WorldWideScience

Sample records for water utilities

  1. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  2. Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewing and replacing the nation's public water infrastructure is an ongoing task. Asset management can help a utility maximize the value of its capital as well as its operations and maintenance dollars.

  3. Relative Efficiency Evaluation on Water Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying

    2011-01-01

    Water resource allocation was defined as an input-output question in this paper, and a preliminary input-output index system was set up. Then GEM (group eigenvalue method)-MAUE (multi-attribute utility theory) model was applied to evaluate relative efficiency of water resource allocation plans. This model determined weights of indicators by GEM, and assessed the allocation schemes by MAUE. Compared with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) or ANN (Artificial Neural Networks), the mode was more applicable in some cases where decision-makers had preference for certain indicators

  4. The Legal Conditions for Water Utilities Eco-Innovation as Energy Smart Water Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Welfare and green growth rest havely on an appropriate supply of safe water, the provision of adequate sewage, and on energy services. These services are interdependent, as water is an integral part of electric-power generation. Energy is also an integrated part of water services, as satisfying...... water needs for supply, purification, distribution, and treatment of wastewater requires energy sources. Water and energy utilities are however regulated without a specific focus on the interdependency of the two sectors and the possibilities to ensure sustainable use of the resources and reduction...... of greenhouse gasses by a better coordination. The article explains the possibilities of sustainable consumption and production of energy in the water utilities. It highlights EU legal framework that makes coordination at national level possible, and it gives examples and concludes on the obstacles...

  5. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  6. Saving and Utilizing on Water Resources from Steel Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuLiguang

    2005-01-01

    In this espy, the author gives some presentation of the water saving practices in Baosteel for years. Relying on water saving research program and by means of water utilization analysis, water consumption distribution balance test water from every sequence of production activities, Baosteel promotes the waste saving projects including waster water comprehensive utilization and water loss reduction.At the same time, the water utilization technology analysis work and management work have considerably strengthened and operation of saving on fresh water sources and waster water utilization has been put into practice with the purpose to decrease water loss per ton of steel making, while the quality of water is placed under guarantee, a number of new records of water consumption ratio comes into being constantly.

  7. Assessment and utilization of soil water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analyses of water interactions and water balance, this paper discusses the issues on the assessment and regulation of soil water resources, which lays the scientific basis for limited irrigation and water-saving agriculture.

  8. 75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division (Mail...

  9. Water for utilities: climate change impacts on water quality and water availability for utilities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bonte, M.; Gorski, N.; Flörke, M.; Eisner, S.; Ludwig, F.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the consequences of changing water availability for production of drinking water, the manufacturing industry and power production in Europe, due to climate change and socio-economic developments. The report is based up on projections of demographic and

  10. Water Quality Response to Forest Biomass Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Rau; Augustine Muwamba; Carl Trettin; Sudhanshu Panda; Devendra Amatya; Ernest Tollner

    2017-01-01

    Forested watersheds provide approximately 80% of freshwater drinking resources in the United States (Fox et al. 2007). The water originating from forested watersheds is typically of high quality when compared to agricul¬tural watersheds, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are nine times higher, on average, in agricultur¬al watersheds when compared to...

  11. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the third in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  12. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  13. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the second in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  14. Handbook on Planning for Sustainability for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The handbook details steps utilities can undertake to enhance their existing planning processes to ensure that water infrastructure investments are cost-effective over their life-cycle, resource efficient and support other relevant community goals.

  15. Using Derivative Contracts to Mitigate Water Utility Financial Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.; Zeff, H.

    2012-12-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit, utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls during drought. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on weather derivatives. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e. self insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multi-reservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, with the financial effects of these events simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party derivative contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools (i.e. surcharges, contingency funds), can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  16. The novel use of climate information in water utility planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    Municipal water utilities have a long history of planning and yet their traditional use of climate information has been rather static in nature, using approaches such as 'safe-yield' to design their water infrastructure. New planning paradigms, such as triple-bottom-line approaches that integerate environemntal, social, and financial aspects of the water enterprise have led water utilies to use climate information in a much more rich and informative way. This presentation will describe examples of how climate climate information, hydrologic modeling, and water systems decision support tools are uniquely bleneded to help water utilties make informed decisions.

  17. Water impoundment modes of flood utilization for the Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Songnen Plain as the research region and basing on the structural division of river water resources, the impounding models of flood water utilization are proposed. Considering the water requirement, potential impoundage and the degree of risk, two modes of the flood water utilization are developed: full impounding and partial impounding. A risk assessment method is put forward according to variation of the flood storage capacity before and after impounding water. A representative hydrological year is taken as an example to analyze the application of the model at the downstream of the Nenjiang River. It is found that the model is very useful for the flood utilization and protection. For flood utilization, the spring drought can be relieved and the risk of impounding water is also acceptable. For flood protection, the river flood peak can be largely reduced and the impounding water can increase the river discharge at the low water period, at the same time the structure of river water resources can be improved as well.

  18. Water impoundment modes of flood utilization for the Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ShiGuo; LI WenYi

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Songnen Plain as the research region and basing on the structural divi-sion of river water resources,the impounding models of flood water utilization are proposed.Considering the water requirement,potential impoundage and the de-gree of risk,two modes of the flood water utilization are developed:full impounding and partial impounding.A risk assessment method is put forward according to variation of the flood storage capacity before and after impounding water.A representative hydro-logical year is taken as an example to analyze the application of the model at the down-stream of the Nenjiang River.It is found that the model is very useful for the flood utiliza-tion and protection.For flood utilization,the spring drought can be relieved and the risk of impounding water is also acceptable.For flood protection,the river flood peak can be largely reduced and the impounding water can increase the river discharge at the low water period,at the same time the structure of river water resources can be improved as well.

  19. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    with the ‘full-cost-recovery principle’ – are discouraging investments in new energy-related technologies. There are also restrictions on the water utilities production of renewable energy – including rules on mandatory ownership unbundling. In section 6 of this chapter there is a short conclusion on the current...... conditions. Based on these facts, the resource efficiency and low–carbon policy of the EU as well as the EU’s rules of relevance for the utilities are highlighted in section 4. It is concluded that the current EU legislation makes it possible for the Member States to promote energy–smart water utilities...

  20. Evaluating water quality investments using cost utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan; Spencer, Rachel; Higgins, Andrew; Marinoni, Oswald

    2008-09-01

    This study borrows concepts from healthcare economics and uses cost utility analysis (CUA) to select an optimum portfolio of water quality enhancement projects in Perth, Western Australia. In CUA, costs are handled via standard discounted cash flow analysis, but the benefits, being intangible, are measured with a utility score. Our novel methodology combines CUA with a binary combinatorial optimisation solver, known as a 'knapsack algorithm', to identify the optimum portfolio of projects. We show how water quality projects can be selected to maximise an aggregate utility score while not exceeding a budget constraint. Our CUA model applies compromise programming (CP) to measure utility over multiple attributes in different units. CUA is shown to provide a transparent and analytically robust method to maximise benefits from water quality remediation investments under a constrained budget.

  1. Assessing the performance of urban water utilities in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the performance of urban water utilities in Mozambique using a water ... 12 key performance indicators grouped into 3 components (economic sustainability, ... The WUPI was built in 6 different ways, using 2 weighting systems (equal ... 3 different functional forms to aggregate the indicators (additive aggregation, ...

  2. Opportunities for public water utilities in the market of energy from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, S S M; Kornman, J M; Kerpershoek, A J; van der Helm, A W C

    2011-01-01

    An inventory is made of the possibilities to recover sustainable energy from the water cycle by identifying different water flows in a municipal environment as a sustainable energy source. It is discussed what role public water utilities should play in the market of energy from water. This is done for Waternet, the public water utility of Amsterdam, by describing experiences on two practical applications for aquifer thermal energy storage and energy recovery from drinking water. The main conclusion is that public water utilities can substantially contribute to the production of sustainable energy, especially by making use of heat and cold from the water cycle. Public water utilities have the opportunity to both regulate and enter the market for energy from water.

  3. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  4. Uses of communication satellites in water utility operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, W. S.

    This paper proposes a system to serve the communications needs of the operating side of a water utility and estimates the requirements and capabilities of the equipment needed. The system requires the shared use of a satellite transponder with 100% backup. Messages consist of data packets containing data and control information, plus voice transmission. Satellite communication may have a price advantage in some instances over wire line or VHF radio and have greater survivability in case of a natural disaster. Water and other utilities represent a significant market for low cost mass produced satellite earth terminals.

  5. Analysis of thermal water utilization in the northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented research aims at identification of thermal water users in NE Slovenia, at finding type and amountof the produced thermal water as well as its utilization practice. The energetic overview has been upgradedby a description of current observational monitoring practice and thermal waste water management, but technologicalproblems of thermal water use and their mitigation are discussed also. We have ascertained that 14 of 26active geothermalwells tap the Mura Formation aquifer in which the only reinjection well is perforated also. Totalthermal water abstraction summed to 3.29 million m3 in 2011. Cascade use of thermal water is abundant, whereindividual space and sanitary water heating is followed by heating of spa infrastructure and balneology. Greenhouseheating systems and district heating were also identified. Operational monitoring of these geothermal wellsis generally insufficient, and geothermal aquifers are overexploited due to decades of historical water abstraction.All these facts indicate the need for applying appropriate measures which will improve their natural conditions aswell as simultaneously enable further and even higher thermal water utilization in the future.

  6. Towards a benchmarking paradigm in European water utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, R.C.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of using benchmarking tools in the public sector to drive up performance. The authors examine the case of European water utilities, focusing on four countries: Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and the UK. They argue for the creation of a European ‘observatory’ to

  7. Watershed protection and landscape enhancement by utilization of river water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A scheme for watershed protection and landscape enhancement(WPLE) by utilization of river water was proposed to renovate waterresources and protect ecological environment in Qiongshan City, Hainan Province, China. Utilization of river water may diminish the droughtand flood risks. The scheme is beneficial to solve the problems of water resources shortage, groundwater declines and saltwater intrsion in thewatershed. The object of the WPLE scheme is to achieve a sustainable integrated development of environment, ecology, economy and society.A kind of physically beautiful and functionally vivid landscape may exert its synthetical function on the diversity of landscape and the enjoymentof inhabitants. Feasibility of the scheme will be demonstrated by more experiments and tests, as well as observations in a long term.

  8. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    conditions. Based on these facts, the resource efficiency and low–carbon policy of the EU as well as the EU’s rules of relevance for the utilities are highlighted in section 4. It is concluded that the current EU legislation makes it possible for the Member States to promote energy–smart water utilities...... of the national regulatory design and the problems related to legal barriers are illustrated in section 5 with examples from Danish legislation. The Danish regulatory style is more inflexible than necessary. The benchmarking model and price-cap systems – established as mandatory legal conditions together...

  9. Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88/sup 0/F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88/sup 0/F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80/sup 0/F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60/sup 0/F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88/sup 0/F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75/sup 0/F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low $1189 per year.

  10. Role of coal water mixture in utility coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, N.; Butcher, T.

    1984-05-01

    To indicate the role of coal water mixtures (CWM) in utility coal conversions, the pertinent technical, economic, environmental, and regulatory factors involved in CWM conversion are reviewed. CWM technology provides an attractive option for utility companies to convert to coal. There appear to be no major technical problems in CWM production and use that cannot be overcome. Environmental considerations, however, play an important role in utilities' decisions to convert to coal. In general, coal conversions would be seriously impeded if the installation of flue gas desulfurization units cannot be avoided, as it now can because of the DOE program, and they are also inhibited by present uncertainties regarding impending acid rain regulations. Preliminary estimates of the economics of conversion seem attractive; however, site-specific evaluation is needed to justify conversion in a given situation. Although conversion to pulverized coal appears competitive with that to CWM, some non-economic factors tend to favor CWM over PC.

  11. The Value of Risk Pooling for Mitigating Water Utility Financial Risks Arising From Water Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.; Characklis, G. W.; Hughes, J.; Eskaf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water utilities across the United States face growing supply risks as demand growth and extreme weather events make water scarcity more common. As it has become more difficult and expensive to build new supply capacity to accommodate these events, many utility managers respond by either imposing conservation measures, which reduces revenues, or acquiring additional water from other sources, which increases costs. These actions lead to changing financial trends that are difficult to predict and that utilities are currently ill-equipped to manage. As a result, adaptation strategies and tools are being developed to reduce utility vulnerabilities, ensuring both financial stability and continued access to low cost financing, a critical consideration for a capital intensive industry. Previous work in this area has involved the development of utility specific financial hedging tools. However, the time and informational requirements associated with developing these individualized strategies may be a limiting factor for widespread implementation. The objective of this research is to develop more generalized hedging instruments that can be applied simultaneously to multiple utilities across the United States, thereby increasing the potential for widespread implementation. This work first analyzes the financial risks of water scarcity for a large set of water utilities across the country and then proposes a financial hedging solution to mitigate these risks through hydrologic index-based financial insurance. Results provide insights into the most effective indices, the potential for risk pooling to reduce insurance costs, and the performance of these contracts in managing utility financial risk arising from drought.

  12. Dechlorination Technology Manual. Final report. [Utility cooling water discharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Chiesa, R.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Mehta, S.C.; Meko, A.C.; Musil, R.R.; Sopocy, D.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    On November 19, 1982, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations severely restricting chlorination practices as they relate to utility cooling water discharge systems. EPRI authorized the preparation of a manual on dechlorination technology to assist utilities in evaluating the various alternatives available to them to meet these new requirements. The Dechlorination Technology Manual emphasizes the engineering aspects involved in the selection and design of dechlorination systems. However, background information is included concerning chemistry, regulatory requirements, environmental considerations and aquatic impacts. There is also a brief discussion of the various alternatives to dechlorination. Case studies are given to acquaint the user with the use of the manual for the design of chlorination facilities given various site-related characteristics, such as salt versus fresh waters. Numerous graphs and tables are presented to facilitate the selection and design process. 207 references, 66 figures, 60 tables.

  13. Utilizing Climate Forecasts for Improving Water and Power Systems Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Queiroz, A.; Patskoski, J.; Mahinthakumar, K.; DeCarolis, J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate forecasts, typically monthly-to-seasonal precipitation forecasts, are commonly used to develop streamflow forecasts for improving reservoir management. Irrespective of their high skill in forecasting, temperature forecasts in developing power demand forecasts are not often considered along with streamflow forecasts for improving water and power systems coordination. In this study, we consider a prototype system to analyze the utility of climate forecasts, both precipitation and temperature, for improving water and power systems coordination. The prototype system, a unit-commitment model that schedules power generation from various sources, is considered and its performance is compared with an energy system model having an equivalent reservoir representation. Different skill sets of streamflow forecasts and power demand forecasts are forced on both water and power systems representations for understanding the level of model complexity required for utilizing monthly-to-seasonal climate forecasts to improve coordination between these two systems. The analyses also identify various decision-making strategies - forward purchasing of fuel stocks, scheduled maintenance of various power systems and tradeoff on water appropriation between hydropower and other uses - in the context of various water and power systems configurations. Potential application of such analyses for integrating large power systems with multiple river basins is also discussed.

  14. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  15. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extraterrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtration material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removal technique. Our studies have shown a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  16. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  17. Water Electrolysis for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sending humans to Mars for any significant amount of time will require capabilities and technologies that enable Earth independence. To move towards this independence, the resources found on Mars must be utilized to produce the items needed to sustain humans away from Earth. To accomplish this task, NASA is studying In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems and techniques to make use of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the water found on Mars. Among other things, these substances can be harvested and processed to make oxygen and methane. Oxygen is essential, not only for sustaining the lives of the crew on Mars, but also as the oxidizer for an oxygen-methane propulsion system that could be utilized on a Mars ascent vehicle. Given the presence of water on Mars, the electrolysis of water is a common technique to produce the desired oxygen. Towards this goal, NASA designed and developed a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis system, which was originally slated to produce oxygen for propulsion and fuel cell use in the Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project. As part of the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) project, this same electrolysis system, originally targeted at enabling in situ propulsion and power, operated in a life-support scenario. During HESTIA testing at Johnson Space Center, the electrolysis system supplied oxygen to a chamber simulating a habitat housing four crewmembers. Inside the chamber, oxygen was removed from the atmosphere to simulate consumption by the crew, and the electrolysis system's oxygen was added to replenish it. The electrolysis system operated nominally throughout the duration of the HESTIA test campaign, and the oxygen levels in the life support chamber were maintained at the desired levels.

  18. Utilization of plutonium in reduced-moderation water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Takamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    Japan's nuclear policy decides not to have excess plutonium. Upon assuming the future situation of the delay of FBR introduction, the JAERI performs the feasibility study of several types of the reduced-moderation water reactors (RMWRs). As the RMWRs have higher conversion ratio than LWRs, they are expected to enable multi-cycle utilization of plutonium, high burnup and long cycle operation, and enhancement of uranium resource utilization. While the full MOX LWRs are being developed, from viewpoint of suppressing the accumulation of plutonium, the RMWRs are thought to be more suitable. As plutonium inventory is larger in the RMWRs than in the full MOX LWRs, also from viewpoint of non-proliferation of nuclear materials, the RMWRs are thought to be more suitable. The current feasibility study will be performed until 2010 to confirm the position, to construct the reactor concept, and to demonstrate the feasibility on reactor physics and on thermal hydraulics. The present candidate reactor types of the study are three BWR types, heavy water cooled PWR type and light water cooled PWR type. Hereafter comprehensive evaluation from viewpoint of problems on fuel cycle, economy, continuity with conventional LWR technologies will be performed to extract the most suitable concept to satisfy the social needs and to construct the fundamental reactor concept to concentrate R and D effort. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  19. Utilities:Water:Water Infrastructure Vaults at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:vaults)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents vaults associated with the water infrastructure at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The vaults data were collected using Trimble...

  20. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  1. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: Interagency relationships in the international water utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalba, D.I. [School of Medicine, Flinders University, GPO 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cromar, N.J., E-mail: nancy.cromar@flinders.edu.au [School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Pollard, S.J.T. [Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Charrois, J.W. [Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Bradshaw, R. [Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Hrudey, S.E. [Analytical and Environmental Toxicology Division, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G3 (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. - Highlights: • Qualitative analysis of current water sector practices on interagency relations • Identification of suboptimal approaches to working with public health agencies • Effective strategies for developing and maintaining institutional collaborations • Supporting the implementation of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality.

  2. Sensor Acquisition for Water Utilities: A Survey and Technology List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alai, M; Glascoe, L; Love, A; Johnson, M; Einfeld, W

    2005-03-07

    The early detection of the deliberate biological and chemical contamination of water distribution systems is a necessary capability for securing the nation's water supply. Current and emerging early-detection technology capabilities and shortcomings need to be identified and assessed to provide government agencies and water utilities with an improved methodology for assessing the value of installing these technologies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has tasked a multi-laboratory team to evaluate current and future needs to protect the nation's water distribution infrastructure by supporting an objective evaluation of current and new technologies. The primary deliverables from this Operational Technology Demonstration (OTD) are the following: (1) establishment of an advisory board for review and approval of testing protocols, technology acquisition processes and recommendations for technology test and evaluation in laboratory and field settings; (2) development of a technology acquisition process; (3) creation of laboratory and field testing and evaluation capability; and (4) testing of candidate technologies for insertion into a water early warning system. The initial phase of this study involves the development of two separate but complementary strategies to be reviewed by the advisory board: (1) a technology acquisition strategy, and (2) a technology evaluation strategy. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories are tasked with the first strategy, while Los Alamos, Pacific Northwest, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories are tasked with the second strategy. The first goal of the acquisition strategy is the development of a technology survey process that includes a review of previous sensor surveys and current test programs and then the development of a method to solicit and select existing and emerging sensor technologies for evaluation and testing. In this paper we discuss a survey of previous efforts by

  3. CONSTRAINING FACTORS TO SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES AND THEIR COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Jin-liang; FENG Ren-guo; XIA Jun

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China, and the countermeasures to realize sustainable water utilization. The result of comprehensive analysis shows that constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China are complicated, including physical geographical factors and socio-economic factors, such as uneven distribution of water resources at temporal and spatial scales,inappropriate institutional arrangement and non-water-saving and non-water-conservation production and life mode.The countermeasures against constraining factors to water resources sustainable development are put forward as follows: 1) using wetlands and forests, and through spatial conversion to realize temporally sustainable supply of water resources; 2) transferring water between basins and areas and developing various water resources in water shortage area; 3) establishing water-saving society; 4) strengthening water pollution control and water resources protection;and 5) establishing unified water resources management mechanism.

  4. China’s Water Utilization Efficiency: An Analysis with Environmental Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hailiang Ma; Chenling Shi; Nan-Ting Chou

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates China’s water utilization efficiency using the directional distance function to take into account the environmental degradation affecting the economy. We further analyze the spatial correlation and the factors influencing the utilization efficiency using spatial panel data models. The results show that water utilization efficiency in China differs between provinces and regions. For example, water utilization efficiency in the eastern coastal provinces is significantly hig...

  5. China’s Water Utilization Efficiency: An Analysis with Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates China’s water utilization efficiency using the directional distance function to take into account the environmental degradation affecting the economy. We further analyze the spatial correlation and the factors influencing the utilization efficiency using spatial panel data models. The results show that water utilization efficiency in China differs between provinces and regions. For example, water utilization efficiency in the eastern coastal provinces is significantly higher than that of inland provinces. The pattern of spatial auto-correlation Moran’s I index presents significant spatial auto-correlation and evident cluster tendencies in China’s inter-provincial water utilization. Factors that contribute to water utilization efficiency include economic development, technological progress, and economic openness. Negative factors affecting water utilization efficiency arise from industrial structure, government interference, and water resources endowment. In addition, the price of water resources is insignificant. The improvement of water utilization efficiency is essential to sustainable economic development. To raise the utilization efficiency of water resources, China should focus on transforming its industrial restructure, advancing technological development, enhancing economic openness, and encouraging entrepreneurial innovations. Moreover, establishing a mechanism to encourage water conservation and reduce wastewater pollution will further increase water utilization efficiency.

  6. AHP Comprehensive Evaluation on Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Hengshui City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘峰; 赵林

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the sustainable utilization of water resources in Hengshui City, quantitative analysis and comprehensive evaluation on 15 indexes of Hengshui City, such as the perspectives of social and economic devel-opment condition, water resource condition, environment condition, development and utilization of water resources, were conducted by using the analytic hierarchy process(AHP) method from 2004 to 2008. Although the sustainable utilization has been growing from 2004 to 2008, the situation and environment of water resources were not optimistic because of the severe water shortage in Hengshui. In the future, improving the supply capacity is the key target for promoting sustainable utilization of water resources.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  8. Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Karen E; Kayser, Georgia L; Bowling, Michael; Enault, Jerome; Loret, Jean-Francois; Serra, Claudia Puigdomenech; Alonso, Jordi Martin; Mateu, Arnau Pla; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF WATER RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the theory of sustainable development, the current situation and existent problems of the exploita-tion of water resources were analyzed in this paper. The results show that the contradiction between supply and demandof water resources is continually aggravating, water pollution is increasingly serious, water environment is worse, theover-extraction area of the underground water is expanding and water crisis stands out. gradually, so it is imperative underthe situation to actualize the sustainable exploitation strategies of water resources. It is necessary for sustainableutilizingwater resources to introduce the model of sustainable utilization of water resources -the model of wealth transferring be-tween the generations of water resources, establish water-saving society system and water market, form technology sys-tems, management systems and evaluation systems for many sorts of water resoturces, improve the utilization ratio of waterresources, transform waste water into resources and maintain and restore the water space of water environment.

  10. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  11. Estimated Buried Utility Water and Wastewater Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The water and wastewater lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS equipment in the summer of 2003 and then merged with older water line data...

  12. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  13. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  14. Formation and utilization of water resources of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志栋; 甄宝龙; 尚松浩; 杨诗秀; 丛振涛; 张发旺; 毛晓辉; 周海鹰

    2001-01-01

    The Tarim River is a typical inland river in arid area without runoff yield of itself, and water resources are all supplied by its headstreams. The method of time series analysis is applied to annual runoff series of three headstreams, namely the Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River to analyze their dynamic variations. A model is established to estimate water consumption in the headstream areas. Quantitative results indicate that both total annual runoff of headstreams and water consumption in the headstream areas have an increasing trend. The dynamic trends of annual runoff of hydrologic stations along the mainstream of the Tarim River are also presented to estimate the intermittence drying-up time at each station. Water consumption model of the mainstream area is used to analyze the characteristics of water consumption in the upper and middle reaches. It is shown that water consumption in each river reach of the mainstream decreases with the decrement of inflow and increases with human activities.

  15. Algorithmic Procedure to Design Water Utilization Systems Featuring Multiple Contaminants in Process Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东明; 杨凤林; 张兴文

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a non-iterative algorithmic procedure to design water utilization networks with multiple contaminants in process plants. According to the water pinch analysis rules, the processes in water utilization systems were first divided into three groups, then water-supply priority algorithm was proposed. The results of case studies showed that the water networks designed by this method gave water consumption lower than that estimated by other approaches. In addition, the procedure was subiect to no limitation on the problem scale.

  16. Advances in Research on the Approaches of Improving Water Utilization Efficiency in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-sheng; HUANG You-zhong; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    Water shortage is increasingly an important factor limiting the sustainable development of global economy, posing a huge threat to social security and human existence. Water usage in agriculture accounts for about 70% of total water consumption in the world, and rice cultivation is in turn the largest water user, which accounts for about 50% of total water usage in agriculture. Therefore, it is quite important to improve water utilization efficiency to reduce water consumption in rice.Water stress causes severe inhibition of plant growth and development as well as yield reduction, however the extent of inhibition or reduction varies greatly with the growth stages, duration and severity of stress, and plant genotypes. In rice,drought resistance and water utilization efficiency might be improved by developing stress resistant cultivars and conducting proper agronomic practices. It is hence imperative to determine the suitable criteria in morphological and physiological traits for drought resistance and water utilization efficiency in conventional breeding of rice. At present, leaf rolling, leaf water potential and carbon isotope discrimination are commonly used criteria for the evaluation and identification of germplasm with high drought resistance or water utilization efficiency. With rapid development of molecular biology,marker-assisted selection has been used in rice breeding against water stress. In this review, therefore, the agronomic aspect of water saving techniques such as selection of suitable rice cultivars, planting pattern, mulching, deficit irrigation and alternative drying and moist irrigation are discussed and effective approaches are also recommended.

  17. Climate Change Challenges of Managing Quality of Drinking Water: Survey Results from Utilities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, J.; Bedsworth, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists have established that climate change threatens sources of drinking water through many different pathways, both in terms of quantity and quality. Recognizing water utilities will face the brunt of these impacts, this study seeks to better understand the disconnect between the projections produced and the needs of utilities on-the-ground. As part of the first stage of the three-year study, this presentation reports results of a statewide survey evaluating how far along water utilities in California are along in preparing for the projected climate change impacts on water quality, the range in respondents' perspectives (and concerns) of climate change on water quality, and how the state's four-year drought is already presenting treatment challenges. On-going case studies are investigating the needs and capacity of utilities to prepare for and adapt to the projected water quality impacts from increasing extreme events and how or whether climate scientists can help meet these needs.

  18. Assessment of the performance of a public water utility: A case study of Blantyre Water Board in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalulu, Khumbo; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    Water scarcity, deteriorating water quality and financial limitations to the development of new water sources affect the quality of urban water supply services. The costs would have to be transferred to governments or customers if water supply utilities are to operate effectively. Utilities therefore need to continuously minimize costs and maximize revenue to ensure affordability and consequently access to safe water. This paper presents findings of a study on the performance of Blantyre Water Board compared to best practice targets for developing countries. The study tools employed in this study included interviews and documentation review. Key aspects studied included unaccounted for water, working ratio, bill collection efficiency and; efficiency of operation and maintenance. The working ratio of the utility ranged from 0.69 to 1.3 which was above the proposed target working ratio 0.68 for developing country utilities. It was found that the level of unaccounted for water for the utility ranged from 36% to 47% compared to 25% for developing countries. The utility was not financially sustainable as it had been making losses since 2002, had a working ratio of up to 1.3 implying that the utility was unable to meet its operational and capital cost; and 70% of all the invoiced bills being collected in a maximum of 340 days against an ideal target of 90 days. The staff per thousand connections value was found to be 18 compared to an ideal value of five. It was concluded that the utility was generally performing poorly as most performance indicators were outside the range for best practice targets for utilities in developing countries.

  19. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. So far the cation exchanger properties of zeolites have been extensively studied and utilized. The anion exchanger properties of zeolites are less studied. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove arseni...

  20. Research on Water Utility Revenue Model and Compensation Policy under Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Kui He

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the diversification of both water utility investment and property right structure, it is necessary to establish a scientific compensation mechanism of water conservancy benefit to balance the interests among investors, water users and pertinent sectors which suffer loss. This paper analyzes the compensation policies water management authority imposed on water supply enterprises under uncertain demand, establishes a compensation model with risk preference, explains the implications of risk preference on the decision-making behaviors of water supply enterprises by using numerical analysis method, provides the basis for the water management department to formulate reasonable water resources charge standards and compensation policies. At last, the paper discusses how to implement the water compensation policies according to the characteristics of rural water utilities.

  1. Advanced Water Purification System For In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prior to electrolysis, the water generated as an intermediate product must be treated to remove absorbed hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, byproducts derived from...

  2. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN HAZARDOUS METAL REMOVAL FROM WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature by using synthetic zeolites. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants including arseni...

  3. Energy for Water Utilization in China and Policy Implications for Integrated Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, J.; Zheng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy are two vital resources for human and are intrinsically linked. China is a country with acute water problems caused by increasing demand, uneven spatial-temporal distribution of water resources, and water quality deterioration. These issues are exacerbating the country's water scarcity. Meanwhile, demands for both traditional and non-traditional water resources continue to rise, driven by the country's rapid economic expansion and industrialization. To meet growing water demands, more and more energy is used for water extraction, transportation and treatment. While projects such as deep groundwater pumping, long distance water transfer and seawater desalination are adding crucial supplies of fresh water, they are consuming an ever greater amount of energy. Thus, a better understanding of water-energy linkages is important for integrated water and energy policy analysis and planning. In this study, data from multiple sources are compiled and used to calculate energy consumption for different processes of water utilization in China, including water abstraction, treatment, and distribution, as well as wastewater treatment and re-use. Sankey diagrams are used to display the magnitude and direction of water and energy flows in China at the national level. Spatial distributions of energy use by different components of the water supply were further mapped at the provincial level to discern regional differences. The results of this study show that, for the main processes considered, water utilization consumes 193.5 TWh of electricity, or about 4% of the total national electricity usage. The highest percentage of energy consumption for water is attributed to water provision process. The outcome of this study has important implications for policy reforms involving water conservation strategies, water supply structure changes and technical solutions, which, in turn, will contribute to achieving the goal of low-energy water utilization in the future.

  4. Optimal Design of Water Utilization Network with Energy Integration in Process Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都健; 孟小琼; 杜红彬; 俞红梅; 樊希山; 姚平经

    2004-01-01

    Effective utilization of water and energy is the key factor of sustainable development in process industries, and also an important science and technology problem to be solved in systems engineering. In this paper,two new methods of optimal design of water utilization network with energy integration in process industries are presented, that is, stepwise and simultaneous optimization methods. They are suitable for both single contaminant and multi-contaminant systems, and the integration of energy can be carried out in the whole process system, not only limited in water network, so that energy can be utilized effectively. The two methods are illustrated by case study.

  5. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  6. Handbook for the Institutional and Financial Implementation of Water Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    a landowner adjacent to a water course is entitled to use sufficient surface water to meet his domestic needs and the needs of household animals ...42025 (502) 529-3236 McCracken Paducah Field Office 2933 Lone Oak Road Paducah, KY 42001 (502) 554-7264 Trigg Cadiz Field Office Post Office Building...30NN Zs 0 N0 A. ~0 aA - Z4 A" 0 ON *40 -a, 00 0S 0 N .1wuoc𔃺 A* ai~ : Z wZ NO *0 40. 0.:x : - 4’ M... .o. . .5 . . .i C o -wo A~C NA ZOO 0 . 0 0 MNOS

  7. Formation and utilization of water resources of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Zhidong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Bedford, D.P., International management in the Aral Sea Basin, Water International, 1996, 21(2): 63—69.[2]Mao, D., Water Resources, Environment and Management of the Tarim Basin (in Chinese), Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 1998.[3]Sudhaker, S. M., Wu, S. M., Time Series and System Analysis with Applications (in Chinese), Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press, 1988.[4]Yang, W., Gu, L., Time Series Analysis and Dynamic Data Modeling (in Chinese), Beijing: Beijing Institute of Technology Press, 1986.

  8. Water Quality in Iron County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  9. Water Quality in Bayfield County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  10. Water Quality in Ashland County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    This report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  11. Water Quality in Douglas County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  12. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  13. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  14. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  15. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate...

  16. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2013-08-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  17. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  18. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  19. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  20. Analysis on Impact Factors of Water Utilization Structure in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conglin Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an essential foundation for socio-economic development and environmental protection. As such, it is very critical for a city’s sustainable development. This study analyzed the changes in water utilization structure and its impact factors using water consumption data for agricultural, industrial, domestic and ecological areas in the city of Tianjin, China from 2004 to 2013. On this base, the evolution law and impact factors of water utilization structure were depicted by information entropy and grey correlation respectively. These analyses lead to three main results. First, the total amount of water consumption in Tianjin increased slightly from 2004 to 2013. Second, the information entropy and equilibrium degree peaked in 2010. From 2004 to 2010, the water utilization structure tended to be more disordered and balanced. Third, the economic and social factors seemed to influence the water utilization structure, while the main impact factors were industrial structure, per capita green area, cultivated area, effective irrigation area, rural electricity consumption, animal husbandry output, resident population, per capita domestic water etc.

  1. EPA, Albuquerque Water Utility Agree to Penalties for Sewage Overflows and E. Coli Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (March 22, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) have agreed to a settlement for violations of the Clean Water Act. ABCUWA will pay a civil penalty of $33

  2. A review of water resources utilization and protection in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiFang Wu; Steve Dry; WanCai Wu; XueBin Liu; JinHui Xiong; WenQi Gao

    2015-01-01

    Yunnan and Guizhou are two provinces in Southwest China where in recent years drought disasters have occurred due to natural and human factors. This paper reviewed literature and summarized the related achievements of water resources utilization and protection in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. This included characters and utilization of precipitation, rivers, and karst ground water in the two provinces, and also the various explanations of drought (climate and human factors) and strategies for coping with droughts. Our concluding remarks highlight three lines of future studies: inequalities and equitable use of water distribution, better evaluation systems, and raising awareness through conservation practices.

  3. Design Considerations for a Water Treatment System Utilizing Ultra-Violet Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    industry use for UV fluorescent bulb type water disinfection systems (Aquionics, 2013). Shorter wavelength LEDs (240 nm) were shown to be more...is in its infancy and research as it applies to UV water treatment is required to advance knowledge for practical application. This thesis focused...on two subjects. First, the design, fabrication, and operation of a water treatment reaction system utilizing Ultra-Violet ( UV ) Light Emitting

  4. THE UTILIZATION STRUCTURE OF THERMAL WATER WELLS AND ITS UNEXPLOITED CAPACITIES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALÁZS KULCSÁR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate Hungary’s vulnerability in energy supply and accomplish the renewable energy production targets, it is essential to discover exploitable alternative opportunities for energy production and step up the utilization of the available capacities. The purpose of this publication is to map up the utilization structure of the existing Hungarian thermal water wells, describe its changes over the past 16 years, reveal the associated reasons and define the unutilized well capacities that may contribute to increasing the exploitation of geothermal heat by municipalities. The studies have been conducted in view of the Cadaster of Thermal Water Wells of Hungary compiled in 1994, the well cadasters kept by the regional water management directorates, as well as the data of the digital thermal water cadaster of 2010. The calculations performed for the evaluation of data have been based on the ratios and respective utilization areas of the existing wells. In the past 150 years, nearly 1500 thermal water wells have been drilled for use by a broad range of economic operations. The principal goals of constructing thermal water wells encompass the use of water in balneology, water and heat supply to the agriculture, hydrocarbon research and the satisfaction of municipal water demands. In 1994, 26% of the facilities was operated as baths, 21% was used by agriculture, while 13% and 12% served communal and waterworks supply, respectively. Then in 2010, 31% of thermal water wells was continued to be used for the water supply of bathing establishments, followed by 20% for agricultural use, 19% for utilization by waterworks, 11% for observation purposes and 10% for communal use. During the 16 years between 1994 and 2010, the priorities of utilization often changed, new demands emerged in addition to the former utilization goals of thermal water wells. The economic landscape and changes in consumer habits have transformed the group of consumers, which

  5. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process.

  6. When the 'soft-path' gets hard: demand management and financial instability for water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past, cost benefit analysis (CBA) has been viewed as an effective means of evaluating water utility strategies, particularly those that were dependent on the construction of new supply infrastructure. As water utilities have begun to embrace 'soft-path' approaches as a way to reduce the need for supply-centric development, CBA fails to recognize some important financial incentives affected by reduced water consumption. Demand management, both as a short-term response to drought and in longer-term actions to accommodate demand growth, can introduce revenue risks that adversely affect a utility's ability to repay debt, re-invest in aging infrastructure, or maintain reserve funds for use in a short-term emergency. A utility that does not generate sufficient revenue to support these functions may be subject to credit rating downgrades, which in turn affect the interest rate it pays on its debt. Interest rates are a critical consideration for utility managers in the capital-intensive water sector, where debt payments for infrastructure often account for a large portion of a utility's overall costs. Even a small increase in interest rates can add millions of dollars to the cost of new infrastructure. Recent studies have demonstrated that demand management techniques can lead to significant revenue variability, and credit rating agencies have begun to take notice of drought response plans when evaluating water utility credit ratings, providing utilities with a disincentive to fully embrace soft-path approaches. This analysis examines the impact of demand management schemes on key credit rating metrics for a water utility in Raleigh, North Carolina. The utility's consumer base is currently experiencing rapid population growth, and demand management has the potential to reduce the dependence on costly new supply infrastructure but could lead to financial instability that will significantly increase the costs of financing future projects. This work analyzes how 'soft

  7. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  8. The Key Components of Job Satisfaction in Malaysian Water Utility Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Khalizani Khalid; Hanisah M. Salim; Siew-Phaik Loke; Khalisanni Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aimed to examine the impacts of employees rewards and employees motivation on employees job satisfaction between public and private water utility organization in Malaysia. Approach: A total of 689 employees from both sectors participated. While hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the relationship between employees rewards, employees motivation and employees job satisfaction, gap analysis was utilized to determine the si...

  9. Successful geothermal water utilization at the Atagawa Banana and Alligator Garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, W. (Atagawa Banana and Alligator Garden, Japan), Minohara, W., Sekioka, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Atagawa Banana and Alligator Garden which utilizes the waters of Atagawa hot springs in Izu-cho, Shizuoka Prefecture is described. Four hot spring wells are used to heat 13 hot houses for raising 6400 kinds of tropical plants and ponds where 450 alligators of 27 species are raised. The hot spring water has a pH of 8.6 and a temperature of 1050/sup 0/C. Tropical water lilies and fresh-water shrimp are also raised in heated ponds. Four figures, one table, and one reference are provided.

  10. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  11. The utilization of water resources and its variation tendency in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; XU Hailiang; SONG Yudong

    2006-01-01

    Water resources efficient utilization is the key to ecological improvement and economic development in Tarim River Basin. It is necessary to analyze the water resources utilization and its variation tendency in the whole river basin. Based on the monitored data and formation at eight meteorological stations and fifteen hydrological stations, the method of time series, regression analysis are applied to analyzing the water resources utilization and variation trend in the headstreams and mainstream areas especially in recent 10 years. The quantitative results indicate that inflows of the headstream areas have an increasing trend to different extent in the past 40years. The runoff increasing trend is more significant from1994 to 2002, which show the water resources condition in the headstreams is at an advantage.However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10years, the mainstream water flowing from the headstreams has increased less than 0.9985×108 m3. In addition, the runoff at the different hydrologic stations along the Tarim River has a significant linear decreasing trend. It is shown that the degraded trend of ecological environment in the mainstream areas hardly changes even if the Tarim River Basin is in the special water period for ten consecutive years.

  12. 再生水利用的水权管理研究%Reclaimed Water Utilization and Water Rights Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹

    2011-01-01

    通过再生水利用的现状剖析,对再生水利用的社会经济以及环境效益优势进行总结,从基础设施建设、再生水水质管理、政策法规、市场管理体制机制等角度系统剖析再生水利用存在的问题;在此基础上,针对再生水利用现状,基于水权理论,提出再生水利用的水权管理理念,对再生水水权的概念进行界定,从再生水分散式利用、再生水集中式利用以及再生水集蓄利用3种利用形式进行再生水水权分析,从基础设施建设、再生水水质管理、再生水利用的相关政策法规、市场管理体制机制、再生水利用产业化等角度阐述再生水和用的水权管理作用与意义,综合政府行政管制模式、用水户参与模式、水权市场交易模式等3种水权管理的基本模式,探讨再生水利用的水权管理模式.%According to the status analysis of reclaimed water utilization, the benefit superiority of reclaimed water utilization between socio-economy and eco-environment are summarized. Hie problems of reclaimed water utilization are analyzed systematically from the angles of infrastructure construction, reclaimed water quality management, policies and regulations, system and mechanism of market management. Then according to the status of reclaimed water utilization, based on the water rights theory, the idea of reclaimed water rights management is given. The concept of reclaimed water rights is defined. Three forms of reclaimed water utilization and its water rights such as dispersed, centralized and collecting-storage reclaimed water are analyzed. The effect and significance of reclaimed water rights management is described from the angles of infrastructure construction, reclaimed water quality management, policies and regulations, system and mechanism of market management and industrialization of reclaimed water utilization. According to the basic mode of water rights management of administrative regulation

  13. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  14. Utilization of abrasive water jet for cutting parts of intricate shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Qawabah Safwan M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As early as 1974 the British Hydrodynamic Research Association, BHRA, held the First International Conference on Cutting by Water Jets. The subject was at its early stages. Since then a large amount of research work has been carried out and the process has been greatly developed. In this paper, utilization of water jets for flexible cutting parts of intricate shapes in steel plates and granite is presented and discussed.

  15. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  16. Emergy evaluation of a production and utilization process of irrigation water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  17. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp. and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems’ products (1.72E+05 sej/J and 1.42E+05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R, emergy yield ratio (EYR, emergy investment ratio (EIR, environmental load ratio (ELR, and environmental sustainability index (ESI. The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  18. The Effects of Operational and Environmental Variables on Efficiency of Danish Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement is one of three patterns a public utility should follow in order to get funds for investments realization. The other two are recourse to bank loans or to private equity and tariff increase. Efficiency can be improved, for example, by growth and vertical integration and may be conditioned by environmental variables, such as customer and output density. Prior studies into the effects of these variables on the efficiency of water utilities do not agree on certain points (e.g., scale and economies of scope and rarely consider others (e.g., density economies. This article aims to contribute to the literature by analysing the efficiency of water utilities in Denmark, observing the effects of operational and environmental variables. The method is based on two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA applied to 101 water utilities. We found that the efficiency of the water sector was not affected by the observed variables, whereas that of wastewater was improved by smaller firm size, vertical integration strategy, and higher population density.

  19. 78 FR 34121 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Dallas Water Utilities, Dallas, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... associated funerary objects was made by AR Consultants, Inc. and Dallas Water Utilities professional staff in... local police department. The Dallas Homicide Squad and a representative from the Dallas Medical Examiner..., there is a relationship of shared group identity between these remains and associated funerary...

  20. Water footprints as an indicator for the equitable utilization of shared water resources. (Case study: Egypt and Ethiopia shared water resources in Nile Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Osama M.

    2014-12-01

    The question of "equity." is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385 CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167 CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15 BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63 BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint. The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference.

  1. Advances in management and utilization of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in aquatic ecosystems - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao-Hua; Song, Wei; Guo, Jun-Yao

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a concise summary of literature in the Chinese language since late 1970s and focuses on recent development in global scenarios. This work will replenish the FAO summary of water hyacinth utilization from 1917 to 1979 and review ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the water hyacinth from 1980 to 2010. This review also discusses the debate on whether the growth of the water hyacinth is a problem, a challenge or an opportunity. Literature suggested that integrated technologies and good management may be an effective solution and the perception of water hyacinth could change from that of a notorious aquatic weed to a valuable resource, including its utilization as a biological agent for the application in bioremediation for removing excess nutrients from eutrophic water bodies at low cost. Key aspects on system integration and innovation may focus on low-cost and efficient equipment and the creation of value-added goods from water hyacinth biomass. In the socioeconomic and ecological domain of global development, all the successful and sustainable management inputs for the water hyacinth must generate some sort of social and economic benefit simultaneously, as well as benefiting the ecosystem. Potential challenges exist in linkages between the management of water hyacinth on the large scale to the sustainable development of agriculture based on recycling nutrients, bio-energy production or silage and feed production. Further research and development may focus on more detailed biology of water hyacinth related with its utilization, cost-benefit analysis of middle to large-scale application of the technologies and innovation of the equipment used for harvesting and dehydrating the plant.

  2. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  3. Risk Assessment Methodology for Water utilities (RAM-W) : the foundation for emergency response planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2005-03-01

    Concerns about acts of terrorism against critical infrastructures have been on the rise for several years. Critical infrastructures are those physical structures and information systems (including cyber) essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government. The President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP) probed the security of the nation's critical infrastructures. The PCCIP determined the water infrastructure is highly vulnerable to a range of potential attacks. In October 1997, the PCCIP proposed a public/private partnership between the federal government and private industry to improve the protection of the nation's critical infrastructures. In early 2000, the EPA partnered with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and Sandia National Laboratories to create the Risk Assessment Methodology for Water Utilities (RAM-W{trademark}). Soon thereafter, they initiated an effort to create a template and minimum requirements for water utility Emergency Response Plans (ERP). All public water utilities in the US serving populations greater than 3,300 are required to undertaken both a vulnerability assessment and the development of an emergency response plan. This paper explains the initial steps of RAM-W{trademark} and then demonstrates how the security risk assessment is fundamental to the ERP. During the development of RAM-W{trademark}, Sandia performed several security risk assessments at large metropolitan water utilities. As part of the scope of that effort, ERPs at each utility were reviewed to determine how well they addressed significant vulnerabilities uncovered during the risk assessment. The ERP will contain responses to other events as well (e.g. natural disasters) but should address all major findings in the security risk assessment.

  4. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  5. Reorganization of water utilities - regionalization, an opportunity to increase their efficiency A comparative literature - Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Naqellari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the study and analysis of factors affecting the need for reorganization of entities engaged in water supply services. From this perspective, the research seeks to identify international practices made in this regard and how they can be adapted to water utilities in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show that regionalization of water utilities is a successful development direction not only of studied literature but also practice in Albania. The study is based on sources of information taken from primary and secondary sources. The selected method for collecting and processing information from primary sources is the empirical method through direct surveys and questionnaires, whereas from secondary sources is descriptive and analytical method. As secondary sources, we are consulted and referred to academic resources, such as articles, books, studies and reports carried out and published by national organizations, local and foreign companies in this field.

  6. Utilization of Thermal Energy of Mine Waters from Flooded Underground Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnošt Grmela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of ore, uranium and coal underground mines have been closed in the Czech Republic recently as a result of ending or considerable cutting down the mining of raw materials. After the completion of all necessary works associated with the decommissioning of underground mine workings, the mines were mostly left to spontaneous natural flooding with water. The volumes of mine waters in the underground reach up to millions of cubic metres. Taking into account the huge volumes and temperature of waters, which is in range of 10 to 290C at the site of draining from the underground, mine waters represent a considerable and stable source of thermal energy, the utilization of which is still wholly neglected. The authors inform about the principles of the use of mine waters for this purpose and about two projects that are in a different stage of realization.

  7. Interactions of Water Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-hua; CAO Wei-xing; DING Yan-feng; TIAN Yong-chao; JIANG Dong

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of water management and nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen absorption and utili-zation were studied in rice with Wuxiangjing9 (japonica). The results showed that the nitrogen uptake and re-maining in straw increased and the percentage of nitrogen translocation (PNT) from vegetative organs, nitro-gen dry matter production efficiency (NDMPE) and nitrogen grain production efficiency (NGPE) decreasedwith nitrogen increasing. The nitrogen uptake and NGPE decreased when severe water stressed. However, ricenot only decreased the nitrogen uptake but also increased the PNT from vegetative organs, NDMPE and NGPEwhen mild water stressed. There were obvious interactions between nitrogen fertilizer and water management,such as with water stress increasing the effect of nitrogen on increasing nitrogen uptake was reduced and thaton decreasing NDMPE was intensified.

  8. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  9. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  10. Sensor Acquisition for Water Utilities: Survey, Down Selection Process, and Technology List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alai, M; Glascoe, L; Love, A; Johnson, M; Einfeld, W

    2005-06-29

    The early detection of the biological and chemical contamination of water distribution systems is a necessary capability for securing the nation's water supply. Current and emerging early-detection technology capabilities and shortcomings need to be identified and assessed to provide government agencies and water utilities with an improved methodology for assessing the value of installing these technologies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has tasked a multi-laboratory team to evaluate current and future needs to protect the nation's water distribution infrastructure by supporting an objective evaluation of current and new technologies. The LLNL deliverable from this Operational Technology Demonstration (OTD) was to assist the development of a technology acquisition process for a water distribution early warning system. The technology survey includes a review of previous sensor surveys and current test programs and a compiled database of relevant technologies. In the survey paper we discuss previous efforts by governmental agencies, research organizations, and private companies. We provide a survey of previous sensor studies with regard to the use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) that includes earlier surveys, testing programs, and response studies. The list of sensor technologies was ultimately developed to assist in the recommendation of candidate technologies for laboratory and field testing. A set of recommendations for future sensor selection efforts has been appended to this document, as has a down selection example for a hypothetical water utility.

  11. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  12. Water storage reservoirs and their role in the development, utilization and protection of catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons why water storage reservoirs are necessary in accordance with the sustainable development strategy are described in the paper. The main positive and negative impacts of reservoirs on the environment are analyzed. The most important are: the improvement of hydrological regimes (decreasing maximal and increasing minimal flows, the creation of optimal water management, utilization and protection of water, and the creation of better conditions for river and coastal ecosystems. Negative impacts and measures for its mitigation or elimination are also analyzed. The conclusion is that water storage reservoirs can be harmoniously incorporated into the environment. Serbia has a limited number of locations suitable for the construction of reservoirs, therefore it is necessary to retain these areas for storage in regional development plans and other legal acts.

  13. Evaluation of supercritical water gasification and biomethanation for wet biomass utilization in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Two wet biomass gasification processes, supercritical water gasification and biomethanation, were evaluated from energy, environmental, and economic aspects. Gasification of 1 dry-t/d of water hyacinth was taken as a model case. Assumptions were made that system should be energetically independent, that no environmentally harmful material should be released, and that carbon dioxide should be removed from the product gas. Energy efficiency, carbon dioxide payback time, and price of the product gas were chosen as indices for energy, environmental, and economic evaluations, respectively. Under the conditions assumed here, supercritical water gasifications is evaluated to be more advantageous over biomethanation, but the cost of the product gas is still 1.86 times more expensive than city gas in Tokyo. To improve efficiency of supercritical water gasification, improvement of heat exchanger efficiency is effective. Utilization of fermentation sludge will make biomethanation much more advantageous. (Author)

  14. Improved Water and Energy Management Utilizing Seasonal to Interannual Hydroclimatic Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal to interannual climate forecasts provide valuable information for improving water and energy management. Given that the climatic attributes over these time periods are typically expressed as probabilistic information, we propose an adaptive water and energy management framework that uses probabilistic inflow forecasts to allocate water for uses with pre-specified reliabilities. To ensure that the system needs are not compromised due to forecast uncertainty, we propose uncertainty reduction using model combination and based on a probabilistic constraint in meeting the target storage. The talk will present findings from recent studies from various basins that include (a) role of multimodel combination in reducing the uncertainty in allocation (b) relevant system characteristics that improve the utility of forecasts, (c) significance of streamflow forecasts in promoting interbasin transfers and (d) scope for developing power demand forecasts utilizing temperature forecasts. Potential for developing seasonal nutrient forecasts using climate forecasts for supporting water quality trading will also be presented. Findings and synthesis from the panel discussion from the recently concluded AGU chapman conference on "Seaonal to Interannual Hydroclimatic Forecasts and Water Management" will also be summarized.

  15. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat; Wanasbodee Jindakarn; Sansroi Pornnapa

    2017-01-01

    Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. ...

  16. Conserving water in and applying solar power to haemodialysis: 'green dialysis' through wiser resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M

    2010-06-01

    Natural resources are under worldwide pressure, water and sustainable energy being the paramount issues. Haemodialysis, a water-voracious and energy-hungry healthcare procedure, thoughtlessly wastes water and leaves a heavy carbon footprint. In our service, 100 000 L/week of previously discarded reverse osmosis reject water--water which satisfies all World Health Organisation criteria for potable (drinking) water--no longer drains to waste but is captured for reuse. Reject water from the hospital-based dialysis unit provides autoclave steam for instrument sterilization, ward toilet flushing, janitor stations and garden maintenance. Satellite centre reject water is tanker-trucked to community sporting fields, schools and aged-care gardens. Home-based nocturnal dialysis patient reuse reject water for home domestic utilities, gardens and animal watering. Although these and other potential water reuse practices should be mandated through legislation for all dialysis services, this is yet to occur. In addition, we now are piloting the use of solar power for the reverse osmosis plant and the dialysis machines in our home dialysis training service. If previously attempted, these have yet to be reported. After measuring the power requirements of both dialytic processes and modelling the projected costs, a programme has begun to solar power all dialysis-related equipment in a three-station home haemodialysis training unit. Income-generation with the national electricity grid via a grid-share and reimbursement arrangement predicts a revenue stream back to the dialysis service. Dialysis services must no longer ignore the non-medical aspects of their programmes but plan, trial, implement and embrace 'green dialysis' resource management practices.

  17. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  18. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  19. Bottom-up perspectives of extreme event and climate change threats to water quality: Drinking water utilities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, J.; Klasic, M.; Fencl, A.; Lubell, M.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Baker, E.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme events impact water quality, which pose serious challenges for drinking water systems. Such extreme events, including wildfire, storm surge, and other weather-related extremes, are projected to increase under a changing climate. It remains unclear what climate change information can support water managers in preparing for more extreme events. Exploring this topic requires understanding the larger question: What is the role of scientific information in adapting to climate change? We present two parts of a three-year study geared to understand whether, where, why and in what way climate information (or the lack of) is used or needed to support long term water quality planning for extreme events. In 2015 we surveyed California drinking water utilities and found a wide range of extreme event/water quality issues, perspectives on the severity of climate change threats, drought impacts and trusted information sources relating to water quality concerns. Approximately 70% of 259 respondents had recently experienced extreme weather-related events that worsen or trigger water quality. Survey results informed development of a case study analysis to gain a more in-depth understanding of what type of - or when - extreme events information could support climate adaptation. Projections of extreme events are often not in a form that is useable for water quality planning. Relative to supply-related projections, water quality has received much less scientific attention, leaving it an assumed scientific information gap and need for management. The question remains whether filling this gap would help adaptation, whom it would help, and in what way. Based on interviews with water systems in Summer 2016, our case study analyses reinforce that extreme events threaten water quality in many ways; largely as secondary impacts of climate change. Secondary impacts involve disinfection byproducts, increasing salinity in the Delta, and the use of lower quality sources. The most common

  20. Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA): Planning for Climate Change at the Portland Water Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, K.; Campbell, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Portland Water Bureau has been studying the anticipated effects of climate change on its primary surface water source, the Bull Run Watershed, since the early 2000's. Early efforts by the bureau were almost exclusively reliant on outside expertise from climate modelers and researchers, particularly those at the Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at the University of Washington. Early work products from CIG formed the basis of the bureau's understanding of the most likely and consequential impacts to the watershed from continued GHG-caused warming. However, by mid-decade, as key supply and demand conditions for the bureau changed, it found it lacked the technical capacity and tools to conduct more refined and updated research to build on the outside analysis it had obtained. Beginning in 2010 through its participation in the Pilot Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) project, the bureau identified and began working to address the holes in its technical and institutional capacity by embarking on a process to assess and select a hydrologic model while obtaining downscaled climate change data to utilize within it. Parallel to the development of these technical elements, the bureau made investments in qualified staff to lead the model selection, development and utilization, while working to establish productive, collegial and collaborative relationships with key climate research staff at the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute (OCCRI), the University of Washington and the University of Idaho. This presentation describes the learning process of a major metropolitan area drinking water utility as its approach to addressing the complex problem of climate change evolves, matures, and begins to influence broader aspects of the organization's planning efforts.

  1. User Guide and Documentation for Five MODFLOW Ground-Water Modeling Utility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Litke, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents five utility programs designed for use in conjunction with ground-water flow models developed with the U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW ground-water modeling program. One program extracts calculated flow values from one model for use as input to another model. The other four programs extract model input or output arrays from one model and make them available in a form that can be used to generate an ArcGIS raster data set. The resulting raster data sets may be useful for visual display of the data or for further geographic data processing. The utility program GRID2GRIDFLOW reads a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flow terms for one (source) model grid and converts the flow values to input flow values for a different (target) model grid. The spatial and temporal discretization of the two models may differ. The four other utilities extract selected 2-dimensional data arrays in MODFLOW input and output files and write them to text files that can be imported into an ArcGIS geographic information system raster format. These four utilities require that the model cells be square and aligned with the projected coordinate system in which the model grid is defined. The four raster-conversion utilities are * CBC2RASTER, which extracts selected stress-package flow data from a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flows; * DIS2RASTER, which extracts cell-elevation data from a MODFLOW Discretization file; * MFBIN2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW binary output file of head or drawdown; and * MULT2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW Multiplier file.

  2. Utilizing MRI to measure the transcytolemmal water exchange rate for the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, James D.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.

    2001-05-01

    Understanding the exchange of water between the intra- and extracellular compartments of the brain is important both for understanding basic physiology and for the interpretation of numerous MRI results. However, due to experimental difficulties, this basic property has proven difficult to measure in vivo. In our experiments, we will track overall changes in the relaxation rate constant of water in the rat brain following the administration of gadoteridol, a relaxation agent, to the extracellular compartment. From these changes, we will utilize probability theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to infer the compartment specific water exchange and relaxation rate constants. Due to the correlated nature of these parameters and our inability to independently observe them, intelligent model selection is critical. Through analysis of simulated data sets, we refine our choice of model and method of data collection to optimize applicability to the in vivo situation.

  3. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  4. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  5. Water works, electric utilities, and cable television: Contrasting historical patterns of ownership and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation explicates some of the factors that have, in practice, shaped the choice and functioning of forms of government involvement in the provision of different goods and services. The inquiry focuses on the evolution of government involvement in three different urban public utility industries - water works, electric utilities, and cable television. Because they each employ fixed, specialized, and networked distribution systems, the three industries manifest similar natural monopoly forms of market failure. From similar beginnings, however, forms of government involvement in the three industries have evolved differently. In water works, the predominant trend has been to direct provision under municipal ownership; in electric utilities the trend has been toward continued private provision under state regulation; in cable television, franchise contracting has thus far survived, but in vitiated form. Detailed examinations of case studies as well as broad trend analyses are employed to help explain this outcome. It is found that neither direct competition between operating firms nor short-term contracting and recurrent bidding arrangements can be relied upon to consistently protect public interests in these services.

  6. The Key Components of Job Satisfaction in Malaysian Water Utility Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aimed to examine the impacts of employee’s rewards and employee’s motivation on employee’s job satisfaction between public and private water utility organization in Malaysia. Approach: A total of 689 employees from both sectors participated. While hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the relationship between employee’s rewards, employee’s motivation and employee’s job satisfaction, gap analysis was utilized to determine the significant differences on the levels of employee’s rewards, employee’s motivation and employee’s job satisfaction between both sectors. Results: The result revealed that (1 employee’s reward was positively related to motivation; and (2 both employee’s rewards and employee’s motivation were found to had positive significant influences on employees’ job satisfaction. The t-test result revealed that employees in public water utility organization scored significantly higher on the levels of employee’s rewards, motivation and job satisfaction. Conclusion: The interesting findings showed that there are other factors than rewards and motivation involved in job satisfaction. However, motivation seems to give more impact to job satisfaction as compared to rewards for both organizations.

  7. EPA RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX TO HELP EVALUATION OF CONTAMINATION THREATS & RESPONDING TO THREATS: MODULE 1-WATER UTILITY PLANNING GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water/Water Security Division have jointly developed a Response Protocol Toolbox (RPTB) to address the complex, multi-faceted challenges of a water utility's planning and response to intentional contamination of drinking wate...

  8. Testing and Results of Human Metabolic Simulation Utilizing Ultrasonic Nebulizer Technology for Water Vapor Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Matthew; Curley, Su

    2010-01-01

    Life support technology must be evaluated thoroughly before ever being implemented into a functioning design. A major concern during that evaluation is safety. The ability to mimic human metabolic loads allows test engineers to evaluate the effectiveness of new technologies without risking injury to any actual humans. The main function of most life support technologies is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor. As such any good human metabolic simulator (HMS) will mimic the human body s ability to produce these items. Introducing CO2 into a test chamber is a very straightforward process with few unknowns so the focus of this particular new HMS design was on the much more complicated process of introducing known quantities of H2O vapor on command. Past iterations of the HMS have utilized steam which is very hard to keep in vapor phase while transporting and injecting into a test chamber. Also steam adds large quantities of heat to any test chamber, well beyond what an actual human does. For the new HMS an alternative approach to water vapor generation was designed utilizing ultrasonic nebulizers as a method for creating water vapor. Ultrasonic technology allows water to be vibrated into extremely tiny pieces (2-5 microns) and evaporate without requiring additional heating. Doing this process inside the test chamber itself allows H2O vapor generation without the unwanted heat and the challenging process of transporting water vapor. This paper presents the design details as well as results of all initial and final acceptance system testing. Testing of the system was performed at a range of known human metabolic rates in both sea-level and reduced pressure environments. This multitude of test points fully defines the systems capabilities as they relate to actual environmental systems testing.

  9. Diel Production and Microheterotrophic Utilization of Dissolved Free Amino Acids in Waters Off Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Carlucci, A. F.; Craven, D. B.; Henrichs, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Diel patterns of dissolved free amino acid (DFAA) concentration and microheterotrophic utilization were examined in the spring and fall of 1981 in euphotic waters from the base of the mixed layer off the southern California coast. The average depths of the isotherms sampled were 19.2 m for spring and 9.0 m for fall. Total DFAA levels were generally higher in the spring than in the fall, 18 to 66 nM and 14 to 20 nM, respectively. Two daily concentration maxima and minima were observed for tota...

  10. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  11. Modeling Water Utility Investments and Improving Regulatory Policies using Economic Optimisation in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Water utilities in England and Wales are regulated natural monopolies called 'water companies'. Water companies must obtain periodic regulatory approval for all investments (new supply infrastructure or demand management measures). Both water companies and their regulators use results from least economic cost capacity expansion optimisation models to develop or assess water supply investment plans. This presentation first describes the formulation of a flexible supply-demand planning capacity expansion model for water system planning. The model uses a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation to choose the least-cost schedule of future supply schemes (reservoirs, desalination plants, etc.) and demand management (DM) measures (leakage reduction, water efficiency and metering options) and bulk transfers. Decisions include what schemes to implement, when to do so, how to size schemes and how much to use each scheme during each year of an n-year long planning horizon (typically 30 years). In addition to capital and operating (fixed and variable) costs, the estimated social and environmental costs of schemes are considered. Each proposed scheme is costed discretely at one or more capacities following regulatory guidelines. The model uses a node-link network structure: water demand nodes are connected to supply and demand management (DM) options (represented as nodes) or to other demand nodes (transfers). Yields from existing and proposed are estimated separately using detailed water resource system simulation models evaluated over the historical period. The model simultaneously considers multiple demand scenarios to ensure demands are met at required reliability levels; use levels of each scheme are evaluated for each demand scenario and weighted by scenario likelihood so that operating costs are accurately evaluated. Multiple interdependency relationships between schemes (pre-requisites, mutual exclusivity, start dates, etc.) can be accounted for by

  12. Effects of Operating Pressure on Energy-saving of Water Recycling Utilization with MVR system in Oil Extraction Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liansheng; Zhao, Yuanyang; Wang, Le; Xiao, Jun; Yang, Qichao; Liu, Guangbin; Tang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for the extraction of crude oil with high viscosity is injecting high temperature water vapor to the oil well. To save water consumption and achieve zero discharge, it is needed to separate and purify the water, which is mixed with oil, mud and other impurities. In this paper, the mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) system is analyzed and the parameters for analysis are based on a demonstration project on water recycling utilization in the Karamay crude oil ...

  13. Free-living amoebae, Legionella and Mycobacterium in tap water supplied by a municipal drinking water utility in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Jamerson, Melissa; Kaneshiro, Edna S

    2010-03-01

    Legionella and Mycobacterium can proliferate within free-living amoebae (FLA) where they are protected from disinfectants at concentrations that can kill bacteria but not protozoa. Despite effective treatment of drinking water, microbes can enter water utility distribution systems (DS) and hence the plumbing within building premises. Additionally, biofilm formation may account for the persistence of microbes in the DS. In the present study a domestic water tap in north-central United States (USA) was sampled in March and September 2007 and analysed for FLA, Legionella and Mycobacterium. Identification of organisms was determined by growth on specific culture media, light and electron microscopy, and amplification of DNA probes specific for each organism. In both the spring and fall samples, amoebae, Legionella and Mycobacterium were detected. However, Acanthamoeba was prominent in the spring sample whereas Vahlkampfia and Naegleria were the amoebae detected in the autumn. Bacterial proliferation in laboratory cultures was noticeably enhanced in the presence of amoebae and biofilms rapidly formed in mixed amoebae and bacteria cultures. It is hypothesized that temperature affected the dynamics of FLA species population structure within the DS and that pathogenic bacteria that proliferate within FLA, which are themselves opportunistic pathogens, pose dual public health risks.

  14. The impact of privatization on sustainability transitions : A comparative analysis of dynamic capabilities in three water utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieberherr, Eva; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ability of water utilities to contribute to sustainability transition processes. More specifically, we compare the capacity of utilities, embedded in purely public, mixed and largely private governance modes, to innovate. We employ dynamic capabilities as core indicators for

  15. The impact of privatization on sustainability transitions : A comparative analysis of dynamic capabilities in three water utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieberherr, Eva; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ability of water utilities to contribute to sustainability transition processes. More specifically, we compare the capacity of utilities, embedded in purely public, mixed and largely private governance modes, to innovate. We employ dynamic capabilities as core indicators for

  16. Risk management for drinking water safety in low and middle income countries - cultural influences on water safety plan (WSP) implementation in urban water utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Yahya Y; Parker, Alison; Smith, Jennifer A; Pollard, Simon J T

    2017-01-15

    We investigated cultural influences on the implementation of water safety plans (WSPs) using case studies from WSP pilots in India, Uganda and Jamaica. A comprehensive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=150 utility customers, n=32 WSP 'implementers' and n=9 WSP 'promoters'), field observations and related documents revealed 12 cultural themes, offered as 'enabling', 'limiting', or 'neutral', that influence WSP implementation in urban water utilities to varying extents. Aspects such as a 'deliver first, safety later' mind set; supply system knowledge management and storage practices; and non-compliance are deemed influential. Emergent themes of cultural influence (ET1 to ET12) are discussed by reference to the risk management, development studies and institutional culture literatures; by reference to their positive, negative or neutral influence on WSP implementation. The results have implications for the utility endorsement of WSPs, for the impact of organisational cultures on WSP implementation; for the scale-up of pilot studies; and they support repeated calls from practitioner communities for cultural attentiveness during WSP design. Findings on organisational cultures mirror those from utilities in higher income nations implementing WSPs - leadership, advocacy among promoters and customers (not just implementers) and purposeful knowledge management are critical to WSP success.

  17. Assessment of groundwater utilization for irrigating park trees under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Parks have a variety of functions for residents and are important for urban landscape planning. The healthy growth of urban park trees requires regular irrigation. To reduce the pressure of high groundwater levels and to avoid wasting groundwater resources, proper groundwater extraction for irrigating park trees in the Taipei Basin is regarded as a reciprocal solution of sustainable groundwater management and preserving excellent urban landscapes. Therefore, this study determines pristine groundwater use for irrigating park trees in the metropolitan Taipei Basin under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality. First, six hydrochemical parameters in groundwater associated with an irrigation water quality standard were collected from a 12-year survey. Upper, median and lower quartiles of the six hydrochemical parameters were obtained to establish three thresholds. According to the irrigation water quality standard, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to probabilistically evaluate the integration of the six hydrochemical parameters. Entropy was then applied to quantify the spatiotemporal uncertainty of the hydrochemical parameters. Finally, locations, which have high estimated probabilities for the median-quartile threshold and low local uncertainty, are suitable for pumping groundwater for irrigating park trees. The study results demonstrate that MVIK and entropy are capable of characterizing the spatiotemporal uncertainty of groundwater quality parameters and determining suitable parks of groundwater utilization for irrigation. Moreover, the upper, median and lower quartiles of hydrochemical parameters are served as three estimated thresholds in MVIK, which is robust to assessment predictions. Therefore, this study significantly improves the methodological application and limitation of MVIK for spatiotemporally analyzing environmental quality compared with the previous related works. Furthermore, the analyzed results indicate that 64

  18. Using multi-criteria decision analysis to assess the vulnerability of drinking water utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerin, Florent; Cool, Geneviève; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Gignac, Marc; Bouchard, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Outbreaks of microbiological waterborne disease have increased governmental concern regarding the importance of drinking water safety. Considering the multi-barrier approach to safe drinking water may improve management decisions to reduce contamination risks. However, the application of this approach must consider numerous and diverse kinds of information simultaneously. This makes it difficult for authorities to apply the approach to decision making. For this reason, multi-criteria decision analysis can be helpful in applying the multi-barrier approach to vulnerability assessment. The goal of this study is to propose an approach based on a multi-criteria analysis method in order to rank drinking water systems (DWUs) based on their vulnerability to microbiological contamination. This approach is illustrated with an application carried out on 28 DWUs supplied by groundwater in the Province of Québec, Canada. The multi-criteria analysis method chosen is measuring attractiveness by a categorical based evaluation technique methodology allowing the assessment of a microbiological vulnerability indicator (MVI) for each DWU. Results are presented on a scale ranking DWUs from less vulnerable to most vulnerable to contamination. MVI results are tested using a sensitivity analysis on barrier weights and they are also compared with historical data on contamination at the utilities. The investigation demonstrates that MVI provides a good representation of the vulnerability of DWUs to microbiological contamination.

  19. UTILIZATION OF AGARWOOD DISTILLATION WASTE IN OILWELL CEMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON FREE WATER AND POROSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sauki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this research is to utilize the waste produced by distillation process of Agarwood oil and convert it into a profitable oilwell cement additive. Common problem during oilwell cementing is free wáter separation. This problem could weaken cement at the top, gas migration problem and non uniform density of cement slurry that are even worst in cementing deviated well. Another concern on cementing design is the porosity of the hardened cement. If the cement is too porous, it can lead to gas migration and casing corrosion. All tests were conducted according to API Specification-10B. Free water test was determined at different concentrations of Agarwood Waste Additive (AWA, different inclination angles and different temperatures. Based on the findings, it was observed that zero free water was produced when 2% BWOC of AWA was used at all angles. The findings also revealed that AWA can maintain good thermal stability as it could maintain zero free water at increased temperature up to 60˚C.  The porosity of AWA cement was comparable with standard API neat cement as the porosity did not differ much at 2% BWOC of AWA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the AWA is suitable to  be used as an additive in oil well cement (OWC  with 2% BWOC is taken as the optimum concentration.

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF SIX VIRULENCE FACTORS IN AEROMONAS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM US DRINKING WATER UTILITIES: A PCR IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys of finished drinking water conducted by the U.S. EPA during 2000-2001, revealed 7 out of 16 water utilities encompassing four states, were contaminated with Aeromonas species. A Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) based genetic characterization determined the presence of six...

  1. Utilizing Land:Water Isopleths for Storm Surge Model Development in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverd, C. G.; Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Braud, D.; Peele, H.; Twilley, R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) Land:Water (L:W) isopleths (Gagliano et al., 1970, 1971) can be used to better understand coastal flood risk from hurricanes than simple estimates of land loss (Twilley et al., 2016). The major goal of this study is to develop a methodology that utilizes L:W isopleths to simplify a detailed present day storm surge model of coastal Louisiana. A secondary goal is to represent marsh fragmentation via L:W isopleths for modeling (for example) storm surge. Isopleths of L:W were derived for the year 2010 and include 1%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 99% (1% being mostly water and 99% being mostly land). Thirty-six models were developed via permutations of two isopleths selected with no repetition between 1% and 99%. The selected two isopleths result in three polygons which represent "open water/transition", "marsh", and "land". The ADvaced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) code (Luettich and Westerink, 2006) was used to perform storm surge simulations. Hydrologic basins, specifically Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC12s), were used to quantify the water surface elevation, depth, volume, area and retention time across south Louisiana for each storm simulation and to provide a basin by basin comparison for the detailed model vs. simplified model results. This methodology aids in identifying the simplified model that most closely resembles the detailed model. It can also be used to develop comparable storm surge models for historical eras prior to the advent of modern remote sensing technology for the purpose of storm surge analysis throughout time.

  2. Moving Toward Sustainability: Sustainable and Effective Practices for Creating Your Own Water Utility Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document builds on the Effective Utility Management framework. It provides utilities of various sizes with a series of proven and effective practices to help achieve the outcomes in Effective Utility Management.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers

  4. LASER TRIGGERED GAS SWITCHES UTILIZING BEAM TRANSPORT THROUGH 1 MO-cm DEIONIZED WATER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Lehr, Jane [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Blickem, James R.; Wallace, Zachariah R.; Anaya, Victor Jr; Corley, John P; Lott, John; Hodge, Keith; Zameroski, Nathan D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2005-11-01

    We report on the successful attempts to trigger high voltage pressurized gas switches by utilizing beam transport through 1 MO-cm deionized water. The wavelength of the laser radiation was 532 nm. We have investigated Nd: YAG laser triggering of a 6 MV, SF6 insulated gas switch for a range of laser and switch parameters. Laser wavelength of 532 nm with nominal pulse lengths of 10 ns full width half maximum (FWHM) were used to trigger the switch. The laser beam was transported through 67 cm-long cell of 1 MO-cm deionized water constructed with anti reflection UV grade fused silica windows. The laser beam was then focused to form a breakdown arc in the gas between switch electrodes. Less than 10 ns jitter in the operation of the switch was obtained for laser pulse energies of between 80-110 mJ. Breakdown arcs more than 35 mm-long were produced by using a 70 cm focusing optic.

  5. Phytotechnological purification of water and bio energy utilization of plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stom, D. I.; Gruznych, O. V.; Zhdanova, G. O.; Timofeeva, S. S.; Kashevsky, A. V.; Saksonov, M. N.; Balayan, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of using the phytomass of aquatic plants as the substrate in the microbial fuel cells and selection of microorganisms suitable for the generation of electricity on this substrate. The conversion of chemical energy of phytomass of aquatic plants to the electrical energy was carried out in a microbial fuel cells by biochemical transformation. As biological agents in the generation of electricity in the microbial fuel cells was used commercial microbial drugs “Doctor Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1”. The results of evaluation of the characteristics of electrogenic (amperage, voltage) and the dynamics of the growth of microorganisms in the microbial fuel cells presents in the experimental part. As a source of electrogenic microorganisms is possible to use drugs “Dr. Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1” was established. The possibility of utilization of excess phytomass of aquatic plants, formed during the implementation of phytotechnological purification of water, in microbial fuel cells, was demonstrated. The principal possibility of creating hybrid phytotechnology (plant-microbe cells), allowing to obtain electricity as a product, which can be used to ensure the operation of the pump equipment and the creation of a full cycle of resource-saving technologies for water treatment, was reviewed.

  6. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. Sediment soil has been used as substituted material in ball clay for the first group, and substituted in kaolin for the second group. The specimens of each formula are formed by uniaxial pressing at 100 bar of size 50×100×7 mm. Then they have been sintered at two different temperatures, 1200°C and 1250°C, with heating rate 400° C/ hr and soaking for 30 minutes. The result reveals that the suitable formula for ceramics vitreous china is No. 2_4 of Group 2 with sintering temperature 1250°C. Its mixture consists of 0% kaolin, 35% ball clay, 30% feldspar, 20% silica sand and 15% sediment soil. The properties of this formula are 9.4% shrinkage, 9.39 MPa of bending strength, 6.34×10−6/K coefficient of thermal expansion, and 0.66% water absorption.

  7. Tradeoffs in Risk and Return of Financial Hedging Solutions to Mitigate Drought-Related Financial Risks for Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.; Characklis, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    Financial hedging solutions have been examined as tools for effectively mitigating water scarcity related financial risks for water utilities, and have become more prevalent as conservation (resulting in reduced revenues) and water transfers (resulting in increased costs) play larger roles in drought management. Individualized financial contracts (i.e. designed for a single utility) provide evidence of the potential benefits of financial hedging. However, individualized contracts require substantial time and information to develop, limiting their widespread implementation. More generalized contracts have also shown promise, and would allow the benefits of risk pooling to be more effectively realized, resulting in less expensive contracts. Risk pooling reduces the probability of an insurer making payouts that deviate significantly from the mean, but given that the financial risks of drought are spatially correlated amongst utilities, these more extreme "fat tail" risks remain. Any group offering these hedging contracts, whether a third-party insurer or a "mutual" comprised of many utilities, will need to balance the costs (i.e. additional risk) and benefits (i.e. returns) of alternative approaches to managing the extreme risks (e.g. through insurance layers). The balance of these different approaches will vary depending on the risk pool being considered, including the number, size and exposure of the participating utilities. This work first establishes a baseline of the tradeoffs between risk and expected return in insuring against the financial risks of water scarcity without alternative hedging approaches for water utilities across all climate divisions of the United States. Then various scenarios are analyzed to provide insight into how to maximize returns for risk pooling portfolios at various risk levels through balancing different insurance layers and hedging approaches. This analysis will provide valuable information for designing optimal financial risk

  8. Energy recovery from waste glycerol by utilizing thermal water vapor plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamošiūnas, Andrius; Valatkevičius, Pranas; Gimžauskaitė, Dovilė; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Mėčius, Vladas; Aikas, Mindaugas

    2017-04-01

    Glycerol, considered as a waste feedstock resulting from biodiesel production, has received much attention in recent years due to its properties, which offer to recover energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a thermal water vapor plasma for waste (crude) glycerol conversion to synthesis gas, or syngas (H2 + CO). In parallel of crude glycerol, a pure glycerol (99.5%) was used as a reference material in order to compare the concentrations of the formed product gas. A direct current (DC) arc plasma torch stabilized by a mixture of argon/water vapor was utilized for the effective glycerol conversion to hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. It was found that after waste glycerol treatment, the main reaction products were gases with corresponding concentrations of H2 50.7%, CO 23.53%, CO2 11.45%, and CH4 3.82%, and traces of C2H2 and C2H6, which concentrations were below 0.5%. The comparable concentrations of the formed gas products were obtained after pure glycerol conversion-H2 46.4%, CO 26.25%, CO2 11.3%, and CH4 4.7%. The use of thermal water vapor plasma producing synthesis gas is an effective method to recover energy from both crude and pure glycerol. The performance of the glycerol conversion system was defined in terms of the produced gas yield, the carbon conversion efficiency, the cold gas efficiency, and the specific energy requirements.

  9. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  10. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply.

  11. Some Factors Influencing Effective Utilization of Drinking Water Facilities: Women, Income, and Health in Rural North Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendie, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.

  12. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  13. A method to improve the utilization of GNSS observation for water vapor tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y. B.; Zhao, Q. Z.; Zhang, B.

    2016-01-01

    Existing water vapor tomographic methods use Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals penetrating the entire research area while they do not consider signals passing through its sides. This leads to the decreasing use of observed satellite signals and allows for no signals crossing from the bottom or edge areas especially for those voxels in research areas of interest. Consequently, the accuracy of the tomographic results for the bottom of a research area, and the overall reconstructed accuracy do not reach their full potential. To solve this issue, an approach which uses GPS data with both signals that pass the side and top of a research area is proposed. The advantages of proposed approach include improving the utilization of existing GNSS observations and increasing the number of voxels crossed by satellite signals. One point should be noted that the proposed approach needs the support of radiosonde data inside the tomographic region. A tomographic experiment was implemented using observed GPS data from the Continuously Operating Reference System (CORS) Network of Zhejiang Province, China. The comparison of tomographic results with data from a radiosonde shows that the root mean square error (RMS), bias, mean absolute error (MAE), and standard deviation (SD) of the proposed approach are superior to those of the traditional method.

  14. Lake Water Quality Indexing To Identify Suitable Sites For Household Utility: A Case Study Jambhulwadi Lake;Pune(MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aher D. N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water management practices need a fresh look in order to avoid water crisis in the next two decades. This essentially requires looking for proper management practices for growing economy and population. The water resources of the Lake basins remain almost constant while demand of water for various purposes is increasing. Water pollution as a corollary of accelerated industrial growth has drawn concerns over public health and environment. Water is required for different purposes like domestic, agricultural, hydro-power, navigation, recreation, etc. Utilization in all these diverse uses of water should be optimized and an awareness of water as a inadequate resource should be fostered. Water quality index (WQI is precious and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. This paper elaborates on the WQI concepts and current scenario of Jambhulwadi Lake which will help in future as natural potable groundwater resource. It also focuses on case scenario of calculating WQI using Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index an example dataset. The quality of water way to evaluate by testing various physicochemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS,Alkalinity Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD,Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Nitrites, Phosphate, Conductivity.

  15. Studies evaluating the applicability of utilizing the same concentration techniques for the detection of protozoan parasites and viruses in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available was studied using tap water seeded with Giardia muris cysts and compared to methods designed for the detection of protozoan parasites. Recovery of cysts utilizing 1.2 mu m membrane filters was 11.1% (4.5-23%) compared to 11.6% (2.7-25.5%) with ultra...

  16. Controls on stand transpiration and soil water utilization along a tree density gradient in a Neotropical savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; William A. Hoffmann; Frederick C. Meinzer; Augusto C. Franco; Thomas Giambelluca; Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Environmental controls of stand-level tree transpiration (E) and seasonal patterns of soil water utilization were studied in five central Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) sites differing in tree density. Tree density of Cerrado vegetation in the study area consistently changes along topographic gradients from ~1,000 trees ha-1 in open savannas (campo...

  17. Prospects for wider energetic utilization of subgeothermal water resources: Eastern Serbia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive worldwide usage of fossil energy sources causes high pollution and contributes to global warming. Hence, achieving energy independence by stimulating efficient use of energy and environmentally friendly exploitation of renewable sources is a main orientation of European countries. Geothermal energy is generally treated as a renewable and inexhaustible energy source. Nonetheless, direct use of low enthalpy subgeothermal resources, i.e. groundwater of 30.C or lower, for heating is commonly viewed as economically unjustified. To enable its usage, large panel surfaces or a high-temperature heat pump with excellent efficiency is required. The development of a cascade type heat pump and its wide application would enable more efficient utilization of widely available and easy replenished groundwater sources with temperatures of 10-30.C. The hydrogeological conditions in eastern Serbia are particularly favourable for exploitation of subgeothermal resources due to rich aquifer systems and notable terrestrial heat flow formed into the main geo-structures of the region (Carpathian-Balkan arch and Dachian basin. More intensive exploitation of subgeothermal sources additionally justifies the existence of a number of urbanized small and medium-size cities with a heating infrastructure already developed and centralized. Sustainable use of groundwater resources should be followed by thermal reconstruction of the previously constructed buildings as well as new legislation which supports and encourages development of renewable energy sources. It is estimated that the total potential thermal power which can be generated from subgeothermal waters in the study area is around 33 MWt, which corresponds to some 16 % of the total heat requirements.

  18. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling.

  19. The Stady of Legislation on the Utilization of Domestic Sea Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗英霞

    2014-01-01

    The contradiction between shortage of water resource and lack of legislation for using seawater as domestic water was revealed. We started our work from present situation of legislation for using seawater as domestic water. Necessity and feasibility of legislation for using seawater as domestic water were explored which contribute to the healthy development of domestic seawater industry.

  20. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  1. IFC to CityGML Transformation Framework for Geo-Analysis: A Water Utility Network Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijazi, I.; Ehlers, M.; Zlatanova, S.; Isikdag, U.

    2009-01-01

    The development of semantic 3D city models has allowed for new approaches to town planning and urban management (Benner et al. 2005) such as emergency and catastrophe planning, checking building developments, and utility networks. Utility networks inside buildings are composed of pipes and cables

  2. Development of Chengdu and sustainable utilization of the ancient Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; You, J.; Yang, P.; Chai, X.

    2015-05-01

    The Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project is a great water irrigation works in Chinese cultural history, which led the Min River water to the vast Chengdu Plain, and created fertile and pretty "land of abundance". Now Chengdu is facing increased water demand stress due mainly to rapid urbanization. This paper first analyses the available water resources of Chengdu based on historical hydrological data from 1964 to 2008. The results show that the average annual water resources were 8.9 billion m3 in 1986 and 7.9 billion m3 in 2008 under various environmental conditions. The future tendency of water demand in city development planning is predicted by the Policy Dialogue Model (PODIUM). Finally, the strategies for water resources exploitation accompanying the sustainable development pattern are studied. The result illustrates that rational and careful management are required to balance the gap between water supply and demand

  3. Development of Water Supply and Billing Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  4. Modelling Water Supply-Billing and Collection Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  5. An approach to link water resource management with landscape art to enhance its aesthetic appeal, ecological utility and social benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anita; Sen, Somnath; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Landscape art or land art is the discourse of scientific application of artistic skill to integrate man-made structures with the natural landscape for planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of natural and built environment. It does beautification of the landscape enhancing its utility for habitats. Availability of water with acceptable quality is crucial for economic growth, social peace and equality and of course for environmental sustainability. Development of new and growth of existing urban and suburban units are obvious. It postulates the increase of population density and percent of the impervious area in an urban unit. The demand for water is increasing with progressive concentration of population, the volume and velocity of surface runoff increase and the travel time decreases. At the same time, an increase in the volume of gray water not only contaminate water bodies, it also reduces the quantity of available freshwater transforming a portion of blue and green water to gray one and would intensify the pressure on water resources of the area. Therefore, to meet the incremental pressure of demand for and pollution of water collection, treatment and reuse of wastewater, both sewage and storm water, are on the requirement to improve urban water security. People must be concerned not to stifle urban lives with concrete; rather must provide all basic amenities for achieving a higher standard of life than the previous one with the essence of natural green spaces. The objective of the study is to propose a conceptual design and planning guidelines for developing urban and suburban drainage network and reuse of surface runoff and sewage water utilizing less used natural water bodies, such as paleo-channels or lakes or moribund channels as retention or detention basin. In addition to wastewater management, the proposal serves to promote the aesthetics of environmental engagement, ecological utility and restoration of moribund channels

  6. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, Jenna N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martino, Louis E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  7. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  8. Process and utility water requirements for cellulosic ethanol production processes via fermentation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing need of additional water resources for energy production is a growing concern for future economic development. In technology development for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks, a detailed assessment of the quantity and quality of water required, and the ...

  9. Process and utility water requirements for cellulosic ethanol production processes via fermentation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing need of additional water resources for energy production is a growing concern for future economic development. In technology development for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks, a detailed assessment of the quantity and quality of water required, and the ...

  10. UTILIZING INFORMATION COLLECTED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Water Act was established to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters". Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency collects information from each state regarding the intended ...

  11. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions (SC

  12. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  13. Experimental performance of a waste heat recovery and utilization system with a looped water-in-steel heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, M.H.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.S.H.; El-Kalay, A.K. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    An experimental facility is described for the recovery, by means of heat-pipes, of waste-heat from exhaust gases, and the utilization of the recovered energy to cool ambient air. To this end, heat of combustion gases, generated in a stainless-steel combustion chamber, is recovered from the stack by means of a heat-pipe system. The recovered heat is utilized to run a modified commercial aqua-ammonia absorption chiller. Chilled water from the chiller is supplied to a fan-coil type cooling tunnel to cool the intake air of a (conceptual) gas turbine engine to boost its performance. It is concluded from test results that the experimental facility performs well, and that it behaves as predicted by modeling and simulation studies. The system is able to extract between 70 and 93% of the technically recoverable energy from exhaust gases, and utilizes the extracted energy to cool air. (Author)

  14. Effect of a condensation utilizer on the operation of steam and hot-water gas-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Supranov, V. M.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Luning, B.

    2015-05-01

    Various designs for condensation utilizers of the low-grade heat of furnace gases that are constructed based on an open-type heat exchanger are considered. Computational investigations are carried out for the effect of the condensation utilizer with tempering and moistening of air on the operation of steam and hot-water boilers burning natural gas. The investigations are performed based on the predeveloped adequate calculating models of the steam and hot-water boilers in a Boiler Designer program complex. Investigation results for TGM-96B and PTVM-120 boilers are given. The enhancement of the operation efficiency of the condensation utilizer can be attained using a design with tempering and moistening of air supplied to combustion that results in an insignificant increase in the temperature of waste gases. This has no effect on the total operation efficiency of the boiler and the condenser unit, because additional losses with waste gases are compensated owing to the operation of the last. The tempering and moistening of air provide a substantial decrease in the temperature in the zone of active combustion and shortening the nitrogen oxide emission. The computational investigations show that the premoistening of air supplied to combustion makes the technical and economic efficiency of boilers operating with the Condensation Utilizer no worse.

  15. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  16. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  17. The Radiological Hygienic Assessment of the Sources of Utility and Drinking Water Supply for the Population of Khakasia Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pivovarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the hygienic assessment of the sources of utility and drinking water for the Khakasia population regarding radiation protection indicators. The results. Annually over 50% of studied water samples of the utility and drinking water sources for the republic’s population do not comply with the regulatory requirements on specific total alpha –activity ( Aa. This value in the samples varies from 0.03 to 5 Bq/kg. Water samples of utility and drinking water supply sources with the exceedance of limit levels on Alfa – activity were pinpointed in Sorsk, Prigorsk, Verhnyaya Sogra water intake ( Abakan , Ordzhonikidze, Shirinsk, Bogradsk, Ust’ –Abakan, Altaisk, Beisk, Toshtypsk, Askizsk districts of the republic. For Betaactivity the exceedances of limit levels were not found. High alpha-activity levels are attributed to the natural radionuclides 238U and 234U. On the annual basis water samples from utility and drinking water supply sources display the growing amount of intervention level exceedances on 222Rn. The radon-222 specific activity in the samples varies from 6.0 to 170 Bq/kg. The ratio of the sum of natural radionuclides’ specific activities’ ratios to the corresponding intervention levels is below 1.0 in Ordzhenikidzevsk, Bogradsk, Ust’-Abakan, Shirinsk, Toshtypsk, Askizsk districts, Sorsk town, Prigorsk township, Verkhnaya Sogra water intake ( Abakan . This means that radiological protection measures are not necessary for those territories in present time. In Beisk and Altaisk districts of the republic, the sum of natural radionuclides’ specific activities’ ratios to the corresponding intervention levels is above 1.0 (the values are in the range of 1.02 – 1.2 . The average annual individual effective doses for population internal exposure from drinking water natural radionuclides in Khakasia Republic exceed twofold the average levels across Russia. In Beisk and Altaisk districts, the

  18. Utilization of UV radiation for water disinfection in solar system reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Verčimáková

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Water disinfection by ultraviolet radiation is a modern ecological method of pure water disinfection without using any chemicalsubstances. This way of disinfection effectively kills undesirable microorganisms in water and at the same time do not change physicaland chemical properties of water. Ultraviolet radiation that is needed for disinfection could be generated by various types ofoptoelectronic components.Usest one are special neon tubes modified for emitting UV radiation, halogen light bulbs which due tothe silicon glass are able to produce much more UVR than classical light bulbs and LED sources, which are unable to generatesufficient level of UVR and therefore they are inappropriate.

  19. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES UNDER COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to develop technologies for processing geothermal brine produced with the extraction of oil as well as to solve environmental problems in the region.Methods. In order to determine the chemical composition and radioactivity of the geothermal water and solid samples, we used atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology was made on the basis of experimental studies.Results. In the geothermal water, eight radionuclides were recognized and quantified with the activity of 87 ± 5 Bq / dm3. For the processing of this water to produce lithium carbonate and other components we propose a technological scheme, which provides a step of water purification from radio-nuclides. As a result of aeration and alkalinization, we can observe deactivation and purification of the geothermal water from mechanical impurities, iron ions, hydrogen carbonates and organic substances. Water treatment allows recovering lithium carbonate, magnesite caustic powder and salt from geothermal water. The mother liquors produced during manufacturing operations meet the requirements for the water suitable for waterflooding of oil reservoirs and can be injected for maintaining the reservoir pressure of the deposits.Conclusion. The implementation of the proposed processing technology of mineralized geothermal water produced with the extraction of oil in the Northern Dagestan will contribute to extend the life of the oil fields and improve the environmental problems. It will also allow import substitution in Russia for lithium carbonate and edible salt.

  20. Technologies for Safe Water Supply in Arsenic Affected Villages of Bangladesh Utilizing a Pedal Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Wahidul K.; Leslie, Greg

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents information on the socio-techno-economic aspects of a water purification system for the arsenic contaminated villages of Bangladesh. The proposed system which is based on hollow fiber membranes and granular activated carbon columns can be used to harvest potable water from ponds without many of the problems inherent in the conventional pond sand filters. This paper also examines the possible application of human operated pedal pump, instead of diesel or electricity driven pump, for pumping water from ponds to overcome limitations in existing water technologies in the arsenic-contaminated villages in Bangladesh. A market model of this technology has been suggested that allows the rural poor to access to safe water at affordable monthly rate.

  1. 基于水联网及智慧水利提高水资源效能%Developing the internet of water to prompt water utilization efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠静; 王光谦; 王建华; 王浩

    2013-01-01

    针对水资源供需系统的“动态性、关联性、预期性、不确定性”,以信息技术当前快速发展和应用的物联网理论与技术为基础,提出了水联网及智慧水利概念:其总体架构是集物理水网、虚拟水网和市场水网一体的现代化水资源系统;其核心特征是实时感知、水信互联、过程跟踪、智能处理;其关键技术是基于云技术的监测、计算和服务,基于多水源高效能的智慧调度,基于多通道优拓扑的精准投递;其核心目标准确预报、精准配送和高效管理,全面提高水资源效能,促进我国水资源高效利用水平的跨越式提升.%Aimed at the characteristics of the water resources supply and demand system, the concept of internet of water and smart water is proposed which is based on the fast development and application of theory and technology on the internet of things. The general frameworkof internet of water is the modernized water resources system integrated with physical, virtual and market network of water. The core functions are online sensing, interconnecting of water and information, process tracking and smart handling. The key techniques are the cloud technology based monitoring, computing and serving, the multi — water resources and higher efficiency based smart regulation, the multi - channel and optimal topology based precise water delivery. Finally , the primal objective is the accurate prediction, precise delivery and efficient management of water resources, in order to fully improve the efficiency of water utilization and promote the rapidly process of effective water resources utilization level in our country.

  2. Environmental diagnostic analysis of ground water bacteria and their involvement in utilization of aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wear, J.E. Jr.

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that select functional groups of bacteria from pristine sites have an innate ability to degrade synthetic aromatics that often contaminate groundwater environments,due to exposure to naturally occurring recalcitrant aromatics in their environment. This study demonstrates that subsurface microbial communities are capable of utilizing lignin and humic acid breakdown products. Utilizers of these compounds were found to be present in most all the wells tested. Even the deepest aquifer tested had utilizers present for all six of the aromatics tested. Highest counts for the aromatics tested were observed with the naturally occurring breakdown products of either lignin or humic acid. Carboxylic acids were found to be an important sole carbon source for groundwater bacteria possibly explained by the fact that they are produced by the oxidative cleavage of aromatic ring structures. The carbohydrate sole carbon sources that demonstrated the greatest densities were ones commonly associated with humics. This study indicates that utilization of naturally occurring aromatic compounds in the subsurface is an important nutritional source for groundwater bacteria. In addition, it suggests that adaptation to naturally occurring recalcitrant substrates is the origin of degradative pathways for xenobiotic compounds with analogous structure. This work has important implications for in situ bioremediation as a method of environmental cleanup.

  3. 化学水处理系统自用水回收利用%Chemical Water Treatment and Recovery for Water Utilization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁育亭; 刘政修

    2014-01-01

    According to the importance of water resource and the reality of the lack of analysis of chemical use, water recycling necessity. According to the typical chemical water treatment process, analysis of chemical water treatment system for water quality, water use rate. The chemical water treatment system for water (chemical pretreatment system and chemical osmosis equipment) should pay attention to the problem of recovery and utilization. The company of chemical water treatment system process, chemical water treatment system for the calculation of water, on the basis of chemical water treatment system for water quality, water quantity, in accordance with the“cascade use, decontamination triage”principle, established the system of chemical water treatment for water recycling and reuse scheme, and to the social and economic benefits the analysis.%依据水资源重要性及严重匮乏的现实情况,分析了化学自用水回收利用必要性。根据典型化学水处理工艺,分析了化学水处理系统自用水质量、自用水率。介绍了化学水处理系统自用水(化学预处理系统及化学反渗透设备)回收利用应该注意的问题。介绍了公司化学水处理系统工艺流程,计算了化学水处理系统自用水量,依据化学水处理系统自用水水质、水量,按照“梯级使用、清污分流”的原则,制订了化学水处理系统自用水分类回收和重复利用方案,并对社会及经济效益进行了分析。

  4. A systems approach to water recovery testing for space life support - Initial biomedical results from the ECLSS Water Recovery Test and plans for testbed utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aten, Laurie A.; Crump, William J.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Among the challenges of designing and constructing Space Station Freedom is the development of the water system. A review of past efforts in reclaiming waste water in enclosed environments reveals that there are many gaps in the biomedical understanding of this process. Some of the key uncertainties of human interaction with a closed water system include determining potential contaminants and establishing safe levels of multiple compounds in the enclosed system of Space Station. Another uncertainty is the microbial constituency of such a system and what impact it could have on crew health and performance. The use of iodine as the passive biocide may have both an indirect and direct impact on the crew. In this paper the initial results of the Water Recovery Test are reviewed from a biomedical perspective, revealing areas where more information is needed to develop the ECLSS water system. By including the approach of 'man as a subsystem', consideration is given to how man interacts with the total water system. Taking this systems approach to providing the crew with a safe source of water gives useful insight into the most efficient design and utilization of closed system testbeds.

  5. The utility of gravity and water-level monitoring at alluvial aquifer wells in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells in southern Arizona indicate that water-level change might not be a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer systems. One reason is that water levels in wells that are screened across single or multiple aquifers might not represent the hydraulic head and storage change in a local unconfined aquifer. Gravity estimates of aquifer-storage change can be approximated as a one-dimensional feature except near some withdrawal wells and recharge sources. The aquifer storage coefficient is estimated by the linear regression slope of storage change (estimated using gravity methods) and water-level change. Nonaquifer storage change that does not percolate to the aquifer can be significant, greater than 3 ??Gal, when water is held in the root zone during brief periods following extreme rates of precipitation. Monitor-ing of storage change using gravity methods at wells also can improve understanding of local hydrogeologic conditions. In the study area, confined aquifer conditions are likely at three wells where large water-level variations were accompanied by little gravity change. Unconfined conditions were indicated at 15 wells where significant water-level and gravity change were positively linearly correlated. Good positive linear correlations resulted in extremely large specific-yield values, greater than 0.35, at seven wells where it is likely that significant ephemeral streamflow infiltration resulted in unsaturated storage change. Poor or negative linear correlations indicate the occurrence of confined, multiple, or perched aquifers. Monitoring of a multiple compressible aquifer system at one well resulted in negative correlation of rising water levels and subsidence-corrected gravity change, which suggests that water-level trends at the well are not a good indicatior of overall storage change. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  6. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  7. Utility of DMSP-SSM/I for integrated water vapour over the Indian seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Mahajan

    2001-09-01

    Recent algorithms for Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP-SSM/I) satellite data are used for estimating integrated water vapour over the Indian seas. Integrated water vapour obtained from these algorithms is compared with that derived from radiosonde observations at Minicoy and Port Blair islands. Algorithm-3 of Schlussel and Emery (1990) performed best. On the basis of this algorithm, distribution of integrated water vapour is determined during the monsoon depression (22nd{27th July, 1992) that formed over the Bay of Bengal.

  8. Utilizing Earth Observations for Reaching Sustainable Development Goals in Water, Sanitation and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Hasan, M. A.; Nusrat, F.; Jutla, A.; Huq, A.; Alam, M.; Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals call for universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water, improvement of water quality, and adequate and equitable sanitation for all, with special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations (Goal 6). In addition, the world community also aims to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other infectious diseases (Goal 3). Water and sanitation-related diseases remain the leading causes of death in children under five, mostly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, due to diarrheal diseases linked to poor sanitation and hygiene. Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the global population and is projected to rise substantially. More than 80 per cent of wastewater resulting from human activities is also discharged into rivers or sea without any treatment and poor water quality controls. As a result, around 1.8 billion people globally are still forced to use a source of drinking water that is fecally contaminated. Earth observation techniques provide the most effective and encompassing tool to monitor both regional and local scale changes in water quality and quantity, impacts of droughts and flooding, and water resources vulnerabilities in delta regions around the globe. University of Rhode Island, along with partners in the US and Bangladesh, is using satellite remote sensing datasets and earth observation techniques to develop a series of tools for surveillance, analysis and decision support for various government, academic, and non-government stakeholder organizations in South-Asia to achieve sustainable development goals in 1) providing safe water and sanitation access in vulnerable regions through safe water resources mapping, 2) providing increasing access to medicine and vaccines through estimation of disease burden and

  9. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  10. PATTERNS UTILIZED IN THE SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATER FLOW AND THE TRANSPORTATION OF POLLUTANTS IN THE BAHLUI DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. – Patterns utilized in the simulation of underground water flow and the transportation of pollutants in the Bahlui drainage basin. In the actual context of accelerate economic development, the excessive exploatation of water resources from the underground and the contamination of these with different water pollutants has become a major problem which has enetered the attention of many researchers. For the evaluation of an underground water flow and pollutants transport sistem we have chosen the package of programs MODFLOW which includes a whole series of applications,such as MOC3D, MT3D, MT3DMS, PEST, UCODE, PMPATH, which allow simulations and multiple recalibrations of the capacity of recharging of the aquifers, the flowing of the water towards wells and drillings the transport of a pollutant agent in the underground or the evaluation of the exchange of water between the hidrographic network and aquifers. The sistem targets both the evaluation of the modelation of the underground flowing and the simulation of a punctual polluation of the canvas of groundwater scenery, in the meadow of the river Bahlui, west from Letcani village.

  11. Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Water and Wastewater Utility Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guidebook is designed to introduce rural and small water and wastewater systems to the key areas of effectively managed systems. It provides background information on ten key management areas, instruction, and assistance.

  12. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  13. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auriol, Emmanuelle [Toulouse School of Economics, 21 Allees de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Blanc, Aymeric [Agence Francaise de Developpement, 5 rue Roland Barthes, 75598 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  14. Utilization of plant-based natural coagulants as future alternatives towards sustainable water clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sook Yan; Prasad, Krishna Murthy Nagendra; Wu, Ta Yeong; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2014-11-01

    Rapid industrial developments coupled with surging population growth have complicated issues dealing with water scarcity as the quest for clean and sanitized water intensifies globally. Existing fresh water supplies could be contaminated with organic, inorganic and biological matters that have potential harm to the society. Turbidity in general is a measure of water cloudiness induced by such colloidal and suspended matters and is also one of the major criteria in raw water monitoring to meet the stipulated water quality guidelines. Turbidity reduction is often accomplished using chemical coagulants such as alum. The use of alum is widely associated with potential development of health issues and generation of voluminous sludge. Natural coagulants that are available in abundance can certainly be considered in addressing the drawbacks associated with the use of chemical coagulants. Twenty one types of plant-based natural coagulants categorized as fruit waste and others are identified and presented collectively with their research summary in this review. The barriers and prospects of commercialization of natural coagulants in near future are also discussed.

  15. Hot water use of a utility building tested by measurements; Warmwaterverbruik utiliteitsbouw getoetst met metingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse-Quirijns, E.J.; Beverloo, H.; Blokker, E.J.M. [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    In the Netherlands, several guidelines exist to design indoor water mains and hot water installations. They often lead to larger dimensions with possible negative consequences for energy and hygiene. Improved values for the required design parameters can be derived from realistic daily water demand patterns. Simdeum is a simulation model for modelling the water use of various types of both residential buildings and non-residential buildings. This paper shows, that the simulated daily patterns of cold and hot water of various standardised buildings correlate well with measured patterns on a per second base. Simdeum provides insight in the hot water use of several buildings. Thus, the simulated patterns form a solid basis for new design rules. [Dutch] Voor de dimensionering van waterleidinginstallaties en de keuze van warmwaterinstallaties bestaan verschillende richtlijnen. Deze leiden vaak tot overdimensionering met mogelijk negatieve energetische en hygienische gevolgen. Ontwerpkentallen kunnen beter afgeleid worden uit realistische afnamepatronen van het waterverbruik over een dag. Het simulatiemodel Simdeum kan het waterverbruik voor verschillende woningtypen en verschillende typologieen in de utiliteitsbouw modelleren. Dit is vergeleken met metingen op secondebasis. Simdeum geeft inzicht in het warmwaterverbruik van verschillende gebouwen. Hierdoor vormen de gesimuleerde patronen een zeer betrouwbare basis voor nieuwe ontwerprichtlijnen.

  16. Industrial- and utility-scale coal-water fuel demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathi, V. [Science Applications International Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ramezan, M. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Winslow, J. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory-, pilot-, and large-scale CWF combustion work has been performed primarily in Canada, China, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and the United States, and several projects are still active. Sponsors have included governments, utilities and their research arms, engine manufacturers, equipment suppliers, and other organizations in attempts to show that CWF is a viable alternative to premium fuels, both in cost and performance. The objective of this report is to present brief summaries of past and current industrial- and utility-scale CWF demonstrations in order to determine what lessons can be learned from these important, highly visible projects directed toward the production of steam and electricity. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying the CWF characteristics; boiler type, geometry, size, and location; length of the combustion tests; and the results concerning system performance, including emissions.

  17. Utilization of phase change materials in solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazman, Muhsin; Evliya, Hunay; Paksoy, Halime Oe. [Chemistry Dept., Art and Science Fac., Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey); Cabeza, Luisa F.; Nogues, Miquel [Dept. Informatica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Mehling, Harald [ZAE Bayern, Division 1, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Thermal energy storage systems which keep warm and cold water separated by means of gravitational stratification have been found to be attractive in low and medium temperature thermal storage applications due to their simplicity and low cost. This effect is known as thermal stratification, and has been studied experimentally thoughtfully. This system stores sensible heat in water for short term applications. Adding PCM (phase change material) modules at the top of the water tank would give the system a higher storage density and compensate heat loss in the top layer because of the latent heat of PCM. Tests were performed under real operating conditions in a complete solar heating system that was constructed at the University of Lleida, Spain. In this work, new PCM-graphite compounds with optimized thermal properties were used, such as 80:20 weight percent ratio mixtures of paraffin and stearic acid (PS), paraffin and palmitic acid (PP), and stearic acid and myristic acid (SM). The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) tank used in the experiments had a 150 L water capacity. Three modules with a cylindrical geometry with an outer diameter of 0.176 m and a height of 0.315 m were used. In the cooling experiments, the average tank water temperature dropped below the PCM melting temperature range in about 6-12 h. During reheating experiments, the PCM could increase the temperature of 14-36 L of water at the upper part of the SDHW tank by 3-4 C. This effect took place in 10-15 min. It can be concluded that PS gave the best results for thermal performance enhancement of the SDHW tank (74% efficiency). (author)

  18. Effect of protein supplementation on tropical grass hay utilization by beef steers drinking saline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; Arroquy, J I; Juárez Sequeira, A V; García, M; Nazareno, M; Coria, H; Distel, R A

    2014-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of increasing levels of supplemental soybean meal (SBM; 45.7% CP) in cattle consuming tropical grass hay (Panicum maximum cultivar Gatton; 7.0% CP and 81.8% NDF) and drinking low salt water (LS) or high salt water (HS). Six ruminally fistulated beef steers (BW = 375 ± 43 kg) were used in a 6-treatment, 4-period crossover experiment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial, with 2 levels salt in the water (LS and HS: 786 and 6,473 mg/kg of total dissolved solids [TDS], respectively) and 3 levels of SBM (0, 0.2, and 0.4% BW/d). After 15 d of adaptation to treatments, periods consisted of 5 d for intake and digestibility determination, 1 d for monitoring ruminal fermentation, 1 d for ruminal evacuation, and 1 d for blood sampling. Supplemental SBM × water quality interactions were significant (P water intake seemed to reach a plateau in LS while this was not observed in HS. Total tract digestible OM intake increased linearly (P = 0.01) and TTDNDFI tended to increase (P = 0.09) in response to increased SBM. Digestibility of OM and NDF were not affected by treatment (P > 0.21). Passage rate of acid detergent insoluble ash linearly increased (P water quality (P = 0.98). Total VFA concentrations and ruminal pH were not affected (P > 0.60 and P > 0.31, respectively) by treatment. Ruminal ammonia N levels were linearly increased by SBM supplementation (P water quality (P = 0.25). However, ruminal ammonia tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in HS at 0.2% of SBM supplementation. No interaction was observed for plasma urea N (PUN; P = 0.20). Plasma urea N was affected by SBM supplementation (P = 0.05) and water quality (P treatments. In conclusion, a high level of SBM supplementation (0.4% BW) counteracted the detrimental effect of high TDS in drinking water on low-quality forage consumption by cattle.

  19. Thermochemical Water Splitting for Hydrogen Production Utilizing Nuclear Heat from an HTGR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xinxin; ONUKI Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    A very promising technology to achieve a carbon free energy system is to produce hydrogen from water, rather than from fossil fuels. Iodine-sulfur (IS) thermochemical water decomposition is one promising process. The IS process can be used to efficiently produce hydrogen using the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as the energy source supplying gas at 1000℃. This paper describes that demonstration experiment for hydrogen production was carried out by an IS process at a laboratory scale. The results confirmed the feasibility of the closed-loop operation for recycling all the reactants besides the water, H2, and O2. Then the membrane technology was developed to enhance the decomposition efficiency. The maximum attainable one-pass conversion rate of HI exceeds 90% by membrane technology, whereas the equilibrium rate is about 20%.

  20. Utilization of airborne imaging spectrometers for spectral characterization of waste water plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljeberg, M.; Ekstrand, S.

    1999-01-01

    This study report on an investigation of the performance of high resolution imaging sensors in the field of water quality monitoring in coastal waters affected by industrial wastewater plumes. The aim is to develop methods for detection and identification of different kinds of water discharges and to make these methods applicable to the next generation satellite systems. In this work data from two imaging spectrometers have been evaluated and compared. The study areas are located at the northern part of the Swedish East Coast. Heavy industries with large amounts of industrial waste water discharges, together with the outlets of several major Swedish rivers characterise this part of the Swedish coast. In situ measurements of chlorophyll -a, suspended matter and dissolved organic carbon are performed together with measurements of phosphorus, NO{sub x} and light absorption at 260 nm and 280 nm. Spectral profiles for sampling points and plume affected waters are extracted and analysed. Results from simple regression analysis show that best correlation are achieved for chlorophyll -a and suspended sediments, no significant correlation were found for dissolved organic carbon. It is shown that spectral difference between plume affected water and `clean` water reaches its maximum between 650 and 700 nm for this data set. Furthermore it is shown that spectral variations between different plumes is greatest between 400 and 550 nm. Correlation was confirmed for chlorophyll and suspended sediments but correlation coefficients were weaker than expected. High geometric resolution combined with a multitude of wavelength bands with narrow bandwidths is obviously not sufficient for high performance monitoring of the coastal zone. It is evident that image quality and thus information content, is in a high degree dependent on god weather conditions during registration. It is also important to gather information regarding optical properties of both the atmosphere and the water body

  1. Utilization of ultrasound to enhance high-speed water jet effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Svehla, Branislav; Svehla, Stefan

    2004-05-01

    Continuous high-speed water jets are presently used in many industrial applications such as cutting of various materials, cleaning and removal of surface layers. However, there is still a need for further research to enhance the performance of pure water jets. An obvious method is to generate water jets at ultra-high pressures (currently up to 700 MPa). An alternate approach is to eliminate the need for such high pressures by pulsing of the jet. This follows from the fact that the impact pressure on a target generated by a slug of water is considerably higher than the stagnation pressure of a corresponding continuous jet. Ultrasonically forced modulation of a continuous stream of water represents the most promising method of pulsed jet generation because of its simplicity and practicality. A pulsed jet is generated by modulating a continuous stream of water by ultrasonic waves. A velocity transformer connected to a piezoelectric transducer is located axially inside a nozzle to induce longitudinal pulsations in the water. An extensive laboratory research program is in progress to understand the basic principles of the process and to optimize the nozzle design for several applications. The results reported in this paper show that the performance of such a pulsed jet is far superior to that of a continuous jet operating at the same parameters. Experimental results obtained with the ultrasonic vibration of a tip situated inside the nozzle indicate that using this technique one can achieve performance of the jet even order of magnitude higher in comparison to continuous jet at the same hydraulic parameters. Performance of ultrasonically modulated jets in cutting of various materials was tested in laboratory conditions. In this paper, results of measurement of dynamic pressure in the nozzle and force effects of modulated jets are presented together with results obtained in cutting of various materials using ultrasonically modulated water jets. The results are compared

  2. Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

  3. Utilization of Drinking Water Treatment Slurry to Produce Aluminum Sulfate Coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mahmoud M; Razek, Taha M A; Elgendy, Ahmed S

    2017-02-01

      In Egypt, water treatment consumes about 365 000 tons of aluminum sulfate and produces more than 100 million tons of sludge per year. The common disposal system of sludge in Egypt is to discharge it into natural waterways. Toxicity of aluminum, environmental regulations and costs of chemicals used in water treatment and sludge treatment processes led to an evaluation of coagulant recovery and subsequent reuse. The present work aimed at aluminum recovery from sludge of El-Shiekh Zayd water treatment plant (WTP) to produce aluminum sulfate coagulant. Sludge was characterized and the effect of five variables was tested and the process efficiency was evaluated at different operating conditions. Maximum recovery is 94.2% at acid concentration 1.5 N, sludge weight 5 g, mixing speed 60 rpm, temperature 60 °C and leaching time 40 min. Then optimum conditions were applied to get maximum recovery for aluminum sulfate and compared to commercial coagulant on raw water of El-Shiekh Zayd (WTP).

  4. What's Wrong with Bribery? An Example Utilizing Access to Safe Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooge, Lucien J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the role of bribery in the global marketplace through an example involving access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Parts II and III set out the objectives and methods of classroom delivery for the case study. Part IV is the background reading relating to bribery with particular emphasis on the Foreign…

  5. UTILITY OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolites like ZSM-5, Ferrierite, Beta and Faujasite Y have been used to remove i...

  6. UTILIZATION OF WATER CRESS (NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE L. IN NOBLE CRAYFISH (ASTACUS ASTACUS FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’AGARO E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Astacus astacus (initial b.w.: 0.98 ± 0.06 g were cultured (30 crayfish/m2 in 200l tanks for 69 days. The experimental design was composed of three treatments as follows: control diet (C (crude protein: 28.4% of the total dried matter, “DM”; ether extract: 6.22% DM, water cress (W (crude protein: 20.7% DM; ether extract: 1.9% DM and control diet + water cress (C + W with thee replicates per treatment. Relative growth rate improved significantly (P < 0.05 in crayfish fed C + W (+ 110% compared to W (+ 43% and the control diet (+ 36%. Gross protein and lipid retentions of the treatment C + W were significantly higher than the control diet and water cress fed alone. At the end of the experiment, a higher survival rate of A. astacus was observed (P < 0.05 in the treatment C + W (67% and C (71% compared to the W (58%. These results suggest that the plant water cress (Nasturtium officinale can be used as supplemental food in noble crayfish feeding.

  7. Water Determination in Solid Pharmaceutical Products Utilizing Ionic Liquids and Headspace Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-01

    A rapid, accurate, and precise headspace gas chromatographic (HSGC) analytical method was developed for the detection and quantification of water in drug products. The analysis is able to be performed in 10 min and automated. The HSGC method used an ionic liquid (IL) based open tubular capillary gas chromatographic column to increase the ruggedness of this method and provide improved peak shapes for water. Due to the ionic liquids low vapor pressure, unique physiochemical properties, and high thermal stability, they also make idea solvents for HSGC. Unlike Karl Fischer titration methods, this HSGC method is not affected by side reactions. The developed method was shown to be broadly applicable. The water content in 12 different samples was found to range from 1%-7% water. The use of HSGC was highly sensitive and only required 10 mg of sample. In addition, it was found to have greater precision and accuracy than Karl Fischer titration and greater precision and speed than loss on drying.

  8. Utilizing Depth of Colonization of Seagrasses to Develop Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Florida Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA is working with state and local partners in Florida to develop numeric water quality criteria to protect estuaries from nutrient pollution. Similar to other nutrient management programs in Florida, EPA is considering status of seagrass habitats as an indicator of biologic...

  9. Geohydrology and water utilization in the Willcox Basin, Graham and Cochise Counties, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S.G.; Schumann, Herbert H.

    1969-01-01

    The Willcox basin is an area of interior drainage in the northern part of Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise and Graham Counties, Ariz. The basin comprises about 1,500 square miles, of which the valley floor occupies about 950 square miles. The basin probably formed during middle and late Tertiary time, when the area was subjected to large-scale faulting accompanied by the uplift of the mountain ranges that presently border it. During and after faulting, large quantities of alluvium were deposited in the closed basin. The rocks in the basin are divided into two broad groups--the rocks of the mountain blocks, of Precambrian through Tertiary age, and the rocks of the basin, of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The mountain blocks consist of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks; the water-bearing characteristics of these rocks depend primarily on their degree of weathering and fracturing. Even in areas where these rocks are fractured and jointed, only small amounts of water have been developed. The rocks of the basin consist of moderately consolidated alluvium, poorly consolidated alluvium, and unconsolidated alluvium. The water-bearing characteristics of the moderately and poorly consolidated alluvium are not well known. The unconsolidated alluvium underlies most of the valley floor and consists of two facies, stream deposits and lake beds associated with the old playa. The lenticular sand and gravel layers interbedded in silt- and clay-size material of the unconsolidated alluvium constitute the principal aquifer in the basin. The other aquifers, which yield less water, consist of beds of poorly to moderately consolidated sand- and gravel-size material; these beds occur in both the poorly consolidated and moderately consolidated alluvium. In the Stewart area the median specific capacity of wells per 100 feet of saturated unconsolidated alluvium was 20 gallons per minute, and in the Kansas Settlement area the specific capacity of wells penetrating the poorly and

  10. Simulation of energy recovery on water utility networks by a micro-turbine with counter-rotating runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfatto, L.; Vagnoni, E.; Hasmatuchi, V.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    Wherever relief valves and other energy dissipation devices are installed to limit the pressure, water utility networks provide unexploited hydropower potentials. This is mainly due to a lack of economically viable technologies for energy recovery in the pico and micro hydropower range below 100 kW. Micro-turbine with counter-rotating runners proved suitable to harvest these potentials with limited investments and almost no environmental impact. An appropriate command strategy must therefore be applied to maximize the recovered energy. This paper deals with the construction of a Virtual Energy Recovery Station (VERS) model to simulate the energy recovery on a given installation site. It includes models of the turbine, of the water consumption and it allows to implement various command strategies. The VERS can serve various purposes. The fine tuning of the command algorithm for a specific installation site is demonstrated in the paper.

  11. Carbon utilization profiles of bacteria colonizing the headbox water of two paper machines in a Canadian mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashama, Johnny; Prince, Véronique; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Beaulieu, Carole

    2009-03-01

    Forty-one bacterial strains isolated from the headbox water of two machines in a Canadian paper mill were associated with the genera Asticcacaulis, Acidovorax, Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas based on the sequence of their 16S rRNA genes. The metabolic profile of these strains were determined using Biolog EcoPlate, and the bacteria were divided into four metabolic groups. Metabolic profiles of the bacterial communities colonizing the headbox water of two paper machines was also determined weekly over a 1 year period. The only compound that was not reduced by the bacterial community was 2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Utilization frequency of the other carbon sources in the Biolog EcoPlate ranged from 3 to 100%. The metabolic profiles of the bacterial community did not vary considerably between the two paper machines. However, the metabolic profile varied among the sampling dates.

  12. Augmentation of Cooling Output by Silica Gel-Water Adsorption Cycle Utilizing the Waste Heat of GHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Hiroki; Araki, Nobuyuki

    The GHP (Gas engine Heat Pump) system is expected to have high energy-efficiency in utilizing the waste heat exhausted from a gas engine. In summer season, a silica gel-water adsorption cooling unit driven by the exhaust heat is considered as a cooling system for saving energy. In this work, an attempt was made to improve the COP of a silica gel-water adsorption cooling system by enhancing heat and mass transfer in the silica gel adsorption layer. A unit cell was introduced as a simplified model of adsorber for analyzing the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. This cell was composed of a single tube with a silica gel layer bonded on its external surface. Optimization of heat and mass transfer characteristics for the unit cell was carried out by experimental and analytical approach.

  13. Parametric Limits of Efficient Use of a Centrifugal Water Atomizer in Contact Waste-Gas Heat-Utilization Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrodnyi, M. K.; Rachinskii, A. Yu.; Barabash, P. A.; Goliyad, N. N.

    2016-07-01

    The relation for the limiting temperature of water heating in a contact gas-droplet-type apparatus with a centrifugal atomizer has been determined experimentally in relation to the conditions of utilization of heat of power plant waste-gases. Investigations were carried out in the range of excess water pressures in front of the atomizer 0.2-0.6 MPa and of the volume fraction of steam in the vapor-gas mixture at the inlet of the apparatus from 0.02 to 0.45. The possibility of using the obtained dependence for calculating the limiting values of the vapor-gas flow parameters that limit the range of efficient operation of the contact apparatus with steam condensation and in the absence of heated liquid droplet evaporation is shown.

  14. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  15. Large-scale utilization of water hyacinth for nutrient removal in Lake Dianchi in China: the effects on the water quality, macrozoobenthos and zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Junqian; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Haiqing; Yan, Shaohua

    2012-11-01

    An ecological engineering project using water hyacinth for nutrient removal was performed in Baishan Bay of a large shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Dianchi in China. In the present study, a systematic survey of water quality, macrozoobenthos and zooplankton inside (IWH), around (AWH) and far away (FWH) water hyacinth mats was conducted in Baishan Bay from August to October 2010. The results showed that the water quality significantly improved at AWH area. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were lower and transparency was higher at AWH area than those in IWH and FWH areas. Total densities, dominant species densities, and biodiversity indexes of macrozoobenthos and cladocerans as well as copepods did not differ (P>0.05) among each other in all three areas. It was significantly (P<0.05) different for those of rotifers at IWH area compared to those in AWH and FWH areas. The results might suggest a tremendous potential for the utilization of water hyacinth in the eutrophic lake like Lake Dianchi for nutrients removal.

  16. Sustainable Utility of Magnetically Recyclable Nano-Catalysts in Water: Applications in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj B. Gawande

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. It is well established that magnetically separable nano-catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and it is possible to recover >95% of catalysts, which is again recyclable for subsequent use. Water is the ideal medium to perform the chemical reactions with magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts, as this combination adds tremendous value to the overall benign reaction process development. In this review, we highlight recent developments inthe use of water and magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts (W-MRNs for a variety of organic reactions namely hydrogenation, condensation, oxidation, and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, among others.

  17. COHO - Utilizing Waste Heat and Carbon Dioxide at Power Plants for Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sumanjeet [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wilson, Aaron [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wendt, Daniel [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Mendelssohn, Jeffrey [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Desormeaux, Erik [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Klare, Jennifer [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    2017-07-25

    The COHO is a breakthrough water purification system that can concentrate challenging feed waters using carbon dioxide and low-grade heat. For this project, we studied feeds in a lab-scale system to simulate COHO’s potential to operate at coal- powered power plants. COHO proved successful at concentrating the highly scaling and challenging wastewaters derived from a power plant’s cooling towers and flue gas desulfurization units. We also found that COHO was successful at scrubbing carbon dioxide from flue gas mixtures. Thermal regeneration of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis draw solution ended up requiring higher temperatures than initially anticipated, but we also found that the draw solution could be polished via reverse osmosis. A techno-economic analysis indicates that installation of a COHO at a power plant for wastewater treatment would result in significant savings.

  18. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.K.; Melick, T.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, was awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry (CWS) firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler was successfully operated on coal-water slurry for 800 hours. A boiler derate of 20 percent was necessary for successful operation with slurry accounting 62 percent of the total heat input with the balance provided by natural gas. Under these boiler conditions, the carbon conversion was 90 percent. Further data evaluation, a market analysis, and final report preparation remain to be completed.

  19. Utilization of PSO algorithm in estimation of water level change of Lake Beysehir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukyildiz, Meral; Tezel, Gulay

    2017-04-01

    In this study, unlike backpropagation algorithm which gets local best solutions, the usefulness of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, a population-based optimization technique with a global search feature, inspired by the behavior of bird flocks, in determination of parameters of support vector machines (SVM) and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) methods was investigated. For this purpose, the performances of hybrid PSO-ɛ support vector regression (PSO-ɛSVR) and PSO-ANFIS models were studied to estimate water level change of Lake Beysehir in Turkey. The change in water level was also estimated using generalized regression neural network (GRNN) method, an iterative training procedure. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination ( R 2) were used to compare the obtained results. Efforts were made to estimate water level change (L) using different input combinations of monthly inflow-lost flow (I), precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and outflow (O). According to the obtained results, the other methods except PSO-ANN generally showed significantly similar performances to each other. PSO-ɛSVR method with the values of minMAE = 0.0052 m, maxMAE = 0.04 m, and medianMAE = 0.0198 m; minRMSE = 0.0070 m, maxRMSE = 0.0518 m, and medianRMSE = 0.0241 m; min R 2 = 0.9169, max R 2 = 0.9995, median R 2 = 0.9909 for the I-P-E-O combination in testing period became superior in forecasting water level change of Lake Beysehir than the other methods. PSO-ANN models were the least successful models in all combinations.

  20. Hacking of water and electric utilities; Waterzuiveringen zijn gemakkelijk te hacken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Kelft, D. [Waterschapsbedrijf Limburg, Roermond (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    Attention is paid to the fact that control systems (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems or SCADA) of electric power plants and water purification installations are easy targets for hackers and computer viruses. [Dutch] De besturingssystemen van energiecentrales en waterzuiveringsinstallaties worden steeds vaker gekoppeld aan internet of andere netwerken in het bedrijf. Dat maakt de systemen een gemakkelijk doelwit voor hackers en virussen. Er wordt gepleit voor een integrale aanpak van de beveiliging.

  1. Chemical characterization of agroforestry solid residues aiming its utilization as adsorbents for metals in water

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H. M. Luzardo; Fermin G. Velasco; Clemildes P. Alves; Correia,Ivea K. da S.; Cazorla,Lázaro L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a study of the correlation between the functional groups present in the chemical structure of the fibers of coconut shells, cocoa and eucalyptus, and their adsorption capacity of Cd+2 and Cu+2 ions from water was performed. The content of soluble solids and reactive phenols in aqueous extracts were determined. The chemical functional groups present in the fibers were examined using the IR spectra. The ads...

  2. Characterization and Utilization of Tannin Extract for the Selective Adsorption of Ni (II Ions from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Meethale Kunnambath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the preparation of a new tannin gel from Acacia nilotica for water purification and waste water remediation. Design of experiments is used for optimizing the tannin gel using tannin extract (Taguchi method with formaldehyde in the assistance of microwave (TGAN by the help of iodine number. The feasible combinations were tested in the removal of nickel from simulated and river water. In this study, the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, and initial metal concentration on Ni (II biosorption on modified Acacia nilotica tannin gel (TGAN was investigated. Tannin gel was characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, and EDAX. The kinetic data was tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model. The results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.998 was the best choice among all the kinetic models describing the adsorption behavior of Ni (II onto TGAN. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity 250 mg g−1 of Ni (II was obtained at pH 5.04 at 296 K. Adsorption of Ni (II onto TGAN is confirmed qualitatively by the use of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The BOD and COD values are considerably reduced after adsorption.

  3. 3-Dimensional Microorifice Fabricated Utilizing Single Undercut Etching Process for Producing Ultrasmall Water and Chitosan Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Hsin Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reports a microfluidic device for producing small droplets via a microorifice and a T-junction structure. The orifice is fabricated using an isotropic undercut etching process of amorphous glass materials. Since the equivalent hydraulic diameter of the produced microorifice can be as small as 1.1 μm, the microdevice can easily produce droplets of the size smaller than 10 μm in diameter. In addition, a permanent hydrophobic coating technique is also applied to modify the main channel to be hydrophobic to enhance the formation of water-based droplets. Experimental results show that the developed microfluidic chip with the ultrasmall orifice can steadily produce water-in-oil droplets with different sizes. Uniform water-in-oil droplets with the size from 60 μm to 6.5 μm in diameter can be formed by adjusting the flow rate ratio of the continuous phase and the disperse phases from 1 to 7. Moreover, curable linear polymer of chitosan droplets with the size smaller than 100 μm can also be successfully produced using the developed microchip device. The microfluidic T-junction with a micro-orifice developed in the present study provides a simple yet efficient way to produce various droplets of different sizes.

  4. Utilization of pet botlles and solar energy in disinfection of water for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being an available natural source, the solar energy is very applicable in places where there are bad recourses and low money resouces, because there aren’t either the need of chemical products neither a huge cost ( commercial materials can be re-used. To make this job we used re-used half painted black PET bottles with the variables: exposed to heat times: 1, 2, 4 e 6 hours and we used also a concentrator of rays of sunshine. The afluent control parameters were: turbidity, aparent color, temperature, total coliforms and E. coli. The effluent parameters were just the last three: temperature, total coliforms and E.coli. To asses the bacteria reativation the water was kept in bottles for 24 hours, pretending a situation that is very commom in brazilian rural houses. We conclude that the use of the concentrator of rays of sunshine can reduce the exposion to heat from 6 to 4 hours, without prejudice the SODIS efficience and using the concentrator of rays of sunshine for 6 hours we can obtain the process of solar pasteurization (SOPAS, with a 70ºC water temperature and stoping the re-growth of bacteria. We also observed that when there are clouds in the sky the incidention of solar radiation and the SODIS efficince decrease, even if the water temperature is highter during the desinfection, although this factor doesn’t mean a significative influence statisticlly.

  5. 国内外灌溉水利用系数研究进展%Advance of Research on Utilization Coefficient of Irrigation water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿冉; 刘旭

    2011-01-01

    Utilization coefficient of irrigation water is an indicator of quantitative evaluation on utilization of irrigation water.Correctly determining the utilization coefficient of irrigation water and using utilization coefficient of irrigation water to manage irrigation water are critical for agricultural water conservation and sustainable use of water resources.In this paper,the domestic and abroad research on utilization coefficient of irrigation water is reviewed and evaluated.Meanwhile,the forefront research in this field is discussed.%灌溉水利用系数是定量评价灌溉水利用程度的一项指标。正确确定灌溉水利用系数,并利用灌溉水利用系数对灌区用水进行管理,对于农业节水及水资源的可持续利用都至关重要。对国内外灌溉水利用系数方面的研究进行了综述和评价,对本领域的研究前沿进行了展望。

  6. Emergy evaluation of the contribution of irrigation water, and its utilization, in three agricultural systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhaohui; Webber, Michael; Chen, Jing; Wang, Weiguang

    2014-09-01

    Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate the contribution of irrigation water, and the process of its utilization, in three agricultural systems. The agricultural systems evaluated in this study were rice, wheat, and oilseed rape productions in an irrigation pumping district of China. A corresponding framework for emergy evaluation and sensitivity analysis methods was proposed. Two new indices, the fraction of irrigation water ( FIW), and the irrigation intensity of agriculture ( IIA), were developed to depict the contribution of irrigation water. The calculated FIW indicated that irrigation water used for the rice production system (34.7%) contributed more than irrigation water used for wheat (5.3%) and oilseed rape (11.2%) production systems in a typical dry year. The wheat production with an IIA of 19.0 had the highest net benefit from irrigation compared to the rice (2.9) and oilseed rape (8.9) productions. The transformities of the systems' products represented different energy efficiencies for rice (2.50E + 05 sej·J-1), wheat (1.66E + 05 sej·J-1) and oilseed rape (2.14E + 05 sej·J-1) production systems. According to several emergy indices, of the three systems evaluated, the rice system had the greatest level of sustainability. However, all of them were less sustainable than the ecological agricultural systems. A sensitivity analysis showed that the emergy inputs of irrigation water and nitrogenous fertilizer were the highest sensitivity factors influencing the emergy ratios. Best Management Practices, and other agroecological strategies, could be implemented to make further improvements in the sustainability of the three systems.

  7. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Kalina Cycle for the Utilization of Waste Heat in Brine Water for Indonesian Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Nasruddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste heat in a power plant system—which would otherwise be released back to the environment—in order to produce additional power increases the efficiency of the system itself. The purpose of this study is to present an energy and exergy analysis of Kalina Cycle System (KCS 11, which is proposed to be utilized to generate additional electric power from the waste heat contained in geothermal brine water available in the Lahendong Geothermal power plant site in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. A modeling application on energy and exergy system is used to study the design of thermal system which uses KCS 11. To obtain the maximum power output and maximum efficiency, the system is optimized based on the mass fraction of working fluid (ammonia-water, as well as based on the turbine exhaust pressure. The result of the simulation is the optimum theoretical performance of KCS 11, which has the highest possible power output and efficiency. The energy flow diagram and exergy diagram (Grassman diagram was also presented for KCS 11 optimum system to give quantitative information regarding energy flow from the heat source to system components and the proportion of the exergy input dissipated in the various system components.

  8. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  9. Solar energy hot water heating and electric utilities. A model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    TRNSYS is a residential solar simulation program designed to provide detailed simulations of individual solar systems composed of almost any presently used residential solar technology. The model is described and a validation of the model is presented using a group of domestic solar hot water systems in the metropolitan Philadelphia area. The collection and reduction of the data used is discussed, and the TRNSYS modeling of the systems is presented. The model results are given and a sensitivity analysis of the models was performed to determine the effect of input changes on the electric auxiliary backup consumption.

  10. Preliminary utilization of Iran's ERTS-1 data in the field of geology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavi, M. S.; Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of a number of selected ERTS-1 images undertaken in the fields of geology and water resources for the purpose of testing its applicability and usefulness for mapping the natural resources of Iran identified a number of geologic and hydrologic phenomena, such as previously unknown faults, streams, and lakes. Due to a number of limiting factors, the results of this study are by no means conclusive; yet, the encouraging results obtained demonstrate the importance of satellite imagery for multidisciplinary resource analysis purposes in Iran.

  11. Analysis of a Residential Heating System Utilizing a Solar Assisted Water-to-Air Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    heat pump heating system were analyzed. A realistic residence and solar assisted water-to-air heat pump system were modeled for this northern climate using the transient simulation computer code TRNSYS developed by the University of Wisconsin. The system was studied over a one month winter period, December, using actual hourly weather data. The system was analyzed for both the cloudiest and clearest December weather recorded in the last 30 years. The collector area and storage tank capacity were varied and the effects on system performance were

  12. Direct utilization of waste water algal biomass for ethanol production by cellulolytic Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Sanitha, Mary; Kumar, Thangarathinam; Iyappan, Sellamuthu; Ramya, Mohandass

    2016-02-01

    Direct bioconversion of waste water algal biomass into ethanol using Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183 was demonstrated in this study. Fermentation of 2% (w/v) autoclaved algal biomass produced ethanol concentration of 0.52 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.19 g/g) where as fermentation of acid pretreated algal biomass (2%, w/v) produced ethanol concentration of 4.6 g L(-1) in GS2 media (solvent yield of 0.26 g/g). The control experiment with 2% (w/v) glucose in GS2 media produced ethanol concentration of 2.8 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.25 g/g). The microalgal strains from waste water algal biomass were identified as Chlamydomonas dorsoventralis, Graesiella emersonii, Coelastrum proboscideum, Scenedesmus obliquus, Micractinium sp., Desmodesmus sp., and Chlorella sp., based on ITS-2 molecular marker. The presence of glucose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose were detected by high performance liquid chromatography in the algal biomass. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations of fermentation samples showed characteristic morphological changes in algal cells and bioaccessibility of C. phytofermentans.

  13. On utilizing the orbital motion in water waves to drive a Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mohammed; Rafiuddin Ahmed, M. [The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Campus, Suva (Fiji); Lee, Young-Ho [Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Youngdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    In wave motion, the water particles are known to follow orbital paths. This orbital motion was studied and a five bladed Savonius rotor was built to extract energy from the orbiting particles. Experiments were performed on a rotor placed parallel to the incoming waves in a two-dimensional wave channel by varying the frequency of the wave generator, which produced sinusoidal waves. The rotor submergence below the mean level was varied. The flow around the rotor was studied with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. It was found that the rpm of the rotor (N{sub n}) increases with an increase in wave frequency. An increase in wave height also increases the N{sub n} values, as the kinetic energy of the particles' orbital motion increases. The optimum N{sub n} values are obtained when the rotor is placed close to the water surface at the minimum submergence of 1.06d where 'd' is the rotor diameter. (author)

  14. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  15. Chemical characterization of agroforestry solid residues aiming its utilization as adsorbents for metals in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. M. Luzardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study of the correlation between the functional groups present in the chemical structure of the fibers of coconut shells, cocoa and eucalyptus, and their adsorption capacity of Cd+2 and Cu+2 ions from water was performed. The content of soluble solids and reactive phenols in aqueous extracts were determined. The chemical functional groups present in the fibers were examined using the IR spectra. The adsorption capacity of the peels was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. For Cd+2, a significant correlation between the adsorption capacity and some specific chemical functional groups present in the fiber was verified. The potential use of these peels, as adsorbent of Cd+2 ions, is based on the presence of OH functional groups such as aryl-OH, aryl-O-CH2 of phenol carboxylic acids, as well as carbonyl groups derived from carboxylic acid salts, in these fibers.

  16. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  17. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV/DCTA) Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Rubens S. dos, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN -RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  18. Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Utilizing an Inexpensive Photocatalytic Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, John A.; Tricker, Jennifer; Andrzejewski, Ken; Rhoads, Heather; Tatarko, Matthew

    1999-12-01

    The construction and use of an inexpensive photocatalytic reactor that utilizes titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst for wastewater treatment is described. In these experiments and in supplementary material, students are made aware that a variety of techniques have been developed to treat wastewaters, including those generated by the chemical industry. Water contaminated with the azo dye Congo Red was selected as an example of how one might treat contaminated water from a textile manufacturing facility. These experiments emphasize that, in addition to product development, chemists must also be concerned with waste treatment. A summary of the theory of titanium dioxide-mediated photocatalysis is provided. The phenomenon of photosensitization is also discussed. The usefulness of Congo Red is summarized and a brief history of this dye is given. In addition to being inexpensive, the photocatalytic reactor described is easy to construct and uses a readily available low-wattage fluorescent light. An important feature of this reactor is that the heat generated by the light source is readily dissipated by the water undergoing treatment. Thus no special cooling apparatus is required. One of the most important aspects of this work is that it provides a wide variety of continuing research suggestions that would be suitable and readily accomplished in undergraduate departments and high school laboratories; even those where budgetary priorities are a major concern. Use of this reactor would also enable students to design systems to treat "real-world" wastes, including some that are generated in instructional laboratories.

  19. Improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble glimepiride by utilizing microemulsion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Haiying Li,1 Tingting Pan,1 Ying Cui,1 Xiaxia Li,1 Jiefang Gao,1 Wenzhi Yang,1 Shigang Shen2 1Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Quality Control of Hebei Province, College of Pharmacy, 2Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this work was to prepare an oil/water glimepiride (GM microemulsion (ME for oral administration to improve its solubility and enhance its bioavailability. Based on a solubility study, pseudoternary phase diagrams, and Box–Behnken design, the oil/water GMME formulation was optimized and prepared. GMME was characterized by dynamic laser light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and viscosity. The in vitro drug release, storage stability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of GMME were investigated. The optimized GMME was composed of Capryol 90 (oil, ­Cremophor RH40 (surfactant, and Transcutol (cosurfactant, and increased GM solubility up to 544.6±4.91 µg/mL. The GMME was spherical in shape. The particle size and its polydispersity index were 38.9±17.46 nm and 0.266±0.057, respectively. Meanwhile, the GMME was physicochemically stable at 4°C for at least 3 months. The short-term efficacy in diabetic mice provided the proof that blood glucose had a consistent and significant reduction at a dose of 375 µg/kg whether via IP injection or IG administration of GMME. Compared with the glimepiride suspensions or glimepiride-meglumine complex solution, the pharmacokinetics of GMME in Wistar rats via IG administration exhibited higher plasma drug concentration, larger area under the curve, and more enhanced oral bioavailability. There was a good correlation of GMME between the in vitro release values and the in vivo oral absorption. ME could be an effective oral drug delivery system to improve bioavailability of GM. Keywords: glimepiride

  20. Utilization of the water soluable fraction of wheat straw as a plant nutrient source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery of water soluble, inorganic nutrients from the inedible portion of wheat was found to be an effective means of recycling nutrients within hydroponic systems. Through aqueous extraction (leaching), 60 percent of the total inorganic nutrient weight was removed from wheat straw and roots, although the recovery of individual nutrients varied. Leaching also removed about 20 percent of the total organic carbon from the biomass. In terms of dry weight, the leachate was comprised of approximately 60 percent organic and 40 percent inorganic compounds. Direct use of wheat straw leachate in static hydroponic systems had an inhibitory effect on wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of microorganisms. Biological treatment of leachate either with a mixed microbial community or the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus L., prior to use in hydroponic solutions, significantly reduced both the organic content and the inhibitory effects of the leachate. The inhibitory effects of unprocessed leachate appear to be a result of rapidly acting phytotoxic compounds that are detoxified by microbial activity. Leaching holds considerable promise as a method for nutrient recycling in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

  1. Utilizing Slurry and Carwash Wastewater as Fresh Water Replacement in Concrete Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high demand for concrete production generates wastewater which causes environmental problems. However, if wastewater is able to be recycled as part of engineering construction materials, many benefits can be reaped. Unfortunately, the use of wastewater in manufacturing concrete is not common. Therefore, this research aims to identify the influence of using slurry water and car wash wastewater on concrete properties, focusing particularly on its mechanical properties. The basic characteristics of wastewater were studied according to USEPA method while the properties of concrete with wastewater were compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this paper, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were examined in order to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. The wastewater was replaced in the concrete mix from 0% up to 40%. The results indicated that the characteristics of wastewater complied with the BS and ASTM standards. In addition, the results also recommended that the concrete mixture with 20% of wastewater has given the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity.

  2. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  3. Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroub, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

  4. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the 233U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshalkin, V. E.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium-uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D2O, H2O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the 233U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  5. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  6. Utilizing surfactants to control the sorption, desorption, and biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-07-01

    An integrative technology including the surfactant enhanced sorption and subsequent desorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene in the soil-water system was introduced and tested. For slightly contaminated agricultural soils, cationic-nonionic mixed surfactant-enhanced sorption of organic contaminants onto soils could reduce their transfer to plants, therefore safe-guarding agricultural production. After planting, residual surfactants combined with added nonionic surfactant could also promote the desorption and biodegradation of residual phenanthrene, thus providing a cost-effective pollution remediation technology. Our results showed that the cationic-nonionic mixed surfactants dodecylpyridinium bromide (DDPB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) significantly enhanced soil retention of phenanthrene. The maximum sorption coefficient Kd of phenanthrene for contaminated soils treated by mixed surfactants was about 24.5 times that of soils without surfactant (Kd) and higher than the combined effects of DDPB and TX100 individually, which was about 16.7 and 1.5 times Kd, respectively. On the other hand, TX100 could effectively remove phenanthrene from contaminated soils treated by mixed surfactants, improving the bioavailability of organic pollutants. The desorption rates of phenanthrene from these treated soils were greater than 85% with TX100 concentration above 2000 mg/L and approached 100% with increasing TX100 concentration. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene in the presence of surfactants reached over 95% in 30 days. The mixed surfactants promoted the biodegradation of phenanthrene to some extent in 10-22 days, and had no obvious impact on phenanthrene biodegradation at the end of the experiment. Results obtained from this study provide some insight for the production of safe agricultural products and a remediation scheme for soils slightly contaminated with organic pollutants.

  7. Possibility of utilizing water-atomized Fe-Ni-Mo steel powder as base materials for warm compaction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water-atomized Fe-Ni-Mo steel powder, was utilized as base powder for designing powder mixtures for warm pressing The warm pressing and sintering behaviours of the powder mixtures were studied. The results show that, compared with the pressing at room temperature, the green density gain by warm pressing is within a range of 0.10-0.19 g/cm3 and reduction in spring back is 30%-40% of the ambient, and maximum green density of 7.32 g′cm3 at 735 MPa is obtained as the graphite mass fraction is 0.8%. It was found than sintered densities of the compacts were reduced slightly due to releasing of elastic stress stored in the compacts during sintering. The warm pressing of steel powders gives evidence for substituting the traditional double pressing and double sintering process.

  8. The economics of irrigated paddy in Usangu Basin in Tanzania: water utilization, productivity, income and livelihood implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Kashaigili, Japhet J.; Mdoe, Ntengua S.

    Globally, there is a general lack of consensus on how the available water resources can be allocated efficiently and equitably among its competing uses. In irrigated agriculture, this decodes to the central question of how this sector can be balanced in the manner that it produces more ‘crops per drop’ using less water and releasing adequate water for use by other sectors while concurrently enhancing rural income and livelihoods. This requires that the values and costs of irrigated agriculture, at all levels, are well understood and appropriate interventions made. Based on this ground, this paper presents an economic analysis of the value of irrigated paddy in Usangu basin. It attempts to answer the question of what will be the effects if farmers in Usangu stop producing irrigated paddy. The analysis shows that: (a) about 576 mm 3 of water--currently consumed in paddy irrigation, or 345.6 mm 3--traded inter-regionally as “virtual water” would be utilized in alternative ways, either as evaporation from seasonal swamps within the basin or made available for other intersectoral uses, (b) there will be a shrinkage in the annual paddy supply (both at the local and national levels) of about 105,000 t of paddy (66,000 t of rice)-equivalent to 14.4% of the total annual paddy production in Tanzania, (c) an opportunity cost of about US15.9 million will be incurred annually (equivalent to US530.95 per annum per household practicing irrigated paddy in Usangu), and d) the country’s current account of the balance of payments will be affected by an average of US$15.9 million per annum. The effect will either be in form of annual decline in rice exports or increase in imports depending on the country’s supply and demand for rice.

  9. Water Price Rising, Residents' Welfare and Water Resource Utility Enhancing%水价上涨、居民福利与水资源效用提升

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韬; 叶文奇

    2012-01-01

    编制中国2007年的11部门社会核算矩阵。并以此为数据基础建立一个凯恩斯结构的CGE模型,用于分析水价上涨对宏观经济、部门经济、居民收入及福利带来的影响。,模拟结果发现:水价上涨对经济增长、就业等宏观经济变量以及部门产出有一定的负面影响,并导致了整体物价水平的上升。受此影响,居民、企业及政府的收入都出现一定程度的下降,但却可以明显降低整个经济的单位GDP水耗,提高水资源的利用效率。%On the basis eleven sectors SAM table in the year of 2007 in China, the authors constructed a Keynes structure CGE model of China to analyze the influence of water price rising on macroeconomic, sector economy, and household income. The results indicate that the rising of water price has adverse effect on economic growth, employment, and many other indicators and lead to the increase of consumer price index. Moreover, the income of household, enterprise, and government appear decline because of the negative effects. However, water consumption per unit of GDP is drop down significantly, and water utilization ratio is improved.

  10. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response.

  11. Validation and scopolamine-reversal of latent learning in the water maze utilizing a revised direct platform placement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Schaar, Krystal L; Izygon, Jonathan J; Nghiem, Duyen M; Jabitta, Sikirat Y; Henceroth, Mallori M; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Daggett, Jenny M; Ward, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    The Morris water maze is routinely used to explore neurobiological mechanisms of working memory. Humans can often acquire working memory relevant to performing a task by mere sensory observation, without having to actually perform the task followed by reinforcement. This can be modeled in the water maze through direct placement of a rat on the escape platform so that it can observe the location, and then assessing the subject's performance in swimming back to the platform. However, direct placement procedures have hardly been studied for two decades, reflecting a controversy about whether direct placement resulted in sufficiently rapid and direct swims back to the platform. In the present study, utilizing revised training methods, a more comprehensive measure of trajectory directness, a more rigorous sham-trained control procedure and an optimal placement-test interval, rats swam almost directly back to the platform in under 4s, significantly more quickly and directly than sham-trained subjects. Muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms, which are inactivated by scopolamine, are essential to memory for standard learning paradigms in the water maze. This experiment determined whether this would also be true for latent learning. ANOVA revealed significant negative effects of scopolamine on both speed and accuracy of trajectory, as well as significant positive effects of direct placement training vs. sham-training. In a probe trial, placement-trained animals without scopolamine spent significantly more time and path length in the target quadrant than trained rats with scopolamine and sham-trained rats without scopolamine. Scopolamine impairments are likely due to effects on memory, since the same dose had little effect on performance with a visible platform. The revised direct placement model offers a means of further comparing the neural mechanisms of latent learning with those of standard instrumental learning.

  12. Aspen Plus® and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Nicole L; Boateng, Akwasi A; Mullen, Charles A; Wheeler, M Clayton

    2013-10-15

    Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site's 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum.

  13. Seasonal predictability of water resources in a Mediterranean freshwater reservoir and assessment of its utility for end-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Llasat, Ma Carmen; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this study we explore the seasonal predictability of water resources in a Mediterranean environment (the Boadella reservoir, in north-eastern Spain). Its utility for end-users is assessed through the analysis of economic value curve areas (EVA). Firstly, we have built monthly multiple linear regression (MLR) models for the in-flow, out-flow and volume anomalies by identifying the underlying relationships between these predictands and their potential predictors, both meteorological and human influenced: rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, reservoir volume and discharge. Subsequently, we have forecast the monthly anomalies with these models for the period 1981-2010 (up to seven months ahead). We have tested the aforementioned models with four strategies in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure (LOOCV): a) Climatology (Clim.), b) persistence (Pers.), c) antecedent observations+climatology (A+Clim.), d) antecedent observations+European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) System 4 anomalies (A+S4). Climatology is the operational strategy against which the other approximations are compared. The second and third approaches only use observations as input data. Finally, the last one combines both observations and ECMWF System 4 forecasts. The LOOCV revealed that reservoir volume is the variable best described by the MLR models, followed by in-flow and out-flow anomalies. In the case of volume anomalies, the predictability displayed provides added value with respect to climatology with a minimum of four months in advance. For in-flow and out-flow this is true at one month ahead, and regarding the latter variable we encounter enhanced predictability also at longer horizons for the summer months, when water demands peak (a valuable result for end-users). Hence, there is a window of opportunity to develop future operational frameworks that could outperform the use of climatology for these variables and forecast horizons. Copyright © 2016

  14. Synergistic Utilization of Microwave Satellite Data and GRACE-Total Water Storage Anomaly for Improving Available Water Capacity Prediction in Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Bolten, J. D.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River is the longest river in Southeast Asia and the world's eighth largest in discharge with draining an area of 795,000 km² from the eastern watershed of the Tibetan Plateau to the Mekong Delta including three provinces of China, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia and Viet Nam. This makes the life of people highly vulnerable to availability of the water resources as soil moisture is one of the major fundamental variables in global hydrological cycles. The day-to-day variability in soil moisture on field to global scales is an important quantity for early warning systems for events like flooding and drought. In addition to the extreme situations the accurate soil moisture retrieval are important for agricultural irrigation scheduling and water resource management. The present study proposes a method to determine the effective soil hydraulic parameters directly from information available for the soil moisture state from the recently launched SMAP (L-band) microwave remote sensing observations. Since the optimized parameters are based on the near surface soil moisture information, further constraints are applied during the numerical simulation through the assimilation of GRACE Total Water Storage (TWS) within the physically based land surface model. This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity as the soil hydraulic parameters are optimized through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on FAO. The optimization process is divided into two steps: the state variable are optimized and the optimal parameter values are then transferred for retrieving soil moisture and streamflow. A homogeneous soil system is considered as the soil moisture from sensors such as AMSR-E/SMAP can only be retrieved for the top few centimeters of soil. To evaluate the performance of the system in helping

  15. Synthesis and Utilization of Trialkylammonium-Substituted Cyclodextrins as Water-Soluble Chiral NMR Solvating Agents for Anionic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Alison E; Puentes, Cira Mollings; Carey-Hatch, Mira; Sandridge, Keyana L; Krishna, Nikhil B; Wenzel, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Cationic trialkylammonium-substituted α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins containing trimethyl-, triethyl-, and tri-n-propylammonium substituent groups were synthesized and analyzed for utility as water-soluble chiral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solvating agents. Racemic and enantiomerically pure (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethyl-, triethyl-, and tri-n-propyl ammonium chloride were synthesized from the corresponding trialkyl amine hydrochloride and either racemic or enantiomerically pure epichlorohydrin. The ammonium salts were then reacted with α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins at basic pH to provide the corresponding randomly substituted cationic cyclodextrins. The (1) H NMR spectra of a range of anionic, aromatic compounds was recorded with the cationic cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins with a single stereochemistry at the hydroxy group on the (2-hydroxypropyl)trialkylammonium chloride substituent were often but not always more effective than the corresponding cyclodextrin in which the C-2 position was racemic. In several cases, the larger triethyl or tri-n-propyl derivatives were more effective than the corresponding trimethyl derivative at causing enantiomeric differentiation. None of the cyclodextrin derivatives were consistently the most effective for all of the anionic compounds studied.

  16. Evaluation and Refinement of a Field-Portable Drinking Water Toxicity Sensor Utilizing Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing and a Fluidic Biochip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    described here operates on the same principle as the laboratory-based version described previously (Brennan et al., 2012), but now utilizes a hand -held...Potential interferences tested were chlorine and chloramine (commonly used for drinking water disinfection ), geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB...Protection Agency maximum residual disinfectant level for chlorine and chloramine is set at 4 mg l1 under the Safe Drinking Water Act and thus would

  17. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshalkin, V. E., E-mail: marshalkin@vniief.ru; Povyshev, V. M. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium–uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  18. Utilization of remote sensing data on meteorological and vegetation characteristics for modeling water and heat regimes of large agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    region. In the frame of this approach the transition from the rainfall intensity estimation to the calculation of their daily sums has been fulfilled at that two variants of this calculation have been realized which focusing on climate researches and operational monitoring. Such transition has required verifying the accuracy of the estimates obtained in both variants at each time step. This verification has included comparison of area distributions of satellite-derived precipitation estimates and analogous estimates obtained by the interpolation of ground-based observation data. The probability of correct precipitation zone detection from satellite data when comparing with ground-based meteorological observations has amounted 75-85 %. In both variants of calculating precipitation for the region of interest in addition to the fields of daily rainfall the fields of their monthly and annual sums have been built. All three sums are consistent with each other and with a ground-based observation data although the satellite-derived estimates are more "smooth" in comparison with ground-based ones. Their discrepancies are in the range of the rainfall estimation errors using the MTM and they are peculiar to the local maxima for which satellite-derived rainfall is less than ground-measured values. This may be due to different scales of space-averaged satellite and point-wise ground-based estimates. To utilize satellite-derived estimates of meteorological and vegetation characteristics in the SVAT model the procedures of replacing the ground-based values of precipitation, LST, LAI and B by corresponding satellite-derived values have been developed taking into account spatial heterogeneity of their fields. The correctness of such replacement has been confirmed by the results of comparing the values of soil water content W and evapotranspiration Ev modeled and measured at agricultural meteorological stations. In particular, when the difference of precipitation sums for the vegetation

  19. Utilization Technology of Mine Water Resources in Daliuta Mine%大柳塔煤矿矿井水资源化利用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苏社; 鞠金峰

    2011-01-01

    The coal rejects in the goaf of Daliuta Mine, Shendong Mining Area were taken as the carrier of the mine water filtration and the polluted water purification. The underground mine water could be directly pumped into the guaf for the purification. Then purified water could be applied to the coal production of the coal mining face in the underground mine, the production at the surface ground and the daily life utilization. An unique mine water comprehensive recycling utilization and water conservation mining technology was developed. A first gravity flow water supply system with a borehole a close distance to a seam in Shendong Mining Area and a goal gravity flow and water drainage system was created. Thus the automation of the water supply and water drainage was realized. With the special water quality protection measures set up, the water quality index after the purification of the goal could be all reached to the regulations GB 50383 2006 The Code of Fire Extinguishing and Water Spraying in Underground Mine and GB/T 18920-2002 The Urban Waste Water Regeneration and Utilization, Urban Miscellaneous Application Water Quality. With the reinforced sealing walls, the observation and measurement of the water level in the goaf, water discharging pipeline installation and a series of water inrush prevention safety measures, the hidden dangers caused by the large quantity ponding in the goaf of the mine could be eliminated. The development and utilization of the mine water resource utilization technology in Daliuta Mine could meet the requirements of the green mining and would have obvious economic and environment benefits.%神东矿区大柳塔煤矿以采空区矸石作为过滤、净化污水的载体,将井下排水直接注入采空区进行净化处理后供井下工作面生产及地面的生产、生活使用.此矿井水综合循环利用保水开采技术创造了神东矿区首个邻近煤层钻孔自流供水系统以及采空区自流泄放排水系统,实

  20. Advanced water processing system (AWPS), including advanced filtration system (AFS) and advanced ion selective system (AISS) for improved utility (PWR/BWR) water processing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark S. [ATG, Inc.(United States); Vance, Jene N. [V and V, Inc. (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The advanced water processing system (AWPS) has the potential for wide spread success on a worldwide scale in both PWR and BWRs. The AWPS incorporates the advanced features (patent pending) of advanced filtration and advanced ion selective technologies (patented). Typical problems encountered in current filtration systems include: (1) poor effluent quality, (2) short run lengths on filters, (3) frequent filter change-outs/backwashes, (4) large waste volumes, and (5) failed filter cartridges. The advanced filtration system (AFS) features reduced waste production per million gallons of water processed, cleaner water for recycle or release to the environment, filter element volume 100 times less than that of competitive filters, and a far lower capital cost compared to systems with similar performance. The AWPS should be of interest to plants that are upgrading, or to new plants to lower both their capital and operating costs, as well as total curie discharge levels. In addition, the AWPS will function in non-nuclear, as well as nuclear, applications of water purification, specially where pre coat filtration/ion exchange or reverse osmosis (RO) is being applied to process water with high concentrations of colloidal contaminants. Pilot testing has been successfully completed in the U. S. at the Byron (PWR), LaSalle (BWR), and Dresden(BWR) nuclear plants for Commonwealth Edison, and the Bruce several spent filters in a High Integrated Container these bench- and pilot-scale demonstrations will be presented herein. Full-scale designs or systems have been shipped to these locations. In all cases, the testing demonstrated: (1) longer run lengths (300,000 gallons between backwashes--a 100 fold improvement), (2) recoverability of cartridge filters after backwash (cartridge lives of approximately 6 months to a year--a 5 to 10 fold improvement in filter life), (3) large removal efficiencies for colloidal particles (reduced discharge curies), and (4) reduced waste volumes

  1. Physical chemical properties of sludges of a chemical treatment of boilers feed water and ways of their utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krasnenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is a necessary process for TPP power plant operation. To the power station, in the production of electricity and heat as a result of the preparation of large amounts of water to compensate for losses associated with the release of process steam for production, produce large quantities of waste water treatment - water treatment chemical sludge (WTCS.

  2. Water resources utilization and eco-environmental safety in Northwest China%中国西北水资源利用及生态环境安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济世; 徐进祥; 张永秋

    2006-01-01

    Northwest China includes Xinjiang Ugyur Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Shaanxi Province, covering 308× 104 km2. It is located in the warm-temperate zone and the climate is arid or semi-arid. Precipitation is very scarce but evaporation is extremely high. The climate is dry, the water resources are deficient, the eco-environment is fragile, and the distribution of water resources is uneven. In this region, precipitation is the only input, and evaporation is the only output in the inland rivers, and precipitation, surface water and groundwater change with each other for many times, which benefits the storage and utilization of water resources.The average precipitation in this region is 232 mm, the total precipitation amount is 7003 × 108 m3/a,the surface water resources are 1891 × 108 m3/a, the total natural groundwater resources are 1150× 108 m3/a,the total available water resources are 438 × 108 m3/a, and the total water resources are 1996× 108 m3/a and per capita water resources are 2278 m3/a. The water resources of the whole area are 5.94× 104 m3/(a.km2),being only one-fifth of the mean value in China. Now, the available water resources are 876×108 m3/a,among which groundwater is proximate 130× 108 m3/a.

  3. Scale transformation of utilization coefficient of irrigation water in riverine irrigation district%河网区灌溉水利用系数的尺度转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞双恩; 于智恒; 郭杰; 顾京; 李彧玮; 佘冬立

    2015-01-01

    大尺度灌区灌溉水利用系数的测定条件难以保障,而小尺度灌区的灌溉水利用系数可以通过试验测定,如何通过小尺度灌区的灌溉水利用系数来预测大尺度灌区的灌溉水利用系数,就有必要对灌溉水利用系数的尺度转换问题进行研究。河网灌区的特点是没有统一的水源引水口,通常是由若干个小灌区合并成一个大灌区,是一个典型的自相似系统。论文以地处里下河水网地区的盐城市水稻灌区作为研究对象,于2012-2013年对9个县区不同规模的样点灌区进行了灌溉水利用系数的试验观测,利用分形理论研究了河网灌区的分形特征,运用盒维数法计算了盐城市河网灌区和不同尺度灌区的盒维数,其盒维数介于1.703~1.996之间,并随着面积尺度的增加而增大。基于灌溉水利用系数与灌区面积、盒维数的相关性,建立了河网灌区灌溉水利用系数尺度转换模型,并通过验证,表明该尺度转换模型能够较好地预测河网灌区灌溉水利用系数,同时也能够很好地实现灌溉水利用系数的尺度转换,为分析河网灌区灌溉水利用系数及其尺度效应提供了新途径。%Utilization coefficient of irrigation water is a key indicator to measure agricultural water-saving efficiency, and it reflects comprehensively the level of water management and irrigation technology and so on. Obtaining reliable data of the utilization coefficient of irrigation water by direct in situ determination methods is difficult in large irrigation districts, but it can be determined by field experiments in the small-scale area. Hence, one of the challenges is to conduct researches on scale transformation in order to predict the utilization coefficient of irrigation water at large-scale irrigation district by the measured utilization coefficient of irrigation water at small irrigation district. The main characteristic of

  4. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.

  5. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  6. Design Energy Efficient Water Utilization Systems Allowing Operation Split%考虑操作分解的热集成用水网络设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖祖维; 武锦涛; 蒋斌波; 王靖岱; 阳永荣

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the design of energy efficient water utilization systems allowing operation split. Practical features such as operating flexibility and capital cost have made the number of sub operations an impor-tant parameter of the problem. By treating the direct and indirect heat transfers separately, target freshwater and en-ergy consumption as well as the operation split conditions are first obtained. Subsequently, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model is established for the design of water network and the heat exchanger network (HEN). The proposed systematic approach is limited to a single contaminant. Example from literature is used to illustrate the applicability of the approach.

  7. 马蹄的贮藏保鲜与加工利用研究进展%Progress Research on Storage and Processing Utilization of Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兵; 段振华

    2016-01-01

    马蹄营养丰富,皮嫩汁多,属季节性食品,货架期较短。鲜切后的马蹄易于变色和失水腐败,影响外观品质、风味和营养价值等,产品附加值低;在加工中产生的马蹄皮含有较多活性物质,如处理不当易造成资源浪费和环境的污染。本文主要综述了马蹄贮藏保鲜处理的技术,主要有涂膜保鲜、热处理保鲜、氮气处理保鲜、乙醛熏蒸处理保鲜及护色剂保鲜等;以及马蹄果肉和马蹄皮加工利用的方法,包括马蹄果肉饮料的加工,马蹄皮果酒、果醋加工及棕色素、黄酮和多酚类等物质的提取。%Water chestnut is rich in nutrition, skin tender and juicy, which belongs to the seasonal food and shelf life is short. After the fresh cut, the water chestnut is easy to change the color and the loss of water, which affects the appearance quality, flavor and nutritional value, and the low added value of the product. Water chestnut peel contains many active substances produce in the process, easily lead to waste of resources and en-vironmental pollution if handled properly. This paper mainly summarizes the technology of storage and preserva-tion of water chestnut, mainly coating preservation, heat preservation, processing nitrogen preservation, ac-etaldehyde fumigation treatment and color preservation agent, etc.. The processes and utilization methods of Water chestnut pulp and peel of Eleocharis tuberosa, including water chestnut pulp beverage processing, water chestnut peel fruit wine vinegar processing and extracting brown pigment, flavonoids and polyphenols sub-stances. The utilization rate and economic value of water chestnut were greatly improved by storage and pro-cessing, which provided a reference for the further research of horse's hoof. Which greatly improves the utiliza-tion rate and economic value of water chestnut.

  8. Utilization of rain water in landscape water system in Shandong%雨水在山东省景观水系中的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世英

    2011-01-01

    山东省是一个资源性缺水大省,解决各类用水的水源是各类用水设计的关键.各类景观水系需要大量的水源来补充,而利用雨水作为景观水系的一种水源是解决水景水源的一种重要方法.本文以雨水在居住区景观水系的利用为例,详细分析、论述了雨水在山东省景观水系中应用的意义、原则、分类、方法,以期对雨水应用于山东省景观水系的设计起到一定的借鉴作用.%Shandong is a province lack of water resources. The residential landscape water system requires a lot of water taking as supplement, and the use of rain water is an important method to solve the water source for residential landscape water system. This paper took the application of rain water in Shandong residential landscape water system as an example and expounded the significance, principle, classification and method of application of rain water in landscape water system. The experience could be used in the design of the application of rain water in Shandong landscape water system.

  9. Utilities:Other:Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:utilpnt_other)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, not including water- and power-related utilities, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities...

  10. Utilizing an Automated Home-Built Surface Plasmon Resonance Apparatus to Investigate How Water Interacts with a Hydrophobic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Adele

    2011-03-01

    By definition hydrophobic substances hate water. Water placed on a hydrophobic surface will form a drop in order to minimize its contact area. What happens when water is forced into contact with a hydrophobic surface? One theory is that an ultra-thin low- density region forms near the surface. We have employed an automated home-built Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) apparatus to investigate this boundary.

  11. Evaluation on Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in the Resources-induced Water Shortage Region%资源型缺水地区水资源可持续利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 董卉

    2011-01-01

    水资源是人类社会赖以生存和发展的自然资源和环境资源,水资源危机严重制约了经济社会的持续发展.德州市作为资源型缺水地区,水资源供需失衡、人均水资源占有量少且时空分布不均、水资源利用率低等问题严重制约了德州市的可持续发展.构建适合区域发展现状的水资源可持续利用评价指标体系,发掘现阶段德州市水资源利用中存在的主要问题,提出水资源可持续利用的对策,以期为制定区域水资源可持续利用方案提供理论参考.%Water is one of the necessary natural resources and environmental resources for human society to survive and develop; water crisis has seriously hampered economic and social sustainable development. Dezhou is a resources-induced water shortage region, where water supply and demand imbalance, less per capita possession of water resources, uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and low utilization rate of water use have seriously hampered the sustainable development of Dezhou. By building the index system of water resources sustainable evaluation, it expect to find the main problems in the utilization of water resources in Dezhou at the present stage, and offer solutions to the sustainable use of water resources and provide the theoretical reference for the formulation of regional water resources sustainable use scheme.

  12. 设计过程工业多杂质用水网络的计算方法%Algorithmic Procedure to Design Water Utilization Systems Featuring Multiple Contaminants in Process Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东明; 杨凤林; 张兴文

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a non-iterative algorithmic procedure to design water utilization networks with multiple contaminants in process plants. According to the water pinch analysis rules, the processes in water utilization systems were first divided into three groups, then water-supply priority algorithm was proposed. The results of case studies showed that the water networks designed by this method gave water consumption lower than that estimated by other approaches. In addition, the procedure was subject to no limitation on the problem scale.

  13. Multiobjective Analysis Method for Sustaining Water Resources Utilization%水资源持续利用的多目标分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先甲

    2001-01-01

    With progress of sustainable development strategy, sustaini ngwater re sources utilization is becoming an important research field in water resources. In this paper, based on analysing the pursuing objectives for sustaining water resources utilization, basic construction of the objectives and constraint repre sentation of the coordinative relations to be satisfied in sustaining water reso urces utilization, multiobjective model of sustaining water resources utilizatio n is established. It provides a formalized model for understanding sustainable u tilization of water resources. In addition, to make further choice in noninferio r solution set of the multiobjecive model, this paper analyses the characteristi cs of surrogate trade relations between the objectives and decision maker's preference.%随着可持续发展战略的发展,水资源持续利用成为水资源学科的重要研究领域。本文在分析水资源持续利用追求的目标和这些目标的基本构造及其在整个持续利用过程中的基本特性和水资源持续利用的支持条件与协调关系的约束表示的基础上,建立了水资源持续利用的多目标决策模型。它为理解水资源持续利用提供了形式化模型。为了在非劣解集上作进一步的选择,本文还分析了目标之间的替代权衡关系的特性和由这种关系表示出的显示决策者偏好的规律性。

  14. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    projects to improve fish habitat. In 1998, the ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. Therefore, ACCD contracted with WDFW's Snake River Lab (SRL) to take pre- and post-construction measurements of the habitat (i.e., pools, LOD, width, depth) at each site, and to evaluate fish use within some of the altered sites. These results have been published annually as progress reports to the ACCD (Bumgarner et al. 1999, Wargo et al. 2000, and Bumgarner and Schuck 2001). The ACCD also contracted with the WDFW SRL to conduct other evaluation and monitoring in the stream such as: (1) conduct snorkel surveys at habitat alteration sites to document fish usage following construction, (2) deploy temperature monitors throughout the basin to document summer water temperatures, and (3) attempt to document adult fish utilization by documenting the number of steelhead redds associated with habitat altered areas. This report provides a summary of pre-construction measurements taken on three proposed Charley Creek habitat sites during 2001, two sites in main Asotin Creek, and one site in George Creek, a tributary that enters in the lower Asotin Creek basin. Further, it provides a comparison of measurements taken pre- and post-construction on three 1999 habitat sites taken two years later, but at similar river flows. It also presents data collected from snorkel surveys, redd counts, and temperature monitoring.

  15. Putting Regulatory Data to Work at the Service of Public Health: Utilizing Data Collected Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collects information from states on intended use and impairment of each water body. We explore the feasibility of using these data, collected for regulatory purposes, for public health analyses. Combining E...

  16. Utility of multi temporal satellite images for crop water requirements estimation and irrigation management in the Jordan Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of crop water requirements is a key for successful management of water resources in the dry areas. Climatic data were obtained from three automated weather stations to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETO) in the Jordan Valley according to the...

  17. The Texas Water Observatory: Utilizing Advanced Observing System Design for Understanding Water Resources Sustainability Across Climatic and Geologic Gradients of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B.; Moore, G. W.; Miller, G. R.; Quiring, S. M.; Everett, M. E.; Morgan, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Texas Water Observatory (TWO) is a new distributed network of field observatories for better understanding of the hydrologic flow in the critical zone (encompassing groundwater, soil water, surface water, and atmospheric water) at various space and time scales. Core sites in the network will begin in Brazos River corridor and expand from there westward. Using many advanced observational platforms and real-time / near-real time sensors, this observatory will monitor high frequency data of water stores and fluxes, critical for understanding and modeling the in the state of Texas and Southern USA. Once implemented, TWO will be positioned to support high-impact water science that is highly relevant to societal needs and serve as a regional resource for better understanding and/or managing agriculture, water resources, ecosystems, biodiversity, disasters, health, energy, and weather/climate. TWO infrastructure will span land uses (cultivation agriculture, range/pasture, forest), landforms (low-relief erosional uplands to depositional lowlands), and across climatic and geologic gradients of Texas to investigate the sensitivity and resilience of fertile soils and the ecosystems they support. Besides developing a network of field water observatory infrastructure/capacity for accounting water flow and storage, TWO will facilitate developing a new generation interdisciplinary water professionals (from various TAMU Colleges) with better understanding and skills for attending to future water challenges of the region. This holistic growth will have great impact on TAMU research enterprise related to water resources, leading to higher federal and state level competitiveness for funding and establishing a center of excellence in the region

  18. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  19. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  20. EPA and Navajo Nation EPA Enter Historic Agreements with Navajo Tribal Utility Authority to Halt Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    (07/07/15) SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Navajo Nation EPA announced a pair of settlements with the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority to bring its wastewater treatment facility in Window Rock into compliance both wit

  1. Investigation using data from ERTS-1 to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources. [availability and distribution of menhaden fish in Mississippi Sound and Gulf waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This 15-month ERTS-1 investigation produced correlations between satellite, aircraft, menhaden fisheries, and environmental sea truth data from the Mississippi Sound. Selected oceanographic, meteorological, and biological parameters were used as indirect indicators of the menhaden resource. Synoptic and near real time sea truth, fishery, satellite imagery, aircraft acquired multispectral, photo and thermal IR information were acquired as data inputs. Computer programs were developed to manipulate these data according to user requirements. Preliminary results indicate a correlation between backscattered light with chlorophyll concentration and water transparency in turbid waters. Eight empirical menhaden distribution models were constructed from combinations of four fisheries-significant oceanographic parameters: water depth, transparency, color, and surface salinity. The models demonstrated their potential for management utilization in areas of resource assessment, prediction, and monitoring.

  2. Utilization of surface cover composition to improve the microwave determination of snow water equivalent in a mountain basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Rango, A.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite microwave data have been used to derive areal snow water equivalent in flat homogeneous areas. Over heterogeneous mountainous areas different algorithms are needed to retrieve the water equivalent of the snow cover. A mixed pixel model based on the percentage of vegetation cover within a pixel has been developed to simulate the microwave brightness temperatures for the Rio Grande basin in southwestern Colorado. A relationship between the difference in microwave-brightness temperature at two different frequencies (37- and 18-GHz horizontal polarization), and the basin-wide average snow water equivalent was obtained. The areal snow-water equivalent values derived from the model were consistent with values generated by a reliable snowmelt run-off model using snow-cover extent data.

  3. Study on physico - chemical properties of Korean anthracite for utilization development - application to filtering materials for waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites. The selected Jangseong coal for filtering material has low Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI : 38.38) and crushed two granule size. One is 1-2 mm size (effective size : 0.77 mm, uniformity coefficient : 1.70) and the other is 2-4 mm size (2.04 mm, 1.37) First, we had application test to find out the possibility of 2-4 mm sample for using water filtering material instead of silica sand in Sandflo filter. The result were unsuitable for treatment efficiency and micron size granule. But it will be solution with control of granule size and washing of coal. For feasibility study, the small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment plant of Lotte-chilsung beverage Co. to use the precipitated water during filtration test processed by purifying system. Measurement items are filtration rate, temperature of waste water, Electric Conductivity (EC), pH, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrogen Nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N), Organophosphorus and trace elements content (Zn, Al, Fe, Mg, K) of the supplied water and filtered water were carried out to find the filtration capacity of coal. The results indicated decreasing degree in turbidity (1-2 mm : 15.08 %, 2-4 mm : 11.58 %), COD (1-2 mm : 5.76 %, 2-4 mm : 5.49 %) and increasing degree in DO (1-2 mm : 11.25 %, 2-4 mm : 10 %). Trace elements removal degree of filtered waste water were about 30 % for Fe and 5 % for K. (author). 32 refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Hydro-Potential Utilization of Cooling Water on the Hydro-Electric Power Plant Dalešice

    OpenAIRE

    Hudec, Martin; Haluza, Miloslav; Kubálek, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Engineering solution of a surplus pressure head in a system of reversible machine unit's cooling water. Current technologies supplemented with Francis turbine or more precisely a centrifugal volute-type pump in turbine mode. It contains the layout for the basic extent of several various high-speeds with regard to maximum coverage of working conditions. Minimization of construction works on the structure of the cooling water inlet. Furthermore it includes an assignment of the annual power prod...

  5. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part I: A review of the UK legislative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Increasing political effort to improve water quality across the UK and Europe has led to water and sewerage companies investing heavily in high-tech wastewater treatment plants capable of producing high quality effluents. Consequently, amounts of bought-in electricity used for wastewater treatment has and will continue to increase significantly over coming years, while greater provision of enhanced sewage treatment also produces greater volumes of sewage sludge requiring treatment and disposal. Over the same period, tougher controls on the quality of biosolids applied to agricultural land have also been introduced, while there has been an international attempt to reduce the use of fossil-fuel derived power sources because of concerns over global warming. The latter has brought about the introduction of financial instruments, such as the Climate Change Levy, to curb energy use, promote energy efficiency and encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. These factors are set to drive-up the costs of providing adequate sewage treatment services, while at the same time, a tough regulatory line taken to control profits on regional monopolies held by the UK water companies will significantly reduce their revenues over the period 2000-05. The result is that, financially, UK water and sewerage companies face their most challenging period since privatisation in 1989. This paper briefly outlines the current regulations relating to water quality and energy use that will affect water company operations over coming years.

  6. 黄河三角洲非常规水资源综合利用%Integrated utilization of unconventional water resources in Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜庆伟; 辛宏杰

    2012-01-01

    针对黄河三角洲地区水资源不足、对黄河客水依靠程度高、水资源供需矛盾突出等问题,提出通过建设滨海骨干生态河道、完善灌区灌排干支渠、增设必要蓄水设施、构建生态水网等实现非常规水资源的综合利用.初步估算黄河以北非常规水资源利用量可达22 390万m3/a,黄河以南非常规水资源利用量可达14550万m3/a,这部分水经深度处理后可作为黄河三角洲自然保护区湿地补水水源或当地工农业用水水源.%The water system in the Yellow River Delta is characterized by insufficient water resources, a strong dependency on the water from the Yellow River, and outstanding conflicts between water supply and water demand. With consideration of these characteristics, an integrated strategy for utilization of unconventional water resources was proposed through construction of coastal ecological river channels, improvement of irrigation, drainage, and storage facilities in irrigation areas, and establishment of ecological river networks. It was preliminarily estimated that the amount of available unconventional water could be 223.9 million cubic meters per year to the north of the Yellow River and 145.5 million cubic meters per year to the south of the Yellow River. After advanced treatment, the water can become a resource for nature reserve wetlands and local industry and agriculture.

  7. National Coal Utilization Assessment. a preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the Midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for 1975-2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. The following are among the more significant issues identified and evaluated in this study: If environmental and related issues can be resolved, coal will continue to be a major source of energy for the Midwest; existing sulfur emission constraints will increase use of western coal; the resource requirements and environmental impacts of coal utilization will require major significant environmental and economic tradeoffs in site selection; short-term (24-hr) ambient standards for sulfur dioxide will limit the sizes of coal facilities or require advanced control technologies; an impact on public health may result from long-range transport of airborne sulfur emissions from coal facilities in the Midwest; inadequately controlled effluents from coal gasification may cause violations of water-quality standards; the major ecological effects of coal extraction are from pre-mining and post-reclamation land use; and sulfur dioxide is the major potential contributor to effects on vegetation of atmospheric emissions from coal facilities.

  8. 彰武沙地水利改良与利用研究%Improved Water Conservation of Sand Land and its Utilization in Zhangwu County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦树仁; 李春龙; 王宝泽; 佟威

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve water conservation and utilization of sand,the experimental demonstration zone in Aer Township of Zhangwu County in Liaoning Province was established.Result shows that:bulldozing dunes can improve the water condition of sand,increase the soil moisture content by 0.9%-1.3%,and expand the utilization area for sand land by 25%-30%;wells were made by using groundwater;a well is distributed every 3.3 hm2;the a-mount of water is seven tons per hour,which used for irrigating farmland,medicine garden,nursery and fast-grow-ing forest.Implementing micro-irrigation and laying underground pipe network can ensure the soil moist during the dry season,and can save water 2-3 times than that with irrigation pipe;using film bags planting and film planting method can save water about one time.%为了进行水利改良与利用沙地,在辽宁省彰武县阿尔乡建立了试验示范区。试验表明,推平沙丘,可以改善沙地水分状况,提高土壤含水率0.9%~1.3%,沙地利用面积扩大25%~30%;利用地下水,打机井,每3.3 hm2分布一眼,出水量每小时7 t,灌溉农田、药圃、苗圃和速生林;实施微润灌溉,铺设地下管网,保障在旱季土壤湿润,比管道灌水节水2~3倍;实行膜袋植树与覆膜植树法,可节水1倍左右。

  9. 以色列农业水资源的可持续利用%Sustainable Utilization of Agricultural Water Resources in Israel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维汉; 毛前

    2014-01-01

    Israel is a country short of water , thanks to a series of relative measures , its agricultural products can not only meet the domestic demands , but also export in a large quantity , reputed as the miracle of the desert .The measures , such as the establishment of national water conveyance system , the development of drip irrigation system , active expansion of seawater desalination , and continuous improvement of sewage treatment , guarantee water supply for production and living , and help to realize the sustainable utilization of agricultural water resources .Israel's sustainable utilization of agricultural water resources provides us a useful reference in china .%以色列是一个严重缺水的国家,但通过一系列的开源节流措施,农业产品不仅满足了国内市场的需求,而且实现了农产品的大量出口。其主要做法是建立国家输水系统,大力发展滴灌系统,积极扩展海水淡化能力,并不断发掘污水处理潜力,从而保障了生产生活用水,也实现了农业水资源的可持续利用。这些做法对我国建设节水型社会,有效利用和管理水资源,解决水资源短缺、促进农业可持续发展,有借鉴意义。

  10. 温泉沐浴水质与水处理利用探索%Explore the Hot Spring Bath Water Quality and Water Treatment Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪静

    2014-01-01

    Due to the hot spring has certain health care fu-nction, which makes the development of hot spring bath ind-ustry. This article carries on the analysis and exploration of the situation of hot spring bath water quality and the water treat-ment work, and carries on the exploration of further improving the hot spring bathing water quality and water treatment work.%由于温泉具有一定的医疗作用,因此使得温泉沐浴业的发展十分火热。本文着重对温泉的沐浴水质及温泉的水处理工作的现状进行了分析与研究,对进一步提高温泉的沐浴水质和水处理工作进行了探索。

  11. Water Pipelines, Major, washoe county water resources utility data, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pipelines, Major dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described...

  12. Water Pumping Stations, washoe county water resources utility data, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pumping Stations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described...

  13. Water Tanks, Allegany County Utilities Water Tanks/Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Allegany County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Allegany...

  14. Water quality and algal community dynamics of three deepwater lakes in Minnesota utilizing CE-QUAL-W2 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality, habitat, and fish in Minnesota lakes will potentially be facing substantial levels of stress in the coming decades primarily because of two stressors: (1) land-use change (urban and agricultural) and (2) climate change. Several regional and statewide lake modeling studies have identified the potential linkages between land-use and climate change on reductions in the volume of suitable lake habitat for coldwater fish populations. In recent years, water-resource scientists have been making the case for focused assessments and monitoring of sentinel systems to address how these stress agents change lakes over the long term. Currently in Minnesota, a large-scale effort called “Sustaining Lakes in a Changing Environment” is underway that includes a focus on monitoring basic watershed, water quality, habitat, and fish indicators of 24 Minnesota sentinel lakes across a gradient of ecoregions, depths, and nutrient levels. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, developed predictive water quality models to assess water quality and habitat dynamics of three select deepwater lakes in Minnesota. The three lakes (Lake Carlos in Douglas County, Elk Lake in Clearwater County, and Trout Lake in Cook County) were assessed under recent (2010–11) meteorological conditions. The three selected lakes contain deep, coldwater habitats that remain viable during the summer months for coldwater fish species. Hydrodynamics and water-quality characteristics for each of the three lakes were simulated using the CE-QUAL-W2 model, which is a carbon-based, laterally averaged, two-dimensional water-quality model. The CE-QUAL-W2 models address the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of temperature and oxygen in lakes. The CE-QUAL-W2 models for all three lakes successfully predicted water temperature, on the basis of the

  15. Recovery and Utilization of Air-conditioning Condensing Water%空调冷凝水的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华勇

    2014-01-01

    本文讨论了空调冷凝水的回收应用,空调冷凝水降低冷凝温度对制冷系数的影响,并对其进行了经济计算,对冷凝水其他回收利用方式的可行性讨论进行了研究。%This paper discussed the recycling application of air-conditioning condensing water and the influence of air conditioner condensing water on refrigeration coefficient by reducing condensing temperature. The author also carried out an economic calculation and analyzed the feasibility of the other recycling modes of the condensed water.

  16. Mitigation of the consequence of seismically induced damage on a utility water network by means of next generation SCADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jamie; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Wu, Felix

    2011-04-01

    When a lifeline system such as a water delivery network is damaged due to a severe earthquake, it is critical to identify its location and extent of the damage in real time in order to minimize the potentially disastrous consequence such damage could otherwise entail. This paper demonstrates how the degree of such minimization can be estimated qualitatively by using the water delivery system of Irvine Water Ranch District (IRWD) as testbed, when it is subjected to magnitude 6.6 San Joaquin Hills Earthquake. In this demonstration, we consider two cases when the IRWD system is equipped or not equipped with a next generation SCADA which consists of a network of MEMS acceleration sensors densely populated and optimally located. These sensors are capable of identifying the location and extent of the damage as well as transmitting the data to the SCADA center for monitoring and control.

  17. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Optimal Design of Water Utilization Network with Energy Integration in Process Industries%过程工业中具有能量集成的用水网络优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都健; 孟小琼; 杜红彬; 俞红梅; 樊希山; 姚平经

    2004-01-01

    Effective utilization of water and energy is the key factor of sustainable development in process industries, and also an important science and technology problem to be solved in systems engineering. In this paper,two new methods of optimal design of water utilization network with energy integration in process industries are presented, that is, stepwise and simultaneous optimization methods. They are suitable for both single contaminant and multi-contaminant systems, and the integration of energy can be carried out in the whole process system, not only limited in water network, so that energy can be utilized effectively. The two methods are illustrated by case study.

  19. Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Odeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic viability of photovoltaic, diesel and grid connected water pumping systems is investigated and compared for system capacities in the range 1500 m4/day to 100,000 m4/day. Actual performance data from installed systems are considered in calculating systems outputs for base case scenarios. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to generalize results for other locations and conditions. Several scenarios of the effect of variation electricity tariffs, components prices, diesel fuel prices, operation cost and interest rate on the output water unit cost (US$/1000m4  are investigated.  Breakeven points of PV pumping systems are determined at certain input parameters.

  20. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masako, I.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  1. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  2. Legal situation during thermal utilization of ground water in Germany; Rechtliche Situation bei der thermischen Grundwassernutzung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker-Hertkon, Simone; Kuebert, Markus [systherma Planungsbuero fuer Erdwaermesysteme GmbH, Starzach-Felldorf (Germany); Haehnlein, Stefanie; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    2008-07-01

    During erection and operation of geothermal probes in the surface geothermal energy mainly water- and mining right requirements have to be taken into account. These are furtheron completed by regulatory guides of the Federal States of Germany. The presented article offers an overall picture of the actual legal frame. (GL)

  3. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part II: A review of potential technologies and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Environmental legislation is increasing the amounts of bought-in electricity required for sewage treatment, and generating larger volumes of sewage sludge to be treated and disposed of. Concurrently, concerns over global warming and food safety from sewage sludge recycling on agricultural land is augmenting the costs of conventional sewage and sludge treatment technologies and practices. This paper reviews some emerging technologies and practices that may assist in mitigating these problems in the future. In addition, a number of potential renewable energy technologies available to water companies are reviewed. Results suggest that through the take-up of new technologies, current and future water quality standards could be delivered in a more sustainable way. However, this series of papers also highlights that institutional and political conflicts may have inadvertently failed to recognise the wider effects of improving water quality and lessened the financial support necessary for their widespread take-up. It is also suggested that through the use of a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approach, stakeholders could gain a better understanding of the broader environmental effects of achieving certain water quality standards and develop policy and long-term investment strategies accordingly. However, to fulfill the information requirements of an SEA, an appropriate appraisal tool that considers many of these factors in unison is required, and a possible technique is suggested.

  4. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture.

  5. 矿山采出水的处理与利用%Treatment and utilization of mine water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪亮; 付汇琪; 阎会涛

    2011-01-01

    To use comb-type DDSL filtering technology established water supply treatment project in the Tiandong coal mining area,Guangxi Province,which implements the remote mountain life,,integrated,efficient,and to achieve the local use of mine pit water,reduce water processing infrastructure costs,protect the surface environment,achieving energy conservation,and enhance economic efficiency and rational use of water resources.%广西田东煤矿矿区使用梳理式DDSL过滤技术,对在矿山建设了给水处理工程,既实现了偏僻山区生活给水的集成化、高效化,也实现了就地利用矿山矿井水,减少了水处理基建工程费用,保护了地表环境。达到了节能减排、提高经济效益和水资源合理利用的目的。

  6. Utilization of VAE Waste Water and Waste Residue%VAE废水和废渣的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红卫

    2000-01-01

    the situation of VAE waste water and waste residue applied in the process of paints, adhesive, modified cement, thermal insulation materials is introduced in this paper.%介绍了VAE废水和废渣在涂料、粘合剂、水泥改性以及保温材料加工中的应用情况。

  7. 马斯洛需求层次理论在水资源开发利用进程中的应用%Application of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory to Utilization of Water Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 邹进; 胡吉敏; 晏欣

    2011-01-01

    基于马斯洛需求层次理论,将理论中的五种需求分别对应水资源开发利用中的工程水利、资源水利、人水和谐水利三个阶段,并以我国水资源开发利用进程为例,从人类需求的角度分析了水资源开发利用变化规律及发展方向,提出需求引发了人们对水资源的开发利用井推动其变化、发展,认为人水和谐为人类对水资源开发利用的最终方向.%Based on the Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, three stages of water resources development and utilization including engineering water conservancy, resources water conservancy and human-water harmony conservancy are denoted by five kinds of needs in the theory. Taking the water resources development and utilization in China for an example, the variation rules and development trend are analyzed from the aspect of human needs. It also proposes that the human needs is the motive power to the utilization of water resources and drives the changes and development of water resources utilization. Human-water harmony is considered as the ultimate direction of water resources utilization.

  8. 内陆河流域用水结构与产业结构双向优化仿真模型%Mutual optimization of water utilization structure and industrial structure in arid inland river basins of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍超; 方创琳; 陈凡

    2006-01-01

    Water is a key restricting factor of the economic development and eco-environmental protection in arid inland river basins of Northwest China. Although water supplies are short, the water utilization structure and the corresponding industrial structure are unbalanced. We constructed a System Dynamic Model for mutual optimization based on the mechanism of their interaction. This model is applied to the Heihe River Basin where the share of limited water resources among ecosystem, production and human living is optimized. Results show that, by mutual optimization, the water utilization structure and the industrial structures fit in with each other. And the relationships between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin can be harmonized. Mutual benefits of ecology, society and economy can be reached, and a sustainable ecology-production-living system can be obtained. This study gives a new insight and method for the sustainable utilization of water resources in arid inland river basins.

  9. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  10. 新建绿色校园节水与水资源综合利用设计探讨%Design of Water Conservation and Comprehensive Utilization of Water Resources Concerning a New Green Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建琴; 张怡; 张成

    2015-01-01

    某高职校新建校园节水和水资源综合利用设计方案采用了节水设计、中水回用、雨水收集利用、景观水质保持等措施,使新校园直接节水率达23%,中水回用率45.4%,非传统水源利用率达37.7%,满足CSUS/GBC04—2013《绿色校园评价标准》和GBT50378—2006《绿色建筑评价标准》要求。同时论证了项目增量成本的可行性。%Through the design of water conservation and comprehensive utilization of water resources concerning a new campus of a vocational school, the direct saving rate, water reuse rate and non-conven-tional water resources utilization rate of the new campus reach 23%, 45.4% and 37.7% respectively. It’s the use of water-saving design, water reuse, rainwater harvesting, landscape water retention and other mea-sures that make the indexes above meeting“Evaluation Standard for Green Campus”(GBT50378-2006) and“Evaluation Standard for Green Building”(GBT50378-2006). Meanwhile, the paper demonstrates the feasi-bility of the projects’ incremental costs.

  11. 水资源利用与水环境保护研究的若干问题探讨%Discussion and Research on water environment protection problems in utilization of water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪宗

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, because each department interest oriented problems , utilization of water resources system design problems , as well as the water right is unknown and the price is not reasonable , so many places in China are often divorced from objective reality in the utilization of water resources and the protection of water environment research .Many studies did not use and protection of local water resources to play what role , also did not provide a good help for water environment protection laws and regulations , policies , measures and programmes to local , the result is the water environment protection in China until now still can not get rid of “partial improvement , the overall is still in a passive situation worse”.%很长时间以来,由于各个部门之间的利益导向问题、水资源利用制度设计方面的缺陷问题、以及水权不明和水价不合理等问题,使得我国很多地方在对水资源的利用以及水环境的保护方面的研究往往脱离客观实际。很多研究并没有对当地水资源的利用和保护起到什么作用,也没有为当地的水环境保护法规、政策、措施和方案提供很好的帮助,结果就导致了我国水环境保护一直到现在还不能摆脱“局部有所改善、整体仍在恶化”的被动局面。

  12. Utilization of ELISA using thioredoxin peroxidase-1 and tandem repeat proteins for diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection among water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ma M Angeles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1 and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 water buffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA. For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for water buffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and water buffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for water buffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection.

  13. Modeling of Water-Breathing Propulsion Systems Utilizing the Aluminum-Seawater Reaction and Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    overcome drag during the mission [2] and to supply power to the payload. The propulsive force, FThrust, of the vehicle is assumed to be equal to the drag...provide unique challenges for a fuel cell. If either reactant stream is supplied with ambient water from around the vehicle, any number of...studied in relation to the presence of HCl in coal syngas [22]. HCl concentrations as low as 20 ppm were shown to degrade SOFC performance. Most other

  14. Flume Experiments for Optimizing the Hydraulic Performance of a Deep-Water Wetland Utilizing Emergent Vegetation and Obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Shu Shih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Constructed ponds and wetlands are widely used in urban areas for stormwater management, ecological conservation, and pollution treatment. The treatment efficiency of these systems is strongly related to the hydrodynamics and hydraulic residence time. In this study, we developed a physical model and used rhodamine-WT as a tracer to conduct flume experiments. An equivalent Reynolds number was assumed, and the flume was a 1/25-scale model. Emergent obstructions (EOs, submerged obstructions (SOs, and high- and low-density emergent vegetation were placed along the sides of the flume, and 49 tracer tests were performed. We altered the density, spatial extent, aspect ratio, and configurations of the obstructions and emergent vegetation to observe changes in the hydraulic efficiency of a deep-water wetland. In the cases of low-aspect-ratio obstructions, the effects of the EOs on the hydraulic efficiency were significantly stronger than those of the SOs. In contrast, in the cases of high-aspect-ratio obstructions, the improvement effects of the EOs were weaker than those of the SOs. The high-aspect-ratio EOs altered the flow direction and constrained the water conveyance area, which apparently caused a short-circuited flow phenomenon, resulting in a decrease in hydraulic efficiency. Most cases revealed that the emergent vegetation improved the hydraulic efficiency more than the EOs. The high-density emergent vegetation (HEV improved the hydraulic efficiency more than the low-density emergent vegetation (LEV. Three cases involving HEV, two cases involving LEV, and one case involving EOs attained a good hydraulic efficiency (λ > 0.75. To achieve greater water purification, aquatic planting in constructed wetlands should not be overly dense. The HEV configuration in case 3-1 achieved optimum hydraulic performance for compliance with applicable water treatment standards.

  15. Test on Agricultural Irrigation Water Utilization Coefficient for Liaoning Province%辽宁省农业灌溉水利用系数测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝东; 王殿武; 李松; 唐雷彬

    2011-01-01

    Using the three methods of spot experiment test in typical region, actual measurement in representative irrigation area and balance analysis of water demand investigation, the agricultural irrigation water utilization coefficient was taken as 0.52~0.59 for Liaoning Province. The coefficient can be supplied for assessing the efficiency of agriculture water, feasibility of developing watersaving agriculture and solving the problems of water resources scarcity.%通过典型区域现场实验测算、代表性灌区实测及用水量调查平衡分析测算3种方法得出辽宁省灌溉水利用系数为0.52~0.59,为科学评价辽宁省农业用水效率,发展节水型农业,解决水资源短缺等问题提供了重要依据.

  16. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Theregowda, Ranjani B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan). Waer Resources Management and Policy Research Center; Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  17. The dynamic process of atmospheric water sorption in [BMIM][Ac]: quantifying bulk versus surface sorption and utilizing atmospheric water as a structure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Cao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yuwei; Mu, Tiancheng

    2014-06-19

    The dynamic process of the atmospheric water absorbed in acetate-based ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([BMIM][Ac]) within 360 min could be described with three steps by using two-dimensional correlation infrared (IR) spectroscopy technique. In Step 1 (0-120 min), only bulk sorption via hydrogen bonding interaction occurs. In Step 2 (120-320 min), bulk and surface sorption takes place simultaneously via both hydrogen bonding interaction and van der Waals force. In Step 3, from 320 min to steady state, only surface sorption via van der Waals force occurs. Specifically, Step 2 could be divided into three substeps. Most bulk sorption with little surface sorption takes place in Step 2a (120-180 min), comparative bulk and surface sorption happens in Step 2b (180-260 min), and most surface sorption while little bulk sorption occurs in Step 2c (260-320 min). Interestingly, atmospheric water is found for the first time to be able to be used as a probe to detect the chemical structure of [BMIM][Ac]. Results show that one anion is surrounded by three C4,5H molecules and two anions are surrounded by five C2H molecules via hydrogen bonds, which are very susceptible to moisture water especially for the former one. The remaining five anions form a multimer (equilibrating with one dimer and one trimer) via a strong hydrogen bonding interaction, which is not easily affected by the introduction of atmospheric water. The alkyl of the [BMIM][Ac] cation aggregates to some extent by van der Walls force, which is moderately susceptible to the water attack. Furthermore, the proportion of bulk sorption vs surface sorption is quantified as about 70% and 30% within 320 min, 63% and 37% within 360 min, and 11% and 89% until steady-state, respectively.

  18. GIS UTILITY FOR HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION CAUSED BY DAMAGES OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS. APPLICATIONS IN BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU ALEXANDRU MARIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average in the Baia Mare associated with a long duration of failure (several hours may be in the drain area, impact on the local community. Regarding rural settlements, surface drainage allow a quantity of water retention tank underground infiltration but in many cases lack of a sewage system effectively contribute to increased negative consequences related to such damage (flooding farms, roads, crops compromise of flooding or drought in the event of damage to the hot water supply pipe and so on. This paper focuses on the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess the impact of runoff induced by damages in rural areas. The study therefore spatial aspect, through GIS, on the one hand runoff along the flow path with the start point of the network fault location and view previous hydrological conditions of the terrain, and on the other hand the impact of runoff the rural community. Study area Dumbrăviţa settlement located in Baia Mare Depression. This village is part of water supply system to the south and southeast of Baia Mare.

  19. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery has been evaluated for use in resource planning and management in North Carolina, and found to be useful for general reconnaissance purposes in forestry, geology, and water resources work. It has also been used for studying large-scale transient phenomena such as river plumes and movement of sediment in the sounds. ERTS-1 imagery has been an aid to geologic and land-use mapping. Stereoscopes, projectors of various kinds, and microscopes have proved useful instruments for the kinds of data acquisition needed by resource planners and managers.

  20. Utilization of desalinated b rackish water resi dues for cultivation of the m a rine fish species, Dicentrarchus labra x, Sparus aurata, and Sciaenops ocellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz A. Al - Qutob

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of brackish water residues from desalination units for fish mariculture inPalestine could represent an environmental friendly alternative of disposing brine water which could havean adverse effect on wild life. In this study, three juvenile marine fish species (Gilt-head bream S. aurata, European sea bass D. labrax, and red drum S. ocellatus with average weights of 0.7-4.9 g, wereacclimated and reared in brine brackish water residues collected from Jericho desalination units withsalinities of 6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ diluted sea water as control for 3-7 months. Fish were fed 56 % richprotein diet. Brine brackish water contained high levels of CL-1 (3369 mgL-1, Na+1(3735 mgL-1, K+1(300mgL-1, SO4 -2 (716 mgL-1 with the divalent ions Mg+2 (57.3 mgL-1 and Ca+2 (276 mgL-1.Theexperimental well showed more than the maximum allowable concentration of Cr (14.49 μgL-1, Ag (5.3μgL-1 and Mn (27.88 μgL-1 for water quality of fisheries use. The sea bass with an average weight of0.76 g (at a salinity of 6.5 ‰ showed an acceptable growth performance parameters and reached apercentage weight gain (% WG of 6345.23 % and a survival rate of 77.5 % compared to control groupsat 11 ‰ that reached at the same time a % WG of 6543.78 % and a survival rate of 82 % after 30weeks. The red drum juveniles reached a % WG of 2661.6 % and 2673.92 % after 15 weeks at 6.5 ‰and 11 ‰ respectively while sea bream reached a % WG of 241.63 % and 772.44 % after 15 weeks at6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ respectively. Survival rate was only 5 % at both salinities for the two species. In afurther study sea bass fingerlings with an average weight of 20.5 g were reared in brackish water of 6.5‰ salinity for 7 weeks and were fed superior fish meal with fish oil. They received diets of 2.1 %, 3.0%, and 4.0 % of body weight. Sea bass fingerlings which received diets of 2.1 %, had the highest FCE(0.82 and PER (1.46 with the lowest FCR (1.22. These results confirm that the most

  1. Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Ikonen, Jenni; Pursiainen, Anna; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2012-09-01

    A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of the decontaminants on biofilms was followed as heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total cell counts (TCC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine AdV40 and plate counting was used to enumerate E. coli. PAA and chlorine proved to be effective decontaminants since they decreased the levels of AdV40 and E. coli to below method detection limits in both water and biofilms. However, without decontamination, AdV40 remained present in the pipelines for up to 4 days. In contrast, the concentration of cultivable E. coli decreased rapidly in the control pipelines, implying that E. coli may be an inadequate indicator for the presence of viral pathogens. Biofilms responded to the decontaminants by decreased HPCs while TCC remained stable. This indicates that the mechanism of pipeline decontamination by chlorine and PAA is inactivation rather than physical removal of microbes.

  2. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Atiqah Norazlimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus, Common redshank (Tringa totanus, Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus, and Little heron (Butorides striata and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder. The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R=0.443, p<0.05, bill size and prey size (R=-0.052, p<0.05, bill size and probing depth (R=0.42, p=0.003, and leg length and water/mud depth (R=0.706, p<0.005. A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm and species (H=15.96, p=0.0012. Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging.

  3. Utilization of Ion-Exclusion Chromatography for Water Quality Monitoring in a Suburban River in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kozaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of ion-exclusion chromatographic systems for analyzing the behavior of inorganic ions (e.g., bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved silicate, sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium ions in a suburban river located in Jakarta, Indonesia. Carbonate, phosphate, and silicate ion concentrations were determined using ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (WCX in the H+-form with water eluent. Other ions were identified by ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC on a WCX column with tartaric acid eluent. The use of IEC systems for water quality monitoring was advantageous for the following reasons: (1 the concentrations of analyte ions, except NO3− and silicate ions, increased from upstream to downstream; and (2 the speciation of inorganic nitrogen ions could be analyzed by single injection into the IEC/CEC. The IEC approach provided beneficial information for the construction of sewage treatment facilities in our study area. Results showed that (1 the analyte concentrations for samples obtained in the downstream area were higher than those in the upstream area owing to contamination by domestic sewage; (2 the concentrations of NO3− and NH4+ correlated with the concentration of dissolved oxygen; and (3 bicarbonate concentrations increased downstream, likely due to respiration of bacteria and dissolution of concrete under low-oxygen conditions.

  4. Electrochemical Sensing System Utilizing Simazine-Imprinted Polymer Receptor for the Detection of Simazine in Tap Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fuchiwaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simazine sensing system, composed of column packed with a molecularly imprinted polymer (Sim-MIP and an electrochemical analyzer, was scaled down in order to easily determine the concentration of simazine, an environmentally restricted chemical, in tap water. In order to enhance the detection limit, the ratio of the eluent (dilution rate in the electrolyte was optimized to 10%. A new in-house built column size with ∅=1.5 mm was prepared, and 3 mg of Sim-MIP particles was packed in the column. During the sensing process, 90% of the simazine loaded to the column was collected by elution. The reductive current of simazine was determined up to 1–10 μM. Solid phase extraction through the Sim-MIP column enabled simazine to be selectively detected from a mixed aqueous solution containing structural analogues in the range of 10–40 nM. Whether the concentration of simazine in tap water had reached environmentally restricted levels (10–40 nM was determined within 1 hour using this system.

  5. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on air and water transport, communications, and utilities systems in south-central Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1967-01-01

    The earthquake of March 27, 1964, wrecked or severely hampered all forms of transportation, all utilities, and all communications systems over a very large part of south-central Alaska. Effects on air transportation were minor as compared to those on the water, highway, and railroad transport systems. A few planes were damaged or wrecked by seismic vibration or by flooding. Numerous airport facilities were damaged by vibration or by secondary effects of the earthquake, notably seismic sea and landslide-generated waves, tectonic subsidence, and compaction. Nearly all air facilities were partly or wholly operational within a few hours after the earthquake. The earthquake inflicted enormous damage on the shipping industry, which is indispensable to a State that imports fully 90 percent of its requirements—mostly by water—and whose largest single industry is fishing. Except for those of Anchorage, all port facilities in the earthquake-affected area were destroyed or made inoperable by submarine slides, waves, tectonic uplift, and fire. No large vessels were lost, but more than 200 smaller ones (mostly crab or salmon boats) were lost or severely damaged. Navigation aids were destroyed, and hitherto well-known waterways were greatly altered by uplift or subsidence. All these effects wrought far-reaching changes in the shipping economy of Alaska, many of them to its betterment. Virtually all utilities and communications in south-central Alaska were damaged or wrecked by the earthquake, but temporary repairs were effected in remarkably short times. Communications systems were silenced almost everywhere by loss of power or by downed lines; their place was quickly taken by a patchwork of self-powered radio transmitters. A complex power-generating system that served much of the stricken area from steam, diesel, and hydrogenerating plants was disrupted in many places by vibration damage to equipment and by broken transmission lines. Landslides in Anchorage broke gas

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. The Emphases of Comprehensive Development and Utilization of Water Resources in Shanxi Province%山西省水资源综合开发利用的重点与途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵祥; 刘养洁; 李惠玲

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzed the emphases and ways of comprehensive development and utilization of water resources in Shanxi Province,included mainly five aspects,such as development and utilization ground water,underground water,transit water,border water and saving water,purify or disposal of sewage,reutilization of waste water etc.%山西省是缺水的能源大省。从地表水、地下水、过境水和边界水等不同利用类型水体的开发利用,以及节约用水、污水净化和废水的重复利用等五个方面,论述了山西省水资源综合开发利用的重点与途径。

  8. Eco-environmental problems and effective utilization of water resources in the Kashi Plain, western Terim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nian-Feng; Tang, Jie; Han, Feng-Xiang

    2001-02-01

    Since ancient times, water resources, mainly from melting snow in the high mountains, have nourished a large area of an oasis in the Kashi Plain in the western Terim Basin, China. In the last half-century, however, the rapid growth of population and the overexploitation of water, soil, and biological resources have led to drought, salinization, and desertification in the area, and consequently have hindered the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, groundwater reservoirs with sustainable water supplies equivalent to 44.65×108 m3/year were identified, which has made it possible to implement several projects in the area to improve the ecological and agricultural environment. Three strategies are proposed for the integrated development and management of both surface-water and groundwater resources in the area. Résumé. Depuis des temps anciens, les ressources en eaux, provenant surtout de la fonte des neiges en montagne, ont alimenté une large part d'une oasis de la plaine de Kashi, dans le bassin occidental de Terim (Chine). Au cours des derniers cinquante ans, toutefois, l'accroissement rapide de la population et la surexploitation de l'eau, des sols et des ressources biologiques ont provoqué la sécheresse, la salinisation et la désertification de la région cela a eu pour conséquence d'entraver le développement d'une agriculture durable. Cette étude identifie les réserves en eau souterraine, susceptibles de fournir durablement 44,65×108 m3/an, ce qui a permis de réaliser plusieurs projets dans cette région pour améliorer l'environnement écologique et agricole. Trois stratégies sont proposées pour le développement intégré et la gestion simultanée des ressources en eau de surface et en eau souterraine de cette région. Resumen. Los recursos hídricos, procedentes fundamentalmente del deshielo en alta montaña, han nutrido desde tiempo inmemorial una gran área de un oasis situado en las llanuras de Kashi, en la cuenca occidental

  9. Utilization of EREP data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S190A, S190B, and S192 photographs and imagery were studied, using standard air-photo interpretation techniques supplemented by color additive viewing and density slicing. The EREP data were found to have potential usefulness for natural resource inventory work, water quality monitoring, and land use mapping for specific problems at scales up to 1:30,000. Distinctions between forest types in North Carolina are limited to conifers, mixed conifer-hardwoods, and hardwoods. Geologic interpretation was limited to detection of lineaments; lithologic differentiation and soil group mapping have proved infeasible in North Carolina except for differentiation of wetland soils in the coastal plain. Imagery from the S192 multispectral scanner has proved to be capable of useful discriminations for vegetation and crop analysis.

  10. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging.

  11. Possibility of Modification of Zeolites by Iron Oxides and its Utilization for Removal of Pb(II from Water Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lovás

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ion-exchange properties of cations from lattice and ions from solutions are characteristic for zeolites. Zeolites as sorbents are used in many branches of industry. Ion-exchange reactions of cations on zeolites have been a theme of many works. With the exception of using natural zeolites as the sorbent, a modification of surface of zeolites and preparation of synthetic zeolites has received interest lately. One of the common modification of zeolites is modification by iron oxides, which increases capacity of adsorption. In this work, we prepared a modified zeolite by the precipitation of magnetite on the surface of zeolite. This new adsorbent was used to remove of Pb(II from waste water. The maximum adsorption capacity was 73,25 mg/g from the solution of Pb with the concentration of 400 mg/l.

  12. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  13. Two-Sides of the Same Coin: Communicating Climate Change Science to Water Utilities and Stakeholders in Florida and Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, V. W.; Staal, L.

    2011-12-01

    The NOAA-funded Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment (RISA) programs act as boundary organizations that both conduct and translate academic climate research in the physical and social sciences for a variety of stakeholder applications, including for local and state governments, natural resource managers, non-climate scientists, and community members. For the past six years, I have worked with two RISAs-one in the southeast United States, and recently in the Pacific region. In confronting the most immediate impacts of climate change, Florida and Hawai'i are both currently dealing with saltwater intrusion effects on infrastructure and water supply, sea level rise impacts on vulnerable coastlines, and expect the problems to worsen in the future. Both RISAs have focused on water resource sustainability as a topic of interest, and held workshops on climate variability and change impacts for water utilities and a wider range of relevant stakeholders. Methods that have been used to communicate climate science, projected impacts, and risk have included: working groups/collaborative learning, scientific presentations and presentations of relevant case studies, beach management planning, in-depth interviews, and educational radio spots. Despite the similarities in the types of issues being confronted, stakeholders in each location have responded with differing levels of acceptance, which has resulted in the usage of different methods of communication of the same types of climate science information. This talk will focus on the success of a variety of different methods in communicating similar information on comparable risks to different audiences.

  14. Evaluation of Water Resources Utilization of Hydropower Station Based on Water Footprint Theory%基于水足迹理论的水电站水资源利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金辉; 王新华; 王中云

    2016-01-01

    Water resources consumption situation of hydropower development and utilization was analyzed from the aspect of resources.The concept of water footprint was applied in the development of hydropower.Application of water footprint theory in water resources of hydropower station was researched from the three aspects of blue water footprints in hydropower station, blue water footprints in different areas, blue water footprint of hydropower station with the same generated energy. Results showed that blue water footprints in hydropower station of China were unevenly distributed.Region had significant impacts on the blue water footprints.Finally, constructing hydropower station or current hydro-power station should take blue water footprint as the yard stick.Hydropower station should be established in mountain valleys with many mountains, small evaporation capacity, narrow topography, and small water reservoir area, which could effectively reduce evaporation and save water resource consumption.%为了从资源的角度分析水电开发利用的水资源消耗情况,将水足迹的概念应用到水电开发上,从我国不同水电站的蓝水足迹、不同地区蓝水足迹、相同发电量的水电站的蓝水足迹3个方面,进行了水足迹理论在水电站利用水资源中的应用研究。结果表明:我国水电站蓝水足迹分布不均,区域性对水电站蓝水足迹的影响明显。最后提出建设水电站或现有水电大坝在很大程度上要以蓝水足迹作为衡量标准,应在多山、蒸发量小、地形狭窄、水库面积小的高山峡谷地区建设水电站,以有效利用落水差,减少蒸发,节约水资源。

  15. Understanding fast neutrons utilizing a water Cherenkov detector and a gas-filled detector at the soudan underground laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Chiranjibi

    Many experiments are currently searching for Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), a well-motivated class of hypothetical dark matter candidates. These direct dark matter detection experiments are located in deep underground to shield from cosmic-ray muons and the fast neutrons they produce. Fast neutrons are particularly dangerous to WIMP detectors because they can penetrate a WIMP-search experiment's neutron shielding. Once inside, these fast neutrons can interact with high-Z material near the WIMP detector, producing slower neutrons capable of mimicking the expected WIMP signal. My research uses two detectors located in Soudan Underground Laboratory to understand fast neutron production by muons in an underground environment: a water-Cherenkov detector sensitive to fast neutrons; and a gas-filled detector sensitive to charged particles like muons. The different kinds of selection criterion and their efficiencies are reported in this thesis. This thesis estimate the number of high energy neutron-like candidates associated with a nearby muon by using data from both detector systems.

  16. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [soil mapping, crop identification, water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In soil association mapping, computerized analysis of ERTS-1 MSS data has yielded images which will prove useful in the ongoing Cooperative Soil Survey program, involving the Soil Conservation Service of USDA and other state and local agencies. In the present mode of operation, a soil survey for a county may take up to 5 years to be completed. Results indicate that a great deal of soils information can be extracted from ERTS-1 data by computer analysis. This information is expected to be very valuable in the premapping conference phase of a soil survey, resulting in more efficient field operations during the actual mapping. In the earth surface features mapping effort it was found that temporal data improved the classification accuracy of forest classification in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. In water resources study a severe scanner look angle effect was observed in the aircraft scanner data of a test lake which was not present in ERTS-1 data of the same site. This effect was greatly accentuated by surface roughness caused by strong winds. Quantitative evaluation of urban features classification in ERTS-1 data was obtained. An 87.1% test accuracy was obtained for eight categories in Marion County, Indiana.

  17. Climate change effects on extreme flows of water supply area in Istanbul: utility of regional climate models and downscaling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Fatih; Yucel, Ismail

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the climate change impact on the changes of mean and extreme flows under current and future climate conditions in the Omerli Basin of Istanbul, Turkey. The 15 regional climate model output from the EU-ENSEMBLES project and a downscaling method based on local implications from geophysical variables were used for the comparative analyses. Automated calibration algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdel-ning (HBV) model for the study catchment using observed daily temperature and precipitation. The calibrated HBV model was implemented to simulate daily flows using precipitation and temperature data from climate models with and without downscaling method for reference (1960-1990) and scenario (2071-2100) periods. Flood indices were derived from daily flows, and their changes throughout the four seasons and year were evaluated by comparing their values derived from simulations corresponding to the current and future climate. All climate models strongly underestimate precipitation while downscaling improves their underestimation feature particularly for extreme events. Depending on precipitation input from climate models with and without downscaling the HBV also significantly underestimates daily mean and extreme flows through all seasons. However, this underestimation feature is importantly improved for all seasons especially for spring and winter through the use of downscaled inputs. Changes in extreme flows from reference to future increased for the winter and spring and decreased for the fall and summer seasons. These changes were more significant with downscaling inputs. With respect to current time, higher flow magnitudes for given return periods will be experienced in the future and hence, in the planning of the Omerli reservoir, the effective storage and water use should be sustained.

  18. A regional approach to the Co-Production of climate information for water utilities- Managing Messages, Approaches, Benefits, and Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, water utility managers across Colorado have joined together to advance their understanding of the role of climate information in their planning process. In an unprecedented step, managers from 5 different organizations and agencies pooled their resources and worked collaboratively to better understand the ever evolving role of science in helping understand risks, uncertainties, and opportunities that climate uncertainty and change might bring to this semi-arid region. The group developed an ongoing educational process to better understand climate projections (Scale); cohesively communicate with customers and the media (Communication); provided institutional coverage to an often contentious topic (Safety); and helped coordinate with other investigations and participants to facilitate education and training (Collaboration); and pooled finances, staff, and expert resources (Resources). We will share this experience and give examples of concrete outcomes.

  19. 回水中的微细粒矿物资源化利用%THE RESOURCE UTILIZATION OF TINY-FINE-PARTICLE MINERAL IN THE WATER TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立; 邓政斌

    2012-01-01

    The about 25 % of lead and zinc in suspension ultra-fine particles produced from water treatment system during mineral processing of a kind of complex refractory lead-zinc ore is recovered by the approach of mixing certain ratio of lead sulfide concentrate, thus the metal mineral resource utilization of lead and zinc is further improved.%云南某复杂难选铅锌矿水处理系统中的悬浮微细粒中铅锌之和为25%左右,采用按一定配比混入硫化铅精矿的方法进行回收,铅锌金属资源化利用程度进一步提高.

  20. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  1. A new method for the investigation of mercury redox chemistry in natural waters utilizing deflatable Teflon[reg] bags and additions of isotopically labeled mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalin, Lindsay M. [Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States); Mason, Robert P. [Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)]. E-mail: robert.mason@uconn.edu

    2006-02-03

    The toxicity and behavior of mercury (Hg) varies greatly between its chemical species, yet the mechanisms which control the redox chemistry of Hg in natural waters are still poorly understood. Previous studies have identified these processes and compared the Hg redox chemistry between water types but have been hampered by errors associated primarily with the type of reaction vessels utilized, and the inability of the methods to simultaneously measure oxidation and reduction. Presented here are the results of experiments which demonstrate the validity of a new method that addresses both these issues through the design and use of a new reaction vessel, a 5 L PFA Teflon[reg] incubation bag, and by the addition of isotopically labeled inorganic Hg species (both Hg{sup II} and Hg{sup 0}). The method development showed that mm thick FEP Teflon[reg] is permeable to Hg{sup 0}, and therefore unsuitable. Application of this method showed that both oxidation and reduction occurred simultaneously in natural waters exposed to ambient sunlight and that the rate of these transformations were of similar order (10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}). Given such reaction rates, the characteristic time to equilibrium is rapid, on the order of hours. The method is applicable for tracer studies, and the method was able to quantify rate constants of greater than 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. Overall, this study suggests that the rates of reaction are faster than previously predicted primarily because previous studies did not account for the fact that both reactions are occurring simultaneously in natural waters.

  2. Utilization of desalinated b rackish water resi dues for cultivation of the m a rine fish species, Dicentrarchus labra x, Sparus aurata, and Sciaenops ocellatus

    OpenAIRE

    Mutaz A. Al-Qutob; Ra'fat A. Qubaja; Tharwat S. Nashashibi

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of brackish water residues from desalination units for fish mariculture inPalestine could represent an environmental friendly alternative of disposing brine water which could havean adverse effect on wild life. In this study, three juvenile marine fish species (Gilt-head bream S. aurata, European sea bass D. labrax, and red drum S. ocellatus) with average weights of 0.7-4.9 g, wereacclimated and reared in brine brackish water residues collected from Jericho desalination units ...

  3. Microbial synthesis of schwertmannite from lignite mine water and its utilization for removal of arsenic from mine waters and for production of iron pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janneck, E.; Ehinger, S. [GEOS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Freiburg (Germany); Arnold, I.; Koch, T. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany); Meyer, J. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Burghardt, D. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Groundwater Management

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a pilot study conducted at a lignite open pit mine located near Nochten, Germany. The study evaluated the effectiveness of the microbiological synthesis of schwertmannite (SHM). Pure SHM was precipitated by the microbiological oxidation of ferrous iron under pH conditions varying between 2.85 and 3.1. Results of the experimental study showed that a maximum load of 2.5 m{sup 3}/h and an oxidation rate of 55 gFe{sup 2+}/(m{sup 3} by hours) were achieved using the microbiological synthesis technique. The produced SHM can be used as a sorbent for removing arsenic from mine waters. A pilot test at an abandoned uranium mine site was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SHM product. The SHM was also used in the production of roofing tiles, floor tiles, and concrete cobblestones, as well as in the production of synthetic resin paints and corrosion-protection coatings. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. Long-term trends of nutrients and apparent oxygen utilization South of the polar front in Southern Ocean intermediate water from 1965 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Iida

    Full Text Available The variation of nutrients over decadal timescales south of the polar front in the Southern Ocean is poorly known because of a lack of continuous observational data in this area. We examined data from long-term continuous hydrographic monitoring of 43 years (1965-2008 in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, via the resupply of Antarctic stations under the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition and Australian Antarctic Research Expedition. We found significant increasing trends in phosphate and nitrate, and a decreasing trend in apparent oxygen utilization (AOU in intermediate water (neutral density = 27.8-28.1 kgm(-3 south of the polar front. The rates of phosphate and nitrate increase are 0.004 µmol yr(-1 and 0.02 µmol yr(-1, respectively. The rate of decline of AOU was 0.32 µmol yr(-1. One reason for this phosphate and nitrate increase and AOU decline is reduced horizontal advection of North Atlantic Deep Water, which is characterized by low nutrients and high AOU. The relationship between climate change and nutrient variability remains obscure, emphasizing the importance of long-term monitoring.

  5. Long-term trends of nutrients and apparent oxygen utilization South of the polar front in Southern Ocean intermediate water from 1965 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takahiro; Odate, Tsuneo; Fukuchi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The variation of nutrients over decadal timescales south of the polar front in the Southern Ocean is poorly known because of a lack of continuous observational data in this area. We examined data from long-term continuous hydrographic monitoring of 43 years (1965-2008) in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, via the resupply of Antarctic stations under the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition and Australian Antarctic Research Expedition. We found significant increasing trends in phosphate and nitrate, and a decreasing trend in apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in intermediate water (neutral density = 27.8-28.1 kgm(-3)) south of the polar front. The rates of phosphate and nitrate increase are 0.004 µmol yr(-1) and 0.02 µmol yr(-1), respectively. The rate of decline of AOU was 0.32 µmol yr(-1). One reason for this phosphate and nitrate increase and AOU decline is reduced horizontal advection of North Atlantic Deep Water, which is characterized by low nutrients and high AOU. The relationship between climate change and nutrient variability remains obscure, emphasizing the importance of long-term monitoring.

  6. A novel stepwise pretreatment on corn stalk by alkali deacetylation and liquid hot water for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis and energy utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    A novel stepwise pretreatment on corn stalk (CS) by alkali deacetylation combined with liquid hot water (LHW) was investigated to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. After deacetylated treatment, strength of alkali deacetylation of CS was from 1.79% to 91.34% which was subsequently pretreated by LHW with severity from 3.27 to 4.27. It was found that higher strength of alkali deacetylation could reduce both the degradation of hemicellulose and inhibitors formation in liquid hot water pretreatment (LHWP). Enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was confirmed to be affected by LHW pretreatment severity (PS) and strength of alkali treatment. This combined pretreatment of alkali deacetylation and LHW could not only increase glucose yield, but also enhance energy utilization efficiency. The maximum enzymatic hydrolysis of 87.55%±3.64 with the ratio of glucose yield to energy input at 50.39gglucosekJ(-1) was obtained when strength of alkali deacetylation at 84.96% with PS at 3.97 were used.

  7. 建筑给排水中的节水和水资源利用分析%The water saving and water resource utilization analysis in building water supply and drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦虎

    2015-01-01

    针对建筑给排水设计中水资源浪费的问题,从使用节水配水器、优质管材、采取减压措施、优化热水循环系统、强化节水意识等方面,提出了建筑给排水的节水对策,有利于水资源的高效应用。%According to the water resource problems in building water supply and drainage design,from the use of water-saving distributor,high quality steel tubes,using relief measures,optimization of hot water circulation system,strengthening the water saving awareness and other aspects,put forward water saving countermeasures for building water supply and drainage,was conducive to the efficient application of water resources.

  8. Water Treatment Plants, Water Treatment Plant FC of Water Utility Map of City of Ashland, WI, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Ashland.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Water...

  9. Water utilization of the Cretaceous Mussentuchit Member local vertebrate fauna, Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA: Using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, C.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Cifelli, R.L.; Tremain, E.

    2012-01-01

    While the oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate has successfully been used to address the effects of global climate change on the hydrologic cycle, detailed regional paleohydrologic studies are lacking. Since the hydrologic cycle can vary extensively on local or regional scales due to events such as such as mountain building, and since pedogenic carbonates (calcite) form in a narrow moisture regime, other proxies, such as vertebrate remains, must be used to decipher local versus regional variations in paleohydrology. In this study, the oxygen isotopic composition (?? 18O p) of phosphatic remains from a diverse set of vertebrate fossils (fish, turtles, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and micro-mammals) from the Mussentuchit Member (MM) of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA (Aptian to Cenomanian) are analyzed in order to determine differences among the available water reservoirs and water utilization of each taxon. Calculated changes in water reservoir ?? 18O w over time are then used to determine the effects of the incursion of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and the Sevier Mountains on paleohydrology during the MM time. Calculation of ?? 18O w from the results of isotopic analysis of phosphate oxygen suggests that turtles and crocodiles serve as another proxy for meteoric water ?? 18O that can be used as a measure of average local precipitation ?? 18O w similar to pedogenic calcite. Pedogenic calcites can be slightly biased toward higher values, however, due to their formation during evaporative conditions. Turtles and crocodiles can be used in place of pedogenic calcite in environments that are not conducive to pedogenic carbonate formation. Remains of fish with rounded tooth morphology have ?? 18O p values that predict temperatures consistent with other estimates of mean annual temperature for this latitude and time. The ?? 18O p of ganoid scales and teeth with pointed morphology, however, indicates that these skeletal materials were precipitated from

  10. Ideas of Utilization of City Water Recycling and Planning of Water Supply and Drainage%城市水资源循环利用和给排水规划体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭广田

    2014-01-01

    中共中央提出了“建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会”的号召。本文通过城市水资源循环利用和给排水规划意义及现状、水循环利用及给排水规划的体会,提出了一些水资源循环利用的理念和措施,希望可以用于城市建设发展。%The CPC Central Commit ee put forward the“buil-ding a resource-saving, environment-friendly society” appeal. In this paper, through the significance and the status of the uti-lization of city water recycling and water supply planning and the author’s ideas of the issues, puts forward some concepts and measures of water resource recycling, hoping they can be used for city construction and development.

  11. Research Review on Application of Microorganism in Resources Utilization of Water Hyacinth%微生物在水葫芦资源化利用中的应用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁华; 涂卫国; 王琼瑶

    2016-01-01

    对水葫芦资源化利用中微生物的应用研究进行归纳和评述,并对如何进一步提高微生物作用效率进行探讨,以期为进一步开展水葫芦的资源化利用工作提供参考。%Studies on application of microorganism in resources utilization of water hyacinth were reviewed , the way to enhance the efficiency of microorganisms was discussed , so as to provide reference for resources utilization of water hyacinth .

  12. Burr Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This note proposes the Burr utility function. Burr utility is a flexible two-parameter family that behaves approximately power-like (CRRA) remote from the origin, while exhibiting exponential-like (CARA) features near the origin. It thus avoids the extreme behavior of the power family near the origi

  13. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones....

  14. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Ground-water and wasted-wood become resources by utilizing storage-tank; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Chikunetsuso wo riyoshita chikasui oyobi mokushitsu gomi no shigenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H.; Fukumuro, S. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports living comfort in summer by operating a groundwater utilization system using a hot water storage tank and a floor air conditioning system. The groundwater utilization system is a system for room cooling by using groundwater and for supplying water for living use. The system operates as follows: groundwater is passed through a coil-type heat exchanger having pipes each 100 m long laid in parallel for a total length of 200 m, the heat exchanger being installed in a hot water storage tank; the water is used to cool water in the storage tank in summer; and the water is warmed up in the storage tank in winter, further heated by an oil boiler to be used as hot water for cooking and bathing. In the floor air conditioning system, cold water in the water storage tank (warm water in winter) is pumped up by a circulation pump, and passed through the floor air conditioning circuit having a pipe with a total length of 400 m at a flow rate of 14 liters per minute. The system is of a closed circuit in which the water is re-heated by a wood burning boiler in winter and returned to the hot water storage tank. The amount of supplied cold heat from groundwater to the hot water tank obtained on a daily average is 90W. About 20% of the monthly cumulative cold heat amount dissipated from the floor circuit is the monthly cumulative cold heat amount supplied from the groundwater circuit to the hot water storage tank. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Discussion on the Feasibility and Key Problems of Recycled Water Utilization in Southern China%南方地区再生水利用可行性及关键问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 崔树彬; 胡惠方; 左其亭

    2011-01-01

    After briefly introducing the concept, usage, utilization form and system composition of recycled water, this paper analyzed the necessity and significance of recycled water utilization in southern China.Also, it examined the feasibility of recycled water utilization in terms of advantages, technical feasibility, economic feasibility and efficiency of wastewater reclamation and reuse Last, it discussed the key problems and countermeasures of usage, utilization form, water quality standard, treatment process and non-engineering supporting measures of recycled water.%在简要介绍再生水的概念、用途、利用形式、系统组成的基础上,分析了我国南方地区再生水利用的必要性及意义,并从污水再生利用的优势、技术可行性、经济可行性和效益等方面对南方地区的再生水利用可行性进行分析,最后对再生水利用用途、形式、水质标准及处理工艺、配套非工程措施等关键问题及对策等进行了探讨.

  16. 基于浓度间隔分析的用水系统集成(Ⅰ)非传质操作%Synthesis of Water Utilization System Using Concentration Interval Analysis Method (Ⅰ) Non-Mass-Transfer-Based Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永健; 袁希钢; 罗祎青

    2007-01-01

    A strategy for water and wastewater minimization is developed for continuous water utilization systems involving fixed flowrate (non-mass-transfer-based) operations, based on the fictitious operations that is introduced to represent the water losing and/or generating operations and a modified concentration interval analysis (MCIA) technique.This strategy is a simple, nongraphical, and noniterative procedure and is suitable for the quick yields of targets and the identification of pinch point location.Moreover, on the basis of the target method, a heuristic-based approach is also presented to generate water utilization networks, which could be demonstrated to be optimum ones.The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems.

  17. Solar and wind systems utilization in water pumping for irrigation; Utilizacao de sistemas solar e eolico no bombeamento de agua para uso na irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Cicero Urbanetto

    2009-07-01

    In this work, it was made an applied research in two stations, the first one located at Canabarro locality and the second one at Polytechnic School at UFSM, in Santa Maria city, RS, with wind and photovoltaic equipment for pumping water. These ones are used for fruit trees irrigation in irrigation systems of low pressure. The research work was developed from September 2007 to August 2009, when the results showed the viability of wind and photovoltaic equipment for utilization in the complementary irrigation in fruit cultures such as guava, fig and grape trees. In the fruit culture sector, are installed: one multivane fans wind indicator one savonius wind indicator and respective pumps as well as pump set and a photovoltaic board. With the photovoltaic system, the pumped volume was about 5000 m{sup 3}/ha and, with the wind system, the pumped volume was approximately 6m{sup 3}/ha. The wind groups demonstrated low efficiency, if compared to photovoltaic systems, which showed more efficient. (author)

  18. Several Issues about the Research on the Water Resources Utilization and Water Environment Protection in China%中国水资源利用与水环境保护研究的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡耀求; 黄宁生

    2013-01-01

    长期以来,由于部门利益导向不同导致不同管理部门制定出的政策互相矛盾、永权不明导致水价难以体现资源的稀缺性、制度设计缺陷导致污染治理出现不少死角、评价体系的标准太随意而且评价指标口径不统一使得监管失灵、以及对水资源与水环境问题认识的片面性和局限性等问题,使得我国对水资源利用与水环境保护的研究离科学发展观的要求还有一定距离,基于这些研究而制定的水资源利用与水环境保护的法规、政策、措施和方案并没有达到预期的效果,结果导致我国的水资源利用与水环境保护至今还没有摆脱“局部改善、整体恶化”的被动局面.其中的认识问题可以随着研究的深入而逐步改善;污染治理的死角及评价标准和指标口径问题属于制度设计的缺陷,也可以随着认识的深化逐步得到完善;而部门利益导向问题和水权问题则是体制的缺陷造成的,必须通过深化体制改革才有可能得到解决.%For a long time, the research on the water resources utilization and water environment protection in China is a distance away from the requirements of the scientific development perspective for the following reasons: the contradictive policy by different administrative department due to departmental interests orientation; the institutional design defects lead to a lot of blind areas in pollution control; the vague water rights leads the fact that the water price cannot reflect the scarcity and shortage of the resources; the heterogeneity in the evaluation standard and caliber of the evaluation system make the supervision failure; the one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness in understanding the issues on the water resources and water environment. The legislation, policies and measures and programs for water use and water environmental protection based on such researches did not achieve the desired results, resulting in China' s

  19. Study on characteristics of water utilization structure and evolution tendency in Haihe river basin in rescent 10 years%近10年海河流域用水结构特征及演变趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯艳; 张浩; 缪萍萍; 韩东辉

    2014-01-01

    根据2003-2012年用水资料,利用信息熵、方向系数和Mann-Kendall检验对海河流域用水结构特征及其演变趋势进行了研究与分析。结果表明:海河流域用水结构均衡度存在上升趋势,但趋势不显著,用水系统稳定性逐步增强。随着海河流域各类生态补水项目的实施,流域用水结构的改变主要向着生态用水方向发展。%According to data of water demand from 2003 to 2012 ,the paper analyzed the water utilization structure characteristics and evolution trend in Haihe river basin by use of information entropy , direction coefficient and Mann-Kendall test .The results showed that balanced degree of structure in the basin has rising trend which is not obvious .The stability of water utilization system gradually strengthens .With the operation of ecological water recharge projects in Haihe river basin ,the water utilization structure mainly develop towards the ecological water use .

  20. 生态环境用水权的界定和分配%Study on the Definition and Allocation of the Rights to Water Utilization in the Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永刚; 李云玲

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of population and economy, the conflict between the supply and demand of water resources is becoming outstanding increasingly. In China, many people concern about the problems of ecological environment water expenditure. However, owningto the shortage of water resources and indefinite water rights, "the hustle effect" of per capita water resource is appeared. Moreover, it caused a series of environment problems. This article differentiates and analyzes the relevant concepts about the ecological environment, and puts forward the defined concept of the rights to the ecological environment water utilization. In addition, it points out the characteristic of those rights, and does elementary study on the allocation principle, methods, and steps on the rights.

  1. Analysis on the Spatial Difference of Increase Capability of Water Resource Utilization Efficiency among Provinces in China%我国省际水资源利用效率增长能力空间差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤芳; 舒强; 张丽蓉

    2011-01-01

    采用偏离-份额方法对我国1999~2006年间各省市水资源利用效率增长能力进行了定量分析.结果表明,我国省际水资源利用效率增长能力差异明显,大陆31个省市区水资源利用效率增长变化可划分为6种类型.经济发展水平、产业结构和区位条件差异是各省市区水资源利用效率增长能力差异的驱动因素.%The increase capabilities of water resource utilization efficiency in all the provinces and cities of China in 1999 -2.006 were analyzed quantitatively by deviation-portion method. The results showed that the provincial difference of increase capabilities of water resource utilization efficiency in China was obvious and the increase variations of water resource utilization efficiency of 31 provinces, cities and autonomous regions in mainland of China could be divided into 6 types. The difference of economic developmental level, industrial structure and location was driving factor for difference of increase capabilities of water resource utilization efficiency of all the provinces, cities and autonomous regions.

  2. 桂林市水资源可持续利用定量测度与动态分析%Quantitative Measurement and Dynamic Analysis of Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Guilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓军; 翟禄新; 李艺

    2013-01-01

    为了定量评价水资源可持续利用的状态和程度,在阐述水资源足迹内涵的基础上,通过构建实体水消费、产品水消耗和生态水需求等账户对2000年-2009年桂林市的水资源利用进行定量测度,并根据水资源匮乏度和万元GDP水资源足迹等评价指标对其进行动态分析.结果表明:10年来,桂林市的水资源足迹总体呈上升趋势,水资源的利用越来越接近不可持续的临界状态;实体水消费在水资源足迹中占的比重最大,而农业灌溉用水又占据了实体水消费的80%以上,今后应进一步调整产业结构,减少传统农业尤其是猪肉、牛肉等水资源密集型产品的生产,大力发展电子信息产业和旅游业;尽管万元GDP水资源足迹逐步下降,但与国内发达地区相比还存在很大差距,水资源的利用效率和效益还应进一步提高.%The water resources footprint concept has been developed as an indicator of water use in relation to the consumption of people. The water resources footprint of a city is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the city. Closely linked to the water resources footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water is defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service. The water resources footprint of a city can be assessed by taking the use of domestic water resources, subtracting the virtual water flow that leaves the city and adding the virtual water flow that enters the city. Based on water resources footprint, water resources utilization was measured quantitatively in Guilin city from 2000 to 2009, and analyzed dynamically on the basis of the evaluation index of water resources scarcity and water resources footprint per ten thousand CNY GDP. We found that the water resources footprint of Guilin in 2009 was 7.826 × 109m3, per capita water resources footprint was 1529.62m3, the

  3. Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1998-03-31

    This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that

  4. The History of Water Resources Utilization and Management in the Middle Reaches of Heihe River%黑河中游水资源开发利用与管理的历史演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟方雷; 徐中民; 程怀文; 盖迎春

    2011-01-01

    从历史的角度探讨了黑河中游水资源开发利用与管理的演变过程.辨别了历史上不同时期黑河中游水资源管理的状况,分析了兴衰的原由,探讨了水资源管理演变的趋势、特征以及存在的问题,总结了历史上可资借鉴的经验,说明资源管理问题与社会问题和其他问题相互之间是不断转化的,对策措施集合也是不断调整的.简要论述了部分历史经验在建立水资源利用公平体系、确保生态用水、提高政府对水资源的调控能力、限制地下水资源开采中的借鉴意义.%An evolutionary research on the water resources utilization and management in the middle reaches of Heihe River is presented in this paper.At an epistemological level,evolutionary research can expand analytic view and provide some useful lessons that should be advocated and absorbed in the research of ecological economics.The aim of this paper is not to present the essential character istics and give detailed explanation of the evolutionary of water resources use system in the Heihe River,but also to present a whole picture that provide some useful information that can not be get from the snapshot of current condition of water resources utilization and management. The evolutionary process of water resources utilization and management is related with the rise and fall of irrigation agriculture.In the paper,five important stages in the evolutionary process of water resources utilization and managemerit in the Heihe River are identified.Before Western-Han Dynasty,the water use practice was to dredge up the silt to form cultivated land.The irrigation agricuhure was initiated from the period of the Western-Han Dynasty.From the Western-Han Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty,the water resources were not the limited factor of economic development,the management practice mainly focused on land.During the Ming and Qing Dynasties,the demand of water resources increased owing to the growth of

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  6. 广东省水利数据中心数据资源化的主要环节%Key Steps of Data Resources Utilization for Guangdong Water Resources Data Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 岳兆新; 艾萍

    2014-01-01

    The development of information technology, such as IOT, has greatly enriched the data resources in water resources domain. How to standardize the data resources, realize the resources sharing, and achieve water resources business application collaboration, is an important problem to be solved in water resources domain. Combining the construction and practice of data resources utilization of Guangdong water resources data center, this paper analyzes the current main problems of the construction of data resources utilization, and describes the practice of data resources utilization of Guangdong water resources data center with the hope of providing a reference for data resources utilization of other water conservancy data center at all levels.%物联网等信息技术的发展,极大地丰富了水利行业的数据资源。如何对数据资源进行标准化操作,实现资源共享条件下水利业务应用协同的目标,是当前水利行业亟待解决的重要问题之一。结合广东省水利数据中心数据资源化建设与实践,讨论当前水利数据资源化建设存在的主要问题,系统阐述广东省水利数据中心数据资源化的主要环节,以期为其他各级水利数据中心的数据资源化建设提供参考。

  7. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Stiggelbout; P.P. Wakker

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  9. Preparation of detergent-lipase complexes utilizing water-soluble amphiphiles in single aqueous phase and catalysis of transesterifications in homogeneous organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Y; Fukunaga, K; Maruoka, N; Nakao, K; Sugimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    A novel method of preparing detergent-enzyme complexes that can be employed in organic media was developed utilizing newly synthesized water-soluble nonionic gemini-type detergents, N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)-3-(dialkyl-L-glutamatecarbonyl)propanamides (BIG2CnCA: n = 10,12,14,16,18) and N,N-bis(3-D-lactonamidopropyl)-3-(dialkyl-L-glutamatecarbonyl)propanamides (BIL2CnCA: n = 16,18), and nonionic twin-headed detergents, N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)alkanamides (BIG1Cn: n = 12,14,16,18,delta9). This method simply entails mixing a selected enzyme with an appropriate detergent in an aqueous solution followed by lyophilization, and it offers the advantages of enhanced enzymatic activity in organic solvents and eliminates both enzyme loss and the necessity for an organic solvent in the preparation stage. Using various modified lipases originating from Aspergillus niger (Lipase A), Candida rugosa (Lipase C), Pseudomonas cepacia (Lipase P), and porcine pancreas (PPL), prepared using the novel method and detergents, including conventional synthesized nonionic detergents such as dialkyl N-D-glucona-L-glutamates (2CnGE: n = 12,18delta9) and octanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-8), enantioselective transesterifications of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol (sulcatol) and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (solketal) with a vinyl or isopropenyl carboxylate were carried out in an organic solvent. The modified lipase activity was influenced by both the lipases and the structure of the detergents. The value for the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of the detergent provided a means of correlating the structure and the obtained modified lipase activity. For detergents of the same class with a HLB value of approximately 9 and 12, the highest activity was obtained for Lipase A and Lipase P, and Lipase C and PPL, respectively. Among detergents of the same HLB value tested, the gemini-type detergents possessing the most bulky head and tail were most effective as a modifier for lipases of all

  10. 基于生态足迹模型的广西水资源利用评价%Assessment of Water Resources Sustainable Utilization in Guangxi Based on Ecological Footprint Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义

    2014-01-01

    Water resources ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from 2003 to 2011 were cal-culated by using water resources ecological footprint model. Based on this,the paper adopted a variety of evaluation indexes to analyze the sustain-able utilization of water resources in this region. The results show that the water resources ecological surplus is more and the ecological pressure in-dex is less over the years,which indicates the water resources utilization is sustainable and the water resources safety degree is high in Guangxi in recent years;the water resources ecological footprint per 104 Yuan GDP declines year by year,which indicates that the water resources utilization ef-ficiency in Guangxi have been improved in recent years,but there is still a considerable gap between the average state level and Guangxi. It should further improve the water resources ecological footprint research from the aspects of water resources equivalence factor value and the calculation of water pollution footprint.%利用水资源生态足迹模型对广西2003-2011年水资源生态足迹和生态承载力进行计算,以此为基础采用多种评价指标分析该地区水资源可持续利用状况。结果表明:历年水资源生态盈余较多,生态压力指数较小,说明广西近年来水资源利用处于可持续状态,水资源安全程度高;万元GDP水资源生态足迹逐年降低,表明广西近年来水资源利用效率有了显著提高,但与全国平均水平相比仍有不小差距。应从水资源均衡因子取值、核算水污染足迹等方面进一步完善水资源生态足迹研究。

  11. 富力矿立井花岗岩片麻岩涌水的治理和利用%Control and Utilization of Water Gushing in Granitic Gneiss Region of Shaft in Fuli Colliery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the design and implementation of utilization project of bedrock water gushing in shaft of Fuli Colliery ,which realizes the reutilization of high -quality mine water by modification on existing fa-cilities and creates great economic benefits for enterprise .%富力矿设计并实施的立井基岩涌水的再利用工程,充分地利用已有设施、进行改造,实现优质矿井水的再利用,为企业创造了较大的经济效益。

  12. 澳大利亚北澳区域水资源开发利用和管理措施%Utilization and Management Measures of Water Resources in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简明凯; 徐振辞

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the current status of the development and utilization of water resources in the Northern Territory of Australia,and compared it with that in Hebei Province of China. The differences in the ownership, planning,allocation, development and utilization, protection, and management system of the water resources between the two areas were summarized. Based on the comparative analysis,this paper proposed the beneficial facets for the water resources management in Hebei province .which was of great importance for the sustainable use and the protection of the limited water resources, and offered great reference significance for the water ecology and environment in Hebei province.%介绍了澳大利亚北澳地区的水资源开发利用现状,通过和河北省水资源开发利用与管理的对比分析,总结了北澳在水资源的权属、规划、水量分配、开发利用与保护及管理体制等方面和河北省的差异,提出了河北省水资源管理可以借鉴的经验和做法,对河北省实现水资源可持续利用,保护好有限的水资源,改善水生态与环境,具有重要参考意义.

  13. Study and utilization of water-dominated and low-temperature geothermal fields in Italy; Itaria ni okeru nessui takuetsugata oyobi teion chinetsu shigen no kenkyu to riyo jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-06-15

    This paper reports the state of research and development of hot-water dominated and low-temperature geothermal resources in Italy. Geothermal explorations and studies are conducted by the Italian electric power company ENEL and the International Geothermal Research Institute, of which the development of geothermal power generation is carried out by ENEL. Hot water dominated geothermal fields in the central Italy include the Tuscany area having Larderello south of Firenze and the Monte Amiata area, the Latium area around Rome, and the Campania area around Napoli. Low-temperature geothermal fields in the northern Italy include Ferrara, Vicenza, Euganei Hills, and Aqui Terme. A large number of wells have been drilled to as deep as 3000 m in high-temperature geothermal areas for power generation. The present drilling is targeted exclusively at deep reservoirs. In the hot water dominated areas in the central Italy, power plants of 20-MW class are built even in areas with not too high productivity, where waste hot water is utilized in binary cycle. In the northern low-temperature geothermal area, warm water is utilized directly. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Assessment of Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Hechi City Based on Ecological Footprint Model%基于生态足迹模型的河池市水资源可持续利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义

    2013-01-01

    利用水资源生态足迹模型计算和分析了河池市2004年-2010年水资源生态足迹、水资源生态承载力、水资源生态盈亏、水资源生态压力指数及万元GDP水资源生态足迹,以明确其水资源可持续利用状况.结果显示:(1)河池市人均水资源生态足迹平均值为0.7420hm2/人,人均水资源生态承载力平均值为7.4286 hm2/人,人均水资源生态盈余平均值为6.6867 hm2/人,水资源生态压力指数平均值为0.1077,表明该地区近年来水资源利用处于可持续状态,水资源安全程度高;(2)万元GDP水资源生态足迹年均降幅为7.80%,表明河池市近年来水资源利用效率有了显著提高.最后指出应从水资源均衡因子取值、核算水污染足迹等方面完善水资源生态足迹研究.%The water resources ecological footprint model was used to calculate and analyze water resources ecological footprint,water resources ecological carrying capacity,water resources ecological profit and loss,water resources ecological pressure index,and water resources ecological footprint per 104 yuan GDP of Hechi City from 2004 to 2010,all of which can help characterize the sustainable utilization situation of water resources in this area.The results showed that:(1) in Hechi city,the water resource ecological footprint per capita was 0.7420 hm2,the water resource ecological capacity per capita was 7.4286 hm2,the water resources ecological profit per capita was 6.6867 hm2,the average value of water resources ecological pressure index was 0.1077,which indicated that the water resources utilization in the area was sustainable and the water resources safety degree was high in recent years; and (2) the average decreasing rate of annual water resources ecological footprint per 104 Yuan GDP was 7.8%,which suggested that the water resources utilization efficiency improved significantly in recent years in Hechi City.Finally this paper pointed out that the water resources

  15. 平原有咸水区浅层地下水开发利用研究%Research on Exploitation and Utilization of Shallow Groundwater inside Plain Containing Saline-Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长明

    2009-01-01

    针对沧州市地表水匮乏、深层地下水严重超采现状,对浅层地下水开发利用进行了研究探讨.在对浅层地下水资源评价、浅层地下水开发利用存在的问题进行分析和全面认识地下水含水层水资源特点的基础上,阐述了建设浅层水含水层地下水库和大力开发利用浅层咸水的设想,提出了加强浅层地下水管理要与深层地下水统筹考虑,具体措施是:统一实施地下水压采;治理污染保护地下水;改革水价促进地下水合理开发利用.%In accordance with the serious scarcity of Cangzhou City's surface water and the severe overextraction of deep groundwater, the exploitation and utilization of shallow groundwater is studied. On the basis of the overall understanding of characters of groundwater resource, in combination with assessing shallow groundwater resources and analyzing the problems occurring in exploiting and utilizing the shallow groundwater, this paper proposes a conception to build a shallow-layer-aquifer groundwater reservoir and to further develop and utilize the shallow saline water. Meanwhile, in presents that with reinforcing the management of the shallow groundwater, we should simultaneously consider the deep groundwater. The concrete measures are as follows. First, the underground water exploitation should be restrained. Secondly, measures of controlling pollution should be taken to protect the groundwater. Third, water price must be reformed to promote the rational exploitation and utilization of groundwater.

  16. Uncovering the Drivers of Utility Performance : Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean on the Role of the Private Sector, Regulation, and Governance in the Power, Water, and Telecommunication Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Andrés; Schwartz, Jordan; Guasch, J.Luis

    2013-01-01

    This book conducts a micro-level analysis of various determinants of infrastructure sector performance that affect development. This book focuses on the distribution segment of three basic infrastructure services: electricity, water and sanitation, and fixed telecommunications. This books aims to answer four main sets of questions: what are the main performance trends in the region, and how heterogeneous are they?; how does the performance of state-owned and private utilities differ?; how doe...

  17. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  18. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  19. Simulation of the water regime for a vast agricultural region territory utilizing measurements from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The model of land surface-atmosphere interaction has been developed to calculate the water and heat balance components for vast vegetation covered areas during the growing season. The model is adjusted to utilize estimates of the land surface and meteorological characteristics derived from satellite-based measurements of radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra, Aqua, and SEVIRI/Meteosat-9. The studies have been conducted for the territory of the European Russia Central Black Earth Region (CCR) with area of 227,300 km2 comprising seven regions of the Russian Federation for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons. The technologies of AVHRR and MODIS data thematic processing have been refined and adapted to the study region providing the retrieval of land surface temperature Tls and emissivity E, land-air temperature (temperature at vegetation cover level) Ta, normalized difference vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, as well as the leaf area index LAI. The updated linear regression estimators for Tls, Ta and LAI have been built using more representative training samples compiled for the above vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the mentioned vegetation periods. On the base of special technology and Internet resources the remote sounding products (Tls, E, NDVI, LAI), derived from MODIS data and covering the CCR, have been downloaded from LP DAAC web-site for the same vegetation seasons. The new method and technology have been developed and adopted for the retrieval of Tls and E from SEVIRI data. The retrievals cover the region of interest and are produced at daylight and nighttime. Method provides the derivation of Tls and E from SEVIRI measurements carried out at three successive times (for example, at 11.00, 12.00, 13.00 UTC), classified as 100% cloud-free for the study region without accurate a priori knowledge of E. The validation of

  20. Windpower utilization possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities of windpower utilization for mechanical pumps, electric generators, mechanical water vortex pumps, and heat pumps are reviewed. Application possibilities can be realized by windpower systems of different size. It must however be determined for which purpose and for which power range they are used. The site and the concomitant wind potential is of utmost importance. Small units in the 10 kW power range are very interesting for autonomous or semiautonomous energy supply.

  1. Utilizing Resistivity Soundings and Forensic Geochemistry to Better Understand the Groundwater Contributions and the Interaction with Surface Water in a Streambed in the Texas Gulf Coast Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighash, P.

    2012-12-01

    Water quality and quantity in a reservoir can be significantly affected by interactions between surface waters and adjacent aquifers. Environments that exhibit transient hydraulic conditions, such as changes in recharge and groundwater flow rates, are not well understood. The associated impacts to coastal water resources during elevated drought conditions can be better managed with a better understanding of the groundwater-surface water interaction and the transition zone. Proper characterization of the spatial and temporal extent of groundwater discharge is important for water resource management and contaminant migration pathways. The Texas coastal area has been experiencing exceptional drought conditions over the past few years which are expected to persist or intensify in the coming years. An investigation of how the hydrologic system is impacted by these conditions can be a valuable tool regarding water resource management, sustainability and conservation of the Gulf Coast region of South Texas. This study will be using resistivity soundings to vertically and laterally characterize groundwater-surface water interaction and provide a stratigraphic characterization of the transition zone in this area. Chemical and isotope tracers will be used to compliment the resistivity data in order to trace water sources in the surface water and transition zone. This information can aid in evaluating the extent of interaction and degree of mixing between the surface water and groundwater. The ultimate goal of this research is to provide new valuable information that could help professionals and researchers understand complex processes such as groundwater-surface water interaction using new methods that would improve the speed and accuracy of existing systems or techniques. This multidisciplinary approach can be useful in investigating land use impacts on groundwater inflow and in forecasting the availability of water resources in environmentally sensitive ecosystems such as

  2. Current Situation and Countermeasures of Dingzhou Water Resources Development and Utilization%定州市水资源开发利用现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫涛

    2009-01-01

    定州市位于河北中部平原地区,根据水资源现状的供需分析,该市资源型水危机已日渐显现.地下水污染也不可忽视,而且水质有进一步恶化的趋势,无论水量或水质远不能适应今后经济发展的需要,因此必须尽早采取措施,缓解水资源紧缺,有效地保护水质,是定州市当务之急.针对定州市水资源现状,提出了"开源、节流、减污、强化管理"等一系列综合措施.%Dingzhou City is located at the central plain area of Hebei Province. According to the status of water supply and demand analysis, the water crisis of lacking in resource is growing. Groundwater contamination should not be ignored, and the water quality trends towards further deterioration. Whether water requirement or water quality , the Dingzhou water resources cannot meet the needs of the economic development in future. So, it is necessary to adopt measures to alleviate the shortage of water resources and effective protection of water quality. The paper proposes several suggestions for resolving the shortage of water resources. In combination with the status of water resources in Dingzhou City, a serial synthetic measures are proposed, including water-resources spreading, water saving, pollution decreasing and strengthening management etc.

  3. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  4. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  5. Decoupling Relationship Analysis of the Coordinated Development between Water Utilization and Economy Growth in Jiangxi Based on Virtual Water Theory%江西省水资源利用与经济协调发展脱钩分析--基于虚拟水的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁发; 汪涛武

    2015-01-01

    基于虚拟水与水足迹理论、脱钩理论对江西省2003—2012年的水资源利用与经济发展之间的脱钩关系进行研究。结果表明,2003—2012年江西省人均水足迹均值为1783 m3,高于“国际水足迹组织”测算的2011年中国人均水足迹1700 m3;水资源利用效率指标从2003年4.39元/m3增加到2012年的8.57元/m3,且此期间水足迹强度呈现出明显下降的趋势,说明水资源的利用效率在明显提高,但水资源利用与经济协调发展脱钩分析显示,分析期间大部分年份江西 GDP 增长与水资源消耗评价结果为弱脱钩的初级协调,水资源利用效率还有待进一步提高。%Based on the virtual water theory,water footprint theory and the theory of decoupling,this article discusses the decoupling relationship between water resources utilization and the economic development in Jiangxi province from 2003 to 2012.The results show that the water footprint per capita mean was 1783m3 during 2003—2012 in Jiangxi province,higher than 1700m3 which was estimated by International Water Footprint Organization on Chinese per capita water footprint in 2011;water resources utilization efficiency index was increased from 4.39 yuan/m3 in 2003 to 8.57 yuan/m3 in 2012;dur-ing this period the water footprint intensity showed a clear downward trend,indicating the utilization efficiency of water re-sources was significantly improved.But evaluation results from decoupling relationship analysis of the water resource utiliza-tion and economic coordinated development imply that there is the weak decoupling relationship of primary coordination be-tween GDP growth and water resources consumption in Jiangxi province during most of the year.Water resources utilization efficiency remains to be further improved.

  6. Energy Saving and Emission Reduction—My Own Opinion on Multipurpose Utilization of Ⅱ Effexct Condensing Water from Salt Production%节能减排—制盐Ⅱ效冷凝水综合利用之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱向光

    2012-01-01

    文章通过剖析中盐舞阳60万t真空制盐Ⅰ效、Ⅱ效冷凝水工艺流程,提出在Ⅱ效冷凝水综合利用上,遵循“优先锅炉、兼顾储备、多余顺效闪发”的控制原则,该理念见解独到、实现容易,实际运行中Ⅱ效冷凝水可得到最大限度的利用,节能减排效果明显.%The flow process of Ⅰ and Ⅱ effect condinsing water in vacuum salt production with 600 000 ton/a in China Salt Wuyang Salt Chemical Industry Co. , Ltd. is analyzed. To how to utilize Ⅱ effect condinsing water with multiple purpose, the control principle is followed below; The requirement of boiler is first and the reserve is paid attention at same time, and the surplus water is transferred downstream and flashed. The opinion has characteristic with insightful views and easy to implement. Ⅱ effect condising water can be utilized in maximum in actual operation. The effect of energy saving and emission reduction is obvious.

  7. Utilization of Aquacultural Waste Water in Vegetable Hydroponic Production System%水产废水在蔬菜水培生产系统中的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗欣; 崔绍荣; 苗香雯

    2002-01-01

    Waste water from turtle pond is by-product from turtle production, which is a kind of nutrient resource for plant. The concentration of NH+4-N was 20~30 mg/L-1 and those of other mineral nutrients were lower. To improve the quality of waste water for vegetable in hydroponic production system, four treatments were used in vegetable hydroponic experiment, waste water, waste water with nitric acid added, waste water with nitric acid and iron added, mixture solution of waste water and commercial nutrient solution.In tomato hydroponic producing system, turtle breeding wastewater was used as nutrient resources. Four separated hydroponic systems were built in the greenhouse at Zhejiang University. The results showed that waste water could not use as nutrient solution directly in vegetable production. During the experiment, tomato grew well with improved waste water. N, P and other mineral nutrients in tomato were measured. The change of water quality was monitored during the experiment. It could provide an effective way to reuse turtle breeding waste water.%在番茄水培生产系统中,使用养鳖废水作为番茄水培的营养源.试验结果显示,在4种不同处理的养鳖废水中,养鳖废水加硝酸调节pH值是一种较好的利用方式,水培番茄生长良好,具有较高的氮、磷、钾、钙、镁等矿质元素含量,具有较小的根冠比与较高的叶绿素含量.研究结果为水产养殖废水利用提供了一条有效的途径.

  8. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  9. Innovative comprehensive utilization of municipal recycled water based on green cyclic economy%基于绿色循环经济创新实施城市中水综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永坤

    2016-01-01

    矿产资源的开发需要消耗大量的水资源,妥善解决生产水源和水资源再利用问题,一直是矿业界研究的主要课题。中国黄金集团内蒙古矿业有限公司通过城市中水利用试验研究,较好地解决了矿产资源开发中环境保护与矿山生产用水之间的问题,探索出了基于绿色循环经济发展为导向、创新利用城市中水之路。该文城市中水的利用避免了从有限的环境水域取水,解决了每年近550万m3的城市生活污水排放带来的污染问题,切实起到了绿色环保作用;同时,该项目的运行每年可为该地区带来700万元的经济效益,显现了良好的经济效益和社会效益。%In view of the large amount of water required in the process of mineral resources exploitation, proper policy applied in water source and recycling solutions has attracted attention in mining industry for a long time.Inner Mongolia Mining Co.,Ltd.of China National Gold Group Corporation has conducted the experimental research on the utilization of municipal recycled water which reasonably balanced the problem between environmental protection and water consumption for mining operations in the process of mineral resources exploitation.Thus, a path, oriented by green cyclic economy and characterized by innovative municipal recycled water utilization,is fumbled.As pointed out in the paper,the utilization of municipal recycled water avoided water extraction from limited reserves of environment water,and also mitigated pollutions brought about by municipal life wastewater which amounts to 5.5 million cubic me-ters annually,contributing a great deal to environmental protection.At the same time,the project creates 7 million yuan profits for the region every year,showing good social and economic benefits.

  10. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  11. A Research on Theory,Pattern and Path of Total Amount Control of Water Resources Utilization%水资源开发利用总量控制的理论、模式与路径探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚俊英; 桑学锋; 严子奇; 刘扬

    2016-01-01

    Issues for why,what and how to control the regional total amount of water resources utilization are important scientific concerns and those answers are valuable to propel and implement the strategy of the strictest water resources management system in China.Firstly,this research presents the concepts of regional total amount of water resources utilization.Secondly,three basic the-ories are put forward,including watershed “natural-social”dualistic hydrological cycle theory,water demand and consumption theo-ry by sector and adaptive management theory.Those three theories can provide macroscopic boundary condition,key driving mecha-nism and dynamic implementation basis.Thirdly,this research innovatively presents the pattern of regional total amount of water resources utilization,namely a nucleus of efficiency restriction,two-way coordination between supply and demand,and three layer of macro-meso-micro nested.Finally,The dynamic control curves of total amount control red line of regional water utilization are in-vented and drawn by considering dual requirements of regional ecological water guarantee and water use efficiency improvement under different frequency of inflow.The different starting points and roadmaps of total amount control red line of regional water utilization are identified with the comparison in water shortage or abundant periods.%“为什么要控制、控制什么、怎样控制”是实行水资源开发利用需要解决的重要科学问题,这些问题的回答对于我国推进和落实最严格水资源管理战略具有重要的价值。本研究首先揭示了水资源开发利用总量控制的基本概念;其次,提出了水资源开发利用总量控制的三大基础理论,即流域“自然-社会”二元水循环理论、分行业耗用水原理以及适应性管理理论,分别为水资源开发利用总量控制提供宏观边界条件、核心驱动力和动态实施依据;再次,提出了区域水资源开发

  12. 办公楼中水回用成本效益分析%Cost-benefit Analysis of Gray Water Recycling Utilized in Office Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左婷婷; 袁岩; 王利生

    2013-01-01

      中水回用系统节省淡水资源,缓解城市给排水压力,社会效益显著。但是在经济效益层面,中水回用系统存在争议。针对北京地区办公楼中水回用问题,采用动态投资回收期分析法,结合对未来水价、电价的走势和维保费的模拟,针对Matlab软件计算结果,分析并讨论了中水系统在办公楼中的成本效益。结果表明,目前办公楼中水系统不具备经济投资效益;水价以及运行、维保费的增长率是影响中水回用系统经济效益的主要因素。但随着中水回用系统投入使用的推移,动态投资回收期在减少。到2021年以后中水回用系统投入使用,开始具备经济投资效益。%Gray water recycling system reserves water resource and relieves pressure of municipal water and wastewater which has great potential social benefit. However,gray water recycling system rises controversy in terms of economic benefit. Focusing on gray water recycling system in a research office building located in Beijing,cost-benefit analysis of gray water recycling in the research office building is analyzed and discussed in terms of using dynamic investment pay-back period method solved by Matlab software which combines the simulation of future running water prices,electricity prices and operating& maintenance fees. At present, economic investment of gray water recycling system is turned out to be in vain. Running water prices and increasing rate of operating& maintenance fees are the key factors which have a serious influence on economic benefit of gray water recycling system. With delay of implementation of gray water recycling system,dynamic investment pay-back period is decreasing. Economic investment efficiency of gray water recycling system emerges when the system implements after 2021.

  13. Application of Chemical Regulating Technology for Utilization of Water and Fertilizer in Dry-land Agriculture%化学调控技术在旱地水肥利用中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培岭; 廖人宽; 任树梅; 李云开

    2013-01-01

    The issue on the theme of efficient utilization of water and fertilizer in dry-land agriculture was discussed.The mechanism of action of three typical chemical agents (soil conditioner-PAM,water retaining agent-SAP,antitranspirant-FA) in regulation of water and fertilizer and its application methods were introduced.Research of chemical regulating technology on four important parts were emphatically reviewed (enhancement of the accumulation of water and fertilizer,improvement of the soil and water conservation,improvement of the utilization of crop to water and fertilizer,increasing of the crop yield and quality) in dry-land agriculture production.Finally,the future important research directions were proposed.%围绕旱地农业生产中的水肥资源高效利用展开讨论,主要介绍了以3种典型化学调控制剂(土壤改良剂PAM、土壤保水剂SAP和蒸腾抑制剂FA)为代表的化学调控技术在旱地农业水肥资源利用方面的调控机制和应用方法,重点对化学调控技术在旱地农业生产中的增强水肥保蓄、提高坡地水土保持、改善作物水肥利用性能及提升作物品质和产量4个重要环节上的应用研究进行了综述,最后提出未来化学调控技术在旱地农业中应用的重点研究方向.

  14. Application of TRIZ theory in research of sustainable utilization of water resource%TRIZ 理论在水资源可持续利用中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 黄川友; 甘蓉

    2015-01-01

    The author of this paper chose the conflict solving principle in the TRIZ theory to apply in the research of sustainable utilization of water resources , and set up and defined such five general parameter units as water resource unit , ecological environment unit , economic unit , human resource management unit , and technological innovation unit to find the conflicts between those units and establish a conflict matrix .Taking the sustainable utilization of water resources in Ningtri , Tibet as an example , the author redefined the matrix elements according to 40 innovation principles in the TRIZ theory , and found a solution to the problems of sustainable utilization of water resources in Ningtri , Tibet.%将TRIZ理论中的冲突解决原理应用于水资源可持续利用研究,通过建立并定义水资源单元、生态环境单元、经济单元、人力资源管理单元、技术创新单元的矩阵元素,寻找各单元间的冲突并建立冲突矩阵,以西藏林芝地区水资源可持续利用为例,根据TRIZ理论中40个创新原理重新定义矩阵元素,并进行论证分析,找到解决该地区水资源可持续利用问题的方案。

  15. Necessary distances for the thermal utilization of ground water - Reference book as a calculation assessment; Erforderliche Abstaende fuer die thermische Grundwassernutzung, Nachschlagewerk als Bemessungsbehelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitzenfrei, R.; Moederl, M.; Rauch, W. [Innsbruck Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Umwelttechnik; Urich, C.

    2010-07-01

    Due to climate change renewable energy sources and preservation of water quality obtain rising awareness. However, thermal potential of groundwater can only be utilised in agreement with water quality requirements. Hence, substantial knowledge (extracted from e.g. numerical simulations) of the impact of geothermal energy utilisation on groundwater is necessary. For small geothermal systems the application of complex numerical model is an unreasonable effort. For this reason e.g. for open loop ground water heat pumps (GWHP), numerous methods to estimate the thermal impact on groundwater are shown in literature. Using these methods the simplified estimation for small GWHP may result in poor efficiency exploitation and thermal effects on water supply wells. The aim of this paper is a systematic investigation of open loop GWHP for small geothermal systems. Based on extracted system and parameter interdependencies a database for an optimal placement strategy of small geothermal systems is developed. (orig.)

  16. Use of bacteriophages for the management of the microbiological quality of reclaimed water; Los bacteriofagos, un instrumento util en la gestion de la calidad microbiologica del agua regenerada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jofre, J.; Lucena, F.

    2006-07-01

    Massive water reuse requires guaranties about its security, including the non transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. The security control is based in the use of microbial indicators as bacteria (in the case of reclaimed water faecal coliform bacteria or E. Coli). Studies on pathogens elimination in tertiary treatment show that the quality criteria based only in bacterial indicators mat not be sufficient to guarantee the security. The somatic coli phages, a group of bacteriophages that infect E. coli, might be a very useful additional indicator for the management of the microbiological quality of reclaimed water. The somatic coli phages contribute additional and non redundant information to the information contributed by the bacterial indicators regarding the elimination of different types of microorganisms by tertiary treatments. As well, data are presented that indicate that the introduction of reclaimed water quality criteria based in somatic coli phages will be technically and economically acceptable by the sector. (Author) 25 refs.

  17. The use of ERTS-1 to more fully utilize and apply marine station data to the study and productivity along the eastern shelf waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sea truth data were obtained during two ERTS overpasses in waters near the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay. Correlations were made between total phytoplankton and chlorophyll values in these waters to radiance detected by ERTS in an effort to map areas of similar productivity levels. Band 4 radiance had the highest correlation to all parameters with bands 5 and 6 showing decreasing correlations in each case. The radiance values were apparently influenced by one or more factors, most likely including the sediment content of the water. Data have shown that ERTS MSS is not suitable for monitoring chlorophyll in near-shore waters where sediment loads are high. It is suggested that in more seaward or pelagic locations, that ERTS MSS would be more efficient in monitoring surface chlorophyll values and establishing direct relationships to phytoplankton concentrations.

  18. [Effects of supplemental irrigation by monitoring soil moisture on the'water-nitrogen utilization of wheat and soil NO3(-)-N leaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhen-wen; He, Jian-ning; Zhang, Yong-li

    2016-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 wheat growing seasons. With no irrigation in the whole stage (WO) treatment as control, three supplemental irrigation treatments were designed based on average relative soil moisture contents at 0-140-cm layer, at jointing and anthesis stages (65% for treatment W1 ; 70% for treatment W2; 75% for treatment W3; respectively), to examine effects of supplemental irrigation on nitrogen accumulation and translocation, grain yield, water use efficiency, and soil nitrate nitrogen leaching in wheat field., Soil water consumption amount, the percentage of soil water consumption and water irrigation to total water consumption in W2 were higher, and soil water consumption of W2 in 100-140 cm soil layer was also higher. The nitrogen accumulation before anthesis and after anthesis were presented as W2, W3>W1>W0, the nitrogen accumulation in vegetative organs at maturity as W3>W2>Wl>W0, and the nitrogen translocation from vegetative organs to grain and the nitrogen accumulation in grain at maturity as W2> W3>W1>W0. At maturity, soil NO3(-)-N content in 0-60 cm soil layer was presented. as W0>W1>W2>W3, that in 80-140 cm soil layer was significantly higher in W3 than in the other treatments, and no significant difference was found in 140-200 cm soil layer among all treatments. W treatment obtained the highest grain yield, water use efficiency, nitrogen uptake efficiency and partial productivity of applied nitrogen. As far as grain yield, water use efficiency, nitrogen uptake efficiency and soil NO3(1)-N leaching were concerned, the W2 regime was the optimal irrigation treatment in this experiment.

  19. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Goodin

    1999-07-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches.

  20. 中国水资源利用效率评估及区域差异研究%Evaluation of Water Resource Utilization Efficiency and Its Regional Difference in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买亚宗; 孙福丽; 黄枭枭; 石磊; 马中

    2014-01-01

    水资源危机、水环境恶化已成为我国所面临的严峻挑战,对我国的水资源利用效率进行科学合理的评价,并且讨论造成区域差异的影响因素显得尤为迫切。在全要素生产框架下,将环境要素纳入到效率分析中,利用数据包络分析模型,采用省级层面统计数据,以资本、劳动力和水资源使用量为投入,以国内生产总值与废水排放量为产出,计算我国2000~2011年区域水资源利用效率。研究发现,在时间序列上,我国各省份之间的用水效率差距逐年增大;在空间上,我国的水资源利用效率存在明显的东、中、西部区域差异。进一步研究发现,产业结构、经济发展水平、水资源禀赋、水的基础设施投入对区域水资源利用效率均有显著影响,而水价并没有对水资源利用效率产生显著影响。%Crisis of water resource and deterioration of water environment have become an increasingly severe problem in China, so it is quite stringent to carry out scientific and reasonable evaluation of water resource utilization efficiency and discussion of related influencing factors in regional difference in China. In this paper, under the framework of total-factor productivity, environmental factors are integrated into efficiency analysis. By use of data envelopment analysis model and adoption of the statistic data in provincial level, regional water resource utilization efficiency from 2000 to 2011 is calculated with capital, labor force and water consumption as input and GDP and wastewater discharge as output. The results show that from the temporal perspective, differences in water utilization efficiency of the provinces in China have been widened increasingly year by year, and from the spatial perspective, there exist obvious regional disparities among East China, Central China and West China. Further results show that such factors as industrial structure, economic development

  1. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  3. High-resolution shipboard measurements of phytoplankton: a way forward for enhancing the utility of satellite SST and chlorophyll for mapping microscale features and frontal zones in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Christy A.; Goes, Joaquim I.; McKee, Kali; Gomes, Helga do R.; Arnone, Robert; Wang, Menghua; Ondrusek, Michael; Nagamani, P. V.; Preethi Latha, T.; Rao, K. H.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    Coastal eddies, frontal zones and microscale oceanographic features are now easily observable from satellite measurements of SST and Chl a. Enhancing the utility of these space-borne measurements for biological productivity, biogeochemical cycling and fisheries investigations will require novel bio-optical methods capable of providing information on the community structure, biomass and photo-physiology of phytoplankton associated on spatial scales that match these features. This study showcases high-resolution in-situ measurements of sea water hydrography (SeaBird CTD®), CDOM (WetLabs ALF®), phytoplankton functional types (PFTs, FlowCAM®), biomass (bbe Moldaenke AlgaeOnlineAnalyzer® and WetLabs ALF®) and phytoplankton photosynthetic competency (mini-FIRe) across microscale features encountered during a recent (Nov. 2014) cruise in support of NOAA's VIIRS ocean color satellite calibration and validation activities. When mapped against binned daily, Level 2 satellite images of Chl a, Kd490 and SST over the cruise period, these high-resolution in-situ data showed great correspondence with the satellite data, but more importantly allowed for identification of PFTs and water types associated with microscale features. Large assemblages of phytoplankton communities comprising of diatoms and diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs), were found in mesohaline frontal zones. Despite their high biomass, these populations were characterized by low photosynthetic competency, indicative of a bloom at the end of its active growth possibly due to nitrogen depletion in the water. Other prominent PFTs such as Trichodesmium spp., Synechococcus spp. and cryptophytes, were also associated with specific water masses offering the promise and potential that ocean remote sensing reflectance bands when examined in the context of water types also measurable from space, could greatly enhance the utility of satellite measurements for biological oceanographic, carbon cycling and fisheries

  4. Organic Carbon Dynamics beyond the Perspective of Monitoring: Impact of Historical Landscape Utilization on the Past Lake-Water Carbon Trajectory in Central Boreal Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Jacob, C.; Tolu, J.; Bigler, C.; Bindler, R.

    2014-12-01

    To date, the key drivers behind the recent observed increase in organic carbon (OC) concentrations in surface waters are still controversial. The lack of long-term monitoring data - over centuries and millennia - leaves us with an ambiguous understanding of the past trajectory of OC concentrations in surface waters, and inhibits a better mechanistic understanding of past and a reliable prediction of future changes in OC levels.By using a paleolimnological approach, we reconstructed past lake-water total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in lakes across the boreal landscape of central Sweden. Reconstructions are based on a transfer function between visible near-infrared spectra of surface sediments and the corresponding TOC concentration in the water column. Potential drivers behind changes in TOC were determined by a multi-proxy analysis of one of the studied lake sediment records including organic and inorganic geochemistry as well as biological proxies (pollen, diatoms).Our results show a significant decrease in lake-water TOC beginning already ~550 years ago. This decline continued until the mid-20th century when TOC concentrations started to increase again. These dynamics in TOC coincide with changes in proxies indicating catchment disturbance by human activities. The chronology of these changes corresponds to the expansion and decline of a landscape-wide system of summer forest grazing and farming in central Sweden from the 15th century to the turn of the 20th century. Frequent grazing and exploitation of forests and mires reduce aboveground vegetation and physically disturb soils. This further affects the carbon cycling by enhancing carbon turnover, reducing the thickness of organic soils and consequently altering the transport of OC from the catchment to lakes.Our findings suggest that recent changes in lake-water TOC in Sweden are strongly associated with historical patterns in land use and not only on-going changes in climate or sulfur deposition.

  5. Study on risk allocation of water conservancy PPP project based on utility theory%基于效用理论的水利工程PPP项目风险分担研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海燕; 黄德春

    2016-01-01

    The PPP model has been widely used in water conservancy project. Because the water conser-vancy PPP project has many features with vast investment, long life cycle,various processes and so on, the participants have been faced up with many risks. To figure out the optimal risk allocation proportion to achieve maximum utility, the paper based on the characteristics of Water conservancy PPP project and used utility theory as method, makes public, private and financial institutions as risk-sharing bodies to establish the optimal risk-sharing model of Water conservancy PPP project and got its solution. Result showed that the basis of establishing reasonable risk allocation proportion is to definite the status of partic-ipants in the negotiation. The establishment of minimum risk cost is depend on the expectancy cost. At last, the applicability and of utility theory in water conservancy PPP project and the feasibility of risk allo-cation have been verified through the south-to-south water diversion project.%PPP模式在水利工程中的运用越来越广泛,但由于水利工程PPP项目具有投资大、周期长、工序繁多等特点,使得项目参与方面存在众多风险.为确定水利工程PPP项目各参与方的合理风险分担比例以实现最大效用,论文针对水利工程PPP项目特点,以效用理论为手段,以公共部门、私营机构和金融机构为风险分担主体,建立水利工程PPP项目风险最优分担模型并对其求解.结果表明:确立合理风险分担比例的基础是明确项目参与方在谈判中的地位,而最小风险成本的确立则是由项目参与方对风险的期望成本所决定.最后结合南水北调工程,证明效用理论在水利工程PPP项目中的运用及此风险分担方法的可行性.

  6. Municipal Heating Network Steam Condensate Water Comprehensive Utilization and Economic Analysis%城市热网蒸汽冷凝水综合利用及经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申沛东; 刘成

    2015-01-01

    民用建筑领域通常将城市热网作为热源,加热生活用水或建筑采暖等。充分利用城市热网冷凝水中蕴藏的热量和水量,可以节能降耗、保护环境。根据冷凝水的性质和回收系统的特点,并结合上海市节能技术改造项目实际案例,对冷凝水综合利用的节能效果及经济性进行分析。%Municipal heating network works as heat source for civil building to heat up water for living or provide heating for building. To make full use of heat and water from municipal heating network condensate water, which could save energy, reduce emission and protect environment. According to condensate water characteristics and features of recycling system, combined with shanghai energy conservation technology renovation project case studies, it analyzes energy-saving effect and economic benefits of condensate water comprehensive utilization.

  7. Effects of geothermal energy utilization on stream biota and water quality at The Geysers, California. Final report. [Big Sulphur, Little Sulphur, Squaw, and Pieta Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGore, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: biological studies, including fish, insects, and microbiology; stream hydrology; stream water quality, including methods and results; the contribution of tributaries to Big Sulphur Creek, including methods, results, and tributary characterization; standing water at wellheads; steam condensate quality; accidental discharges; trout spawning bed quality; major conclusions; list of references; and appendices. It is concluded that present operational practices at Geysers geothermal field do not harm the biological resources in adjacent streams. The only effects of geothermal development observed during the study were related to operational accidents. (JGB)

  8. Utilities at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (utilpnt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, including water- and power-related utilities, at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The utilities were...

  9. The characters of water resources and countermeasures of sustainable utilization in Jinan section of the Yellow River%黄河济南段水资源特点与可持续利用对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐跃通; 冯海霞; 吴元芳; 李红梅; 周晨; 李福林

    2001-01-01

    The 185.1 km long section of the Yellow River locating in Jinan City covers a drainage area of 2,778 km2. Both interannual and intraannual water discharge of the Yellow River in Jinan varies greatly.The maximum quantity of runoff is 21.8 times as the minimum one.The runoff concentrates in flood season during the months of July to October,representing 60.7% of the annual value averaged on many years.In recent years,the runoff quantity of the Yellow River in Jinan shows a decreasing tendency year by year and the state of breaching of has been intensified.In 1997,the Yellow River ran dry for 132 days at the Luokou hydrological station.At the same time,the sediment content of the Yellow River in Jinan is high,averaging 24.9 kg/ m3 over years,showing an increasing trend.   In recent years the quantity of water from the upper reaches has been decreased and the water using quantity has been increased.The water resources have been seriously wasted.The water has been polluted to some degrees.The regular capacity of reservoir is low,the water resources have not been dispatched and administered in a sustainable way.All these mentioned above have hindered sustained utilization of the Yellow River in Jinan section.   The article,based on the analysis of existing status of water resources and the main problems in resources exploitation and utilization,on the prediction of water delivery and water demand,addresses the main countermeasures to the sustained utilization of the Yellow River water resources in Jinan section.(a)Taking sustained strategy as a principle,making overall planning and administering as a whole and making centralized dispatch.(b)Extending the present reservoirs and building new ones.Making full use of these water conservancy projects to ensure the water used in ecology.(c)Combined utilization of surface water and groundwater resources.(d)Building a water saving production system and society,improving effective utilization rate of water resources

  10. Study on the Utilization of Water Resources in Yinchuan City Based on Water Footprint Evaluation%基于水足迹估算的银川市水资源利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光龙; 王芳; 张建明

    2012-01-01

    How to alleviate the pressure of water resource is a major issue faced by human being. The water footprint is an indicator of water use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint thus offers a wider perspective on how a consumer relates to the use of water systems. In this paper, the concept of water footprint and its calculation methodologies are introduced. We compute the water footprint of Yinchuan city in 2007. The result of water footprint of Yinchuan city in 2007 is 16. 403 × 108 m3 ,per capita 1 102 m3 available. Water self-sufficiency is 0. 99, this is not good for Yinchuan city because in arid region water is very scarce. It also analyses the ways to solve the problem of water scarcity and some suggestions have been put forward on how to alleviate the press of water shortage in arid regions. It is only a preliminary estimate of water footprint of Yinchuan city. Future research on water footprints of Yinchuan city should include more detailed data of water use and get a more realistic figure.%水足迹是一个与消费有关的水资源占用情况的综合性指标,它提供了一个更为广泛的视角来认识人们是如何利用水资源的,能够较好地评价区域水资源利用情况.通过引入水足迹的概念和计算方法,初步估算了银川市2007年水足迹情况.结果表明,银川市2007年总的水足迹为16.403×108 m3,人均水足迹为1 102 m3/a,水资源压力指数为0.93,水资源自给率为0.99,水资源进口依赖度为0.01,过高的自给率和水足迹给银川市的生态环境带来巨大压力.同时,分析了银川市水资源利用状况,探讨了降低水足迹、缓解水资源短缺压力的途径.

  11. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  12. Water requirements and management of maize under drip and sprinkler irrigation. 2000 annual report for Agricultural Technology Utilization and Transfer (ATUT) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research at Ismailia, Egypt, focused on irrigation management of maize, fava bean, wheat, and alfalfa. In 1998, the two weighing lysimeters at Ismailia were recalibrated successfully with precision of 0.01 mm; and a state-of-the-art time domain reflectometry (TDR) system for soil water balance measu...

  13. Juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) utilization of Southern New England nurseries: Comparisons among estuarine, tidal river, and coastal lagoon shallow-water habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L; McNamee, Jason; Lake, John; Gervasi, Carissa L; Palance, Danial G

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative importance of the N arragansett Bay estuary (RI and MA, USA), and associated tidal rivers and coastal lagoons, as nurseries for juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Winter flounder (WF) and summer flounder (SF) abundance and growth were measured from May to October (2009-2013) and served as indicators for the use and quality of shallow-water habitats (water depth waters, but also their respective avoidance of hypoxic conditions (water temperatures (> 25 °C). Flounder habitat usage was also positively related to sediment organic content, which may be due to these substrates having sufficiently high prey densities. WF growth rates (mean = 0.25 ± 0.14 mm/d) were negatively correlated with the abundance of conspecifics, whereas SF growth (mean = 1.39 ± 0.46 mm/d) was positively related to temperature and salinity. Also, contrary to expectations, flounder occupied habitats that offered no ostensible advantage in intra-specific growth rates. WF and SF exposed to low salinities in certain rivers likely experienced increased osmoregulatory costs, thereby reducing energy for somatic growth. Low-salinity habitats, however, may benefit flounder by providing refugia from predation or reduced competition with other estuarine fishes and macro-invertebrates. Examining WF and SF abundance and growth across each species' broader geographic distribution revealed that southern New England habitats may constitute functionally significant nurseries. These results also indicated that juvenile SF have a geographic range extending further north than previously recognized.

  14. Systems assessment of water savings impact of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) utilizing wirelessly networked Sense•Decide•Act•Communicate (SDAC) systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jonathan T.; Baynes, Edward E., Jr.; Aguirre,Carlos (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Jordan, Jon (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Giacomelli, Gene (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Waggoner, Justin (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Loest, Clint (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Szumel, Leo; Nakaoka, Tyler; Pate, Ronald C.; Berry, Nina M.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Aguirre, Francisco Luis (Invernaderos y Maquinaria Aguirre, Cd., Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico); Aguilar, Jose (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Gupta, Vipin P.; Ochoa, Juan (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Davis, Jesse Zehring; Ramos, Damian (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX)

    2005-02-01

    Reducing agricultural water use in arid regions while maintaining or improving economic productivity of the agriculture sector is a major challenge. Controlled environment agriculture (CEA, or, greenhouse agriculture) affords advantages in direct resource use (less land and water required) and productivity (i.e., much higher product yield and quality per unit of resources used) relative to conventional open-field practices. These advantages come at the price of higher operating complexity and costs per acre. The challenge is to implement and apply CEA such that the productivity and resource use advantages will sufficiently outweigh the higher operating costs to provide for overall benefit and viability. This project undertook an investigation of CEA for livestock forage production as a water-saving alternative to open-field forage production in arid regions. Forage production is a large consumer of fresh water in many arid regions of the world, including the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. With increasing competition among uses (agriculture, municipalities, industry, recreation, ecosystems, etc.) for limited fresh water supplies, agricultural practice alternatives that can potentially maintain or enhance productivity while reducing water use warrant consideration. The project established a pilot forage production greenhouse facility in southern New Mexico based on a relatively modest and passive (no active heating or cooling) system design pioneered in Chihuahua, Mexico. Experimental operations were initiated in August 2004 and carried over into early-FY05 to collect data and make initial assessments of operational and technical system performance, assess forage nutrition content and suitability for livestock, identify areas needing improvement, and make initial assessment of overall feasibility. The effort was supported through the joint leveraging of late-start FY04 LDRD funds and bundled CY2004 project funding from the New Mexico Small Business Technical

  15. 提高凝结水回收利用率分析与改进%Analysis on Improved Utilization of Condensate Water Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈相

    2015-01-01

    针对某炼油装置凝结水现场直排、水质较差的现象,通过对凝结水管网进行优化和改进,实现了整个装置凝结水集中回收,避免了凝结水直接排放,减少催化锅炉除盐水用量,节约了用水量和运行费用;采用除油除铁设施,提高了锅炉给水品质,降低了锅炉排污率;以热水为媒介回收凝结水的热量作为气分装置的加热热能,降低了蒸汽消耗,实现了凝结水热能回收利用,凝结水水质的提高也为锅炉及其它用汽设备的长周期、稳定运行提供了保障。%In order to solve the problem of poor quality of condensate water discharged directly from the reifning unit, the condensate water network has been optimized for centralized recovery to avoid direct discharge, raise water quality, reuse condensate heat, reduce water consumption and cut operating cost. The improved condensate water quality can also help ensure the long-term and stable operation for boilers and other steam-using equipment.

  16. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  17. 焦化冷却水低品质余热的回收利用%Practice of Recycling and Utilization of Low Quality Waste Heat of Cooling Water in Coking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 张顺贤

    2015-01-01

    TImprovement of the recovery and utilization of waste heat in the primary cooler was taken. The new type of steam, hot water dual-use refrigeration and the heating double working conditions of absorption type heat pump unit were developed. The cross flow cooling tower technology, transformation of the original water and water back pipe and other measures were introduced. The purpose of the water temperature process cooling water with low quality of heat and water for heating were realized. So the heating area was expanded, the steam, the new water consumption and dosage of the medicine can be reduced. The single heating season can produce direct benefits 21 260 000 Yuan.%通过对初冷器余热回收利用装置的升级改造,开发新型蒸汽、热水两用型制冷、采暖双工况吸收式热泵机组,引进横流式冷却塔技术,改造原中温水回水工艺管道等措施,实现了辅以蒸汽为热源回收中温工艺冷却水低品质余热来加热采暖水的目的,扩大了采暖供热面积,降低了系统蒸汽、新水消耗和药剂投加量,单个采暖季可产生直接效益2126万元。

  18. 庆阳市水资源可持续利用发展研究%A Study on Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Qingyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛昊林; 刘万锋; 张建香; 路亚妮

    2016-01-01

    当下,随着我国经济的发展,社会的进步,水资源问题己经十分突出,水资源的匮乏已经成为制约我国社会经济发展的主要因素之一。庆阳市是我国水资源最为短缺的地区之一,也是水环境污染最为严重、环境条件最为恶劣的地区之一。降雨量偏少导致可利用的水资源不足,水资源不足和污染物的大量排放又加剧了水环境的污染,导致了本来就脆弱的生态环境更加恶化,这严重地影响了庆阳市的可持续发展。随着社会主义现代化建设事业的快速发展,庆阳市的城市化步伐也在加快。无论是原有城市的扩大还是乡村城镇化,带来的一个突出问题就是水资源消耗变得更为集中,使水资源不足的矛盾增大,水环境污染问题更加严重。通过对庆阳市水资源调查分析,结合国内外对水资源可持续发展最新研究成果,充分挖掘庆阳市水资源短缺的深层原因,得出水资源合理利用的措施及途径。为我国水资源发展利用提供一定的方法,为有效维护我国用水稳定有序发展起到一定的作用,促进我国经济社会安定有序的发展。%With the development of our country ’ s economy and the progress of the society ,the problem of water resources has become very prominent .Water scarcity has become one of the major factors restricting China ’ s social and economic development .Qingyang is not only the most severe shortage of water re-sources in our region ,but the most serious water pollution as well as the worst environmental conditions . Less rainfall results in a lack of available water resources and water shortage and a large discharge of pol -lution exacerbate the pollution of water environment and cause the already fragile ecological environment worse ,which seriously affects the region sustainable development .With the rapid development of China ’ s socialist modernization ,the pace of

  19. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Edith

    2014-03-05

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO{sub 2} during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  20. 干水在沙旱生灌木造林中的应用%A Utilization Techology of Dry-Water Plantion Forest in Drought-Desert Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌龙; 刘世增; 安富博

    2001-01-01

    干水造林技术在干旱沙区造林中的应用,为干旱沙区植树造林和生态环境建设开辟了一条新的途径。本文系统地分析了干水造林技术在干旱沙区应用中的可行性和重要性,并对应用过程中存在的问题进行了较深入的探讨。干水凝胶盒向土壤中持续输送水分长达4个月之久,能明显提高土壤含水率和苗木成活率,使土壤含水量始终保持在2.0%以上,有时达5.0%以上,促进苗木在生长季节的旺盛生长。%The technology of dry-water was Utilized in drought-desert ar ea, It creates a new rout for planting and environment instruction. This article not only analyzed feasibility and importance of utilization on technology of dr y-water, but also deeply discussed exiting problems. A packet of dry-water may moisture to surrounding soil for 4 months . It can obviovsly increase soil wat er content and seedling ,maintain the soil water transter above 2.0 per cent eve n over 5.0 per cent in the rainy season. It can also obviously improve seedling growth in the processing.

  1. 基于水足迹理论的老挝南欧江流域水资源利用评价指标体系设计%The Water Resource Utilization Evaluation Index System Design on the Basis of Water Footprint Theory in Nanou River Basin of Laos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佳; 黄晶

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces water footprint theory, analyzes the influence factors of water resource utilization, identifies the four types of index evaluation system of supply and demand of river basin water footprint index, efficiency of river basin water footprint benefit index, index of river basin water resources security and river basin water resources sustainable utilization index framework, and puts forward seven secondary indexes according to the framework, and finally determine the evaluation index by quantify the each indicator, and each index and its quantitative factors systematical y construct the evaluation index system of water resource utilization.%文章引入水足迹理论,分析了影响水资源利用的因素,确定了由流域水足迹供需指标、流域水足迹效益效率指标、流域水资源安全指标和流域水资源可持续利用指标等四类指标构成的评价体系框架,并根据此框架提出了七个二级指标,最后通过对每一个指标进行量化最终确定了评价的指标集,并综合各指标及其定量因子较为系统地构建出了水资源利用评价指标体系。

  2. DILEMMA AND COUNTERMEASURE ON THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUITABLE AND REASONABLE UTILIZATION OF TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES%跨界水资源公平合理利用原则的困境与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锡生; 曾彩琳

    2012-01-01

    公平合理利用原则是国际水法的一项基本原则,它的内涵体现为权利义务的一致性,即各国有在其领土内利用跨界水资源的权利,同时又要承担不剥夺其他国家在其领土内利用跨界水资源的义务和不对跨界水资源进行损害和浪费的义务。从理论上看,对保护跨界水资源及协调跨界水资源利用冲突有重要的意义。但由于公平合理利用原则目前尚存在评价标准不明确、保障制度不完备等内在缺陷,以致其在实践中经常陷于难以适用的困境。要摆脱公平合理利用原则的适用困境,应以权利义务相一致的原理为指导,进一步明确“公平合理利用”的评价标准,厘清必要的用水优先权顺序,使公平合理利用原则具有可操作性。同时,应建立起受益补偿制度、公众参与制度、损害预警制度等有利于公平合理利用原则实现的保障制度。%The principle of equitable and reasonable utilization is a basic principle of international water law and its content reflects the consistency of rights and obligations, that is to say, countries have the right to use transboundary water resources in their own territory,but at the same time also have the obligation not to hamper other countries utilizing and not to damage and waste transboundary water resources. In theory, its application has important significance to the protection of transboundary water resources and the coordination of conflict in the use of transboundary water resources. But in practice, because of some inherent defects such as unclear evaluation criteria and incomplete security system, the principle of equitable and rea- sonable utilization often encountered the difficulties how to apply theory to reality. To get rid of dilemma of the principle, under the guidance of the theory of the consistency of rights and obligations, the evaluation criteria of "equitable and reasonable utilization" should

  3. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [crop identification, water resources, urban land use, soil mapping, and atmospheric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant results were obtained in the water resources research, urban land use mapping, and soil association mapping projects. ERTS-1 data was used to classify water bodies to determine acreages and high agreement was obtained with USGS figures. Quantitative evaluation was achieved of urban land use classifications from ERTS-1 data and an overall test accuracy of 90.3% was observed. ERTS-1 data classifications of soil test sites were compared with soil association maps scaled to match the computer produced map and good agreement was observed. In some cases the ERTS-1 results proved to be more accurate than the soil association map.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC SPECIATION ON DRINKING WATER TREATMENT MEDIA UTILIZING AUTOMATED SEQUENTIAL CONTINUOUS FLOW EXTRACTION WITH IC-ICP-MS DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three treatment media, used for the removal of arsenic from drinking water, were sequentially extracted using 10mM MgCl2 (pH 8), 10mM NaH2PO4 (pH 7) followed by 10mM (NH4)2C2O4 (pH 3). The media were extracted using an on-line automated continuous extraction system which allowed...

  5. Utilization of condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner%移动式空调机蒸发器冷凝水的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁贤德

    2012-01-01

    How to use the condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner is analyzed An improved method to increase the energy efficiency of portable air conditioner is studied.%对如何利用移动式空调机蒸发器产生的冷凝水进行分析,探讨提升移动式空调机能效比的一种改进方法.

  6. Risk factors for hospital-acquired hypernatremia among critically ill medical patients in a setting utilizing a preventive free water protocol: Do we need to do more?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Varun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hospital-acquired hypernatremia (HAH is a frequent concern in critical care, which carries high mortality. Aims: To study the risk factors for HAH in settings that practice a preventive protocol. Settings and Design: Two tertiary-care hospitals. Prospective observational study design. Materials and Methods: Patients aged >18 years admitted for an acute medical illness with normal serum sodium and need for intensive care >48 h formed the study population. Details of the basic panel of investigations on admission, daily electrolytes and renal function test, sodium content of all intake, free water intake (oral, enteral and intravenous and fluid balance every 24 h were recorded. Individuals with serum Na 140-142 meq/l received 500 ml of free water every 24 h, and those with 143-145 meq/l received 1000 ml free water every 24 h. Statistical Analysis Used: Risk factors associated with HAH was analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results: Among 670 study participants, 64 (9.5% developed HAH. The median duration of hypernatremia was 3 days. A total 60 of 64 participants with HAH had features of renal concentrating defect during hypernatremia. Age >60 years ( P = 0.02, acute kidney injury (AKI on admission ( P = 0.01, mechanical ventilation ( P = 0.01, need for ionotropes ( P = 0.03, worsening Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score after admission ( P < 0.001, enteral tube feeds ( P = 0.002, negative fluid balance ( P = 0.02 and mannitol use ( P < 0.001 were the risk factors for HAH. Mortality rate was 34.3% among hypernatremic patients. Conclusions: The study suggests that administration of free water to prevent HAH should be more meticulously complied with in patients who are elderly, present with AKI, suffer multi-organ dysfunction, require mechanical ventilation, receive enteral feeds and drugs like mannitol or ionotropes.

  7. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute ut

  8. Analysis of efficiency of water utilization in canal-system in Hetao irrigation district based on Horton fractal%基于Horton分形的河套灌区渠系水利用效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈忠义; 杨晓; 黄永江; 杜斌; 杨俊林

    2015-01-01

    大型灌区灌溉水利用效率是关系国民经济发展和水资源高效利用的重要评价指标。该文采用分维定律对内蒙古河套灌区输配水渠系布置结构与渠系水分利用效率进行评价。根据河套灌区现状的渠系资料,应用Horton定律计算出河套灌区及灌域的分形维数(乌兰布和1.14,解放闸1.86,永济2.21,义长1.8,乌拉特1.99,河套灌区1.88)。在此基础上对不同灌域的渠系水利用效率与分维值进行了分析,拟合了灌溉引水量、灌溉面积与分维值多元曲线,得出了渠系结构优化下的不同灌域的渠系水利用效率提高潜力(乌兰布和19.01%,解放闸28.8%,永济32.7%,义长27.07%,乌拉特30.7%)与灌区平均效率提高潜力(27.19%)。由此提出不同灌域渠系改造方案,对于灌区的科学管理与节水工程规划具有重要的理论意义和应用价值,同时对相似灌区的规划和节水改造具有很好的参考价值。%Efficiency of water utilization in large irrigation districts and water-saving potential can reflect degree of water resources utilization and is an important evaluation index of national economic development. It is unknown about effects of canal-system framework on water utilization efficiency in canal-system. In this study, we assessed the relationship between canal-system framework and water utilization efficiency in Hetao Irrigation District, China. The Hetao Irrigation District was divided into Wulanbuhe, Jiefangzha, Yongji, Yichang, and Wulate sub-irrigation districts. The canal-system of Hetao Irrigation district had complex structure with one general canal, 16 trunk canals, 48 sub-main canals, and 57 000 of branch, lateral, field, and sublateral canals. The general, trunk, sub-main, branch, lateral, field and sublateral canals were graded into the first, second,…, and seventh levels. The information on irrigation area, amount, and water use efficiency of each sub

  9. 高炉冲渣余热回收的试验研究与利用分析%Experimental Investigation of Waste Heat Recovery of Blast Furnace Slag Water and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The current situation and problems in waste heat utilization of blast furnace slag water are overviewed. In terms of the characteristics of waste heat of the blast furnace slag water, a detailed determination and theoretical analysis and calculation of energy has been made. The small scale tests have been conducted. The comparison of the theoretical calculation and test results indicates that the waste heat recovery of the slag water is feasi-ble. The first-hand test data lay the foundation for the waste heat recovery of the slag water and recovery of low quality steam in later stage.%  概述了目前高炉冲渣水余热利用的现状和存在的问题。根据高炉冲渣水余热的特点,进行了详细的能源诊断和理论分析计算,并进行了小规模的试验研究。通过理论计算和试验研究的对比,验证了高炉冲渣余热回收的可行性,获得了第一手的试验数据,为后期高炉冲渣余热回收和低品质蒸汽的回收奠定了基础。

  10. 基于水资源生态足迹的浑河流域水资源利用评价%Assessing Utilization of Water Resources in Hunhe River Catchment Based on Ecological Footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀颖; 刘和平

    2016-01-01

    用水资源生态足迹模型计算浑河流域2005~2013年水资源生态足迹和水资源生态承载力,并基于各评价指标对浑河流域水资源利用情况进行评价。结果表明:2005~2013年浑河流域水资源生态足迹呈现不显著的下降趋势,水资源生态承载力呈现波动变化;流域一直处于水资源生态赤字状态,仅在2010年出现盈余;流域水资源生态足迹指数低于可持续发展足迹指数范围,但万元GDP水资源生态足迹持续下降。总体来看,流域水资源利用处于不可持续状态,但2010年后流域水资源利用效率明显提高,并向着可持续的方向发展。%The water resources ecoLogicaL footprint and ecoLogicaL carrying capacity in the Hunhe River catchment from 2005 to 2013 were caLcuLated according to the water resources ecoLogicaL footprint modeL, and the utiLization of water resources in the catchment was assessed based on the caLcuLated index. The resuLts are as foLLows:from 2005 to 2013, the water resources ecoLogicaL footprint in the Hunhe River catchment show a non-significant downward trend, whiLe the water resources ecoLogicaL carrying capacity fLuctuated and was significantLy reLated to precipitation in the catchment. There was ecoLogicaL deficit of water resources in aLL the years from 2005 to 2013 but 2010, when there was a surpLus. The water resources ecoLogicaL footprint index was beLow the range of the sustainabiLity, but the water resources ecoLogicaL footprint per 10 4 Yuan GDP continued to decrease. Over aLL, the water resources utiLization in the catchment was unsustainabiLity, but the utiLization efficiency improved obviousLy and it was deveLoping towards sustainabiLity since 2010.

  11. Utilization of reverse osmosis (RO) for reuse of MBR-treated wastewater in irrigation-preliminary tests and quality analysis of product water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunani, Samuel; Yörükoğlu, Eren; Sert, Gökhan; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Ümran; Yüksel, Mithat; Egemen, Özdemir; Pek, Taylan Özgür

    2015-02-19

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent collected from a wastewater treatment plant installed at an industrial zone was used for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane tests in the laboratory. For this, two different GE Osmonics RO membranes (AK-BWRO and AD-SWRO) were employed. The results showed that AK-brackish water reverse osmosis (AK-BWRO) and AD-seawater reverse osmosis (AD-SWRO) membranes have almost similar rejection performances regarding analyzed parameters such as conductivity, salinity, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC). On the other hand, these membranes behaved quite differently considering their permeate water flux at the same applied pressure of 10 bar. AD-SWRO membrane was also tested at 20 bar. The results revealed that AD-SWRO membrane had almost the same rejections either at 10 or at 20 bar of applied pressure. Compared with irrigation water standards, AK-BWRO and AD-SWRO gave an effluent with low salinity value and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) which makes it unsuitable for irrigation due to the infiltration problems risi0ng from unbalanced values of salinity and SAR. Combination of MBR effluent and RO effluent at respective proportions of 0.3:0.7 and 0.4:0.6 for AK-BWRO and AD-SWRO, respectively, are the optimum mixing ratios to overcome the infiltration hazard problem. Choice of less-sensitive crops to chloride and sodium ions is another strategy to overcome all hazards which may arise from above suggested mixing proportions.

  12. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  13. Utilizing Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to engage middle school teachers and students in storm water management practices to mitigate human impacts of land development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaz, A.; Wilson, R. M.; Schoen, R.; Blumsack, S.; King, L.; Dyehouse, M.

    2013-12-01

    'The Integrating STEM Project' engaged 6-8 grade teachers through activities incorporating mathematics, science and technology incorporating both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Common Core State Standards-Mathematics (CCSS-Math). A group of researchers from Oceanography, Mathematics, and Education set out to provide middle school teachers with a 2 year intensive STEM integration professional development with a focus on environmental topics and to monitor the achievement outcomes in their students. Over the course of 2 years the researchers created challenging professional development sessions to expand teacher knowledge and teachers were tasked to transform the information gained during the professional development sessions for classroom use. One lesson resource kit presented to the teachers, which was directly applicable to the classroom, included Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to explore the positive and negative effects land development has on climate and the environment, and how land development impacts storm water management. MEA's were developed to encourage students to create models to solve complex problems and to allow teachers to investigate students thinking. MEA's are a great curriculum technique used in engineering fields to help engage students by providing hands on activities using real world data and problems. We wish to present the Storm Water Management Resource toolkit including the MEA and present the outcomes observed from student engagement in this activity.

  14. 城市给水厂污泥建材资源化利用试验研究%Utilization of water plant sludge in hollow fired brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程雪莉; 熊家晴

    2014-01-01

    A kind of small hollow brick is prepared by water plant sludge, clay and slag after mixing, extruding, drying and firing. Test is carried out on the compressive strength, lime blowing, efflorescence, thermal propertie and radioactive of hollow brick. The parameters accord with the national standard, so that use of the water plant sludge in hollow fired brick is feasible.%以给水厂污泥、基坑外运土、炉渣为原料,经过混合搅拌、挤出成型、干燥、焙烧等工序,试验烧制成小型空心砖。对成品试样进行抗压强度、石灰爆裂、泛霜、热工性能、放射性等方面的性能测试,各项检测结果均符合国家标准规定要求,由此表明城市给水厂污泥生产烧结空心砖是可行的。

  15. 推进水务一体化管理加快水资源开发利用%Promoting Water Resources Integration Management, Speed up the Development and Utilization of Water Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾飞

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the status of the Zhangzi County water resource management, promoting the necessity of the integration of water and the county domain integration of water, to promote the scientific use of water resources, the eldest son of the county’s economic development provides hydraulic support.%通过分析长子县水资源管理的现状,说明了推进水务一体化和县域水务一体化的必要性,以促进水资源的科学利用,为长子县的经济发展提供水利支持。

  16. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assess Estuary Health and Enhance Management of Water Resources in Coastal Texas through Land Cover and Precipitation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, G.; Gonsoroski, E.; Lynn, T.; Schick, R.; Pereira da Silva, R.

    2015-12-01

    This project partnered with the National Park Service (NPS) to help analyze the correlation between mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre of Padre Island National Seashore. The lagoon is a hypersaline estuary; however, there is historical evidence that this was not always the case. It is hypothesized that the increase in the number of honey mesquite trees (Prosopis grandulosa var. glandulosa) in the area has contributed to the Laguna Madre's increased salinity by decreasing the groundwater inflow to the lagoon. These mesquite trees have long taproots capable of extracting significant amounts of groundwater. This project utilized Earth observation data in ERDAS IMAGINE and ArcGIS software to create map time series and analyze the data. Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data were used to create land use/land cover (LULC) maps in order to analyze the change in the occurrence of mesquite trees over time. Thermal maps of the lagoon were generated using Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data to understand changes in groundwater inflow. In addition, TRMM and GRACE derived changes in root zone soil moisture content data were compared over the study period. By investigating the suspected positive correlation between the mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre, the NPS can improve future land management practices.

  17. The utilization of the mesoporous Ti-SBA-15 catalyst in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol to glycidol and diglycidyl ether in the water medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the studies on the optimization the process of allyl alcohol epoxidation over the Ti-SBA-15 catalyst. The optimization was carried out in an aqueous medium, wherein water was introduced into the reaction medium with an oxidizing agent (30 wt% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and it was formed in the reaction medium during the processes. The main investigated technological parameters were: the temperature, the molar ratio of allyl alcohol/hydrogen peroxide, the catalyst content and the reaction time. The main functions the process were: the selectivity of transformation to glycidol in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the selectivity of transformation to diglycidyl ether in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the conversion of allyl alcohol and the selectivity of transformation to organic compounds in relation to hydrogen peroxide consumed. The analysis of the layer drawings showed that in water solution it is best to conduct allyl alcohol epoxidation in direction of glycidol (selectivity of glycidol 54 mol% at: the temperature of 10–17°C, the molar ratio of reactants 0.5–1.9, the catalyst content 2.9–4.0 wt%, the reaction time 2.7–3.0 h and in direction of diglycidyl ether (selectivity of diglycidyl ether 16 mol% at: the temperature of 18–33°C, the molar ratio of reactants 0.9–1.65, the catalyst content 2.0–3.4 wt%, the reaction time 1.7–2.6 h. The presented method allows to obtain two very valuable intermediates for the organic industry.

  18. Characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata) assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Jonathan C; Clark, David R; Bresette, Michael J; Bagley, Dean A; Keske, Carrie L; Traxler, Steve L; Witherington, Blair E; Shamblin, Brian M; Nairn, Campbell J

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA), the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82) were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL) ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8). Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6). Juvenile hawksbills (turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on the assemblage is vital to resource managers charged with conservation and species protection in the MPA.

  19. Utilization of Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide as an effective sequestrator to trap Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution impacted by water quality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Linghu, Wensheng; Hu, Jun; Jiang, Gongyi; Sheng, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Recently, Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide (Mg2Al-LDH) has been extensively studied as promising candidates to trap metal ions due to their high complexation and adsorption capacity. Herein, Mg2Al-LDH was utilized as an effectiveness sequestrator to trap Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by an adsorption process using batch technique under ambient conditions. The results showed that Cu(II) adsorption on Mg2Al-LDH increases with pH increasing and maintains a high level at pH>7.0. The adsorption of Cu(II) was obviously affected by ionic strength at low pH, which was not dependent on ionic strength at high pH. The presence of HA or FA promotes the adsorption of Cu(II) on Mg2Al-LDH at low pH values, while reduces the adsorption of Cu(II) at high pH values. The adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) on Mg2Al-LDH at three different temperatures were simulated by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) models very well. The thermodynamic parameters were determined from the temperature-dependent adsorption, and the results showed that Cu(II) adsorption on Mg2Al-LDH was exothermic and the process was favored at high temperature. The results suggest that Mg2Al-LDH is suitable as a sorbent material for the recovery and attenuation of Cu(II)-polluted wastewater.

  20. 茶叶渣再利用技术在水处理中的研究进展%Research progress of tea waste utilization technology in water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖婵娟; 曹雅琴; 赵健全; 卢丽丽

    2016-01-01

    The application of tea waste in water treatment field is based .The structure and characteristics of tea waste are introduced briefly .And then,tea waste,tea waste modification and tea waste activated car-bon treatment are reviewed .Especially , the adsorption properties of tea waste in water with heavy metal ions,organic compounds and radioactive pollutants are expounded .At last,the application prospect of the tea waste utilization technology and its application in the actual complex water environment is prospected .%从茶叶渣在水处理领域中的应用出发,简述了茶叶渣的结构及特性,并对茶叶渣、茶叶渣改性及茶叶渣活性炭处理三种再利用技术对处理污染废水的应用进行了综述,重点阐述了茶叶渣对水体中重金属离子、有机物及放射性污染物的吸附性能,最后就目前茶叶渣再利用技术及其在实际复杂水体系的应用前景做出展望。

  1. Implementation of an interactive database interface utilizing HTML, PHP, JavaScript, and MySQL in support of water quality assessments in the Northeastern North Carolina Pasquotank Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, A., Jr.; Hodgkins, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) has implemented three research projects during the summer Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program gathering water quality data for local waterways. The data has been compiled manually utilizing pen and paper and then entered into a spreadsheet. With the spread of electronic devices capable of interacting with databases, the development of an electronic method of entering and manipulating the water quality data was pursued during this project. This project focused on the development of an interactive database to gather, display, and analyze data collected from local waterways. The database and entry form was built in MySQL on a PHP server allowing participants to enter data from anywhere Internet access is available. This project then researched applying this data to the Google Maps site to provide labeling and information to users. The NIA server at http://nia.ecsu.edu is used to host the application for download and for storage of the databases. Water Quality Database Team members included the authors plus Derek Morris Jr., Kathryne Burton and Mr. Jeff Wood as mentor.

  2. Technology Utilization for Water Resources in Guangzhou Haizhu Eco-city%广州市海珠生态城水资源综合利用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娇

    2015-01-01

    abstract This paper starts from the problems of water resources in Guangzhou. Drawing on the lessons from eco-city water resources utilization technology at home and abroad, it proposes a strategy with regards to the natural conditions of Haizhu eco-city, including rainwater harvesting, tidal power use, and water reuse, which provides a reference for the development of a green city in Guangzhou.%文章从广州市水资源存在的问题出发,借鉴国内外生态城水资源综合利用技术,结合海珠生态城的自然条件,确定了海珠生态城水资源综合利用技术,包括雨水利用、潮汐水动力利用和中水回用,为广州绿色低碳城区水资源综合利用提供借鉴。

  3. Characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Gorham

    Full Text Available In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA, the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82 were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8. Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6. Juvenile hawksbills (<50 cm SSCL showed a significantly higher growth rate (9.2 cm/year, SD = 4.5, N = 11 than subadult hawksbills (50-70 cm SSCL, 3.6 cm/year, SD = 0.9, N = 4. Analysis of 740 base pair mitochondrial control region sequences from 50 sampled turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on

  4. Utilization of downscaled microwave satellite data and GRACE Total Water Storage anomalies for improving streamflow prediction in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.; Bolten, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mekong river is the world's eighth largest in discharge with draining an area of 795,000 km² from the Eastern watershed of the Tibetan Plateau to the Mekong Delta including, Myanmar, Laos PDR, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and three provinces of China. The populations in these countries are highly dependent on the Mekong River and they are vulnerable to the availability and quality of the water resources within the Mekong River Basin. Soil moisture is one of the most important hydrological cycle variables and is available from passive microwave satellite sensors (such as AMSR-E, SMOS and SMAP), but their spatial resolution is frequently too coarse for effective use by land managers and decision makers. The merging of satellite observations with numerical models has led to improved land surface predictions. Although performance of the models have been continuously improving, the laboratory methods for determining key hydraulic parameters are time consuming and expensive. The present study assesses a method to determine the effective soil hydraulic parameters using a downscaled microwave remote sensing soil moisture product based on the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). The soil moisture downscaling algorithm is based on a regression relationship between 1-km MODIS land surface temperature and 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to produce an enhanced spatial resolution ASMR-E-based soil moisture product. Since the optimized parameters are based on the near surface soil moisture information, further constraints are applied during the numerical simulation through the assimilation of GRACE Total Water Storage (TWS) within the land surface model. This work improves the hydrological fluxes and the state variables are optimized and the optimal parameter values are then transferred for retrieving hydrological fluxes. To evaluate the performance of the system in helping improve

  5. A new adsorbent of a Ce ion-implanted metal-organic framework (MIL-96) with high-efficiency Ce utilization for removing fluoride from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuan; Deng, Shuangshuang; Peng, Fumin; Luo, Tao

    2017-02-14

    A novel Ce(iii) ion-implanted aluminum-trimesic metal-organic framework (Ce-MIL-96) was synthesized for the first time via alcohol-solvent incipient wetness impregnation. Compared to previously reported Ce-contained adsorbents, the fluoride adsorption performance of the new ion-implanted metal-organic framework demonstrated much higher adsorption capacity and more efficient regeneration of Ce. In a wide pH range of 3 to 10, Ce-MIL-96 maintained constant adsorption performance for fluoride, and the residual Ce and Al in the treated solution were below the safe limits in drinking water. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ce-MIL-96 was 38.65 mg g(-1) at 298 K. Excluding the contribution of MIL-96, the maximum adsorption capacity of Ce ions was 269.75 mg g(-1), which demonstrated that the service efficiency of cerium in Ce-MIL-96 is about 6 times that in Ce2O3, nearly 10 times that in Ce-mZrp, and double that in Mn-Ce oxides. There was no significant influence on fluoride removal by Ce-MIL-96 due to the presence of chloride, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate or phosphate. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of Ce-MIL-96 remained at more than 70% after nine cycles of adsorption-desorption. Due to this excellent adsorption performance and its regeneration properties, Ce-MIL-96 is a promising adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from groundwater.

  6. Arctic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. [permafrost sediment transport, snow cover, ice conditions, and water runoff in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Mckim, H. L.; Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Physiognomic landscape features were used as geologic and vegetative indicators in preparation of a surficial geology, vegetation, and permafrost map at a scale of 1:1 million using ERTS-1 band 7 imagery. The detail from this map compared favorably with USGS maps at 1:250,000 scale. Physical boundaries mapped from ERTS-1 imagery in combination with ground truth obtained from existing small maps and other sources resulted in improved and more detailed maps of permafrost terrain and vegetation for the same area. ERTS-1 imagery provides for the first time, a means of monitoring the following regional estuarine processes: daily and periodic surface water circulation patterns; changes in the relative sediment load of rivers discharging into the inlet; and, several local patterns not recognized before, such as a clockwise back eddy offshore from Clam Gulch and a counterclockwise current north of the Forelands. Comparison of ERTS-1 and Mariner imagery has revealed that the thermokarst depressions found on the Alaskan North Slope and polygonal patterns on the Yukon River Delta are possible analogs to some Martian terrain features.

  7. 钠电解循环水余热利用系统的应用分析%Application Research of Exhausted Heat Utilization of Circulating Water from Sodium Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪格文

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the low utilization efficiency in industrial heat recovery, the paper indicates the application of exhausted heat utilization of circulating water from sodium reduction factory based on an ex-ample of a factory and introduces the structure, work flow and operation principle of the system. The mea-sured data are analyzed, and the useful energy of circulating water and the load of heating and process pre-heating is calculated. Also, a technical and economic analysis is made about the plan. The results show that the average flow circulating water is overwhelming and its temperature remains around 60℃throughout of the year. And it is economically and technically feasible to use exhausted heat from circulating water for building heating and process preheating. It can obtain great economic and social benefit.%针对目前工业余热利用率低的现状,以某制钠厂为例介绍了钠电解循环水余热利用系统的应用情况,对系统的组成、流程和运行原理进行了简要介绍。对系统的实测数据进行分析,计算得出循环水可以利用的热量以及采暖负荷和工艺预热负荷,对方案进行了技术经济分析。结果表明,钠厂电解循环水流量巨大,且温度常年保持在60℃以上,利用循环水余热进行供暖和工艺预热从技术上和经济上是可行的,项目实施后能够带来良好的经济效益和社会效益。

  8. Utilities:Water:Water Tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:tanks)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. It consists of 2 polygons representing the Tunnel Spring Division Tank and the 1/2...

  9. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and utilization of an undergraduate diagnostic test of the water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-11-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement model, we extend this to a multi-tiered approach which supports multiple interpretations. Using a sample of 130 undergraduate students from two colleges, we utilize the Rasch model to place students and items along traditional one-, two-, and three-tiered scales as well as a misconceptions scale. In the three-tiered and misconceptions scales, high confidence was indicative of mastery. In the latter scale, a 'misconception' was defined as mastery of an incorrect concept. We found that integrating confidence into mastery did little to change item functioning; however, three-tiered usage resulted in higher reliability and lower student ability estimates than two-tiered usage. The misconceptions scale showed high efficacy in predicting items on which particular students were likely to express misconceptions, and revealed several tenacious misconceptions that all students were likely to express regardless of ability. Previous coursework on the water cycle did little to change the prevalence of undergraduates' misconceptions.

  10. 75 FR 82066 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Company (Superstition System), CAP, Arizona: Proposed Amendment No. 1 to Arizona Water Company's... Superstition System. 26. Valley Utilities Water Company, CAP, Arizona: Proposed transfer of Valley Utilities...

  11. 水氮调控对水稻氮素吸收与利用的影响%Effects of Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer Managements on Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世彰; 熊玉江; 庞桂斌; 徐俊增; 焦健; 於家红

    2012-01-01

    Reasonable strategy of irrigation and fertilization has great influence on improving nitrogen utilization efficiency(NUE) and yield of rice.Based on the data from field experiments,this paper tried to find out the effect of different water and fertilizer management patterns on the nitrogen absorption and utilization of rice plants and nitrogen distributions in different parts of rice.The results showed that controlled irrigation significantly improve the nitrogen absorption of rice and promote the nitrogen accumulation of rice grain;Site-specific nutrient management(SSNM) can effectively control the nitrogen absorption in rice vegetative organ during the earlier growing stage and significantly improve the redistribution and reuse of nitrogen in the rice straw;Controlled irrigation combined with SSNM can significantly control ineffective tillering,decrease nitrogen content of rice straw and increase the nitrogen translocation of rice vegetative organ.Controlled irrigation combined with SSNM can decrease the water and nitrogen amount and improve water and fertilizer use efficiency,so as to provide evidence for reasonable management of irrigation and fertilization in South China.%合理的水肥运筹对提高水稻氮素利用效率和水稻产量有很大影响。根据大田试验资料,分析了不同水分管理和氮肥管理对水稻氮素吸收利用及在植株体内分布的影响。结果表明:控制灌溉模式显著改善了水稻对氮素的吸收,促进氮素在籽粒中的积累;实地氮肥管理(SSNM)模式有效控制了生育前期营养器官对氮素的吸收,有效促进了水稻秸秆中累积的氮素参与再分配与再利用;控灌与SSNM联合调控有效地控制无效分蘖,显著降低秸秆氮素含量,提高了水稻营养器官氮素的转运量。控灌和SSNM处理节省了水肥的投入,提高了水肥利用效率,为南方灌区实现合理的水肥管理提供了依据。

  12. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  13. 水量平衡原理在测算南方河网灌区灌溉水利用系数中的应用%Application of Water Balance Principle in Irrigation Water Utilization Coefficient Calculation of South River Irrigation District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏涛; 陈春兰

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation water utilization coefficient is an important index to reflect the agricultural water use efficiency .In this paper , according to the actual situation of south River irrigation area ,the water balance principle is proposed to analyze the water use coeffi‐cient calculation method for south irrigation area .The detailed process is using the statistics data of existing water conservancy facili‐ties and pond to calculate the water use coefficient of the irrigation canal system on the basis of the determination of crop irrigation quota ,and then determining the irrigation water use coefficient .The result can be used as a reference or verification for water coeffi‐cient calculation of south river irrigation area .%灌溉水利用系数是反映农业用水效率的重要指标。根据南方河网灌区的实际,提出应用水量平衡原理,分析确定南方灌区的灌溉水利用系数的方法。是通过采用灌区已建水利工程和塘坝等水利设施供水统计资料,在确定作物灌溉定额的基础上,反推得出灌区的渠系水利用系数,最后分析确定灌区灌溉水利用系数,为南方灌区灌溉水利用系数测算分析提供借鉴或验证。

  14. 城市雨洪调蓄利用的理念与实践%Idea and practice of urban storm-clog water storage and advantageous utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汉京超; 王红武; 张善发; 刘燕

    2011-01-01

    Based on the general review of the up-to-date research advances in the world sphere and the current research advances in China, the present paper has brought about a new model for "adjusting' measures to the local conditions, combining the drainage and storage of stormwater, ensuring the city safety and optimizing its advantageous use" so as to promote the decision-making and in-depth research in the future stormwater management of our country. As is known, the paralysis of urban basic functioning system and the interference of normal living conditions caused by rainstorms and floods began to arouse widespread concern both from the governmental authorities, the social media and the general public, highlighting the urgency of the urban stormwater management, especially its storage and utilization . For this purpose, we have made a brief introduction to the major international strategies for urban stormwater management, such as the Best Management Practices; Low Impact Development; Water Sensitive Urban Design and Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems, and so on. All the above stated documents help us to find that the conventional conception on stormwater storage and utilization has greatly changed. Traditionally, the best way for stormwater discharge is to let it out to the nearby rivers or lakes so soon as possible. But the above mentioned new stormwater strategies are more focused on the overall coordination and management, trying to store more stormwater for reuse and groundwater recharge. Therefore, we have given a more detailed discussion in this paper on the investigation results and measures of stormwater storage and utilization in America, Australia, Germany, Japan and some other developed countries in the world. The main approaches in these countries to the stormwater management can basically be divided into structural and non-structural ones. The commonly used structural measures for stormwater storage ant) utilization are made up of bio-retention, green roof

  15. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in water, soil and sediment samples collected from ... of the genomic DNA extracted from each bacterial isolate was amplified with ... that16S rRNA-gene-based techniques be used when studying the bacterial ...

  16. Analysis of Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Guangdong Province Based on Ecological Footprint Theory%基于生态足迹法的广东省水资源可持续利用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珊; 夏丽华; 陈智斌; 周锡振

    2013-01-01

    基于生态足迹理论,从省域、区域和市域3个不同的空间尺度对广东省2005年-2011年间水资源生态足迹和水资源生态承载力进行了计算与分析,结果表明:研究期内,广东省水资源生态足迹呈逐年减小的趋势,下降幅度为每年11.6%;万元GDP生态足迹逐年下降,水资源利用率逐年提高;全省水资源生态承载力较高,总体上呈现生态盈余,水资源利用状态为可持续。在区域差异上,粤北山区的水资源生态足迹最高,粤东地区最低;珠三角地区水资源生态压力最大,粤北地区最小。而市域空间分布上,韶关市、广州市人均水资源生态足迹在各地级市中较大,佛山市水资源生态压力位于各市之首。在社会经济发展过程中,各地区应根据区域水资源可持续利用状态,进行产业结构的调整,提高用水效率。%Based on the theory of ecological footprint, t he ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of w ater resources in Guangdong Province were calculated and analyzed from 2005 to 2011 in aspect of the provincial, regional, and municipal scales. The results showed that ( 1) during the study period, the w ater resources ecological footprint per capit a of Guangdong Province decreases continuously with a rate of 11. 6%/a;( 2) t he water resources ecological footprint per 104 yuan GDP decrea-ses annually, indicating the increasing of ut ilization of w ater resources;and( 3) the w ater resources ecological carrying capacity is high in the provincial scale, which suggested the ecological surplus status and t hus the utilization of water resources is sustain-able. On the regional distribution, the ecological foot print w as highest in the northern mountain area of Guangdong w hereas low-est in eastern Guangdong. The water resources ecological pressure w as highest in the Pearl River Delta region whereas the low-est in northern Guangdong. On the municipal

  17. Efficient utilization of various water sources in farmlands in the low plain nearby Bohai Sea%环渤海低平原农田多水源高效利用机理和技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜英; 刘小京; 陈素英; 孙宏勇; 邵立威; 牛君仿

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater shortage is a growing crisis in food production in the plain nearby the Bohai Sea. It is therefore impor-tant to efficiently utilize available water resources in the region, including fresh groundwater, brackish groundwater and pre-cipitation during grain production season. This paper summarized the work of a 3-year field experiment at Nanpi Eco-Agricultural Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences on utilization of saline water in replace of fresh groundwater irrigation of winter wheat, deficit irrigation to reduce water use, high-performance cultivars, and the optimized planting and cultivation technologies in wheat-maize double cropping system. The results showed that jointing stage was critical for irrigation under a single irrigation application in winter wheat. Irrigation at jointing stage improved the growth of both aboveground and belowground parts of winter wheat. The enhanced root growth increased soil water utilization during late growth stages and also reduced the negative effects of water stress on yield under limited irrigation of winter wheat. The study also showed that the use of saline water with salt concentration less than 4 g×L-1 in place of freshwater irrigation at jointing stage of winter wheat did not affect yield, and prevented deep freshwater depletion. To mitigate the negative effects of soil salt in the top 20 cm soil profile after winter wheat harvest on successive crops (summer maize), about 70 mm of irrigation at sowing stage of maize was needed to support maize germination and seedling establishment. The results suggested that the return of the straw of both crops to the soil enhanced soil organic content. While the increased proportion of stable soil aggre-gates benefited the stability of soil structure, leaching of salt after saline irrigation improved during summer rainy season. The selection of better cultivars of winter wheat and summer maize had the potential to improve yield and water use efficiency by up

  18. 沼液对水培生菜生长、养分及水分利用效率的影响%Effects of Biogas Slurry on Yield,Water and Nutrient Utilization Efficiency of Hydroponic Lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 王文娥; 胡笑涛; 李兴杰; 苏苑君

    2016-01-01

    采用深液流水培法,对生菜在不同沼液替换比例配制有机无机复合营养液条件下的生理生长、产量及其对营养液养分和水分利用效率进行了研究。结果表明沼液对生菜叶面积、产量,养分及水分利用效率的提高有显著的作用,在沼液替换比例为10%、20%、40%的条件下,生菜的叶面积、产量、养分及水分利用效率均随着沼液替换比例的提高而增加。在60%和80%的沼液替换比例条件下,生菜的产量和植株对养分、水分的吸收利用率都有所下降,过高沼液替换营养液比例不利于生菜的生长。在这种复合营养液条件下,生菜对于氮、磷及镁元素的吸收利用率较高,对于钾和钙的需求量较低。%The experiment was studied the effect of different biogas slurry replacement ratio of nutrient by Deep Flow Technique (DFT)on growth,water and nutrient utilization efficiency of hydroponic lettuce.The result showed that the biogas slurry could bring out a obvious promotion of the leaf area,yield,nutrient and water use efficiency of lettuce,which increased significantly with in-creasing of biogas slurry replacement ratio among 10%,20% and 40% dosage.However those decreased to some extent among 60%and 80% replacement ratio,the excessive biogas slurry replacement ratio was not conducive to the growth of lettuce.The hydroponic lettuce had a higher absorption and utilization of N,P and Mg under the condition of the composite nutrient solution.While the de-mand of K and Ca for lettuce was relatively low.

  19. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( interaction ( 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC increased N retention by 33% ( < 0.0001) and the response to RAC was similar in both corn-soybean meal-based and corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based diets. Tylosin phosphate tended to improve growth performance in pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets but not in diets containing 30% DDGS; however, this response was not explained by changes in N balance or in energy digestibility.

  20. Utility usage forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, Jonathan R. M.; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2017-08-22

    The computer creates a utility demand forecast model for weather parameters by receiving a plurality of utility parameter values, wherein each received utility parameter value corresponds to a weather parameter value. Determining that a range of weather parameter values lacks a sufficient amount of corresponding received utility parameter values. Determining one or more utility parameter values that corresponds to the range of weather parameter values. Creating a model which correlates the received and the determined utility parameter values with the corresponding weather parameters values.

  1. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  2. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  3. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  4. Nonexpected utility and coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diecidue, E.

    2001-01-01

    The descriptive power of expected utility has been challenged by behavioral evidence showing that people deviate systematically from the expected utility paradigm. Since the end of the 70's several alternatives to the classical expected utility paradigm have been proposed in order to accommodate the

  5. Information, evolution and utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Samuelson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human utility embodies a number of seemingly irrational aspects. The leading example in this paper is that utilities often depend on the presence of salient unchosen alternatives. Our focus is to understand why an evolutionary process might optimally lead to such seemingly dysfunctional features in our motivations and to derive implications for the nature of our utility functions.

  6. Floodwater utilization of the Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qian-jin; CAO Guang-jing; DAI Hui-cao; ZHAO Yun-fa

    2009-01-01

    Floods are both risks and resources. Floodwater utilization is an important part of flood management. Considering the rising shortage of water resources, serious water pollution, and undersupply of electric power, it's imperative to strengthen flood management. In light of the hydrological characteristics of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) on the Yangtze River in P. R. China, we investigated the necessity and feasibility of TGP floodwater utilization, proprosed dynamic control of limited water level during flood season of the reservoir and basin-wide integrated floodwater management as strategies, and identified problems that might occur in practice.

  7. Efeito da qualidade da água na perda de carga em filtros utilizados na irrigação localizada Effect of water quality on head loss in filters utilized in trickle irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio A. P. Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar a investigação experimental de uma fonte hídrica superficial utilizada em um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento e sua influência na evolução da perda de carga de dois filtros, um de disco e outro de manta sintética não-tecida, na filtragem da água. Analisou-se a variação temporal dos principais parâmetros físicos, químicos e biológicos da água de irrigação que causam problemas de entupimento nos emissores. Os critérios para avaliação das impurezas presentes na água de irrigação basearam-se em estudos realizados nos sistemas de irrigação localizada. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em quatro etapas de 30 dias, em diferentes estações do ano. Os resultados mostraram que os parâmetros químicos que apresentaram médio risco de obstrução aos emissores, foram: pH, ferro e sulfetos. Os parâmetros físicos e biológicos analisados apresentaram baixo risco de entupimento dos emissores. Fez-se o acompanhamento da evolução da perda de carga em função do volume filtrado, objetivando uma análise comparativa. No filtro de manta sintética não-tecida a evolução da perda de carga foi mais acentuada e mais rápida em relação à de disco.This study had the objective to conduct an experimental enquiry on a surface water source utilized in a trickle irrigation system and its influence on the head loss evolution in two filters - a disc filter (130 micra and a non-woven synthetic fabric in filtration of water. The temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters of the irrigation water causing problem of obstruction in drippers were analysed. The evaluation criterion of the impurities present in the irrigation water were based on the studies of the trickle irrigation systems. The research was executed in four phases of 30 days each, in different seasons. The results showed that the chemical factors, which presented medium risk of clogging for emitters, were p

  8. The Comprehensive Utilization Technology of Treating High-Concentration Wastewater with Coal-Water Slurry Technology%利用水煤浆技术处置高浓度废水资源化利用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何先标; 徐永萍; 唐量华; 李亚平; 徐皆

    2015-01-01

    For different kinds of high-concentration wastewaters (hazardous wastes),different analysis methods,standards and treatment processes have been drawn up;in connection with different kinds of hazardous wastes,experiments and studies are carried out to determine standard operating process of slurrying;based on different kinds of hazardous wastes,gasification process operation parameters are studied and adjusted,effectively made comprehensive recovery and utilization of organic matters in wastes,along with saving coal and water,the products of hydrogen,liquid carbon dioxide, liquid ammonia and ammonium bicarbonate are produced;in order to prevent secondary pollution, closed and tunable mill feeding device,multichannel gasification nozzle,gas quench unit and corresponding gasifier are adopted.Breakthrough progress is realized in standardized and systematic operation and management of wastes treatment,resource conservation and comprehensive utilization, technology research and development,pilot and promotion and application.%对不同的高浓度废水(危险废物)制订不同的分析方法、标准和处理工艺;对不同种类的危险废物进行制浆工艺的试验和研究,确定标准化的制浆操作工艺;根据不同种类的危险废物,研究并合理调整气化工艺操作参数,有效地综合回收利用了废物中的有机物,在节煤、节水的同时,生产氢气、液体二氧化碳、液氨、碳酸氢铵产品。为防止二次污染,采用了密闭可调式磨机喂料装置、多通道气化喷嘴、气体激冷装置和与之相适应的气化炉。在废物处置规范化和制度化运行管理、资源节约和综合利用、技术研发、中试和推广应用等方面取得了突破性的进展。

  9. Evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements in public utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermishina Anna, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early 2000s a policy of attracting private operators to public utilities, which should help to increase productivity, reduce costs, and as a result, reduce utility prices takes place in Russia. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between institutional arrangements and pricing for water and wastewater services. Applying statistical and cluster analysis to empirical data on water utilities in 13 largest cities has revealed the differences in the level and dynamics of prices for water and wastewater services in the group of public utilities and public private water utilities. In 2011-2014 the level and growth price rates in the group of public private partnerships were higher than in group of municipal water utilities. Thus, the involvement of private operators has not yet lead to the expected reduction in prices.

  10. A Study on the Present Situation、Problems and Countermeasures of Sustainable Exploiture and Utilization of Water Resources in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐市水资源开发利用现状、问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新琪; 海热提·涂尔逊

    2001-01-01

    The article analyzed the actuality of water resourc e exploitation and utilization in Urumqi, primarily discussed the problems of wa ter resources exploitation and utilization. Based on what has been discussed abo ve and on the level of development and the feasibility project can be put into p ractice, this paper also put forward the countermeasures of water resources sust ainable exploitation and utilization: ①Strengthen legislation of water resource s protection, consolidated the management of water resources.②Adjust industrial structure and improve the structure of water using.③Positive to construct wate rsaving city.④Strengthen the construct of elemental establishments, suitable ut ilize water resources.⑤Suitably develop and protect ground water resources. ⑥C reated condition for moving water from outside drainage area. ⑦Strengthen the p ublicized of water resource protection and enhance the people's awareness of the need to protect the environment.%在分析乌鲁木齐市水资源开发利用现状的基础上,对水资源开发利用中出现的问题作了初步探讨,在此基础上,结合乌鲁木齐市现阶段发展水平、经济承受能力和实施方案的可行性,提出切实可行的水资源可持续开发利用的基本对策,以达到扩大城市水资源环境容量,提高水资源承载能力,促进城市可持续发展的目的。

  11. Resource Guide to Effective Utility Management and Lean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastewater utilities are critical to the environmental, economic, and social well being of our nation’s communities, as they work to ensure that the public continues to enjoy the benefits of clean and safe water.

  12. Aspects of automatic meter reading by remote transmission in public utility companies. Interim report of an innovative pilot project with a combined-public utility company gas/water; Aspekte der automatischen Zaehlerstandsfernuebertragung in Versorgungsunternehmen. Zwischenbericht von einem innovativen Pilotprijekt mit einem Verbund-Versorgungsunternehmen Gas/Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlt, S.A. [ELSTER Produktion GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Zahner, C. [Gas-Versorgungsgesellschaft Filstal mbH (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    To date, public utilities (gas, water, electricity, district heating) meter consumption by means of direct reading of meters or by fill-in postcards forwarded to the customers who are to read their own meters. The data are first entered manually into printed forms and then into computers for further processing. This procedure is time-consuming, with high staff requirements, and also results in frequent billing errors. With mobile data processing systems, the process chain involving all these stages is tranformed into an integrated procedure whose data are available in a database at any time. In the pilot project described, this is achieved by radio-supported remote reading, modem, and the public telecommunication network. Automatic remote transmission of meter readings eliminates errors and results in short-term reading, more exact calculation of customer`s bills in accordance with the currently valid electricity rates, and a fairer billing procedure at lower cost. (MSK) [Deutsch] Bis heute erfassen oeffentliche Versorgungsunternehmen (Gas, Wasser, Elektrizitaet, Fernwaerme) den Verbrauch ihrer Kunden mittels direkter Ablesung des Zaehlerstandes von den Zaehlwerken oder durch kundenseitiges Eintragen der Zaehlerstaende auf adressierten Postkarten. Die so erhaltenen Daten werden manuell in entsprechende Formulare eingetragen und zur Weiterverarbeitung in EDV-Systeme eingegeben. Dieser Ablauf bedingt durch viele arbeitsintensive Zwischenschritte neben einem hohen und kostenintensiven Personaleinsatz haeufige fehlerhafte Verbrauchsabrechnungen. Der Einsatz mobiler Datentechnik wandelt die aus einzelnen Zwischenschritten bestehende Prozesskette in einen ueberfunktionalen Geschaeftsblauf, dessen Daten jederzeit in einer Datenbank verfuegbar sind um. In vorliegendem Pilotprojekt ist dies mittels funkgestuetzter Fernablesung, Modem und vorhandenem Fernsprechnetz realisiert. Die automatisierte Zaehlerstandsfernuebertragung eliminiert Fehlerquellen und ermoeglicht eine

  13. 中国省际水资源利用效率及影响因素分析基于超效率DEA与Tobit模型%Chinese Provincial Water Resources Utility Efficiency and Its Influencing Factors Based on Super-efficiency DEA and Tobit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Constructing the water-saving society is an important movement for the purpose of achieving the sustainable socio-economic development of our country ,and improving water resource utility efficiency and effectiveness is the core issue to construct the water-saving society .This paper selected relevant data about water resource utility and used the put-oriented super-efficiency DEA to cal‐culate the water resource utility of 31 provinces of China in 2012 .The results show that our country's overall water resource utility ef‐ficiency is not high ,the efficiency in eastern ,central and western areas vary greatly ,water resources utility efficiency of the eastern region is much higher than the average efficiency of the central and western regions .According to the efficiency ,the influencing fac‐tors of water resources utility efficiency is analyzed from socio-economic and natural factors ,industry structure ,the ecological envi‐ronment by using Tobit model .%建设节水型社会是我国实现社会经济可持续发展的重要之举,而提高水资源的利用效率和效益是建设节水型社会的核心问题。本文选取了2012年我国31个省市的水资源利用的相关数据,利用投入导向型的超效率DEA模型,计算并分析了2012年我国31个省市的水资源利用效率情况,结果显示,我国水资源利用整体效率不高,东部、中部、西部效率差异很大,东部水资源平均利用效率远高于中部和西部地区。根据超效率值,运用 Tobit模型从社会经济、自然因素、产业结构、生态环境4个方面对水资源利用效率的影响因素进行了分析,并根据结果提出相关建议。

  14. 轻水堆乏燃料和钍燃料在ACR-700利用的探索%Investigation of Potential Utilization for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel and Thorium Fuel in ACR-700

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹春燕; 陈金根; 蔡翔舟; 蒋大真; 郭锐; 陈堃; 郭威; 马余刚; 胡碧涛

    2013-01-01

    轻水堆乏燃料和钍燃料的利用是解决乏燃料后处理问题和核燃料短缺的有效途径之一.本工作以ACR 700标准燃料为参考,研究了4种不同混合比例的轻水堆乏燃料及钍燃料在ACR-700中的k∞和燃耗.研究结果表明,将裂变产物分离后,轻水堆乏燃料的重锕系核素在ACR-700中可作为一很好的燃料;只要加入足够的启动燃料,钍燃料也可作为很好的转换燃料,使反应堆内生成233U的速率大于易裂变燃料的消耗速率,233U的生成对反应堆运行后期维持临界起重要作用.%The potential utilization of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and thorium fuel is a very efficient way for solving spent fuel processing and nuclear fuel shortage problems.Four different mixed fuel types with LWR spent fuel and Th fuel were researched in ACR-700 using SCALE5.1 code system.Compared with the ACR-700 standard fuel,the fuel cycle model 1 and 4 can reach higher burnup.According to the research on the lattice physics of ACR-700 fuel bundle,it is indicated that LWR spent fuel after separation of the fission products is a very prospective fuel in ACR-700 and 232Th can be a preferable fertile isotope if sufficient booster fuel is supplied.

  15. 29 CFR 4.120 - Contracts for public utility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for public utility services. 4.120 Section 4.120... McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.120 Contracts for public utility... utility services, including electric light and power, water, steam, and gas.” This exemption is...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utility purchase contracts. 1780.62 Section 1780.62..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.62 Utility purchase contracts. Applicants proposing to purchase water or... may be requested. Form RD 442-30, “Water Purchase Contract,” may be used when appropriate. If...

  17. Creative utilization of geothermal resources; Chinetsu shigen wo sozotekini tsukao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiya, R. [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, Yamagata (Japan)

    1993-10-31

    This paper explains the current status of geothermal and hot spring energy utilization and its problems in promoting the utilization. Although Japan has ten geothermal power plants, that is a high-level utilization of geothermal resources, new power plant construction is facing a difficulty because of undeveloped exploration techniques, exorbitant amount of boring cost, and harmonization with the natural environment. A large quantity of hot water wells up from production wells for geothermal power generation in addition to steam, whereas effective utilization of the hot water is desired. The Kakkonda and Onuma areas are utilizing the hot water for hot water supply to hotels, organized horticulture, and snow melting. Geothermal water utilization has such problems that hot water is used in locations far away from an energy utilizing area and that no technologies have been established to prevent and remove scales deposited in heat exchangers and other apparatuses. Acidic hot spring that wells up naturally has advantages of requiring no water pumping cost, being abundant in gushing quantity and high in temperature. Although it has a drawback of being prone to corrode metals, expanded utilization is desirable. Kusatsu Township uses it for warm-water swimming pools, room heating, and road heating. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  18. 基于城市环境保护的绿色建筑节水与水资源利用分析%Analysis of Water-saving and Water Resources Utilization in Green Building based on Urban Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪峰; 胡康利; 贾玉贵

    2014-01-01

    针对我国城市目前普遍面临新建、扩建及改建建筑所带来的一系列环境污染问题,结合国家大力发展绿色建筑政策,采取全寿命周期的分析方法,从建筑的规划设计、施工、运营管理等各个方面分析我国目前绿色建筑节水与水资源利用部分所采取的主要技术措施、面临的主要问题及相应的对策建议。%The problems of environmental pollution associated with building,expanding or renovating are serious in most Chinese cities.With the state to development green building on a big scale, take the life-cycle method to analyzing water-saving and water resources utilization in green build-ing which has adopted chief technical measures,problem confronted and proposal from planning designing,construction or operation management of building.

  19. Utility Tax Avoidance Program in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    Statistical Projections - Utility Costs And Taxes (Values Presented in Euros and Dollars) Electric Point Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros...Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Iolal Utility Cost E1,464,848 $2, 101,526 E1,094,587 $1,570,335 E1,835,109...298,367 348,671 500,216 Water Point Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Iolal Utility Cost E166,296 $238,574

  20. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  1. 南水北调中线工程改性土余料再利用研究%Research on re-utilization of surplus modified soil in Middle Route Project of South to North Water Diversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜明; 王德云; 刘勇

    2014-01-01

    The useable soil sources for the most bidding sections of Middle Route Project of South to North Water Diversion are insufficient and using cement-mixed modified soil to replace the canal soil is a main measure for guaranteeing the canal slope stability. In the backfilling construction, large amount of surplus modified soil was produced after slope cutting and the indoor and field tests discovered that the surplus modified soil could be used as backfilling soil. In the test, the selection method of the maxi-mum dry density, construction technology and application scope of the modified soil were determined. The soil re-utilization has increased backfilling soil sources in weak expansive soil area, which could save farmland, resources and protect environment.%南水北调中线工程大部分标段可用土料源不足,采用弱膨胀土掺入水泥(简称水泥改性土,下同)后对膨胀土渠段进行换填施工,是确保膨胀土渠段边坡稳定的主要措施之一。在填筑施工中,按设计坡比削坡后产生大量的改性土削坡余料,通过室内试验及现场试验验证了改性土余料亦可用于工程回填。为此,确定了改性土余料最大干密度的选择方法、改性土余料的施工工艺及使用部位。对余料土的再利用,保证了弱膨胀土地区土方施工的回填料源,避免或减少了农田占压面积,取得了节约资源与保护环境的双重效果。

  2. Utilization of deuterium for the study of ingested water absorption during muscular exercise; Utilisation du deuterium pour l`etude de l`absorption de l`eau ingeree pendant l`exercice musculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, B.; Jimenez, C.; Savourey, G.; Bittel, J.; Bernard, O.; Charpenet, A.; Regnard, A.; Pouzeratte, N. [CRSSA, 38 - La Tronche (France); Monnerot, P. [Societe Anonyme des Eaux Minerales d`Evian, 74 - Evian (France); Antoine, J.M. [Boussois-Souchon-Neuvesel (BSN), 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-31

    A long physical exercise-heat exposure is accompanied with massive hydro-saline losses, due to sudation, inducing a lowering of the physical performance. A stable isotope tracer technique, with deuterium in the form of deuterium oxide, is used to study the effect of ingested water quality (pure water, water and sodic and/or energetic additives) on the speed at which ingested water passes in the vascular sector during such an exercise in preliminarily dehydrated human beings. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  3. Research cooperation report for fiscal 1997 on the environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1997 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku itaku gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This effort exerted in cooperation with the Philippines aims to solve problems related to water resources such as stable supply and pollution of water through developing a waste water treatment/water reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain, and low in price. The ultimate goal includes (1) the construction of a waste water treatment/water reuse system comprising an anaerobic reaction tank and activated charcoal absorption tower, easy to operate and maintain, and low in price, (2) the employment of goods procurable in the Philippines, the goods including carriers for use in the anaerobic reaction tank, microbes for use in both aerobic and anaerobic reaction tanks, and activated charcoal for use in waste water reutilization, and (3) the establishment of optimum operating conditions for the waste water treatment/water reuse system by use of a pilot plant and the transfer of operating and managing techniques to the Filipino counterpart. In this fiscal year, investigations are conducted to disclose the actualities of waste water treatment and water consumption by primary industries in the vicinity of Laguna de Bay, and the waste water to be the object of study and the place of pilot plant installation have been selected. Also conducted are investigations into the carrier, microbe, activated charcoal, etc., for use in the anaerobic reaction tank. (NEDO)

  4. Study on information utility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  5. Report for fiscal 1998. Joint research of environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research is conducted in cooperation with Industrial Technology Development Institute of the Philippines, and aims to solve water related problems such as unstable water supply and water quality pollution though developing a waste water treatment and recycling system which is easy to operate and maintain, low in cost, and usable in the Philippines. Fiscal 1998 is the second year of the project. Statistics are studied about the load that each industrial branch imposes on water for its pollution, and it is found that food manufacturers, paper pulp mills, and fiber dyeing plants are heavily responsible for water pollution. A method consisting of single-tower UASB anaerobic treatment and activated sludge treatment is applied as a water treatment process to Ram Food Products Corporation, and its optimization is studied. A removal rate 60% is achieved after a 12-hour treatment period at a COD (chemical oxygen demand) rate of 8g/liter/day. A method consisting of coagulating sedimentation and activated sludge treatment is applied to the waste water from a Solid Mill Corporation dyeing plant, when it is found that the water after ultimate treatment is almost colorless and that COD is 76mg/liter and BOD (biological oxygen demand) 13mg/liter, and these suggest that the waste water is recyclable. Since it is low in COD removing rate, the application of anaerobic treatment to high-concentration water after washing is not appropriate. (NEDO)

  6. Reuse & Recirculation of Filter Backwash Water of Water Treatment Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh L. Jibhakate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water treatment plant, filtration is done by means of sand filtration process. Due to continuous filtration process, sand pores get clogged and decreases the efficiency. For mitigating such problem, reverse flow of water & air i.e. backwashing process is carried out. To carry out backwashing operation, 4% of treated water has been utilized and will result in muddy water known as backwash water. This backwash water is then discharged into a natural stream or storage tank near the plant for recirculation. The present study includes a trial for the reuse & recirculation of backwash water.

  7. Study on the utilization of the energy produced by the exhaust gases and the cooling water of a internal combustion engine; Estudo do aproveitamento da energia obtida pelos gases de escapamento e pela agua de resfriamento de um motor de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andre Luiz dos; Arroyo, Narciso Angel Ramos [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Motores Termicos]. E-mail: als2000@tutopia.com.br; arroyo@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This work is about heat balance of an automotive internal combustion engine of 4 cylinders, using ethylic alcohol, and utilize the energy obtained in the exhaust gas and the water cooling system. This paper show an theoretical - experimental model for use this energy in an absorption refrigeration system using the work fluid water and Li Br. In this paper are analyzed engines charges of 30%, 50% and 100%. The results shows that for this charges and for any speed of the engines, the energy obtained in the evaporator are significant. (author)

  8. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  9. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  10. Utilization of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machihara, A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical structure of lignin, the composition of pulping spent liquors, conversion of lignin into fine chemicals, utilization of lignin products, and physical and chemical properties of lignin and and derivatives are reviewed. (Refs 29).

  11. UtilityOther_ELCFRANCHISE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate and should be used...