. The Effect of Water Vapor on the Thermal Decomposition of Pyrite in N2 Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin BOYABAT

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of water vapor on the thermal decomposition of pyrite mineral in nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated in a horizontal tube furnace. Temperature, time and water vapor concentration were used as experimental parameters. According to the data obtained at nitrogen/ water vapor environment, it was observed that the water vapor on the decomposition of pyrite increased the decomposition rate. The decomposition reaction is well represented by the "shrinking core" model and can be divided into two regions with different rate controlling step. The rate controlling steps were determined from the heat transfer through the gas film for the low conversions, while it was determined from the mass transfer through product ash layer for the high conversions. The activation energies of this gas and ash film mechanisms were found to be 77 and 81 kJ/mol-1, respectively.

  12. Effects of convective ice evaporation on interannual variability of tropical tropopause layer water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hao; Dessler, Andrew E.; Yu, Wandi

    2018-04-01

    Water vapor interannual variability in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is investigated using satellite observations and model simulations. We break down the influences of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and the tropospheric temperature (ΔT) on TTL water vapor as a function of latitude and longitude using a two-dimensional multivariate linear regression. This allows us to examine the spatial distribution of the impact of each process on TTL water vapor. In agreement with expectations, we find that the impacts from the BDC and QBO act on TTL water vapor by changing TTL temperature. For ΔT, we find that TTL temperatures alone cannot explain the influence. We hypothesize a moistening role for the evaporation of convective ice from increased deep convection as the troposphere warms. Tests using a chemistry-climate model, the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM), support this hypothesis.

  13. Sensitive coating for water vapors detection based on thermally sputtered calcein thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglenko, I; Shirshov, Yu; Burlachenko, J; Savchenko, A; Kravchenko, S; Manera, M G; Rella, R

    2010-09-15

    In this paper the adsorption properties of thermally sputtered calcein thin films towards water and other polar molecules vapors are studied by different characterization techniques: quartz crystal microbalance, surface plasmon resonance and visible spectroscopy. Sensitivity of calcein thin films to water vapors resulted much higher as compared with those of a number of dyes whose structure was close to that of calcein. All types of sensors with calcein coatings have demonstrated linear concentration dependences in the wide range of water vapor pressure from low concentrations up to 27,000 ppm (close to saturation). At higher concentrations of water vapor all sensors demonstrate the abrupt increase of the response (up to two orders). A theoretical model is advanced explaining the adsorption properties of calcein thin films taking into account their chemical structure and peculiarities of molecular packing. The possibility of application of thermally sputtered calcein films in sensing technique is discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Mote, P. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Read, W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semi-annual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapor are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) and the stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and the polewards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retrieved 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  15. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this Select Phase II program is to build and deliver laser components both for airborne water vapor and ozone DIAL systems. Specifically, Fibertek...

  16. An equation state of h=h(s,p) type for water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, Kiyoji; Fujii, Tetsu.

    1975-01-01

    Equations of specific enthalpy, temperature and the ratio of temperature to specific heat for water vapor as each respective function of specific entropy and pressure are presented in the region of entropy larger than its critical value

  17. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a common architecture for laser transmitters that address requirements for water vapor as well as ground and airborne ozone lidar systems. Our...

  18. Tracking atmospheric boundary layer dynamics with water vapor D-excess observations

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen; McCabe, Matthew; Griffiths, Alan; Wang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope water vapor observations present a history of hydrological processes that have impacted on an air mass. Consequently, there is scope to improve our knowledge of how different processes impact on humidity budgets by determining

  19. The Oxidation Rate of SiC in High Pressure Water Vapor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    CVD SiC and sintered alpha-SiC samples were exposed at 1316 C in a high pressure burner rig at total pressures of 5.7, 15, and 25 atm for times up to 100h. Variations in sample emittance for the first nine hours of exposure were used to determine the thickness of the silica scale as a function of time. After accounting for volatility of silica in water vapor, the parabolic rate constants for Sic in water vapor pressures of 0.7, 1.8 and 3.1 atm were determined. The dependence of the parabolic rate constant on the water vapor pressure yielded a power law exponent of one. Silica growth on Sic is therefore limited by transport of molecular water vapor through the silica scale.

  20. A differential absorption technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Robert; Middleton, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    Vertically integrated water-vapor amounts can be remotely determined by measuring the solar radiance reflected by the earth's surface with satellites or aircraft-based instruments. The technique is based on the method by Fowle (1912, 1913) and utilizes the 0.940-micron water-vapor band to retrieve total-water-vapor data that is independent of surface reflectance properties and other atmospheric constituents. A channel combination is proposed to provide more accurate results, the SE-590 spectrometer is used to verify the data, and the effects of atmospheric photon backscattering is examined. The spectrometer and radiosonde data confirm the accuracy of using a narrow and a wide channel centered on the same wavelength to determine water vapor amounts. The technique is suitable for cloudless conditions and can contribute to atmospheric corrections of land-surface parameters.

  1. Optoacoustic measurements of water vapor absorption at selected CO laser wavelengths in the 5-micron region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption were taken with a resonant optoacoustical detector (cylindrical pyrex detector, two BaF2 windows fitted into end plates at slight tilt to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances), for lack of confidence in existing spectral tabular data for the 5-7 micron region, as line shapes in the wing regions of water vapor lines are difficult to characterize. The measurements are required for air pollution studies using a CO laser, to find the differential absorption at the wavelengths in question due to atmospheric constituents other than water vapor. The design and performance of the optoacoustical detector are presented. Effects of absorption by ambient NO are considered, and the fixed-frequency discretely tunable CO laser is found suitable for monitoring urban NO concentrations in a fairly dry climate, using the water vapor absorption data obtained in the study.

  2. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  3. Raman Lidar Calibration for the DMSP SSM/T-2 Microwave Water Vapor Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wessel, J

    2000-01-01

    Campaigns were conducted at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, investigating Raman lidar as a method to improve calibration of the DMSP SSM/T-2 microwave water vapor profiling instrument...

  4. Investigation of tungsten mass transfer in rarefied air oxygen and water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evsikov, A.S.; Makeev, A.A.; Lyubimova, L.L.; Sinyavskij, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of oxygen and water vapor effect on the rate of tungsten evaporation are presented. Methods for carrying out an experiment are presented. The experiments are carried out at the 2600 degC tungsten wire temperature and the pressure of oxygen and water vapors (2x10 -3 -5) Pa. Registration of final products of mass transfer is carried out by the DRON-2.0 diffractometer using a detachable substrate. Empirical dependence taking into account oxygen and water vapor effect on the rate of tungsten evaporation is suggested. It is marked that air oxygen and water vapor increase evaporation rate uniformly the difference is observed only in final products of interaction

  5. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan; Nida, Aqdas; Ng, Kim  Choon; Chua, Kian  Jon

    2015-01-01

    were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor

  6. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface was studied. The analysis was performed by assuming that the sodium mist is emitted into the main flow without condensation and then grows up in the main flow and drops on the sodium surface. The effects of growth of sodium mist to the system were investigated. The model of the phenomena is the sodium deposition onto a horizontal flat plate which is placed above the sodium surface with the medium cover gas. One-dimensional analysis can be done. The rate of deposition is greatly reduced when the temperature of the flat plate is lowered. For the analysis of this phenomena, it is assumed that the sodium mist grows by condensation. One of results is that the real state may be the state between the state that the condensation of mist is made in the boundary layer and the state that the mist is condensed in the main flow. Others are that there is no effect of sodium mist condensation on the rate of deposition, and that the rate of the vaporization of sodium is given by the original and the modified model. (Kato, T.)

  7. Correlation of the vapor pressure isotope effect with molecular force fields in the liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollin, J.S.; Ishida, T.

    1976-07-01

    The present work is concerned with the development and application of a new model for condensed phase interactions with which the vapor pressure isotope effect (vpie) may be related to molecular forces and structure. The model considers the condensed phase as being represented by a cluster of regularly arranged molecules consisting of a central molecule and a variable number of molecules in the first coordination shell. The methods of normal coordinate analysis are used to determine the modes of vibration of the condensed phase cluster from which, in turn, the isotopic reduced partition function can be calculated. Using the medium cluster model, the observed vpie for a series of methane isotopes has been successfully reproduced with better agreement with experiment than has been possible using the simple cell model. We conclude, however, that insofar as the medium cluster model provides a reasonable picture of the liquid state, the vpie is not sufficiently sensitive to molecular orientation to permit an experimental determination of intermolecular configuration in the condensed phase through measurement of isotopic pressure ratios. The virtual independence of vapor pressure isotope effects on molecular orientation at large cluster sizes is a demonstration of the general acceptability of the cell model assumptions for vpie calculations

  8. Broad compositional tunability of indium tin oxide nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zervos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide nanowires were grown by the reaction of In and Sn with O2 at 800 °C via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on 1 nm Au/Si(001. We obtain Sn doped In2O3 nanowires having a cubic bixbyite crystal structure by using In:Sn source weight ratios > 1:9 while below this we observe the emergence of tetragonal rutile SnO2 and suppression of In2O3 permitting compositional and structural tuning from SnO2 to In2O3 which is accompanied by a blue shift of the photoluminescence spectrum and increase in carrier lifetime attributed to a higher crystal quality and Fermi level position.

  9. Atomic characterization of Au clusters in vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wanghua; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Pareige, Philippe; Castro, Celia; Xu, Tao; Grandidier, Bruno; Stiévenard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    By correlating atom probe tomography with other conventional microscope techniques (scanning electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, and scanning tunneling microscopy), the distribution and composition of Au clusters in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Si nanowires is investigated. Taking advantage of the characteristics of atom probe tomography, we have developed a sample preparation method by inclining the sample at certain angle to characterize the nanowire sidewall without using focused ion beam. With three-dimensional atomic scale reconstruction, we provide direct evidence of Au clusters tending to remain on the nanowire sidewall rather than being incorporated into the Si nanowires. Based on the composition measurement of Au clusters (28% ± 1%), we have demonstrated the supersaturation of Si atoms in Au clusters, which supports the hypothesis that Au clusters are formed simultaneously during nanowire growth rather than during the cooling process

  10. Atomic characterization of Au clusters in vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wanghua; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces (LPICM), UMR 7647, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pareige, Philippe; Castro, Celia [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux (GPM), Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6634, CNRS, Av. de l' Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Xu, Tao; Grandidier, Bruno; Stiévenard, Didier [Institut d' Electronique et de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), UMR 8520, CNRS, Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France)

    2015-09-14

    By correlating atom probe tomography with other conventional microscope techniques (scanning electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, and scanning tunneling microscopy), the distribution and composition of Au clusters in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Si nanowires is investigated. Taking advantage of the characteristics of atom probe tomography, we have developed a sample preparation method by inclining the sample at certain angle to characterize the nanowire sidewall without using focused ion beam. With three-dimensional atomic scale reconstruction, we provide direct evidence of Au clusters tending to remain on the nanowire sidewall rather than being incorporated into the Si nanowires. Based on the composition measurement of Au clusters (28% ± 1%), we have demonstrated the supersaturation of Si atoms in Au clusters, which supports the hypothesis that Au clusters are formed simultaneously during nanowire growth rather than during the cooling process.

  11. Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonho; Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Ekerdt, John G.; Shih, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si nanowires is reported. Using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, we show that the flower consists of an Au/SiO x core-shell structure. Moreover, the growth of flower starts at the interface between the gold catalyst and the silicon nanowire, presumably by enhanced oxidation at this interface. The pattern formation can be classified as dense branching morphology (DBM). It is the first observation of DBM in a spherical geometry and at the nanoscale. The analysis of the average branching distance of this pattern shows that the pattern is most likely formed during the growth process, not the cooling process, and that the curvature of the gold droplet plays a crucial role in the frequency of branching

  12. Leidenfrost Vapor Layers Reduce Drag without the Crisis in High Viscosity Liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2016-09-08

    The drag coefficient CD of a solid smooth sphere moving in a fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re∼3×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at a lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as ∼600 to 105. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length can fit the observed drag reduction and wake shape. © 2016 American Physical Society.

  13. Quantitative analysis of urine vapor and breath by gas-liquid partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, L; Robinson, A B; Teranishi, R; Cary, P

    1971-10-01

    When a human being is placed for several days on a completely defined diet, consisting almost entirely of small molecules that are absorbed from the stomach into the blood, intestinal flora disappear because of lack of nutrition. By this technique, the composition of body fluids can be made constant (standard deviation about 10%) after a few days, permitting significant quantitative analyses to be performed. A method of temperature-programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography has been developed for this purpose. It permits the quantitative determination of about 250 substances in a sample of breath, and of about 280 substances in a sample of urine vapor. The technique should be useful in the application of the principles of orthomolecular medicine.

  14. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and critical asymmetry of square well and short square well chain fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyan; Sun, Fangfang; Chen, Zhitong; Wang, Long; Cai, Jun

    2014-08-07

    The critical behavior of square well fluids with variable interaction ranges and of short square well chain fluids have been investigated by grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The critical temperatures and densities were estimated by a finite-size scaling analysis with the help of histogram reweighting technique. The vapor-liquid coexistence curve in the near-critical region was determined using hyper-parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results for coexistence diameters show that the contribution of |t|(1-α) to the coexistence diameter dominates the singular behavior in all systems investigated. The contribution of |t|(2β) to the coexistence diameter is larger for the system with a smaller interaction range λ. While for short square well chain fluids, longer the chain length, larger the contribution of |t|(2β). The molecular configuration greatly influences the critical asymmetry: a short soft chain fluid shows weaker critical asymmetry than a stiff chain fluid with same chain length.

  15. Study of near-critical states of liquid-vapor phase transition of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelyanov, A N; Shakhray, D V; Golyshev, A A

    2015-01-01

    Study of thermodynamic parameters of magnesium in the near-critical point region of the liquid-vapor phase transition and in the region of metal-nonmetal transition was carried out. Measurements of the electrical resistance of magnesium after shock compression and expansion into gas (helium) environment in the process of isobaric heating was carried out. Heating of the magnesium surface by heat transfer with hot helium was performed. The registered electrical resistance of expanded magnesium was about 10 4 -10 5 times lower than the electrical resistance of the magnesium under normal condition at the density less than the density of the critical point. Thus, metal-nonmetal transition was found in magnesium. (paper)

  16. Leidenfrost Vapor Layers Reduce Drag without the Crisis in High Viscosity Liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Berry, Joseph D.; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    The drag coefficient CD of a solid smooth sphere moving in a fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re∼3×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at a lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as ∼600 to 105. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length can fit the observed drag reduction and wake shape. © 2016 American Physical Society.

  17. High quality junctions by interpenetration of vapor liquid solid grown nanostructures for microchip integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebril, Seid; Kuhlmann, Hanna; Adelung, Rainer [Funktionale Nanomaterialien, CAU Kiel (Germany); Mueller, Sven [Nanowires and Thin Films, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Ronning, Carsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, Universitaet Jena (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Synthese und Realstruktur, CAU Kiel (Germany); Duppel, Viola [MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The usability of nanostructures in electrical devices like gas sensors depends critically on the ability to form high quality contacts and junctions. For the fabrication of various nanostructures, vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a wide spread and very efficient technique. However, forming contacts with the VLS grown structures to utilize them in a device is still tedious, because either the substrate has to be epitaxial to the VLS material or a manual alignment is necessary. Here we demonstrate the contact formation by simply using the ability of individual crystals to interpenetrate each other during the straight forward VLS growth. This allows growing VLS structures directly on two neighboring gold circuit paths of a microchip; bridges over predefined gaps will be formed. Moreover, TEM investigations confirm the high quality of the crystalline junctions that allow demonstrations as UV and hydrogen-sensor. The VLS devices are compared with conventional produced.

  18. Optimization of GPS water vapor tomography technique with radiosonde and COSMIC historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The near-real-time high spatial resolution of atmospheric water vapor distribution is vital in numerical weather prediction. GPS tomography technique has been proved effectively for three-dimensional water vapor reconstruction. In this study, the tomography processing is optimized in a few aspects by the aid of radiosonde and COSMIC historical data. Firstly, regional tropospheric zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD models are improved and thus the zenith wet delay (ZWD can be obtained at a higher accuracy. Secondly, the regional conversion factor of converting the ZWD to the precipitable water vapor (PWV is refined. Next, we develop a new method for dividing the tomography grid with an uneven voxel height and a varied water vapor layer top. Finally, we propose a Gaussian exponential vertical interpolation method which can better reflect the vertical variation characteristic of water vapor. GPS datasets collected in Hong Kong in February 2014 are employed to evaluate the optimized tomographic method by contrast with the conventional method. The radiosonde-derived and COSMIC-derived water vapor densities are utilized as references to evaluate the tomographic results. Using radiosonde products as references, the test results obtained from our optimized method indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 12 % compared to those derived from the conventional method below the height of 3.75 km and above the height of 3.75 km, respectively. Using the COSMIC products as references, the results indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 19 % below 3.75 km and above 3.75 km, respectively.

  19. Scanning Raman lidar for tropospheric water vapor profiling and GPS path delay correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniewicz, Jerome; Bock, Olivier; Pelon, Jacques R.; Thom, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The design of a ground based and transportable combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for the remote sensing of lower tropospheric water vapor and nitrogen concentration is described. This lidar is intended to be used for an external calibration of the wet path delay of GPS signals. A description of the method used to derive water vapor and nitrogen profiles in the lower troposphere is given. The instrument has been tested during the ESCOMPTE campaign in June 2001 and first measurements are presented.

  20. Differential Absorption Radar: An Emerging Technology for Remote Sounding of Water Vapor Within Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebsock, M. D.; Millan Valle, L. F.; Cooper, K. B.; Siles, J.; Monje, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of our efforts to build and demonstrate the first Differential Absorption Radar (DAR), which will provide unique capabilities to remotely sound for water vapor within cloudy and precipitating atmospheres. The approach leverages multiple radar channels located near the 183 GHz water vapor absorption feature to simultaneously derive microphysical and water vapor profiles. The DAR technique has the potential to neatly complement existing water vapor sounding techniques such as infrared and microwave sounding and GPS radio occultation. These precisions rival those of existing water vapor remote sensing instruments. The approach works best from above clouds because the water vapor burden and line width increases towards the Earth surface allowing increased sampling from the top-down compared with bottom-up. From an airborne or satellite platform channels can be selected that target either upper-tropospheric or lower-tropospheric clouds. Our theoretical studies suggest that the water vapor concentration can be retrieved to within 1-3 gm-3 and the column integrated water vapor can be retrieved to within 1 kgm-2. The high-frequency radar is only recently enabled by technological advances that have allowed us to demonstrate 0.5 W of continuous power near 183 GHz. We are currently developing an airborne DAR using a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) architecture with a quasi-optical duplexer providing 80 dB of transmit/receive isolation. A prototype of this instrument recently made the first ever range resolved DAR measurements of humidity out to several hundred meters during a light rain event at JPL. The spectral dependence of the attenuation was in excellent agreement with the predicted attenuation based on nearby weather stations, proving for the first time the feasibility of the concept. A major impediment to implementing DAR is the international regulation of radio-frequency transmissions below 300 GHz. The major roadblocks and potential

  1. Combined ground- and satellite-based profiling of temperature and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankov, B.B.; Westwater, E.R.; Snider, J.B.; Churnside, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The fusion or integration of meteorological and radiative data from a range of instrumentation into a representative picture of temperature, water vapor, and clouds over a CART domain will be a challenging task for four-dimensional data assimilation models. In the work reported here, we have summarized work supported by DOE's algorithm development program including combined RASS and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) temperature sensing, water vapor profiles from dual-channel radiometers, and neural network radiometric temperature retrievals

  2. The detection of sodium vapor bubble collapse in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, W.M.; Gavin, A.P.; Bobis, J.P.; Sheen, S.H.; Anderson, T.T.; Doolittle, R.D.; Albrecht, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium boiling detection utilizing the sound pressure emanated during the collapse of a sodium vapour bubble in a subcooled media is discussed in terms of the sound characteristic, the reactor ambient noise background, transmission loss considerations and performance criteria. Data obtained in several loss of flow experiments on Fast Test Reactor Fuel Elements indicate that the collapse of the sodium vapour bubble depends on the presence of a subcooled structure or sodium. The collapse pressure pulse was observed in all cases to be on the order of a kPa, indicating a soft type of cavitational collapse. Spectral examination of the pulses indicates the response function of the test structure and geometry is important. The sodium boiling observed in these experiments was observed to occur at a low ( 0 C) liquid superheat with the rate of occurrence of sodium vapor bubble collapse in the 3 to 30 Hz range. Reactor ambient noise data were found to be due to machinery induced vibrations flow induced vibrations, and flow noise. These data were further found to be weakly stationary enhancing the possibility of acoustic surveillance of an operating Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. Based on these noise characteristics and extrapolating the noise measurements from the Fast Flux Test Facility Pump (FFTP), one would expect a signal to noise ratio of up to 20 dB in the absence of transmission loss. The requirement of a low false alarm probability is shown to necessitate post detection analysis of the collapse event sequence and the cross correlation with the second derivative of the neutronic boiling detection signal. Sodium boiling detection using the sounds emitted during sodium vapor bubble collapse are shown to be feasible but a need for in-reactor demonstration is necessary. (author)

  3. Interfacial thermodynamics of water and six other liquid solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Tod A; Goddard, William A

    2014-06-05

    We examine the thermodynamics of the liquid-vapor interface by direct calculation of the surface entropy, enthalpy, and free energy from extensive molecular dynamics simulations using the two-phase thermodynamics (2PT) method. Results for water, acetonitrile, cyclohexane, dimethyl sulfoxide, hexanol, N-methyl acetamide, and toluene are presented. We validate our approach by predicting the interfacial surface tensions (IFT--excess surface free energy per unit area) in excellent agreement with the mechanical calculations using Kirkwood-Buff theory. Additionally, we evaluate the temperature dependence of the IFT of water as described by the TIP4P/2005, SPC/Ew, TIP3P, and mW classical water models. We find that the TIP4P/2005 and SPC/Ew water models do a reasonable job of describing the interfacial thermodynamics; however, the TIP3P and mW are quite poor. We find that the underprediction of the experimental IFT at 298 K by these water models results from understructured surface molecules whose binding energies are too weak. Finally, we performed depth profiles of the interfacial thermodynamics which revealed long tails that extend far into what would be considered bulk from standard Gibbs theory. In fact, we find a nonmonotonic interfacial free energy profile for water, a unique feature that could have important consequences for the absorption of ions and other small molecules.

  4. Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected

  5. The Intrinsic Variability in the Water Vapor Saturation Ratio due to Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. C.; Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Kostinski, A. B.; Niedermeier, D.; Shaw, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the atmosphere, the concentration of water vapor plays an important role in Earth's weather and climate. The mean concentration of water vapor is key to its efficiency as a greenhouse gas; the fluctuations about the mean are important for heat fluxes near the surface of earth. In boundary layer clouds, fluctuations in the water vapor concentration are linked to turbulence. Conditions representative of boundary layer clouds are simulated in Michigan Tech's multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, the ∏ chamber, where the boundary conditions are controlled and repeatable. Measurements for temperature and water vapor concentration were recorded under forced Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As expected, the distributions for temperature and water vapor concentration broaden as the turbulence becomes more vigorous. From these two measurements the saturation ratio can be calculated. The fluctuations in the water vapor concentration are more important to the variability in the saturation ratio than fluctuations in temperature. In a cloud, these fluctuations in the saturation ratio can result in some cloud droplets experiencing much higher supersaturations. Those "lucky" droplets grow by condensation at a faster rate than other cloud droplets. The difference in the droplet growth rate could contribute to a broadened droplet distribution, which leads to the onset of collision-coalescence. With more intense turbulence these effect will become more pronounced as the fluctuations about the mean saturation ratio become more pronounced.

  6. Optimization of band-pass filtering parameters of a Raman lidar detecting atmospheric water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Kai-Fa; Hu, Shun-Xing; Wang, Ying-jian

    2012-01-01

    It is very important for daytime Raman lidar measurement of water vapor to determine the parameters of a band-pass filter, which are pertinent to the lidar signal to noise ratio (SNR). The simulated annealing (SA) algorithm method has an advantage in finding the extremum of a certain cost function. In this paper, the Raman spectrum of water vapor is simulated and then a first realization of a simulated annealing algorithm in the optimization of a band-pass filter of a Raman lidar system designed to detect daytime water vapor is presented. The simulated results indicate that the narrow band-pass filter has higher SNR than the wide filter does but there would be an increase in the temperature sensitivity of a narrowband Raman water vapor lidar in the upper troposphere. The numerical simulation indicates that the magnitude of the temperature dependent effect can reach 3.5% or more for narrow band-pass Raman water vapor measurements so it is necessary to consider a new water vapor Raman lidar equation that permits the temperature sensitivity of these equations to be confined to a single term. (paper)

  7. Improved lifetime of chitosan film in converting water vapor to electrical power by adding carboxymethyl cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. I.; Balyan, M.; Nainggolan, I.

    2018-02-01

    A Water vapor cell based on chitosan film has been successfully fabricated in film form to convert water vapor to electrical power. In order to improve the lifetime of water vapor cell, Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) was added into 1% chitosan solution within concentration variations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5%. The result showed that the lifetime of water vapor cell increased higher by adding the higher concentration of Carboxymethyl cellulose. The highest lifetime was evidenced by adding 0.5%CMC which maintained for 48 weeks. However, the average electrical power became lower to 4.621 µW. This electrical power lower than the addition of 0.1%CMC which maintained for 5.167 µW. While, the lifetime of chitosan-0.1%CMC film of 44 weeks is shorter compared to chitosan-0.5%CMC film. Based on FTIR characterization, it was founded that the chitosan structure did not change until the addition of 0.1%CMC. This caused the electrical power of water vapor cell degenerated. Therefore, chitosan-0.5%CMC film has excellent lifetime in converting water vapor to electrical power.

  8. Vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction with pseudo-cubic equation of state for binary mixtures containing hydrogen, helium, or neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, H. (Nihon Univ.,Fukushima, (Japan). Faculty of Enineering)

    1990-03-01

    As an equation of state of vapor-liquid equilibrium, an original pseudo-cubic equation of state was previously proposed by the authors of this report and its study is continued. In the present study, new effective critical values of hydrogen, helium and neon were determined empirically from vapor-liquid equilibrium data of literature values against their critical temperatures, critical pressures and critical volumes. The vapor-liquid equilibrium relations of binary system quantum gas mixtures were predicted combining the conventinal pseudo-cubic equation of state and the new effective critical values, and without using binary heteromolecular interaction parameter. The predicted values of hydrogen-ethylene, helium-propane and neon-oxygen systems were compared with literature values. As a result, it was indicated that the vapor-liquid relations of binary system mixtures containing hydrogen, helium and neon can be predicted with favorable accuracy combining the effective critical values and the three parameter pseudo-cubic equation of state. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  10. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  11. Perspective on the structure of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Liquid water can be described in a fluctuating inhomogeneous picture with two local structural motifs that are spatially separated. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds giving higher density (yellow), which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations (blue), i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. Highlights: ► Two components maximizing either enthalpy (tetrahedral, low-density) or entropy (non-specific H-bonding, higher density). ► Interconvert discontinuously and ratio depends on temperature. ► Density fluctuations on 1 nm length scale. ► Increasing size in supercooled region. ► Connection to Widom line and 2nd critical point. - Abstract: We present a picture that combines discussions regarding the thermodynamic anomalies in ambient and supercooled water with recent interpretations of X-ray spectroscopy and scattering data of water in the ambient regime. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds, which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations, i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. The two local structures are connected to the liquid–liquid critical point hypothesis in supercooled water corresponding to high density liquid and low density liquid. We will discuss the interpretation of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission

  12. Portable device for generation of ultra-pure water vapor feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velin, P.; Stenman, U.; Skoglundh, M.; Carlsson, P.-A.

    2017-11-01

    A portable device for the generation of co-feeds of water vapor has been designed, constructed, and evaluated for flexible use as an add-on component to laboratory chemical reactors. The vapor is formed by catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, which benefits the formation of well-controlled minute concentrations of ultra-pure water. Analysis of the effluent stream by on-line mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms that water vapor can be, with high precision, generated both rapidly and steadily over extended periods in the range of 100 ppm to 3 vol. % (limited by safety considerations) using a total flow of 100 to 1500 ml/min at normal temperature and pressure. Further, the device has been used complementary to a commercial water evaporator and mixing system to span water concentrations up to 12 vol. %. Finally, an operando diffuse reflective infrared Fourier transform spectroscopic measurement of palladium catalysed methane oxidation in the absence and presence of up to 1.0 vol. % water has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the device for co-feeding well-controlled low concentrations of water vapor to a common type of spectroscopic experiment. The possibilities of creating isotopically labeled water vapor as well as using tracer gases for dynamic experiments are discussed.

  13. Controls on water vapor isotopes over Roorkee, India: Impact of convective activities and depression systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P.; Krishan, Gopal; Rao, M. S.; Kumar, Sudhir; Kumar, Bhishm

    2018-02-01

    The study evaluates the water vapor isotopic compositions and its controls with special reference to Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) season at Roorkee, India. Precipitation is usually a discrete event spatially and temporally in this part of the country, therefore, the information provided is limited, while, the vapors have all time availability and have a significant contribution in the hydrological cycle locally or over a regional scale. Hence for understanding the processes altering the various sources, its isotopic signatures were studied. The Isotope Water Vapour Line (Iso Val) was drawn together with the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) and the best fit line was δD = 5.42 * δ18O + 27.86. The precipitation samples were also collected during the study period and were best fitted with δD = 8.20(±0.18) * δ18O + 9.04(±1.16) in the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL). From the back trajectory analysis of respective vapor samples, it is unambiguous that three major sources viz; local vapor, western disturbance and monsoon vapor are controlling the fate of moisture over Roorkee. The d-excess in ground-level vapor (GLV) reveals the supply of recycled moisture from continental water bodies and evapo-transpiration as additional moisture sources to the study area. The intensive depletion in isotopic ratios was associated with the large-scale convective activity and low-pressure/cyclonic/depression systems formed over Bay of Bengal.

  14. Colorimetric Detection of Water Vapor Using Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: Water vapor trapped in encapsulation materials or enclosed volumes leads to corrosion issues for critical NW components. Sandia National Laboratories has created a new diagnostic to indicate the presence of water in weapon systems. Impact: Component exposure to water now can be determined instantly, without need for costly, time-consuming analytical methods.

  15. Vaporization of protic ionic liquids derived from organic superbases and short carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Filipe M S; Lima, Carlos F R A C; Vaz, Inês C M; Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Sapei, Erlin; Melo, André; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2017-06-28

    This work presents a comprehensive evaluation of the phase behaviour and cohesive enthalpy of protic ionic liquids (PILs) composed of 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN) or 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) organic superbases with short-chain length (acetic, propionic and butyric) carboxylic acids. Glass transition temperatures, T g , and enthalpies of vaporization, ΔH vap , were measured for six [BH][A] (1 : 1) PILs (B = DBN, DBU; A = MeCOO, EtCOO, nPrCOO), revealing more significant changes upon increasing the number of -CH 2 - groups in the base than in the acid. The magnitude of ΔH vap evidences that liquid PILs have a high proportion of ions, although the results also indicate that in DBN PILs the concentration of neutral species is not negligible. In the gas phase, these PILs exist as a distribution of ion pairs and isolated neutral species, with speciation being dependent on the temperature and pressure conditions - at high temperatures and low pressures the separated neutral species dominate. The higher T g and ΔH vap of the DBU PILs are explained by the stronger basicity of DBU (as supported by NMR and computational calculations), which increases the extent of proton exchange and the ionic character of the corresponding PILs, resulting in stronger intermolecular interactions in condensed phases.

  16. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    furthermore showed that the vaporization was diffusion-limited. Analysis of the heat transfer balance for the crude oils indicated that the energy available for evaporation decreased over time due to increasing heat losses, which were caused by the volatility controlled vaporization order. Presumably, larger......In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... these results. The crude oils did not show any steady state behavior, but instead had an increasing surface temperature and decreasing burning rate and flame height, indicating a volatility controlled vaporization order. An increasing concentration gradient from the medium to heavy fraction in the burn residues...

  17. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1-Difluoroethane C2H4F2 + C4H8 2-Methylpropene (EVLM1131, LB5730_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1-Difluoroethane C2H4F2 + C4H8 2-Methylpropene (EVLM1131, LB5730_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure and mole fraction in vapor phase at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  18. Measurement of Vapor Flow As an Important Source of Water in Dry Land Eco-Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; He, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.

    2014-12-01

    When the temperature of land surface is lower than that of air and deeper soils, water vapor gathers toward the ground surface where dew maybe formed depending on the prevailing dew point and wind speed. Some plants are able to absorb the dew and vapor flow while the soil can readily absorb both. Certain animals such as desert beetles and ants harvest the dew or fog for daily survival. Recently, it is also realized that the dew and vapor flow can be a life-saving amount of water for plant survival at the driest seasons of the year in arid and semi-arid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in arid and semi-arid regions in China and USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of plant is characterized by the absorption and desorption functions derived for plant physiology and water balance studies. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic vapor flow movements from the atmosphere and the groundwater table to soil surface. Results show that dew is usually formed on soil and plant surfaces during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The amount of dew harvested using gravels on the soil surface was enough to support water melon agriculture on deserts. The vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by artificially seeded plants in semi-arid regions forming new forests. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  19. SEPARATION OF WATER VAPORS FROM AIR BY SORPTION ON SOME COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA HAUTĂ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively. The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chloride instead of lithium bromide in alumina pores will determine a shorter breakthrough time and a higher adsorption rate of water vapors.

  20. A Plant-Based Proxy for the Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, B.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a major component of the global hydrological cycle, but the isotopic balance of vapor is largely unknown. It is shown here that the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water in the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) is controlled by the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor in both field and lab studies. Assuming that the leaf-water isotopic signature (and hence the atmospheric water vapor signature) is recorded in plant organic material, the atmospheric water vapor oxygen isotope ratios for Miami, Florida (USA) were reconstructed for several years from 1878 to 2005 using contemporary and herbarium specimens. T. usneoides ranges from Virginia, USA southwards through the tropics to Argentina, and the CAM epiphytic lifeform is widespread in other species. Therefore, epiphytes may be used to reconstruct the isotope ratio of atmospheric water for spatial scales that span over 60° of latitude and temporal scales that cover the last century of global temperature increase.

  1. Water vapor retrieval from near-IR measurements of polarized scanning atmospheric corrector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lili; Ning, Yuanming; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Xingfeng; Ma, Yan; Li, Zhengqiang; Cui, Wenyu

    2018-02-01

    Water vapor and aerosol are two key atmospheric factors effecting the remote sensing image quality. As water vapor is responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption occurring in the cloudless atmosphere, accurate measurement of water content is important to not only atmospheric correction of remote sensing images, but also many other applications such as the study of energy balance and global climate change, land surface temperature retrieval in thermal remote sensing. A multi-spectral, single-angular, polarized radiometer called Polarized Scanning Atmospheric Corrector (PSAC) were developed in China, which are designed to mount on the same satellite platform with the principle payload and provide essential parameters for principle payload image atmospheric correction. PSAC detect water vapor content via measuring atmosphere reflectance at water vapor absorbing channels (i.e. 0.91 μm) and nearby atmospheric window channel (i.e. 0.865μm). A near-IR channel ratio method was implemented to retrieve column water vapor (CWV) amount from PSAC measurements. Field experiments were performed at Yantai, in Shandong province of China, PSAC aircraft observations were acquired. The comparison between PSAC retrievals and ground-based Sun-sky radiometer measurements of CWV during the experimental flights illustrates that this method retrieves CWV with relative deviations ranging from 4% 13%. This method retrieve CWV more accurate over land than over ocean, as the water reflectance is low.

  2. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  3. [Study on essential oil separation from Forsythia suspensa oil-bearing water body based on vapor permeation membrane separation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Pan, Yong-Lan; Li, Bo; Fu, Ting-Ming; Yao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Pan, Lin-Mei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of vapor permeation membrane technology in separating essential oil from oil-water extract by taking the Forsythia suspensa as an example. The polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinylidene fluoride (PDMS/PVDF) composite flat membrane and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat membrane was collected as the membrane material respectively. Two kinds of membrane osmotic liquids were collected by self-made vapor permeation device. The yield of essential oil separated and enriched from two kinds of membrane materials was calculated, and the microscopic changes of membrane materials were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare and analyze the differences in chemical compositions of essential oil between traditional steam distillation, PVDF membrane enriched method and PDMS/PVDF membrane enriched method. The results showed that the yield of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane was significantly higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane, and the GC-MS spectrum showed that the content of main compositions was higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane; The GC-MS spectra showed that the components of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane were basically the same as those obtained by traditional steam distillation. The above results showed that vapor permeation membrane separation technology shall be feasible for the separation of Forsythia essential oil-bearing water body, and PVDF membrane was more suitable for separation and enrichment of Forsythia essential oil than PDMS/PVDF membrane. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Relationship between changes in the upper and lower tropospheric water vapor: A revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Sun, D. Z.; Zhang, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor response to enhanced greenhouse gas forcing is as important as the lower tropospheric water vapor response in determining climate sensitivity. Early studies using older versions of climate models have suggested that the upper- and lower-troposphere water vapor changes are more strongly coupled in the climate models than in the observations. Here we reexamine this issue using a state-of-the-art climate model—the NCAR community model CAM5. Specifically, we have calculated the correlations between interannual variations of specific humidity in all levels of the troposphere with that at the surface in CAM5 and in the observations (as represented by the updated ERA-Interim and NCEP reanalysis). It is found that the previously noted biases in how strongly upper tropospheric water vapor and lower troposphere water vapor are linked still exist in CAM5—the change in the tropical averaged upper tropospheric water vapor is more strongly correlated with the change in the surface. However, this bias disappears in the averaged correlation obtained by averaging the point-by-point correlations over the tropics. The spatial pattern of the point-by-point correlations reveals that the better agreement between the model and the observations is related to the opposite model biases in different regions: the correlation is weaker in the model in the western Pacific, but stronger in the central and eastern Pacific. Further analysis of precipitation fields suggests that the weaker (stronger) coupling between tropospheric water vapor and surface moisture over western (central-eastern) Pacific in model is related to weaker (stronger) simulated convective activities in these regions. More specifically, during El Nino, the model has excessive deep convection in the central Pacific, but too littler deep convection in western Pacific. Implications of the results are discussed in the context of climate change as well as in the context of how to improve the model

  5. Experimental study on vapor explosion induced by pressure pulse in coarse mixing of hot molten metal and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Tobita, Y.; Aritomi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuzaki, M.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was done to investigate characteristics of metal-water interaction, when a mount of hot liquid metal is injected into the water. The test section is a vertical shock tube of 60mm in inner diameter and 1200mm in length. A special injector which is designed to inject hot metal of controlled volume and flow rate is attached at the top of the tube. When the hot metal is injected in the water and comes down at a position of the test vessel, a trigger pressure pulse is generated at the bottom of the test tube. Local transient pressures along the tube are measured by piezo pressure transducers. The following items were investigated in the experiment; 1) The criteria to cause a vapor explosion, 2) Transient behaviors and propagation characteristics of pressure wave in the mixing region. 3) Effects of triggering pulse, injection temperature and mass of hot molten metal on the peak pressure. The probability of the vapor explosion jumped when the interface temperature at the molten metal-water direct contact is higher than the homogeneous nucleation temperature of water and the triggering pulse becomes larger than 0.9MPa. Two types of the pressure propagation modes are observed, one is the detonative mode with a sharp rise and other is usual pressure mode with a mild rise. (author)

  6. HIGH PRESSURE VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF PALM FATTY ACIDS DISTILLATES-CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio T. MACHADO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-Liquid equilibria of palm fatty acids distillates/carbon dioxide system has been investigated experimentally at temperatures of 333, 353, and 373 K and pressures of 20, 23, 26, and 29 MPa using the static method. Experimental data for the quasi-binary system palm fatty acids distillates/carbon dioxide has been correlated with Redlich-Kwong-Aspen equation of state. Modeling shows good agreement with experimental data. Selectivity obtained indicates that supercritical carbon dioxide is a reasonable solvent for separating saturated (palmitic acid and unsaturated (oleic+linoleic acids fatty acids from palm fatty acids distillates in a continuous multistage countercurrent column.Foi investigado experimentalmente o equilíbrio líquido-vapor para o sistema Destilado Ácido de Óleo de Palma (PFAD/Dióxido de Carbono, nas temperaturas de 333, 353 e 373 K e pressões de 20, 23, 26 e 29 MPa, usando-se o método estático. Os dados experimentais do sistema pseudo-binário PFAD/CO2 foram correlacionados com a equação de estado de Redlich-Kwong do pacote computacional ASPEN. O modelo reproduz bem os resultados experimentais. A seletividade obtida indica que o CO2 supercrítico é um solvente razoável para a separação em coluna multi-estágio e contínua, do ácido graxo saturado (ácido palmítico daqueles insaturados (ácido oleico e ácido linoleico contidos no PFAD.

  7. Calculational model for condensation of water vapor during an underground nuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    An empirally derived mathematical model was developed to calculate the pressure and temperature history during condensation of water vapor in an underground-nuclear-explosion cavity. The condensation process is non-isothermal. Use has been made of the Clapeyron-Clausius equation as a basis for development of the model. Analytic fits to the vapor pressure and the latent heat of vaporization for saturated-water vapor, together with an estimated value for the heat-transfer coefficient, have been used to describe the phenomena. The calculated pressure-history during condensation has been determined to be exponential, with a time constant somewhat less than that observed during the cooling of the superheated steam from the explosion. The behavior of the calculated condensation-pressure compares well with the observed-pressure record (until just prior to cavity collapse) for a particular nuclear-detonation event for which data is available

  8. The influence of water vapor and sulfur dioxide on the catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalamas, C.; Heinisch, R.; Barz, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Cournil, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)

    2001-03-01

    For the nitrous oxide decomposition three groups of catalysts such as metals on support, hydrotalcites, and perovskites were studied relating to their activity in the presence of vapor or sulfur dioxide, in the temperature range from 200 to 500 C. It was found that the water vapor strongly inhibates the nitrous oxide decomposition at T=200-400 C. The sulfur dioxide poisons the catalysts, in particular the perovskites. (orig.)

  9. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the application of biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and mitigate global climate change has received considerable attention. While positive effects of biochar on plant nutrition are well documented, little is known about potential impacts on the physical....... Hysteresis of the water vapor sorption isotherms increased with increasing BC application rates. Biochar age did not significantly affect vapor sorption and SSA....

  10. Upper limits for absorption by water vapor in the near-UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Eoin M.; Wenger, John C.; Venables, Dean S.

    2016-01-01

    There are few experimental measurements of absorption by water vapor in the near-UV. Here we report the results of spectral measurements of water vapor absorption at ambient temperature and pressure from 325 nm to 420 nm, covering most tropospherically relevant short wavelengths. Spectra were recorded using a broadband optical cavity in the chemically controlled environment of an atmospheric simulation chamber. No absorption attributable to the water monomer (or the dimer) was observed at the 0.5 nm resolution of our system. Our results are consistent with calculated spectra and recent DOAS field observations, but contradict a report of significant water absorption in the near-UV. Based on the detection limit of our instrument, we report upper limits for the water absorption cross section of less than 5×10 −26 cm 2 molecule −1 at our instrument resolution. For a typical, indicative slant column density of 4×10 23 cm 2 , we calculate a maximum optical depth of 0.02 arising from absorption of water vapor in the atmosphere at wavelengths between 340 nm and 420 nm, with slightly higher maximum optical depths below 340 nm. The results of this work, together with recent atmospheric observations and computational results, suggest that water vapor absorption across most of the near-UV is small compared to visible and infrared wavelengths. - Highlights: • The absorption cross section of water vapor was studied from 325 to 420 nm. • The upper limit was 5×10 −26 cm 2 molecule −1 above 340 nm at 0.5 nm resolution. • Our result contradicts a recent report of appreciable absorption by water vapor.

  11. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  12. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan

    2015-10-09

    Thin and robust composite membranes comprising stainless steel scaffold, fine and porous TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol/lithium chloride were fabricated and studied for air dehumidification application. Higher hydrophilicity, sorption and permeation were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor permeation process. It was specifically noted that lithium chloride significantly reduces water diffusion energy barrier, resulting in the change of permeation energy from positive to negative values. Higher water vapor permeance was observed for the membrane with higher LiCl content at lower temperature. The isothermal air dehumidification tests show that the membrane is suitable for dehumidifying air in high humid condition. Additionally, results also indicate a trade-off between the humidity ratio drop with the water vapor removal rate when varying air flowrate.

  13. SPADE H2O measurements and the seasonal cycle of statospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, Eric J.; Weinstock, Elliot M.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Anderson, James G.; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.

    1994-01-01

    We present measurements of lower statospheric water vapor obtained during the Stratospheric Phototchemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) mission with a new high precision, fast response, Lyman-alpha hygrometer. The H2O data show a distinct seasonal cycle. For air that recently entered the statosphere, data collected during the fall show much more water vapor than data from the spring. Fast quasi-horizontal mixing causes compact relationships between water and N2O to be established on relatively short time scales. The measurements are consistent with horizontal mixing times of a few months or less. Vertical mixing appears to cause the seasonal variations in water vapor to propagate up to levels corresponding to air that has been in the stratosphere approximately one year.

  14. NASA Experiment on Tropospheric-Stratospheric Water Vapor Transport in the Intertropical Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The following six papers report preliminary results obtained from a field experiment designed to study the role of tropical cumulo-nimbus clouds in the transfer of water vapor from the troposphere to the stratosphere over the region of Panama. The measurements were made utilizing special NOAA enhanced IR satellite images, radiosonde-ozonesondes and a NASA U-2 aircraft carrying. nine experiments. The experiments were provided by a group of NASA, NOAA, industry, and university scientists. Measurements included atmospheric humidity, air and cloud top temperatures, atmospheric tracer constituents, cloud particle characteristics and cloud morphology. The aircraft made a total of eleven flights from August 30 through September 18, 1980, from Howard Air Force Base, Panama; the pilots obtained horizontal and vertical profiles in and near convectively active regions and flew around and over cumulo-nimbus towers and through the extended anvils in the stratosphere. Cumulo-nimbus clouds in the tropics appear to play an important role in upward water vapor transport and may represent the principal source influencing the stratospheric water vapor budget. The clouds provide strong vertical circulation in the troposphere, mixing surface air and its trace materials (water vapor, CFM's sulfur compounds, etc.) quickly up to the tropopause. It is usually assumed that large scale mean motions or eddy scale motions transport the trace materials through the tropopause and into the stratosphere where they are further dispersed and react with other stratospheric constituents. The important step between the troposphere and stratosphere for water vapor appears to depend upon the processes occurring at or near the tropopause at the tops of the cumulo-nimbus towers. Several processes have been sugested: (1) The highest towers penetrate the tropopause and carry water in the form of small ice particles directly into the stratosphere. (2) Water vapor from the tops of the cumulonimbus clouds is

  15. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  16. Study of the effect of water vapor on a resistive plate chamber with glass electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, H H; Teramoto, Y; Nakano, E E; Takahashi, T T

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of water vapor on the efficiencies of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With moisture in the chamber gas that has freon as a component (water vapor approx 1000 ppm), a decrease in the efficiency (approx 20%) has been observed after operating for a period of several weeks to a few months. From our study, the cause of the efficiency decrease was identified as a change on the cathode surface. In addition, a recovery method was found: flushing for 1 day with argon bubbled through water containing >=3% ammonia, followed by a few weeks of training with dry gas.

  17. Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Coherent Lidar at 2050.532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.; Dharamsi, Amin; Davis, Richard E.; Petros, Mulugeta; McCarthy, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind and water vapor are two major factors driving the Earth's atmospheric circulation, and direct measurement of these factors is needed for better understanding of basic atmospheric science, weather forecasting, and climate studies. Coherent lidar has proved to be a valuable tool for Doppler profiling of wind fields, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has shown its effectiveness in profiling water vapor. These two lidar techniques are generally considered distinctly different, but this paper explores an experimental combination of the Doppler and DIAL techniques for measuring both wind and water vapor with an eye-safe wavelength based on a solid-state laser material. Researchers have analyzed and demonstrated coherent DIAL water vapor measurements at 10 micrometers wavelength based on CO2 lasers. The hope of the research presented here is that the 2 gm wavelength in a holmium or thulium-based laser may offer smaller packaging and more rugged operation that the CO2-based approach. Researchers have extensively modeled 2 um coherent lasers for water vapor profiling, but no published demonstration is known. Studies have also been made, and results published on the Doppler portion, of a Nd:YAG-based coherent DIAL operating at 1.12 micrometers. Eye-safety of the 1.12 micrometer wavelength may be a concern, whereas the longer 2 micrometer and 10 micrometer systems allow a high level of eyesafety.

  18. Water vapor spectroscopy in the 815-nm wavelength region for Differential Absorption Lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique was first applied to the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles from airborne platforms in 1981. The successful interpretation of the lidar profiles relies strongly on an accurate knowledge of specific water vapor absorption line parameters: line strength, pressure broadening coefficient, pressure-induced shift coefficient and the respective temperature-dependence factors. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and is currently testing an autonomous airborne water vapor lidar system: LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment). This DIAL system uses a Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser seeded by a diode laser as a lidar transmitter. The tunable diode has been selected to operate in the 813-818 nm wavelength region. This 5-nm spectral interval offers a large distribution of strengths for temperature-insensitive water vapor absorption lines. In support of the LASE project, a series of spectroscopic measurements were conducted for the 16 absorption lines that have been identified for use in the LASE measurements. Prior to this work, the experimental data for this water vapor absorption band were limited - to our knowledge - to the line strengths and to the line positions.

  19. Ground-based observations of Mars and Venus water vapor during 1972 and 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, E.S.

    1974-01-01

    The Venus water vapor line at 8197.71 A has been monitored at several positions on the disk of Venus and at phase angles between 22 0 and 91 0 . Variations in the abundance have been found with both position and time. The total two-way transmission has varied from less than 5 to 77 μ of water vapor. Comparisons are made between water vapor abundance, presence of UV features and the CO 2 abundance determined from near simultaneous observations of CO 2 bands at the same position on the disk of Venus. The amount of Martian atmospheric water vapor has been monitored during the past two years at McDonald Observatory using the echelle coude scanner of the 272cm reflector. Two periods of the Martain year have been monitored. The first period was during and after the great 1971 dust storm (Lsub(s)=290 0 to 20 0 or summer in the southern hemisphere). The results obtained are compared to the Mariner 9 IRIS and Mars 3 observations made during the same period. During the second period (Lsub(s)=124 0 to 266 0 ) observations were made to follow the seasonal latitudinal and diurnal changes in the water abundance in the Martian atmosphere. Studies of the latitudinal and diurnal vapor distributions indicate the location of maximum and minimum abundances for this season are positively correlated with surface temperature variations. (Auth.)

  20. Diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of dilute Bi:Ga, Tl:Ga, and Pb:Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxu; Jiang Xu; Rice, Stuart A.; Lin Binhua; Meron, Mati

    2005-01-01

    As part of a study of the in-plane wave-vector (q xy ) dependence of the effective Hamiltonian for the liquid-vapor interface, H(q), the wave-vector dependences of diffuse x-ray scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of dilute alloys of Bi in Ga, Tl in Ga, and Pb in Ga have been measured. In these dilute alloys the solute component segregates as a monolayer that forms the outermost stratum of the liquid-vapor interfaces, and the density distribution along the normal to the interface is stratified. Over the temperature ranges that the alloy interfaces were studied, the Tl and Pb monolayers exhibit both crystalline and liquid phases while the Bi monolayer is always liquid. The diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of these alloys displays interesting differences with that from the liquid-vapor interface of pure Ga. The presence of a segregated monolayer of solute in the liquid-vapor interface of the alloy appears to slightly suppress the fluctuations in an intermediate wave-vector range in a fashion that preserves the validity of the macroscopic capillary wave model to smaller wavelengths than in pure liquid Ga, and there is an increase in diffuse scattering when the Tl and Pb monolayers melt. The surface intrinsic roughness from fitting the wave-vector dependence of surface tension is 5.0 pm for the Tl:Ga alloy and 1.4 pm for the Bi:Ga alloy. Also, a mode of excitation that contributes to diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interface of Pb in Ga, but does not contribute to diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interface of Ga, has been identified. It is proposed that this mode corresponds to the separation of the Pb and Ga layers in the regime 1 nm -1 ≤q xy ≤10 nm -1

  1. Fiber optic humidity sensor using water vapor condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limodehi, Hamid E; Légaré, François

    2017-06-26

    The rate of vapor condensation on a solid surface depends on the ambient relative humidity (RH). Also, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on a metal layer is sensitive to the refractive index change of its adjacent dielectric. The SPR effect appears as soon as a small amount of moisture forms on the sensor, resulting in a decrease in the amount of light transmitted due to plasmonic loss. Using this concept, we developed a fiber optic humidity sensor based on SPR. It can measure the ambient RH over a dynamic range from 10% to 85% with an accuracy of 3%.

  2. Dissolution kinetics of volatile organic compound vapors in water : An integrated experimental and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.; Pérez Guerrero, Jesús S.; Raoof, Amir; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; van Genuchten, Martinus Th

    In this study we performed batch experiments to investigate the dissolution kinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene vapors in water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The batch systems consisted of a water reservoir and a connected headspace, the latter containing a small glass

  3. The effect of global-scale divergent circulation on the atmospheric water vapor transport and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang

    1988-01-01

    The detection, distribution, and dynamics of atmospheric water on Earth was examined. How the high levels of water vapor and precipitation that occur over the tropics during the monsoon season result from the development of a strong divergent atmospheric circulation is discussed.

  4. Kinetics of proton migration in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanning; Voth, Gregory A; Agmon, Noam

    2010-01-14

    We have utilized multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB3) simulations of protonated liquid water to calculate the relative mean-square displacement (MSD) and the history-independent time correlation function, c(t), of the hydrated proton center of excess charge (CEC) with respect to the water molecule on which it has initially resided. The MSD is nonlinear for the first 15 ps, suggesting that the relative diffusion coefficient increases from a small value, D(0), at short separations to its larger bulk value, D(infinity), at large separations. With the ensuing distance-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(r), the time dependence of both the MSD and c(t) agrees quantitatively with the solution of a diffusion equation for reversible geminate recombination. This suggests that the relative motion of the CEC is not independent from the nearby water molecules, in agreement with theoretical and experimental observations that large water clusters participate in the mechanism of proton mobility.

  5. Thermodynamic models for vapor-liquid equilibria of nitrogen + oxygen + carbon dioxide at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Jadran; Kedia, Gaurav Kumar; Buchhauser, Ulrich; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland; Hasse, Hans

    2009-02-01

    For the design and optimization of CO 2 recovery from alcoholic fermentation processes by distillation, models for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are needed. Two such thermodynamic models, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and a model based on Henry's law constants, are proposed for the ternary mixture N 2 + O 2 + CO 2. Pure substance parameters of the Peng-Robinson EOS are taken from the literature, whereas the binary parameters of the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule are adjusted to experimental binary VLE data. The Peng-Robinson EOS describes both binary and ternary experimental data well, except at high pressures approaching the critical region. A molecular model is validated by simulation using binary and ternary experimental VLE data. On the basis of this model, the Henry's law constants of N 2 and O 2 in CO 2 are predicted by molecular simulation. An easy-to-use thermodynamic model, based on those Henry's law constants, is developed to reliably describe the VLE in the CO 2-rich region.

  6. An Improved Computational Method for the Calculation of Mixture Liquid-Vapor Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Jia, Wenlong; Li, Changjun

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of critical points is important to determine the phase behavior of a mixture. This work proposes a reliable and accurate method in order to locate the liquid-vapor critical point of a given mixture. The theoretical model is developed from the rigorous definition of critical points, based on the SRK equation of state (SRK EoS) or alternatively, on the PR EoS. In order to solve the resulting system of nonlinear equations, an improved method is introduced into an existing Newton-Raphson algorithm, which can calculate all the variables simultaneously in each iteration step. The improvements mainly focus on the derivatives of the Jacobian matrix, on the convergence criteria, and on the damping coefficient. As a result, all equations and related conditions required for the computation of the scheme are illustrated in this paper. Finally, experimental data for the critical points of 44 mixtures are adopted in order to validate the method. For the SRK EoS, average absolute errors of the predicted critical-pressure and critical-temperature values are 123.82 kPa and 3.11 K, respectively, whereas the commercial software package Calsep PVTSIM's prediction errors are 131.02 kPa and 3.24 K. For the PR EoS, the two above mentioned average absolute errors are 129.32 kPa and 2.45 K, while the PVTSIM's errors are 137.24 kPa and 2.55 K, respectively.

  7. Nucleation and growth of microdroplets of ionic liquids deposited by physical vapor method onto different surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José C. S.; Coelho, Ana F. S. M. G.; Mendes, Adélio; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.

    2018-01-01

    Nanoscience and technology has generated an important area of research in the field of properties and functionality of ionic liquids (ILs) based materials and their thin films. This work explores the deposition process of ILs droplets as precursors for the fabrication of thin films, by means of physical vapor deposition (PVD). It was found that the deposition (by PVD on glass, indium tin oxide, graphene/nickel and gold-coated quartz crystal surfaces) of imidazolium [C4mim][NTf2] and pyrrolidinium [C4C1Pyrr][NTf2] based ILs generates micro/nanodroplets with a shape, size distribution and surface coverage that could be controlled by the evaporation flow rate and deposition time. No indication of the formation of a wetting-layer prior to the island growth was found. Based on the time-dependent morphological analysis of the micro/nanodroplets, a simple model for the description of the nucleation process and growth of ILs droplets is presented. The proposed model is based on three main steps: minimum free area to promote nucleation; first order coalescence; second order coalescence.

  8. Attenuation of concentration fluctuations of water vapor and other trace gases in turbulent tube flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Massman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies with closed-path eddy covariance (EC systems have indicated that the attenuation of fluctuations of water vapor concentration is dependent upon ambient relative humidity, presumably due to sorption/desorption of water molecules at the interior surface of the tube. Previous studies of EC-related tube attenuation effects have either not considered this issue at all or have only examined it superficially. Nonetheless, the attenuation of water vapor fluctuations is clearly much greater than might be expected from a passive tracer in turbulent tube flow. This study reexamines the turbulent tube flow issue for both passive and sorbing tracers with the intent of developing a physically-based semi-empirical model that describes the attenuation associated with water vapor fluctuations. Toward this end, we develop a new model of tube flow dynamics (radial profiles of the turbulent diffusivity and tube airstream velocity. We compare our new passive-tracer formulation with previous formulations in a systematic and unified way in order to assess how sensitive the passive-tracer results depend on fundamental modeling assumptions. We extend the passive tracer model to the vapor sorption/desorption case by formulating the model's wall boundary condition in terms of a physically-based semi-empirical model of the sorption/desorption vapor fluxes. Finally we synthesize all modeling and observational results into a single analytical expression that captures the effects of the mean ambient humidity and tube flow (Reynolds number on tube attenuation.

  9. Generalized correlation of latent heats of vaporization of coal liquid model compounds between their freezing points and critical points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, A.; Kobuyashi, R.; Mayee, J.W.

    1984-02-01

    Based on Pitzer's three-parameter corresponding states principle, the authors have developed a correlation of the latent heat of vaporization of aromatic coal liquid model compounds for a temperature range from the freezing point to the critical point. An expansion of the form L = L/sub 0/ + ..omega..L /sub 1/ is used for the dimensionless latent heat of vaporization. This model utilizes a nonanalytic functional form based on results derived from renormalization group theory of fluids in the vicinity of the critical point. A simple expression for the latent heat of vaporization L = D/sub 1/epsilon /SUP 0.3333/ + D/sub 2/epsilon /SUP 0.8333/ + D/sub 4/epsilon /SUP 1.2083/ + E/sub 1/epsilon + E/sub 2/epsilon/sup 2/ + E/sub 3/epsilon/sup 3/ is cast in a corresponding states principle correlation for coal liquid compounds. Benzene, the basic constituent of the functional groups of the multi-ring coal liquid compounds, is used as the reference compound in the present correlation. This model works very well at both low and high reduced temperatures approaching the critical point (0.02 < epsilon = (T /SUB c/ - T)/(T /SUB c/- 0.69)). About 16 compounds, including single, two, and three-ring compounds, have been tested and the percent root-mean-square deviations in latent heat of vaporization reported and estimated through the model are 0.42 to 5.27%. Tables of the coefficients of L/sub 0/ and L/sub 1/ are presented. The contributing terms of the latent heat of vaporization function are also presented in a table for small increments of epsilon.

  10. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Janet; Starr, Francis W.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T "phase diagram" for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related

  11. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Starr, Francis W.

    2014-01-01

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related

  12. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related

  13. Site of water vapor absorption in the desert cockroach, Arenivaga investigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, M J

    1977-01-01

    The desert cockroach, Arenivaga investigata, can gain weight by absorption of water-vapor from unsaturated atmospheres above 82.5% relative humidity. Blocking the anus or the dorsal surface with wax does not prevent water vapor uptake, but interference with movements of the mouthparts or blocking the mouth with wax-prevents such uptake. Weight gains are associated with the protrusion from the mouth of two bladder-like extensions of the hypopharynx. During absorption these structures are warmer than the surrounding mouthparts, their surface temperature increasing with relative humidity. This suggests that the surfaces of the bladder-like structures function at least as sites for condensation of water vapor, but the precise location of its transfer into the hemolymph has not yet been identified. Images PMID:266217

  14. Pebax®1657/Graphene oxide composite membranes for improved water vapor separation

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2016-11-02

    In this study composite mixed matrix membranes containing hydrophilic microphase-separated block copolymer (Pebax® 1657) and graphene oxide nanosheets were prepared using a dip coating method. Water vapor and N2 gas permeation were measured as a function of different parameters: (i) layer thickness, (ii) content of graphene oxide (GO), and (iii) content of reduced GO. Surprisingly, a concentration of only 2 wt% of GO nanosheets well dispersed in the Pebax layer boosted the selectivity 8 times by decreasing the water vapor permeance by only 12% whereas N2 gas permeance decreased by 70%. Using reduced GO instead, the water vapor permeance declined by up to 16% with no influence on the N2 gas permeance. We correlated the permeation properties of the mixed matrix membranes with different models and found, that both the modified Nielsen model and the Cussler model give good correlation with experimental findings.

  15. Pebax®1657/Graphene oxide composite membranes for improved water vapor separation

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Kumar, Mahendra; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    In this study composite mixed matrix membranes containing hydrophilic microphase-separated block copolymer (Pebax® 1657) and graphene oxide nanosheets were prepared using a dip coating method. Water vapor and N2 gas permeation were measured as a function of different parameters: (i) layer thickness, (ii) content of graphene oxide (GO), and (iii) content of reduced GO. Surprisingly, a concentration of only 2 wt% of GO nanosheets well dispersed in the Pebax layer boosted the selectivity 8 times by decreasing the water vapor permeance by only 12% whereas N2 gas permeance decreased by 70%. Using reduced GO instead, the water vapor permeance declined by up to 16% with no influence on the N2 gas permeance. We correlated the permeation properties of the mixed matrix membranes with different models and found, that both the modified Nielsen model and the Cussler model give good correlation with experimental findings.

  16. An Accurate Method for Computing the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The method is based upon molecular line parameters and makes use of a far wing scaling approximation and k distribution approach previously applied to the computation of the infrared cooling rate due to water vapor. Taking into account the wave number dependence of the incident solar flux, the solar heating rate is computed for the entire water vapor spectrum and for individual absorption bands. The accuracy of the method is tested against line by line calculations. The method introduces a maximum error of 0.06 C/day. The method has the additional advantage over previous methods in that it can be applied to any portion of the spectral region containing the water vapor bands. The integrated absorptances and line intensities computed from the molecular line parameters were compared with laboratory measurements. The comparison reveals that, among the three different sources, absorptance is the largest for the laboratory measurements.

  17. Bioventing - a new twist on soil vapor remediation of the vadose zone and shallow ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancheski, T.B.; McFarland, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing, which is a combination of soil vapor remediation and bioremediation techniques, may be an innovative, cost-effective, and efficient remedial technology for addressing petroleum contamination in the vadose zone and shallow ground water. The objective of bioventing is to mobilize petroleum compounds from the soil and ground water into soil vapor using soil vapor extraction and injection technology, and to promote the migration of the soil vapor upward to the turf root zone for degradation by active near-surface microbiological activity. Promoting and maintaining optimum microbiological activity in the turf root rhizosphere is a key component to the bioventing technique. Preliminary ongoing USEPA bioventing pilot studies (Kampbell, 1991) have indicated that this technique is a promising remediation technology, although feasibility studies are not yet complete. However, based on the preliminary data, it appears that proper bioventing design and implementation will result in substantial reductions of petroleum compounds in the capillary zone and shallow ground water, complete degradation of petroleum compounds in the turf root zone, and no surface emissions. A bioventing system was installed at a site in southern Delaware with multiple leaking underground storage tanks in early 1992 to remediate vadose zone and shallow ground-water contaminated by petroleum compounds. The system consists of a series of soil vapor extraction and soil vapor/atmospheric air injection points placed in various contamination areas and a central core remediation area (a large grassy plot). This system was chosen for this site because it was least costly to implement and operate as compared to other remedial alternatives (soil vapor extraction with carbon or catalytic oxidation of off-gas treatment, insitu bioremediation, etc.), and results in the generation of no additional wastes

  18. Partitioning the effects of Global Warming on the Hydrological Cycle with Stable Isotopes in Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, S. G.; Russell, J. M.; Nusbaumer, J. M.; Konecky, B. L.; Buenning, N. H.; Lee, J. E.; Noone, D.

    2016-12-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) suggest that much of the global hydrological cycle's response to anthropogenic warming will be caused by increased lower-tropospheric water vapor concentrations and associated feedbacks. However, fingerprinting changes in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic warming remains challenging. Held and Soden (2006) predicted that as lower-tropospheric water vapor increases, atmospheric circulation will weaken as climate warms to maintain the surface energy budget. Unfortunately, the strength of this feedback and the fallout for other branches of the hydrological cycle is difficult to constrain in situ or with GCMs alone. We demonstrate the utility of stable hydrogen isotope ratios in atmospheric water vapor to quantitatively trace changes in atmospheric circulation and convective mass flux in a warming world. We compare water isotope-enabled GCM experiments for control (present-day) CO2 vs. high CO2(2x, 4x) atmospheres in two GCMs, IsoGSM and iCAM5. We evaluate changes in the distribution of water vapor, vertical velocity (omega), and the stream function between these experiments in order to identify spatial patterns of circulation change over the tropical Pacific (where vertical motion is strong) and map the δD of water vapor associated with atmospheric warming. We also probe the simulations to isolate isotopic signatures associated with water vapor residence time, precipitation efficiency, divergence, and cloud physics. We show that there are robust mechanisms that moisten the troposphere and weaken convective mass flux, and that these mechanisms can be tracked using the δD of water vapor. Further, we find that these responses are most pronounced in the upper troposphere. These findings provide a framework to develop new metrics for the detection of global warming impacts to the hydrological cycle. Further, currently available satellite missions measure δD in the atmospheric boundary layer, the free atmosphere, or the

  19. DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR FRENCH PLASTIC SEMEN STRAW SUSPENDED IN STATIC NITROGEN VAPOR OVER LIQUID NITROGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, M V; Sansinena, M; Chirife, J; Zaritzky, N

    2015-01-01

    The use of mathematical models describing heat transfer during the freezing process is useful for the improvement of cryopreservation protocols. A widespread practice for cryopreservation of spermatozoa of domestic animal species consists of suspending plastic straws in nitrogen vapor before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Knowledge of surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is mandatory for computational modelling; however, h values for nitrogen vapor are not available. In the present study, surface heat transfer coefficients for plastic French straws immersed in nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen was determined; vertical and horizontal positions were considered. Heat transfer coefficients were determined from the measurement of time-temperature curves and from numerical solution of heat transfer partial differential equation under transient conditions using finite elements. The h values experimentally obtained for horizontal and vertically placed straws were compared to those calculated using correlations based on the Nusselt number for natural convection. For horizontal straws the average obtained value was h=12.5 ± 1.2 W m(2) K and in the case of vertical straws h=16 ± 2.48 W m(2) K. The numerical simulation validated against experimental measurements, combined with accurate h values provides a reliable tool for the prediction of freezing curves of semen-filled straws immersed in nitrogen vapor. The present study contributes to the understanding of the cryopreservation techniques for sperm freezing based on engineering concepts, improving the cooling protocols and the manipulation of the straws.

  20. Relation between heat of vaporization, ion transport, molar volume, and cation-anion binding energy for ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Oleg

    2009-09-10

    A number of correlations between heat of vaporization (H(vap)), cation-anion binding energy (E(+/-)), molar volume (V(m)), self-diffusion coefficient (D), and ionic conductivity for 29 ionic liquids have been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that employed accurate and validated many-body polarizable force fields. A significant correlation between D and H(vap) has been found, while the best correlation was found for -log(DV(m)) vs H(vap) + 0.28E(+/-). A combination of enthalpy of vaporization and a fraction of the cation-anion binding energy was suggested as a measure of the effective cohesive energy for ionic liquids. A deviation of some ILs from the reported master curve is explained based upon ion packing and proposed diffusion pathways. No general correlations were found between the ion diffusion coefficient and molecular volume or the diffusion coefficient and cation/anion binding energy.

  1. Review of the methods to form hydrogen peroxide in electrical discharge plasma with liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Bruce R.; Shih, Kai-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature dealing with the formation of hydrogen peroxide from plasma processes. Energy yields for hydrogen peroxide generation by plasma from water span approximately three orders of magnitude from 4 × 10-2 to 80 g kWh-1. A wide range of plasma processes from rf to pulsed, ac, and dc discharges directly in the liquid phase have similar energy yields and may thus be limited by radical quenching processes at the plasma-liquid interface. Reactor modification using discharges in bubbles and discharges over the liquid phase can provide modest improvements in energy yield over direct discharge in the liquid, but the interpretation is complicated by additional chemical reactions of gas phase components such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. The highest efficiency plasma process utilizes liquid water droplets that may enhance efficiency by sequestering hydrogen peroxide in the liquid and by suppressing decomposition reactions by radicals from the gas and at the interface. Kinetic simulations of water vapor reported in the literature suggest that plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide should approach 45% of the thermodynamics limit, and this fact coupled with experimental studies demonstrating improvements with the presence of the condensed liquid phase suggest that further improvements in energy yield may be possible. Plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide directly from water compares favorably with a number of other methods including electron beam, ultrasound, electrochemical and photochemical methods, and other chemical processes.

  2. Review of the methods to form hydrogen peroxide in electrical discharge plasma with liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, Bruce R; Shih, Kai-Yuan [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This paper presents a review of the literature dealing with the formation of hydrogen peroxide from plasma processes. Energy yields for hydrogen peroxide generation by plasma from water span approximately three orders of magnitude from 4 x 10{sup -2} to 80 g kWh{sup -1}. A wide range of plasma processes from rf to pulsed, ac, and dc discharges directly in the liquid phase have similar energy yields and may thus be limited by radical quenching processes at the plasma-liquid interface. Reactor modification using discharges in bubbles and discharges over the liquid phase can provide modest improvements in energy yield over direct discharge in the liquid, but the interpretation is complicated by additional chemical reactions of gas phase components such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. The highest efficiency plasma process utilizes liquid water droplets that may enhance efficiency by sequestering hydrogen peroxide in the liquid and by suppressing decomposition reactions by radicals from the gas and at the interface. Kinetic simulations of water vapor reported in the literature suggest that plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide should approach 45% of the thermodynamics limit, and this fact coupled with experimental studies demonstrating improvements with the presence of the condensed liquid phase suggest that further improvements in energy yield may be possible. Plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide directly from water compares favorably with a number of other methods including electron beam, ultrasound, electrochemical and photochemical methods, and other chemical processes.

  3. Rapid and fully automated Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Eminent environmental challenges such as remediation of contaminated sites, the establishment and maintenance of nuclear waste repositories, or the design of surface landfill covers all require accurate quantification of the soil water characteristic at low water contents. Furthermore, several...

  4. Nonlinear response of tropical lower-stratospheric temperature and water vapor to ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Garfinkel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry–Climate Model are analyzed in order to aid in the interpretation of observed interannual and sub-decadal variability in the tropical lower stratosphere over the past 35 years. The impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on temperature and water vapor in this region is nonlinear in boreal spring. While moderate El Niño events lead to cooling in this region, strong El Niño events lead to warming, even as the response of the large-scale Brewer–Dobson circulation appears to scale nearly linearly with El Niño. This nonlinearity is shown to arise from the response in the Indo-West Pacific to El Niño: strong El Niño events lead to tropospheric warming extending into the tropical tropopause layer and up to the cold point in this region, where it allows for more water vapor to enter the stratosphere. The net effect is that both strong La Niña and strong El Niño events lead to enhanced entry water vapor and stratospheric moistening in boreal spring and early summer. These results lead to the following interpretation of the contribution of sea surface temperatures to the decline in water vapor in the early 2000s: the very strong El Niño event in 1997/1998, followed by more than 2 consecutive years of La Niña, led to enhanced lower-stratospheric water vapor. As this period ended in early 2001, entry water vapor concentrations declined. This effect accounts for approximately one-quarter of the observed drop.

  5. Nonlinear response of tropical lower-stratospheric temperature and water vapor to ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Gordon, Amit; Oman, Luke D.; Li, Feng; Davis, Sean; Pawson, Steven

    2018-04-01

    A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model are analyzed in order to aid in the interpretation of observed interannual and sub-decadal variability in the tropical lower stratosphere over the past 35 years. The impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on temperature and water vapor in this region is nonlinear in boreal spring. While moderate El Niño events lead to cooling in this region, strong El Niño events lead to warming, even as the response of the large-scale Brewer-Dobson circulation appears to scale nearly linearly with El Niño. This nonlinearity is shown to arise from the response in the Indo-West Pacific to El Niño: strong El Niño events lead to tropospheric warming extending into the tropical tropopause layer and up to the cold point in this region, where it allows for more water vapor to enter the stratosphere. The net effect is that both strong La Niña and strong El Niño events lead to enhanced entry water vapor and stratospheric moistening in boreal spring and early summer. These results lead to the following interpretation of the contribution of sea surface temperatures to the decline in water vapor in the early 2000s: the very strong El Niño event in 1997/1998, followed by more than 2 consecutive years of La Niña, led to enhanced lower-stratospheric water vapor. As this period ended in early 2001, entry water vapor concentrations declined. This effect accounts for approximately one-quarter of the observed drop.

  6. Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lainer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The important task to observe the global coverage of middle atmospheric trace gases like water vapor or ozone usually is accomplished by satellites. Climate and atmospheric studies rely upon the knowledge of trace gas distributions throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere. Many of these gases are currently measured from satellites, but it is not clear whether this capability will be maintained in the future. This could lead to a significant knowledge gap of the state of the atmosphere. We explore the possibilities of mapping middle atmospheric water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere by using Lagrangian trajectory calculations and water vapor profile data from a small network of five ground-based microwave radiometers. Four of them are operated within the frame of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Keeping in mind that the instruments are based on different hardware and calibration setups, a height-dependent bias of the retrieved water vapor profiles has to be expected among the microwave radiometers. In order to correct and harmonize the different data sets, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on the Aura satellite is used to serve as a kind of traveling standard. A domain-averaging TM (trajectory mapping method is applied which simplifies the subsequent validation of the quality of the trajectory-mapped water vapor distribution towards direct satellite observations. Trajectories are calculated forwards and backwards in time for up to 10 days using 6 hourly meteorological wind analysis fields. Overall, a total of four case studies of trajectory mapping in different meteorological regimes are discussed. One of the case studies takes place during a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW accompanied by the polar vortex breakdown; a second takes place after the reformation of stable circulation system. TM cases close to the fall equinox and June solstice event from the year 2012 complete the study, showing the high

  7. Airborne Observations of Water Vapor Deuterium Excess in the Mid-Latitude Lower Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, O. E.; Welp, L.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Water vapor is responsible for over half of the natural atmospheric greenhouse effect. As global temperatures increase due to fossil fuel combustion, atmospheric water vapor concentrations are also expected to increase in positive feedback. Additionally, studies have shown that urban areas can influence humidity levels, and the frequency and intensity of precipitation events. It is thus important to understand anthropogenic modification of the hydrological cycle, particularly around urban areas, where over half of the world's population resides. Airborne measurements of water vapor isotopologues containing 2H and 18O were conducted to better understand processes influencing atmospheric moisture levels around urban areas. Airborne measurements were conducted around the Indianapolis and Washington, D.C.-Baltimore areas during afternoon hours in February and March 2016, using a Los Gatos Research Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer installed in Purdue University's experimental aircraft, the Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research. The measurements of 2H and 18O allow for the calculation of deuterium excess (= δ2H - 8*δ18O), which provides information about non-equilibrium processes, such as kinetic effects, air parcel mixing, and transpiration. There are few studies that have reported observations of deuterium excess above the surface level ( 100 m). During the measurement campaign, vertical profiles were frequently conducted from 300 m above the ground to an altitude of approximately 1.5 km, effectively characterizing water vapor isotope profiles spanning the boundary layer and lower free troposphere. Measurements probed the transition from planetary boundary layer air to free troposphere air to provide high resolution deuterium excess information across this interface. Processes such as Rayleigh distillation, atmospheric mixing, and surface fluxes potentially impacting water vapor deuterium excess through the boundary layer and free troposphere with be discussed.

  8. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; hide

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  9. Assessing the Temperature Dependence of Narrow-Band Raman Water Vapor Lidar Measurements: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Walker, Monique; Cardirola, Martin; Sakai, Tetsu; Veselovskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band detection of the Raman water vapor spectrum using the lidar technique introduces a concern over the temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum. Various groups have addressed this issue either by trying to minimize the temperature dependence to the point where it can be ignored or by correcting for whatever degree of temperature dependence exists. The traditional technique for performing either of these entails accurately measuring both the laser output wavelength and the water vapor spectral passband with combined uncertainty of approximately 0.01 nm. However, uncertainty in interference filter center wavelengths and laser output wavelengths can be this large or larger. These combined uncertainties translate into uncertainties in the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement of 3% or more. We present here an alternate approach for accurately determining the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement. This alternate approach entails acquiring sequential atmospheric profiles using the lidar while scanning the channel passband across portions of the Raman water vapor Q-branch. This scanning is accomplished either by tilt-tuning an interference filter or by scanning the output of a spectrometer. Through this process a peak in the transmitted intensity can be discerned in a manner that defines the spectral location of the channel passband with respect to the laser output wavelength to much higher accuracy than that achieved with standard laboratory techniques. Given the peak of the water vapor signal intensity curve, determined using the techniques described here, and an approximate knowledge of atmospheric temperature, the temperature dependence of a given Raman lidar profile can be determined with accuracy of 0.5% or better. A Mathematica notebook that demonstrates the calculations used here is available from the lead author.

  10. Water in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (or RTILs, salts with a melting point below 25 °C) have become a subject of intense study over the last several decades. Currently, RTIL application research includes synthesis, batteries, solar cells, crystallization, drug delivery, and optics. RTILs are often composed of an inorganic anion paired with an asymmetric organic cation which contains one or more pendant alkyl chains. The asymmetry of the cation frustrates crystallization, causing the salt's melting point to drop significantly. In general, RTILs are very hygroscopic, and therefore, it is of interest to examine the influence of water on RTIL structure and dynamics. In addition, in contrast to normal aqueous salt solutions, which crystallize at low water concentration, in an RTIL it is possible to examine isolated water molecules interacting with ions but not with other water molecules. Here, optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) measurements of orientational relaxation on a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate RTILs as a function of chain length and water concentration are presented. The addition of water to the longer alkyl chain RTILs causes the emergence of a long time bi-exponential orientational anisotropy decay. Such decays have not been seen previously in OHD-OKE experiments on any type of liquid and are analyzed here using a wobbling-in-a-cone model. The orientational relaxation is not hydrodynamic, with the slowest relaxation component becoming slower as the viscosity decreases for the longest chain, highest water content samples. The dynamics of isolated D2O molecules in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) were examined using two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. Spectral diffusion and incoherent and coherent transfer of excitation between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes are examined. The coherent transfer experiments are used to address the nature of inhomogeneous

  11. Water vapor and gas transport through PEO PBT block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Introduction At the bore well natural gas is saturated with water. Downstream the presence of water may cause: formation of methane hydrates (blocking eventually the pipeline), condensation of water in the pipeline and corrosion effects. A process used for the dehydration of natural gas is glycol

  12. Autodissociation of a water molecule in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, Phillip L.; Dellago, Christoph; Chandler, David; Hutter, Jurg; Parrinello, Michele

    2000-04-01

    The dissociation of a water molecule in liquid water is the fundamental event in acid-base chemistry, determining the pH of water.Because the microscopic dynamics of this autodissociation are difficult to probe, both by experiment and by computer simulation, its mechanism has been unknown. Here we report several autodissociation trajectories generated by ab initio molecular dynamics [1]. These trajectories, which were harvested using transition path sampling [2-4], reveal the mechanism for the first time. Rare fluctuations in solvation energies destabilize an oxygen-hydrogen bond. Through the transfer of one or more protons along a hydrogen bond.

  13. Viscosities of cesium vapor to 1,620 K and of liquid gallium to 1,800 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippelskirch, H. v.

    1976-01-01

    The viscosity of cesium at 1,620 K and 40 bar has been determined to 41 x 10 -6 (Pa x s) by the oscillating cup method. The saturated vapor density at 1,580 K could be derived from the viscosity measurements. The viscosity of liquid gallium has been determined from 370 K to 1,800 K. The experimental results have been compared with calculations based on the Enskog hard-sphere transport theory for dense fluids. (orig.) [de

  14. Trial of Neem Oil (Azadirachta Indica) as Basic Compound of Electric Liquid Vaporizer Against Aedes Aegypti Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Diptyanusa, Ajib; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul; Hadianto, Tridjoko

    2017-01-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), commonly caused by Aedes aegypti mosquito bites, has been one of the worlds major concern for progressively increasing incidence. To prevent further increase in DHF incidence, an effective yet safe vector control method is needed. One of the most common method of vector control in Indonesia is using electric liquid vaporizer. Basic compounds which are less toxic to humans and less resistance-producing to mosquitoes are preferred, without neglecting its ability ...

  15. Effect of Water Vapor on High-Temperature Corrosion under Conditions Mimicking Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The variable flue gas composition in biomass-fired plants, among other parameters, contributes to the complexityof high-temperature corrosion of materials. Systematic parameter studies are thus necessary to understand the underlyingcorrosion mechanisms. This paper investigates the effect of water...... (H2O) vapor content in the flue gas on the high-temperaturecorrosion of austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG) under laboratory conditions, to improve the understanding of corrosionmechanisms. Deposit-coated and deposit-free samples were isothermally exposed for 72 h in a synthetic flue gas...... previouslyreported findings suggest that an increase in the water vapor content will cause competitive adsorption on active sites....

  16. Water vapor measurements at ALOMAR over a solar cycle compared with model calculations by LIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogh, P.; Sonnemann, G. R.; Grygalashvyly, M.; Song, Li; Berger, U.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave water vapor measurements between 40 and 80 km altitude over a solar cycle (1996-2006) were carried out in high latitudes at Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) (69.29°N, 16.03°E), Norway. Some smaller gaps and three interruptions of monitoring in the winters 1996/1997 and 2005/2006 and from spring 2001 to spring 2002 occurred during this period. The observations show a distinct year-to-year variability not directly related to solar Lyman-α radiation. In winter the water vapor mixing ratios in the upper domain were anticorrelated to the solar activity, whereas in summer, minima occurred in the years after the solar maximum in 2000/2001. In winter, sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) modulated the water vapor mixing ratios. Within the stratopause region a middle atmospheric water vapor maximum was observed, which results from the methane oxidation and is a regular feature there. The altitude of the maximum increased by approximately 5 km as summer approached. The largest mixing ratios were monitored in autumn. During the summer season a secondary water vapor maximum also occurred above 65 km most pronounced in late summer. The solar Lyman-α radiation impacts the water vapor mixing ratio particularly in winter above 65 km. In summer the correlation is positive below 70 km. The correlation is also positive in the lower mesosphere/stratopause region in winter due to the action of sudden stratospheric warmings, which occur more frequently under the condition of high solar activity and the enhancing the humidity. A strong day-to-day variability connected with planetary wave activity was found throughout the entire year. Model calculations by means of Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model (LIMA) reflect the essential patterns of the water vapor variation, but the results also show differences from the observations, indicating that exchange processes between the troposphere and stratosphere not modeled by LIMA could have

  17. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  18. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periolatto, M.; Sangermano, M.; Spena, P. Russo

    2016-05-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  19. The influence of water vapor on atmospheric exchange measurements with an ICOS* based Laser absorption analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Quan, Zhi; Wandel, Matthias; Yi, Zhigang; Bozem, Heiko; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl sulfide and carbon monoxide are both atmospheric trace gases of high interest. Recent advances in the field of spectroscopy have enabled instruments that measure the concentration of the above and other trace gases very fast and with good precision. Increasing the effective path length by reflecting the light between two mirrors in a cavity, these instruments reach impressive sensitivities. Often it is possible to measure the concentration of more than one trace gas at the same time. The OCS/CO2 Analyzer by LGR (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measures the concentration of water vapor [H2O], carbonyl sulfide [COS], carbon dioxide [CO2] and carbon monoxide [CO] simultaneously. For that the cavity is saturated with light, than the attenuation of light is measured as in standard absorption spectroscopy. The instrument proved to be very fast with good precision and to be able to detect even very low concentrations, especially for COS (as low as 30ppt in the case of COS). However, we observed a rather strong cross sensitivity to water vapor. Altering the water vapor content of the sampled air with two different methods led to a change in the perceived concentration of COS, CO and CO2. This proved especially problematic for enclosure (cuvette) measurements, where the concentrations of one of the above species in an empty cuvette are compared to the concentration of another cuvette containing a plant whose exchange of trace gases with the atmosphere is of interest. There, the plants transpiration leads to a large difference in water vapor content between the cuvettes and that in turn produces artifacts in the concentration differences between the cuvettes for the other above mentioned trace gases. For CO, simultaneous measurement with a UV-Emission Analyzer (AL 5002, Aerolaser) and the COS/CO Analyzer showed good agreement of perceived concentrations as long as the sample gas was dry and an increasing difference in perceived concentration when the sample gas was

  20. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, Bolzano (Italy); Sangermano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  1. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Water Vapor Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting and the AIRS 2015 NetMeeting. AIRS Version 6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version 6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version 5. Version 6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version 5, or even from Version 4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version 6.

  2. Simulation of stratospheric water vapor trends: impact on stratospheric ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A transient model simulation of the 40-year time period 1960 to 1999 with the coupled climate-chemistry model (CCM ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM shows a stratospheric water vapor increase over the last two decades of 0.7 ppmv and, additionally, a short-term increase after major volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, a long-term decrease in global total ozone as well as a short-term ozone decline in the tropics after volcanic eruptions are modeled. In order to understand the resulting effects of the water vapor changes on lower stratospheric ozone chemistry, different perturbation simulations were performed with the CCM ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM feeding the water vapor perturbations only to the chemistry part. Two different long-term perturbations of lower stratospheric water vapor, +1 ppmv and +5 ppmv, and a short-term perturbation of +2 ppmv with an e-folding time of two months were applied. An additional stratospheric water vapor amount of 1 ppmv results in a 5–10% OH increase in the tropical lower stratosphere between 100 and 30 hPa. As a direct consequence of the OH increase the ozone destruction by the HOx cycle becomes 6.4% more effective. Coupling processes between the HOx-family and the NOx/ClOx-family also affect the ozone destruction by other catalytic reaction cycles. The NOx cycle becomes 1.6% less effective, whereas the effectiveness of the ClOx cycle is again slightly enhanced. A long-term water vapor increase does not only affect gas-phase chemistry, but also heterogeneous ozone chemistry in polar regions. The model results indicate an enhanced heterogeneous ozone depletion during antarctic spring due to a longer PSC existence period. In contrast, PSC formation in the northern hemisphere polar vortex and therefore heterogeneous ozone depletion during arctic spring are not affected by the water vapor increase, because of the less PSC activity. Finally, this study shows that 10% of the global total ozone decline in the transient model run

  3. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo; Sangermano, M.

    2016-01-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  4. Ionic association and solvation of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in molecular solvents revealed by vapor pressure osmometry, conductometry, volumetry, and acoustic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Ebrahimi, Nosaibah

    2011-11-17

    A systematic study of osmotic coefficient, conductivity, volumetric and acoustic properties of solutions of ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(6)mim][Cl]) in various molecular solvents has been made at different temperatures in order to study of ionic association and solvation behavior of [C(6)mim][Cl] in different solutions. Precise measurements on electrical conductances of solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and acetonitrile at 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15 K are reported and analyzed with Barthel's low-concentration chemical model (lcCM) to obtain the limiting molar conductivities and association constants of this ionic liquid in the investigated solvents. Strong ion pairing was found for the ionic liquid in 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-propanol, whereas ion association in acetonitrile, methanol and ethanol is rather weak and in water the ionic liquid is fully dissociated. In the second part of this work, the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol are obtained at the 288.15-313.15 K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from the precise measurements of density and sound velocity. The infinite dilution apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values of the free ions and ion pairs of [C(6)mim][Cl] in the investigated solvents as well as the excess molar volume of the investigated solutions are determined and their variations with temperature and type of solvents are also studied. Finally, the experimental measurements of osmotic coefficient at 318.15 K for binary solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile are taken using the vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) method and from which the values of the solvent activity, vapor pressure, activity coefficients, and Gibbs free energies are calculated. The results are

  5. Liquid nitrogen vapor is comparable to liquid nitrogen for storage of cryopreserved human sperm: evidence from the characteristics of post-thaw human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingmei; Zhao, Shidou; Xu, Chengyan; Zhang, Lin; Lu, Shaoming; Cui, Linlin; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    To compare the differences in the characteristics of post-thaw human sperm after storage in either liquid nitrogen (LN2; -196 °C) or LN2 vapor (-167 °C). Experimental study. University hospital. Thirty healthy volunteers who agreed to donate their normal semen samples for infertility or research were included in the study. Semen samples (n = 30) were divided into eight aliquots and frozen. Four aliquots of each human semen sample were stored in LN2 (-196 °C), and the other four aliquots were stored in LN2 vapor (-167 °C). After 1, 3, 6, or 12 months, samples were thawed and analyzed. The motility was evaluated by the manual counting method. The viability was estimated by eosin staining. The morphology was analyzed by Diff-Quik staining. The sperm DNA integrity was determined with acridine orange fluorescent staining, and acrosin activity was assayed by the modified Kennedy method. The characteristics of post-thaw human sperm, including motility, viability, morphology, DNA integrity, and acrosin activity, showed no significant difference between LN2 and LN2 vapor storage for the different time periods. LN2 vapor was comparable to LN2 in post-thaw sperm characteristics, suggesting that LN2 vapor may be substituted for LN2 for the long-term storage of human sperm. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ionic liquids. Combination of combustion calorimetry with high-level quantum chemical calculations for deriving vaporization enthalpies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P; Heintz, Andreas; Schick, Christoph

    2008-07-10

    In this work, the molar enthalpies of formation of the ionic liquids [C2MIM][NO3] and [C4MIM][NO3] were measured by means of combustion calorimetry. The molar enthalpy of fusion of [C2MIM][NO3] was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. Ab initio calculations of the enthalpy of formation in the gaseous phase have been performed for the ionic species using the G3MP2 theory. We have used a combination of traditional combustion calorimetry with modern high-level ab initio calculations in order to obtain the molar enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the ionic liquids under study.

  7. Propelling a water drop with the vapor-mediated Marangoni effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungho; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We show that a water drop on solid surfaces can be propelled just by placing a volatile alcohol drop nearby. It is found to be because the water-air interface near the alcohol drop mixes with alcohol vapor, thereby locally lowering the surface tension. The surface-tension-gradient induces the motion of the water drop, enabling the trajectory control of water drops through the motion of remote alcohol drops. This vapor-mediated Marangoni effect also gives rise to other interesting interfacial flow phenomena, such as nucleation of holes on a water film and ballooning of a water drop hanging from a syringe needle with the approach of an alcohol drop. We visualize such interfacial dynamics with a high-speed camera and rationalize their salient features by scaling analysis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  8. X-ray diffuse scattering study of height fluctuations at the liquid-vapor interface of gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Binhua [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meron, Mati [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gebhardt, Jeff [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Graber, Tim [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Li Dongxu [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Yang Bin [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rice, Stuart A. [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)]. E-mail: s-rice@uchicago.edu

    2005-02-28

    We report an experimental study of wavelength dependent interfacial tension of liquid Ga using X-ray surface diffusion scattering. The observed surface tension can be explained by Mecke-Dietrich formalism derived from a microscopic density functional theory when the known stratified liquid-vapor interfacial density profile of Ga and a so-called individual local pseudo-potential for the pair-interaction potential of liquid metal are used. The quantitative behavior of the surface tension as a function of wavelength is very sensitive to the forms of both the interfacial density profile and the asymptotic part of the pair-potential, and is different from that observed from several dielectric liquids reported previously (Nature 403 (2000) 871; Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 216101)

  9. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E

    2013-03-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  10. Interfacial transport phenomena and stability in liquid-metal/water systems: scaling considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.; Cho, D.

    2001-01-01

    One concept being considered for steam generation in innovative nuclear reactor applications, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. The vigorous agitation of the two fluids, the direct liquid-liquid contact and the consequent large interfacial area give rise to very high heat transfer coefficients and rapid steam generation. For an optimum design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. In this paper we describe current results from the first year of this research that studies the transport phenomena involved with the injection of water into molten metals (e.g., lead alloys). In particular, this work discusses scaling considerations related to direct contact heat exchange, our experimental plans for investigation and a test plan for the important experimental parameters; i.e., the water and liquid metal mass flow rates, the liquid metal pool temperature and the ambient pressure of the direct contact heat exchanger. Past experimental work and initial scaling results suggest that our experiments can directly represent the proper liquid metal pool temperature and the water subcooling. The experimental variation in water and liquid metal flow rates and system pressure (1-10 bar), although smaller than the current conceptual system designs, is sufficient to verify the expected scale effects to demonstrate the phenomena. (authors)

  11. Process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas and catalyst assembly therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A bithermal, catalytic, hydrogen isotope exchange process between liquid water and hydrogen gas to effect concentration of the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is described. Liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted with one another and with at least one catalytically active metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table; the catalyst body has a water repellent, gas and water vapor permeable, organic polymer or resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone resin coating, so that the isotope exchange takes place by two simultaneously occurring, and closely coupled in space, steps and concentration is effected by operating two interconnected sections containing catalyst at different temperatures. (U.S.)

  12. An empirical equation for the enthalpy of vaporization of quantum liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz, Victor A.; Meyra, Ariel G.; Zarragoicoechea, Guillermo J.

    2004-01-01

    An empirical equation for the enthalpy of vaporization of quantum fluids is presented. Dimensionless analysis is used to define enthalpy of vaporization as a function of temperature with a standard deviation of about 1%. Experimental data represented in these variables show two different behaviours and exhibit different maximum values of the enthalpy of vaporization, one corresponding to fluids with a triple point and the other to fluids having a lambda point. None of the existing empirical equations are able to describe this fact. Also enthalpy of vaporization of helium-3, n-deuterium and n-tritium are estimated

  13. Retrieval of water vapor column abundance and aerosol properties from ChemCam passive sky spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnochie, Timothy H.; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Bender, Steve; Lemmon, Mark; Wiens, Roger C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jeremie; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Kemppinen, Osku; Martínez, Germán M.; DeFlores, Lauren; Blaney, Diana; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bell, James F.

    2018-06-01

    We derive water vapor column abundances and aerosol properties from Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ChemCam passive mode observations of scattered sky light. This paper covers the methodology and initial results for water vapor and also provides preliminary results for aerosols. The data set presented here includes the results of 113 observations spanning from Mars Year 31 Ls = 291° (March 30, 2013) to Mars Year 33 Ls= 127° (March 24, 2016). Each ChemCam passive sky observation acquires spectra at two different elevation angles. We fit these spectra with a discrete-ordinates multiple scattering radiative transfer model, using the correlated-k approximation for gas absorption bands. The retrieval proceeds by first fitting the continuum of the ratio of the two elevation angles to solve for aerosol properties, and then fitting the continuum-removed ratio to solve for gas abundances. The final step of the retrieval makes use of the observed CO2 absorptions and the known CO2 abundance to correct the retrieved water vapor abundance for the effects of the vertical distribution of scattering aerosols and to derive an aerosol scale height parameter. Our water vapor results give water vapor column abundance with a precision of ±0.6 precipitable microns and systematic errors no larger than ±0.3 precipitable microns, assuming uniform vertical mixing. The ChemCam-retrieved water abundances show, with only a few exceptions, the same seasonal behavior and the same timing of seasonal minima and maxima as the TES, CRISM, and REMS-H data sets that we compare them to. However ChemCam-retrieved water abundances are generally lower than zonal and regional scale from-orbit water vapor data, while at the same time being significantly larger than pre-dawn REMS-H abundances. Pending further analysis of REMS-H volume mixing ratio uncertainties, the differences between ChemCam and REMS-H pre-dawn mixing ratios appear to be much too large to be explained by large scale circulations and thus

  14. Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy C.; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2014-06-01

    Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in

  15. Water Vapor Tacers as Diagnostics of the Regional Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle, especially in North America where moisture transport and local evaporation are important sources of water for precipitation. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. All evaporative sources of water are accounted for by tracers, and the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites General Circulation Model (GEOS GCM) is used to simulate several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. Using this methodology, a detailed analysis of the recycling of water, interannual variability of the sources of water and links to the Great Plains low-level jet and North American monsoon will be presented. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation especially regarding the North American monsoon and GEWEX America Prediction Project (GAPP) will be discussed.

  16. Volatile times for the very first ionic liquid: understanding the vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of ethylammonium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Boeck, Gisela; Verevkin, Sergey P; Ludwig, Ralf

    2014-09-08

    A hundred years ago, Paul Walden studied ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN), which became the first widely known ionic liquid. Although EAN has been investigated extensively, some important issues still have not been addressed; they are now tackled in this communication. By combining experimental thermogravimetric analysis with time of flight mass spectrometry (TGA-ToF-MS) and transpiration method with theoretical methods, we clarify the volatilisation of EAN from ambient to elevated temperatures. It was observed that up to 419 K, EAN evaporates as contact-ion pairs leading to very low vapour pressures of a few Pascal. Starting from 419 K, the decomposition to nitric acid and ethylamine becomes more thermodynamically favourable than proton transfer. This finding was supported by DFT calculations, which provide the free energies of all possible gas-phase species, and show that neutral molecules dominate over ion pairs above 500 K, an observation that is in nearly prefect agreement with the experimental boiling point of 513 K. This result is crucial for the ongoing practical applications of protic ionic liquids such as electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells because, in contrast to high-boiling conventional solvents, EAN exhibits no significant vapour pressure below 419 K and this property fulfils the requirements for the thermal behaviour of safe electrolytes. Overall, EAN shows the same barely measurable vapour pressures as typical aprotic ionic liquids at temperatures only 70 K lower. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Reply to "On Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000 K to 1200 K- A high temperature mass spectrometric study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Uttam; Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    This communication is in response to a letter to editor commenting on the authors' earlier paper "Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000 K to 1200 K - A high temperature mass spectrometric study".

  18. Beeswax–chitosan emulsion coated paper with enhanced water vapor barrier efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xiao, Huining; Qian, Liying

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The water vapor barrier efficiency of paper was enhanced via green-based emulsion coating. • Extremely high lipid content in the emulsion coating layer was firstly utilized to reduce WVTR in emulsion-based film. • A controlled WVTR of beeswax–chitosan emulsion coating could be obtained by dying at specific temperature. - Abstract: For lipid–hydrocolloid emulsion based film, the increase of lipid amount would improve its water vapor barrier property, but also reduce the mechanical strength of the film in the meantime thus leading to a compromised lipid content in the film. However, when the emulsion is coated on paper surface, more lipid could be used for emulsion preparation to enhance the moisture resistance without considering the weakened strength of the film induced by lipid, because the mechanical properties of emulsion coated paper is mainly governed by the strength of base paper instead of the coating layer. In this study, beeswax–chitosan emulsion was first prepared and then coated on paper surface to improve paper's water vapor barrier and water resistance properties. The range and variance analysis of orthogonal test design showed that the order of priorities of the factors accordingly was beeswax solid content, drying temperature and chitosan concentration. The effect of drying temperature on water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and water contact angle of coated paper was further investigated using 1.2 wt% chitosan and 96% beeswax solid content in the coating layer. The results indicated that water vapor barrier property was in accordance with the density of the coating layer. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was also used to characterize the surface morphology and explain the hydrophobicity of beeswax–chitosan coated paper. It was found that surface beeswax particles melted to wrinkle at high drying temperatures, while roughness values maintained at micro-scale over the temperature range investigated

  19. Flashed-feed VMD configuration as a novel method for eliminating temperature polarization effect and enhancing water vapor flux

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2018-05-28

    The coupling of heat and mass transfer in membrane distillation (MD) process makes enhancing water vapor flux and determining MD membrane mass transfer coefficient (MTC) fairly challenging due to the development of temperature gradient near the membrane surface, referred to as temperature polarization (TP). As a result, the change in feed temperature at the membrane surface will be difficult to measure accurately. In this paper, the effect of TP was decoupled from the membrane MTC by preventing the liquid feed stream from contacting the membrane surface through the use of a novel custom-made vacuum MD (VMD) module design. Results showed that a temperature difference of 10°C between the feed bulk and feed temperatures at the membrane surface/interface is estimated to take place in the typical VMD configuration, while the proposed flashed-feed VMD configuration eliminates TP effect and gives a flux 3.5-fold higher (200kg/m2.hr) under similar operating conditions. Therefore, it can be concluded that heat transfer coefficient is considered to be the main factor controlling resistance of water vapor flux in the typical VMD configuration. The measured MTC of the tested commercial membrane was found to be more accurate and the highest among all reported MTCs in the MD literature (2.44×10−6kg/m2.s.Pa). Additionally, a transmembrane temperature difference of 5°C and 10°C in the novel configuration can produce water vapor fluxes of about 9kg/m2.hr and 40kg/m2.hr, respectively, at a feed temperature of 70°C, which is very attractive for scaling-up the process.

  20. Vapor pressures of solid and liquid xanthene and phenoxathiin from effusion and static studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monte, M.J.S.; Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Sousa, C.A.D.; Fulem, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 8 (2008), s. 1922-1926 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * xanthene * phenoxanthiin * sublimation and vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.063, year: 2008