WorldWideScience

Sample records for water use

  1. Alabama Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  2. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  3. Managing water use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses meeting and maintaining water pollution controls while keeping up with the new regulations. The topics discussed in the article include discharge regulations, stormwater discharges, wetlands regulation, water use, water-related programs, and keeping an inventory of water pollution regulations, especially those involving pre-approvals, permits or registrations

  4. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  5. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under ... model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage.

  6. Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center is responsible for presenting data collected or estimated for water withdrawals and diversions every 5 years to the National Water-Use Information Program (NWUIP). This program serves many purposes such as quantifying how much, where, and for what purpose water is used; tracking and documenting water-use trends and changes; and providing these data to other agencies to support hydrologic projects. In 2005, data at both the county and subbasin levels were compiled into the USGS national water-use database system; these data are published in a statewide summary report and a national circular. This publication, Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005, presents the water-use estimates for 2005; this publication also describes how these water-use data were determined (including assumptions used), limitations of using these data, and trends in water-use data presented to the NWUIP. Estimates of water use in Wisconsin indicate that about 8,608 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn during 2005. Of this amount, about 7,622 Mgal/d (89 percent) were from surface-water sources and about 986 Mgal/d (11 percent) were from ground-water sources. Surface water used for cooling at thermoelectric-power plants constituted the largest portion of daily use at 6,898 Mgal/d. Water provided by public-supply water utilities is the second largest use of water and totaled 552 Mgal/d. Public supply served approximately 71 percent of the estimated 2005 Wisconsin population of 5.54 million people; two counties - Milwaukee and Dane - accounted for more than one-third of the public-supply withdrawal. Industrial and irrigation were the next major water uses at 471 and 402 Mgal/d, respectively. Non-irrigational agricultural (livestock and aquaculture) accounted for approximately 155 Mgal/d and is similar to the combined withdrawal for the remaining water-use categories of domestic, commercial, and mining (131 Mgal/d). Data on water use

  7. Uncertainty of wheat water use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cammarano, Davide; Rötter, Reimund P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Wallach, Daniel; Martre, Pierre; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alex C.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Thorburn, Peter J.; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Angulo, Carlos; Basso, Bruno; Bertuzzi, Patrick; Biernath, Christian; Brisson, Nadine; Challinor, Andrew J.; Doltra, Jordi; Gayler, Sebastian; Goldberg, Richie; Heng, Lee; Hooker, Josh E.; Hunt, Leslie A.; Ingwersen, Joachim; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Müller, Christoph; Kumar, Soora Naresh; Nendel, Claas; O'Leary, Garry; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Osborne, Tom M.; Priesack, Eckart; Ripoche, Dominique; Steduto, Pasquale; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Streck, Thilo; Supit, Iwan; Tao, Fulu; Travasso, Maria; Waha, Katharina; White, Jeffrey W.; Wolf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Projected global warming and population growth will reduce future water availability for agriculture. Thus, it is essential to increase the efficiency in using water to ensure crop productivity. Quantifying crop water use (WU; i.e. actual evapotranspiration) is a critical step towards this goal.

  8. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  9. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S H Boutilier

    Full Text Available Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  10. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  11. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.; Mahmoudi, H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability

  12. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  13. Balneological use of thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    2001-01-01

    People have used geothermal water and mineral waters for bathing and their health for many thousand of years. Balneology, the practice of using natural mineral water for the treatment and cure of disease, also has a long history. Based on archeological finds in Asia, mineral water has been used for bathing since the Bronze Age, about 5000 years ago. Many hot springs have been used in connection with religious rites in Egypt and by the Jews of the Middle East. The Greeks, Turks and Romans were famous for their spa development and use from Persia to England. The word “spa” traces its origin to a town near Liège in southern Belgium near the German border. Here a spring of iron-bearing water was used by an iron master in 1326 to cure his ailments. He founded a health resort at the spring called Espa (meaning fountain in the Walloon language). Espa became so popular that the word know in English as spa became the common designation for similar health resorts around the world.

  14. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  15. Water and water use in southern Nevada [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne R. Belcher; Michael J. Moran; Megan E. Rogers

    2013-01-01

    Water and water use in southern Nevada is an important issue. The scarcity of water resources for both human and biologic communities often leads to intense competition for both surface and groundwaters. Anthropogenic and climate change impacts on scarce water resources need to be understood to assess human and ecosystem health for the study area.

  16. WATER DEMAND PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents Hourly water demand prediction at the demand nodes of a water distribution network using NeuNet Pro 2.3 neural network software and the monitoring and control of water distribution using supervisory control. The case study is the Laminga Water Treatment Plant and its water distribution network, Jos.

  17. Inferring foliar water uptake using stable isotopes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Lehmann, Marco M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Arend, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2017-08-01

    A growing number of studies have described the direct absorption of water into leaves, a phenomenon known as foliar water uptake. The resultant increase in the amount of water in the leaf can be important for plant function. Exposing leaves to isotopically enriched or depleted water sources has become a common method for establishing whether or not a plant is capable of carrying out foliar water uptake. However, a careful inspection of our understanding of the fluxes of water isotopes between leaves and the atmosphere under high humidity conditions shows that there can clearly be isotopic exchange between the two pools even in the absence of a change in the mass of water in the leaf. We provide experimental evidence that while leaf water isotope ratios may change following exposure to a fog event using water with a depleted oxygen isotope ratio, leaf mass only changes when leaves are experiencing a water deficit that creates a driving gradient for the uptake of water by the leaf. Studies that rely on stable isotopes of water as a means of studying plant water use, particularly with respect to foliar water uptake, must consider the effects of these isotopic exchange processes.

  18. Sustainable use of water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    and acidity were observed. PRD reduced irrigation water volume (-9.0% of RDI) while a higher dry matter accumulation in the fruits was recorded both in 2007 and 2008. The income for each cubic meter of irrigation water was 10.6 € in RDI and 14.8 € in PRD, respectively. The gross margin obtained with each kg......A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy, within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to test the feasibility of partial root-zone drying (PRD) management on processing tomato and to compare PRD irrigation strategy with regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) management. In 2007......, there was no difference between RDI and PRD for the total and marketable yield. In 2008, PRD increased the marketable yield by 14.8% while the total yield was similar to RDI. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was higher with PRD (+14%) compared to RDI. PRD didn’t improve fruit quality, although in 2007 a better °Brix, colour...

  19. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  20. Water stress detection using radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, T.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation is a crucial part of the water and carbon cycle. Through photosynthesis carbon is assimilated for biomass production, and oxygen is released into the atmosphere. During this process, water is transpired through the stomata, and is redistributed in the plant. Transpired water is refilled

  1. Water use alternatives for Navajo energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Navajo have substantial resources of coal and uranium, and water use is certain to accompany development of these resources. A variety of supplies, however, are available--water in storage in Navajo Reservoir, water in existing uses which may be transferred, and groundwater. Furthermore, the quantity of water use varies over a wide range depending on the use of water conservation technologies such as dry coolers and wastewater treatment units. Joint management of energy and water resources requires a basic understanding of the water supply and demand alternatives available to the energy industry. Thus, the uses of water for key energy activities--coal and uranium mining, coal transportation (slurry pipelines), and coal conversion (electricity and synthetic gas production) are reviewed. For those activities for which water conservation is feasible, the technologies and estimate costs ($/af saved) are described. The range of water requirements are then compared to energy and water resource estimates. Finally, alternative (not necessarily exclusive) criteria for energy and water resource management are discussed: a) promote energy activities with the lowest minimum water requirements; b) require industry to use low-quality water resources and the most effective water conservation technology; and c) maximize the economic return on Navajo water resources

  2. TURBIDITY REMOVAL FROM SURFACE WATER USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. ... Conventional water treatment systems involve the use of synthetic ..... Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),.

  3. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  4. Industry water use : innovations, changes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents work conducted by Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. (CNRL) in developing the McMurray Formation as an alternate water source in the Cold Lake Beaver River (CLBR) basin. Industry relies on both fresh water and brackish water to produce oil from thermal oil sands projects. A long-term sustainable supply of water is critical to the development of such projects. Although historically water has been considered as a renewable resource, it is currently viewed in a wider context. Technical advancements have made it possible to use recycled water for thermal recovery. Many heavy thermal oil expansions use brackish water. Capital costs are higher but heating costs are lower because brackish water is already warm. The use of brackish water allows companies to survive within their licenses while increasing production. Other possibilities include the use of depleted reservoir sections to store water to increase the use of recycled water. It was noted that brackish water resources need to be mapped and understood in greater detail. The objective is to use brackish water at a cost equal to, or less than fresh water. tabs., figs

  5. Citrus water use in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vahrmeijer, JT

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available scheduling is needed to justify the quantity of water needed for the production of citrus. Models, which are formidable tools to predict water use and crop performance, are therefore vital to provide accurate estimates of citrus water use across different...

  6. Understanding the dynamics of citrus water use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, NJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of water use of citrus orchards is important in order to prevent stress developing in the orchard and to avoid wasting precious water resources. Measurement of citrus orchard water use is not possible under all environ-mental...

  7. Sustainability of agricultural water use worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, M.; Tamea, S.; Dalin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Water is a renewable but limited resource. Most human use of freshwater resources is for agriculture, and global water demand for agriculture is increasing because of the growth in food demand, driven by increasing population and changing diets. Hence, measuring the pressure exerted by agriculture on freshwater sources is a key issue. The sustainability of water use depends on the water source renewability rate: the water use is not sustainable (depleting the water storage) where/when it exceeds the renewable freshwater availability. In this study, we explore the sustainability of rain and irrigation water use for the production of nine major crops, globally at a 5'x5' spatial resolution. We split the crop water use into soil moisture (from rainfall) and irrigation, with, for the first time, separating ground- and surface-water sources, which is a key distinction because the renewability of these two water sources can be very different. In order to physically quantify the extent to which crop water use is sustainable, we measure the severity of the source depletion as the number of years required for the hydrological cycle to replenish the water resource used by the annual crop production, namely the Water Debt. This newly developed indicator allows one to compare the depletion level of the three water sources at a certain location for a specific crop. Hence, we mapped, for each crop, the number of years required to replenish the water withdrawn from soil-, surface- and ground-water resources. Each map identifies the hotspots for each water source, highlighting regions and crops that threaten most the water resource. We found that the water debt with soil moisture is heterogeneous in space but always lower than one year indicating a non-surprising sustainability of rain-fed agriculture. Rice and sugarcane make the largest contribution to global soil moisture depletion. Water debt in surface water is particularly high in areas of intense wheat and cotton production

  8. Water dynamics of vegetable using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Neutral ray is specifically adsorbed and scattered by hydrogen, which is construction element of water. We applied nondestructive visualization of water dynamics in vegetable using neutral ray. The neutron ray was produced by JRR-3M of JAERI. Water dynamics of epigeal part of vegetable, tree, seed, root and soil near root were observed. The distribution and behavior of water were seen by image. For examples, the dry process of cedar, water adsorption process of seed of broad beam, corn, morning glory, rice and wheat. The growing process of root in the soil was analyzed by CT images that constructed three-dimensional image. Water image of root-soil system made clear water dynamics of the optional site near root. The distribution of water in the cut carnation was observed before and after dry treatment. The change of distribution of water was observed. (S.Y.)

  9. Agricultural Water Use under Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Irrigation is by far the single largest user of water in the world and is projected to remain so in the foreseeable future. Globally, irrigated agricultural land comprises less than twenty percent of total cropland but produces about forty percent of the world's food. Increasing world population will require more food and this will lead to more irrigation in many areas. As demands increase and water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, agriculture's competition for water with other economic sectors will be intensified. This water picture is expected to become even more complex as climate change will impose substantial impacts on water availability and demand, in particular for agriculture. To better understand future water demand and supply under global change, including changes in demographic, economic and technological dimensions, the water simulation module of IMPACT, a global water and food projection model developed at the International Food Policy Research Institute, is used to analyze future water demand and supply in agricultural and several non-agricultural sectors using downscaled GCM scenarios, based on water availability simulation done with a recently developed semi-distributed global hydrological model. Risk analysis is conducted to identify countries and regions where future water supply reliability for irrigation is low, and food security may be threatened in the presence of climate change. Gridded shadow values of irrigation water are derived for global cropland based on an optimization framework, and they are used to illustrate potential irrigation development by incorporating gridded water availability and existing global map of irrigation areas.

  10. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udounwa, A.E.; Osuji, R.U.

    2005-12-01

    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  11. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  12. Army industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoughton, Kate McMordie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Army’s ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  13. NASA's Water Solutions Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA Water Resources works within Earth sciences to leverage investments of space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities into water resources management decision support tools for the sustainable use of water. Earth science satellite observations and modelling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of the water cycle. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. The NASA Water Resources Program has the objective to provide NASA products to help deal with these issues with the goal for the sustainable use of water. The Water Resources program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use (includes evapotranspiration) and irrigation; 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate and water resources. NASA primarily works with national and international groups such as other US government agencies (NOAA, EPA, USGS, USAID) and various other groups to maximize the widest use of the water products. A summary of NASA's water activities linked to helping solve issues for developing countries will be highlighted.

  14. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

  15. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  16. Resources for National Water Savings for Outdoor Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In support of efforts by the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program to develop a spreadsheet model for calculating the national water and financial savings attributable to WaterSense certification and labeling of weather-based irrigation controllers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed reports, technical data, and other information related to outdoor water use and irrigation controllers. In this document we categorize and describe the reviewed references, highlighting pertinent data. We relied on these references when developing model parameters and calculating controller savings. We grouped resources into three major categories: landscapes (section 1); irrigation devices (section 2); and analytical and modeling efforts (section 3). Each category is subdivided further as described in its section. References are listed in order of date of publication, most recent first.

  17. Water use in Georgia by county for 2010 and water-use trends, 1985–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2015-12-16

    Water use and water withdrawals and returns in 2010 are estimated for each major river basin, principal aquifer, water-planning region, and county in Georgia using data obtained from various Federal and State agencies and local sources. Offstream water use in 2010 is estimated for the categories of public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, and thermoelectric power. Water-use trends for 1985 to 2010 are also shown.

  18. Spatial Patterns of Development Drive Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G. M.; Smith, J. W.; Terando, A.; Sun, G.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    Water availability is becoming more uncertain as human populations grow, cities expand into rural regions and the climate changes. In this study, we examine the functional relationship between water use and the spatial patterns of developed land across the rapidly growing region of the southeastern United States. We quantified the spatial pattern of developed land within census tract boundaries, including multiple metrics of density and configuration. Through non-spatial and spatial regression approaches we examined relationships and spatial dependencies between the spatial pattern metrics, socio-economic and environmental variables and two water use variables: a) domestic water use, and b) total development-related water use (a combination of public supply, domestic self-supply and industrial self-supply). Metrics describing the spatial patterns of development had the highest measure of relative importance (accounting for 53% of model's explanatory power), explaining significantly more variance in water use compared to socio-economic or environmental variables commonly used to estimate water use. Integrating metrics characterizing the spatial pattern of development into water use models is likely to increase their utility and could facilitate water-efficient land use planning.

  19. Trade Openness and Domestic Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan

    2018-01-01

    We contribute to the debate over globalization and the environment by asking, what is the impact of trade on national water use? To address this question, we employ econometric methods to quantify the causal relationship between trade openness and water use. Specifically, we use the instrumental variables methodology to evaluate the impact of trade openness on domestic water withdrawals in agriculture and industry. We find that trade openness does not have a significant impact on total or industrial water withdrawals. However, we show that one percentage point increase in trade openness leads to a 5.21% decrease in agricultural water withdrawals. We find that trade openness reduces water use in agriculture primarily through the intensive margin effect, by leading farmers to produce more with less water, such as through the adoption of technology. We do not find evidence for extensive margin or crop mix impacts on agricultural water withdrawals. Significantly, these results demonstrate that trade openness leads to less water use in agriculture. This finding has broad scientific and policy relevance as we endeavor to untangle causal relationships in the complex global food system and develop policies to achieve water and food security.

  20. USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jirotková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

  1. Using turbidity for designing water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, J A; Higuita, J C

    2016-05-01

    Some methods to design water networks with minimum fresh water consumption are based on the selection of a key contaminant. In most of these "single contaminant methods", a maximum allowable concentration of contaminants must be established in water demands and water sources. Turbidity is not a contaminant concentration but is a property that represents the "sum" of other contaminants, with the advantage that it can be cheaper and easily measured than biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, dissolved solids, among others. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that turbidity can be used directly in the design of water networks just like any other contaminant concentration. A mathematical demonstration is presented and in order to validate the mathematical results, the design of a water network for a guava fudge production process is performed. The material recovery pinch diagram and nearest neighbors algorithm were used for the design of the water network. Nevertheless, this water network could be designed using other single contaminant methodologies. The maximum error between the expected and the real turbidity values in the water network was 3.3%. These results corroborate the usefulness of turbidity in the design of water networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Terry; Frost, Carol; Hayes, Thomas; Heath, Leo; Johnson, Drew; Lopez, David; Saffer, Demian; Urynowicz, Michael; Wheaton, John; Zoback, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  3. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  4. Desalination of Impaired Water Using Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cath, Tzahi [Colorado School of Mines; Vanneste, Johan [Colorado School of Mines; Gustafson, Emily [Colorado School of Mines

    2017-10-04

    Membrane distillation (MD) and nanofiltration (NF) are explored as a means to provide high quality water for on-site use at the Tuscarora geothermal power plant in northern Nevada. The plant uses a wet cooling tower, but decreasing flow from the wells providing makeup water necessitates exploration for alternative water or alternative cooling sources. Scenarios are explored to extend cooling water by (1) extracting fresh water from the geothermal brine, (2) upgrading the makeup-water quality to allow for increased cycles of concentration in the cooling tower, or (3) recovering water from the cooling tower blowdown. The preliminary cost analysis indicates that applying NF to extract water from the injection brine is the most attractive option of the scenarios examined. This approach may be useful for other plants as well. The estimated cost for the NF treatment of the injection brine ranges from $0.63/m3 to $0.45/m3 and provides a reduction in the current makeup well flows of 35% to 71%. Savings from the reduction in makeup well pumping and chemical treatment do not fully offset the estimated cost of the proposed treatment systems; the site will have to weigh the cost of these water treatment options versus alternatives in light of the diminishing flows from the existing cooling-water wells. Testing is planned to quantify the performance of the proposed NF and MD technologies and help refine the estimated system costs.

  5. Spatial patterns of development drive water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.M.; Smith, J.W.; Terando, Adam J.; Sun, G.; Meentemeyer, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    Water availability is becoming more uncertain as human populations grow, cities expand into rural regions and the climate changes. In this study, we examine the functional relationship between water use and the spatial patterns of developed land across the rapidly growing region of the southeastern United States. We quantified the spatial pattern of developed land within census tract boundaries, including multiple metrics of density and configuration. Through non‐spatial and spatial regression approaches we examined relationships and spatial dependencies between the spatial pattern metrics, socio‐economic and environmental variables and two water use variables: a) domestic water use, and b) total development‐related water use (a combination of public supply, domestic self‐supply and industrial self‐supply). Metrics describing the spatial patterns of development had the highest measure of relative importance (accounting for 53% of model's explanatory power), explaining significantly more variance in water use compared to socio‐economic or environmental variables commonly used to estimate water use. Integrating metrics characterizing the spatial pattern of development into water use models is likely to increase their utility and could facilitate water‐efficient land use planning.

  6. Improving water use efficiency in drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroosnijder, L.; Moore, D.; Alharbi, A.; Argaman, E.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Drylands cover 41% of the global terrestrial area and 2 billion people use it for grazing and cropping. Food security is low owing to institutional and technical constraints. Absolute water scarcity and also the inability of crops to use available water are major technical issues. Significant

  7. Estimated use of water in Nebraska, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Eugene K.

    1988-01-01

    The estimated volume of 19,187,200 acre-feet of water used in Nebraska during 1985 is an average of 17,116.15 million gallons per day. Surface water supplied 12,925,040 acre-feet or 67.4 percent of the total volume used. The

  8. Water Use in Georgia by County for 2005; and Water-Use Trends, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Julia L.; Trent, Victoria P.

    2009-01-01

    Water use for 2005 for each county in Georgia was estimated using data obtained from various Federal and State agencies and local sources. Total consumptive water use also was estimated for each county in Georgia for 2005. Water use is subdivided according to offstream and instream use. Offstream use is defined as water withdrawn or diverted from a ground- or surface-water source and transported to the place of use. Estimates for offstream water use include the categories of public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, and thermoelectric power. Instream use is that which occurs within a stream channel for such purposes as hydroelectric-power generation, navigation, water-quality improvement, fish propagation, and recreation. The only category of instream use estimated was hydroelectric-power generation. Georgia law (the Georgia Ground-Water Use Act of 1972 and the Georgia Water Supply Act of 1978 [Georgia Department of Natural Resources, 2008a,b]) requires any water user who withdraws more than 100,000 gallons per day on a monthly average to obtain a withdrawal permit from the Georgia Environmental Protection Division. Permit holders generally must report their withdrawals by month. The Georgia Water-Use Program collects the reported information under the withdrawal permit system and the drinking-water permit system and stores the data in the Georgia Water-Use Data System.

  9. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  10. Tritium separation from heavy water using electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Sakuma, Y.; Ohtani, N.; Kodaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    A tritium separation from heavy water by the electrolysis using a solid polymer electrode (SPE) was specified on investigation. The heavy water (∼10 Bq g -1 ) and the light water (∼70 Bq g -1 ) were electrolysed using an electrolysis device (Tripure XZ001, Permelec Electrode Ltd.) with the SPE layer. The cathode was made of stainless steel (SUS314). The electrolysis was carried out at 20 A x 60 min, with the electrolysis temperature at 10, 20, or 30degC, and 15 A x 80 min at 5degC. The produced hydrogen and oxygen gases were recombined using a palladium catalyst (ND-101, N.E. Chemcat Ltd.) with nitrogen gas as a carrier. The activities of the water in the cell and of the recombined water were analyzed using a liquid scintillation counter. The electrolysis potential to keep the current 20 A was 2-3 V. The yields of the recombined water were more than 90%. The apparent separation factors (SF) for the heavy water and the light water were ∼2 and ∼12, respectively. The SF value was in agreement with the results in other work. The factors were changed with the cell temperature. The electrolysis using the SPE is applicable for the tritium separation, and is able to perform the small-scale apparatus at the room temperature. (author)

  11. Potable water cogeneration using nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez, J.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle, E. del [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Mexico is a country with a diversity of conditions; the Peninsula of Baja California is a semi-arid region with a demand of potable water and electricity where small nuclear power can be used. This part of the country has a low density population, a high pressure over the water resources in the region, and their needs of electricity are small. The SMART reactor will be assessed as co-generator for this region; where five different scenarios of cogeneration of electricity and potable water production are considered, the levelized cost of electricity and potable water are obtained to assess their competitiveness. (author)

  12. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  13. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  14. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  15. Evaluating Water Use for Agricultural Intensification in Southern Amazonia Using the Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lathuillière

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment (WFSA in the Xingu Basin of Mato Grosso (XBMT, Brazil, with the objectives of (1 tracking blue (as surface water and green water (as soil moisture regenerated by precipitation consumption in recent years (2000, 2014; and (2 evaluating agricultural intensification options for future years (2030, 2050 considering the effects of deforestation and climate change on water availability in the basin. The agricultural sector was the largest consumer of water in the basin despite there being almost no irrigation of cropland or pastures. In addition to water use by crops and pasture grass, water consumption attributed to cattle production included evaporation from roughly 9463 ha of small farm reservoirs used to provide drinking water for cattle in 2014. The WFSA showed that while blue and green water consumptive uses were within sustainable limits in 2014, deforestation, cattle confinement, and the use of irrigation to increase cropping frequency could drive water use to unsustainable levels in the future. While land management policies and practices should strive for protection of the remaining natural vegetation, increased agricultural production will require reservoir and irrigation water management to reduce the potential threat of blue water scarcity in the dry season. In addition to providing general guidance for future water allocation decisions in the basin, our study offers an interpretation of blue and green water scarcities with changes in land use and climate in a rapidly evolving agricultural frontier.

  16. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  17. Spatial patterns of development drive water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. M. Sanchez; J. W. Smith; A. Terando; G. Sun; R. K. Meentemeyer

    2018-01-01

    Water availability is becoming more uncertain as human populations grow, cities expand into rural regions and the climate changes. In this study, we examine the functional relationship between water use and the spatial patterns of developed land across the rapidly growing region of the southeastern United States. We quantified the spatial pattern of developed land...

  18. Improving Water Use in Fodder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mendoza-Grimón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit in semi-arid regions limits the future of the livestock sector. Also, its high price represents a percentage of the total cost of forage production. Non-conventional water resources applied by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI, in which the safe use lies in the management and not on the level of water treatment, would enhance the ruminant production sustainability. To obtain the optimal benefit, the transformation of water per kilogram of dry matter produced must have a high grade of effectiveness. Under this premise, a maralfalfa crop (Penissetum sp, hybridum has been established with an SDI system and reclaimed water. Forage yield is analyzed with respect to a 40% irrigation reduction. This study shows that, with the use of these good irrigation management practices, it is possible to harvest an annual production of 90 to 72 t·ha−1 in the warmer regions of the Canary Islands. This implies water consumption between 13,200 and 8100 m3·ha−1. A water consumption of 21,000 m3·ha−1 per year for the same production, at a ratio of 230 L·t−1, can be estimated for the rest of the Canary Islands coastal regions. The use of the water management described in this paper can be profitable in the Canary Islands for fodder production.

  19. Upgrading of bitumen using supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayukawa, T. [JGC Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation outlined the technical and economic aspects of thermal cracking by supercritical water. Supercritical water (SCW) is a commonly used method for upgrading heavy oil to produce pipeline-transportable oil from high-viscous bitumen. The process uses water and does not require hydrogen nor catalysts. Pre-heated bitumen and water enter a vertical reactor with flows of counter current at the supercritical point of water. The upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) and pitch are obtained from the top of the reactor when the bitumen is thermally cracked. Bench-scale studies have shown that Canadian oil sands bitumen can be converted to 80 volume per cent of SCO and 20 volume per cent of pitch. The SCO has satisfied Canadian pipeline specifications in terms of API gravity and kinetic viscosity. The kinetic viscosity of the pitch has also satisfied boiler fuel specifications. tabs., figs.

  20. Simple method of measuring pulmonary extravascular water using heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basset, G; Moreau, F; Scaringella, M; Tistchenko, S; Botter, F; Marsac, J

    1975-11-20

    The field of application of the multiple indicators dilution method in human pathology, already used to study pulmonary edema, can be extended to cover the identification and testing of all conditions leading to increase lung water. To be really practical it must be simple, fast, sensitive, inexpensive and subject to repetition; the use of non-radioactive tracers is implied. Indocyanine Green and heavy water were chosen respectively as vascular and diffusible indicators. Original methods have been developed for the treatment and isotopic analysis of blood: mass spectrometric analysis of aqueous blood extracts after deproteinisation by zinc sulphate then rapid distillation of the supernatant under helium; infrared analysis either of acetone extracts from small blood samples (100..mu..litre) or of blood itself in a continuous measurement. The infrared technique adopted has been used on rats and on men in normal and pathological situations. The results show that the method proposed for the determination of pulmonary extravascular water meets the requirements of clinicians while respecting the patients' safety, and could be generalized to other organs.

  1. Blast Mitigation Using Water - A Status Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kailasanath, K

    2002-01-01

    ..., and aggressive research and development', this report reviews the current knowledge base on blast mitigation using water and identifies the key issues that need to be resolved in order to develop...

  2. Electrowetting Using a Microfluidic Kelvin Water Dropper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Yazdanshenas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kelvin water dropper is an electrostatic generator that can generate high voltage electricity through water dripping. A conventional Kelvin water dropper converts the gravitational potential energy of water into electricity. Due to its low current output, Kelvin water droppers can only be used in limited cases that demand high voltage. In the present study, microfluidic Kelvin water droppers (MKWDs were built in house to demonstrate a low-cost but accurately controlled miniature device for high voltage generation. The performance of the MKWDs was characterized using different channel diameters and flow rates. The best performed MKWD was then used to conduct experiments of the electrowetting of liquid on dielectric surfaces. Electrowetting is a process that has been widely used in manipulating the wetting properties of a surface using an external electric field. Usually electrowetting requires an expensive DC power supply that outputs high voltage. However, in this research, it was demonstrated that electrowetting can be conducted by simply using an MKWD. Additionally, an analytic model was developed to simulate the electrowetting process. Finally, the model’s ability to well predict the liquid deformation during electrowetting using MKWDs was validated.

  3. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND WATER USE RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and protection of water resources is paramount in the safeguarding of environmental rights and the attainment of sustainable development in South Africa. Although the National Water Act 36 of 1998 (the NWA seeks to provide a framework for ensuring the sustainable use of water resources, its application has been hindered by capacity and enforcement constraints, a legacy of water pollution (primarily as a result of mining and industrial activities, and poor resource management. To aggravate this situation, the difficulties in effectively implementing the NWA are exacerbated by inadequate public participation in water use licensing processes. Public participation in environmental decision-making has increasingly received recognition for its role in ensuring administrative justice and the protection of environmental rights. While environmental legislation (in many cases sets out procedures for ensuring that public views are taken into account in environmental decision-making processes, the judiciary has also recognised the pivotal role of public engagement in ensuring administrative justice where environmental rights are at stake. Sound public participation practices play an important role in identifying issues requiring consideration in the context of environmental assessment processes, as well as in ensuring that communities are empowered to monitor, identify and report on potential contraventions of environmental legislation. Water is a vital natural resource which is under significant pressure in South Africa. In the circumstances, effective public participation is crucial to ensuring the protection and equitable use of water resources. It follows that provision for comprehensive public engagement in water use licensing processes is integral to ensuring the sustainable management of water resources. While provision is made in the NWA for public engagement in the context of water use licensing processes, such participation is

  4. Water Use in Oklahoma 1950-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive planning for water resources development and use in Oklahoma requires a historical perspective on water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, summarized the 1950-2005 water-use information for Oklahoma. This report presents 1950-2005 estimates of freshwater withdrawal for water use in Oklahoma by source and category in 5-year intervals. Withdrawal source was either surface water or groundwater. Withdrawal categories include: public supply, irrigation, livestock and aquaculture, thermoelectric-power generation (cooling water), domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data were aggregated and tabulated by county, major river basin, and principal aquifer. The purpose of this report is to summarize water-use data in Oklahoma through: (1) presentation of detailed information on freshwater withdrawals by source, county, major river basin, and principal aquifer for 2005; (2) comparison of water use by source, category, major river basin, and principal aquifer at 5-year intervals from 1990-2005; and (3) comparison of water use on a statewide basis by source and category at 5-year intervals from 1950-2005. Total withdrawals from surface-water and groundwater sources during 2005 were 1,559 million gallons per day-989 million gallons a day or 63 percent from surface-water sources and 570 million gallons per day or 37 percent from groundwater sources. The three largest water use categories were: public supply, 646 million gallons per day or 41 percent of total withdrawals; irrigation, 495 million gallons per day or 32 percent of total withdrawals; and livestock and aquaculture, 181 million gallons per day or 12 percent of total withdrawals. All other categories were 237 million gallons per day or 15 percent of total withdrawals. The influence of public supply on the total withdrawals can be seen in the eastern two-thirds of Oklahoma; whereas, the influence of irrigation on total

  5. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P.

    2004-01-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality

  6. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P

    2004-02-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality.

  7. Deep water sheet transfer using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimbaud-Potherat, Michelle

    1970-01-01

    In order to identify the water from a phreatic water sheet in the Bassin d'Aquitaine, the following components were selected for analysis: fluorides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, uranium, thorium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, cerium and boron. The methods used are described. Sixty different kinds of water from the cretaceous, eocene, oligocene and miocene eras were chemically analyzed; particular chemical properties and coefficients of correlation between the elements, characteristic of different geological periods, were observed. A geochemical interpretation of the results obtained with boron is given. (author) [fr

  8. Improving crop water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity, drought and salinity are among the most important environmental constraints challenging crop productivity in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, especially the rain-fed production systems. The current challenge is to enhance food security in water-limited and/or salt-affected areas for the benefit of resource-poor farmers in developing countries. There is also an increasing need that water use in agriculture should focus on improvement in the management of existing water resources and enhancing crop water productivity. The method based on carbon-13 discrimination in plant tissues has a potentially important role in the selection and breeding of some crop species for increased water use efficiency in some specific environments. Under various water-limited environments, low delta in the plants, indicating low carbon isotope discrimination has been generally associated with high transpiration efficiency (TE). In contrast, for well-watered environments many positive genotypic correlations have been reported between delta and grain yield indicating potential value in selecting for greater delta in these environments. Few studies have been reported on the impact of selection for delta on adaptation and grain yield in saline environments. Studies of the impact of genetic selection for greater and lower delta are currently coordinated by the Soil and water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) is currently on-going on the Selection for Greater Agronomic Water-Use Efficiency in Wheat and Rice using Carbon Isotope Discrimination (D1-20 08). The overall objective of this project is to contribute to increasing the agronomic water-use efficiency of wheat and rice production, where agronomic water-use efficiency is defined as grain yield/total water use including both transpiration and evaporation. The CRP is also aiming at increasing wheat productivity under drought and rice

  9. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  10. Applications for remotely sensed evapotranspiration data in monitoring water quality, water use, and water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Martha; Hain, Christopher; Feng, Gao; Yang, Yun; Sun, Liang; Yang, Yang; Dulaney, Wayne; Sharifi, Amir; Kustas, William; Holmes, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Across the globe there are ever-increasing and competing demands for freshwater resources in support of food production, ecosystems services and human/industrial consumption. Recent studies using the GRACE satellite have identified severely stressed aquifers that are being unsustainably depleted due to over-extraction, primarily in support of irrigated agriculture. In addition, historic droughts and ongoing political conflicts threaten food and water security in many parts of the world. To facilitate wise water management, and to develop sustainable agricultural systems that will feed the Earth's growing population into the future, there is a critical need for robust assessments of daily water use, or evapotranspiration (ET), over a wide range in spatial scales - from field to globe. While Earth Observing (EO) satellites can play a significant role in this endeavor, no single satellite provides the combined spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics required for actionable ET monitoring world-wide. In this presentation we discuss new methods for combining information from the current suite of EO satellites to address issues of water quality, water use and water security, particularly as they pertain to agricultural production. These methods fuse multi-scale diagnostic ET retrievals generated using shortwave, thermal infrared and microwave datasets from multiple EO platforms to generate ET datacubes with both high spatial and temporal resolution. We highlight several case studies where such ET datacubes are being mined to investigate changes in water use patterns over agricultural landscapes in response to changing land use, land management, and climate forcings.

  11. Agricultural Applications for Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration Data in Monitoring Water Use, Water Quality, and Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Gao, F.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L.; Dulaney, W.; Sharifi, A.; Holmes, T. R.; Kustas, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Across the U.S. and globally there are ever increasing and competing demands for freshwater resources in support of food production, ecosystems services and human/industrial consumption. Recent studies using the GRACE satellite have identified severely stressed aquifers globally, which are being unsustainably depleted due to over-extraction primarily in support of irrigated agriculture. In addition, historic droughts and ongoing political conflicts threaten food and water security in many parts of the world. To facilitate wise water management, and to develop sustainable agricultural systems that will feed the Earth's growing population into the future, there is a critical need for robust assessments of daily water use, or evapotranspiration (ET), over a wide range in spatial scales - from field to globe. While Earth Observing (EO) satellites can play a significant role in this endeavor, no single satellite provides the combined spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics required for actionable ET monitoring world-wide. In this presentation we discuss new methods for combining information from the current suite of EO satellites to address issues of water use, water quality and water security, particularly as they pertain to agricultural production. These methods fuse multi-scale diagnostic ET retrievals generated using shortwave, thermal infrared and microwave datasets from multiple EO platforms to generate ET datacubes with both high spatial and temporal resolution. We highlight several case studies where such ET datacubes are being mined to investigate changes in water use patterns over agricultural landscapes in response to changing land use, land management, and climate forcings.

  12. Obtaining drinking water using solar electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Silveira Jucá

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the main worldwide experiments in PV powered electrodialysis plants and analyses possible applications of such systems in the Brazilian Northeast region. The use of PV arrays to power electrodialysis plants for desalination of brackish water from deep wells makes sense in arid and semiarid regions. In such areas there is often an inadequate water and energy supply infrastructure along with favorable levels of solar radiation for electric generation, as is the case of the Brazilian Northeast region.

  13. Klang River water quality modelling using music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply

    2017-09-01

    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  14. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  15. Water Use and Water-Use Efficiency of Three Perennial Bioenergy Grass Crops in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M. Bennett

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over two-thirds of human water withdrawals are estimated to be used for agricultural production, which is expected to increase as demand for renewable liquid fuels from agricultural crops intensifies. Despite the potential implications of bioenergy crop production on water resources, few data are available on water use of perennial bioenergy grass crops. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare dry matter yield, water use, and water-use efficiency (WUE of elephantgrass, energycane, and giant reed, grown under field conditions for two growing seasons in North Central Florida. Using scaled sap flow sensor data, water use ranged from about 850 to 1150 mm during the growing season, and was generally greater for giant reed and less for elephantgrass. Despite similar or greater water use by giant reed, dry biomass yields of 35 to 40 Mg ha−1 were significantly greater for energycane and elephantgrass, resulting in greater WUE. Overall, water use by the bioenergy crops was greater than the rainfall received during the study, indicating that irrigation will be needed in the region to achieve optimal yields. Species differ in water use and WUE and species selection can play an important role with regard to potential consequences for water resources.

  16. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  17. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  18. Water Mapping Using Multispectral Airborne LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W. Y.; Shaker, A.; LaRocque, P. E.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the use of the world's first multispectral airborne LiDAR sensor, Optech Titan, manufactured by Teledyne Optech to serve the purpose of automatic land-water classification with a particular focus on near shore region and river environment. Although there exist recent studies utilizing airborne LiDAR data for shoreline detection and water surface mapping, the majority of them only perform experimental testing on clipped data subset or rely on data fusion with aerial/satellite image. In addition, most of the existing approaches require manual intervention or existing tidal/datum data for sample collection of training data. To tackle the drawbacks of previous approaches, we propose and develop an automatic data processing workflow for land-water classification using multispectral airborne LiDAR data. Depending on the nature of the study scene, two methods are proposed for automatic training data selection. The first method utilizes the elevation/intensity histogram fitted with Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to preliminarily split the land and water bodies. The second method mainly relies on the use of a newly developed scan line elevation intensity ratio (SLIER) to estimate the water surface data points. Regardless of the training methods being used, feature spaces can be constructed using the multispectral LiDAR intensity, elevation and other features derived from these parameters. The comprehensive workflow was tested with two datasets collected for different near shore region and river environment, where the overall accuracy yielded better than 96 %.

  19. Shrub water use dynamics in arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Tape, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    In the Arctic tundra, hydrologic processes influence the majority of ecosystem processes, from soil thermal dynamics to energy balance and trace gas exchange to vegetation community distributions. The tundra biome is experiencing a broad spectrum of ecosystem changes spurred by 20th century warming, including deciduous shrub expansion. Deciduous woody vegetation typically has high water use rates compared to evergreen and herbaceous species, and is projected to have a greater impact on energy balance than altered albedo from changes in snowpack. However, the impact of greater shrub cover on water balance has been overlooked. Shrubs have the potential to significantly dry the soil, accessing stored soil moisture in the organic layers, while increasing atmospheric moisture. The goal of this study is to quantify the water use dynamics (sap flux and stem water content) of three common arctic shrub species (Salix alexensis, S. pulchra, Betula nana) over two growing seasons. Stem water content was measured through a novel application of time domain reflectometry (TDR). Maximum sap flow rates varied by species: S. alexensis-600g/hr, S. pulchra-60g/hr, and B. nana-40g/hr. We found daily sap flow rates are highly correlated with atmospheric moisture demand (VPD) and not limited by soil moisture or antecedent precipitation. Stem water content varied between 20% and 60%, was correlated with soil moisture, and showed weak diurnal variation. This is one of the first studies to provide a detailed look at arctic tundra shrub water balance and explore the environmental controls on water flux. Planned future work will expand on these results for estimates of evapotranspiration over larger landscape areas.

  20. Public-supply water use and self-supplied industrial water use in Tennessee, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John A.

    2018-04-26

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Water Resources, prepared this report and displayed and analyzed water use by self-supplied industrial and public-supply water systems in Tennessee for 2010. Public-supply water systems in Tennessee provide water for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses and for municipal services. In 2010, 474 public-supply water systems distributed 917 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of surface water (67 percent, 617 Mgal/d) and groundwater (33 percent, 300 Mgal/d) to a population of 5.7 million in Tennessee. Gross per capita water use in Tennessee during 2010 was 162 gallons per day.Since 1950, water withdrawals by public-supply water systems in Tennessee have increased from 160 Mgal/d to 917 Mgal/d in 2010. Each of the 95 counties in Tennessee was served by at least 1 public-supply water system in 2010. Tennessee public-supply water systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. Since 2005, surface-water withdrawals have increased by 26 Mgal/d, and groundwater withdrawals have decreased by 29 Mgal/d, which is the first decrease in groundwater withdrawals since 1950; however, 29 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2010, and 12 of these 29 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. Davidson County had the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (136 Mgal/d) in 2010. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (151 Mgal/d) by a single public-supply water system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served more than 669,000 people in Shelby County in 2010.Self-supplied industrial water use includes water for such purposes as fabrication, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs in facilities that manufacture various products. Water withdrawals for self

  1. Municipal water reclamation of industrial water use in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamez, G.; Ramos, R.; Aerts, P.; Guzman, E.; Pachecho, J. c.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how treated domestic wastewater in a Mexican desert area is reused by a local mining and metallurgical company for process water make-up. With increasing production of treated domestic wastewater, the company's water reuse facilities were continuously expanded over the last ten years. Today, four water reuse plants run with reverse osmosis membranes. With water being a limiting factor, they have enabled the scale-up of mining operations. (Author)

  2. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... enhanced understanding of the system, thereby enabling the formulation of a quantitative model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the formulation of logical quantitative definitions for crop-ecotope specific upper and lower limits of available water; the identification of the harmful rootzone ...

  3. Water desalination using different capacity reactors options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Vargas, S.; Del Valle, E.; Ramirez, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Northwest region of Mexico has a deficit of potable water, along this necessity is the region growth, which requires of additional energy capacity, cogeneration of potable water production and nuclear electricity is an option to be assessed. In this paper we will perform an economical comparison for cogeneration using a big reactor, the AP1000, and a medium size reactor, the IRIS, both of them are PWR type reactors and will be coupled to the desalination plant using the same method. For this cogeneration case we will assess the best reactor option that can cover both needs using the maximum potable water production for two different desalination methods: Multistage Flash Distillation and Multi-effect Distillation. (authors)

  4. Assessing corn water stress using spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Brenna S.

    Multiple remote sensing techniques have been developed to identify crop water stress, but some methods may be difficult for farmers to apply. Unlike most techniques, shortwave vegetation indices can be calculated using satellite, aerial, or ground imagery from the green (525-600 nm), red (625-700 nm), and near infrared (750-900 nm) spectral bands. If vegetation indices can be used to monitor crop water stress, growers could use this information as a quick low-cost guideline for irrigation management, thus helping save water by preventing over irrigating. This study occurred in the 2013 growing season near Greeley, CO, where pressurized drip irrigation was used to irrigate twelve corn ( Zea mays L.) treatments of varying water deficit. Multispectral data was collected and four different vegetation indices were evaluated: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI). The four vegetation indices were compared to corn water stress as indicated by the stress coefficient (Ks) and water deficit in the root zone, calculated by using a water balance that monitors crop evapotranspiration (ET), irrigation events, precipitation events, and deep percolation. ET for the water balance was calculated using two different methods for comparison purposes: (1) calculation of the stress coefficient (Ks) using FAO-56 standard procedures; (2) use of canopy temperature ratio (Tc ratio) of a stressed crop to a non-stressed crop to calculate Ks. It was found that obtaining Ks from Tc ratio is a viable option, and requires less data to obtain than Ks from FAO-56. In order to compare the indices to Ks, vegetation ratios were developed in the process of normalization. Vegetation ratios are defined as the non-stressed vegetation index divided by the stressed vegetation index. Results showed that vegetation ratios were sensitive to water

  5. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  6. WATER CONDITIONING FOR FOOD INDUSTRY USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water conditioning for food industry uses. Tap (drinkingwater from many localities of Moldova doesn’t always correspond to the “Sanitarystandards for drinking water quality” or to the requirements of the “Regulation fornon-alcoholic beverages”, requiring the need for additional purification/conditioning. This paper presents research regarding the removal/adsorption of themain pollutants in tap water (iron, manganese, aluminum, humic substances,trihalomethanes on supports of local carbon adsorbents made from vegetableproducts (stones of peach and plum, walnut shells. Experiments were performedin dynamic conditions in columns of carbon adsorbents. As work solutions wasused tap water where pollutants have been introduced in amounts equivalent to 3maximum allowable concentrations. Carbonaceous adsorbents used forremoval/adsorption of pollutants in dynamic conditions, reveal a capacity of up to1:400 volumes adsorbent: solution before breakthrough. Combined filter, utilizingactive carbons, was constructed and tested for conditioning of tap water forbeverage and food production. The results demonstrated efficient remove oforganic substances and heavy metals by filtering of about 700 volumes of waterper volume of filter.

  7. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using Water Transfers to Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.

    2007-12-01

    Most cities currently rely on water supplies with sufficient capacity to meet demand under almost all conditions. However, the rising costs of water supply development make the maintenance of infrequently used excess capacity increasingly expensive, and more utilities are considering the use of water transfers as a means of more cost effectively meeting demand under drought conditions. Transfers can take place between utilities, as well as different user groups (e.g., municipal and agricultural), and can involve both treated and untreated water. In cases where both the "buyer" and "seller" draw water from the same supply, contractual agreements alone can facilitate a transfer, but in other cases new infrastructure (e.g., pipelines) will be required. Developing and valuing transfer agreements and/or infrastructure investments requires probabilistic supply/demand analyses that incorporate elements of both hydrology and economics. The complexity of these analyses increases as more sophisticated types of agreements (e. g., options) are considered, and as utilities begin to consider how to integrate transfers into long-term planning efforts involving a more diversified portfolio of supply assets. This discussion will revolve around the methods used to develop minimum (expected) cost portfolios of supply assets that meet specified reliability goals. Two different case studies, one in both the eastern and western U.S., will be described with attention to: the role that transfers can play in reducing average supply costs; tradeoffs between costs and supply reliability, and; the effects of different transfer agreement types on the infrastructure capacity required to complete the transfers. Results will provide insights into the cost savings potential of more flexible water supply strategies.

  9. The use of air flow through water for water evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashin, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In water desalination system the productivity rate is improved by increasing the rate of eater evaporation either by heating the water or by forcing air to carry more vapor before condensation. This paper describe an experimental investigation into the effect of forcing the air to flow through a hot water contained in a closed tank through a perforated end of inlet tube. When the air bubbles pass through the water, it increases the rate of vaporization. The effect of some operating parameters are investigated and the results are presented and discussed. 6 figs

  10. Water distribution systems design optimisation using metaheuristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topic of multi-objective water distribution systems (WDS) design optimisation using metaheuristics is investigated, comparing numerous modern metaheuristics, including several multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, an estimation of distribution algorithm and a recent hyperheuristic named AMALGAM (an evolutionary ...

  11. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination process of drinking water include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acides (HAA5). THMs mainly consist of chloroform, and other harsh chemicals. Prolonged consumptions of drinking water containing high levels of THMs has been linked with diseases of the liver, kidneys, bladder, or central nervous system and may increase likelihood of cancer. A risk also exists for THMs exposure via inhalation while showering, bathing or washing clothes and dishes. Due to these risks, the U.S. EPA regulate THMs content in drinking water. This research investigates biological degradation of THM using chloroform as a model compound. The study aims to decrease possible risks of THMs through filtration. Throughout this year’s presentations, there is a common theme of health and safety concerns. UC researchers are working hard to clean water ways of naturally occurring contaminates as well as man-made toxins found in our waterways. The significance of these presentations translates into the promise of safer environments, and more importantly saved lives, as UC’s faculty continues to produce real-world solutions to problems threatening the world around us. A biotech process has been developed and demonstrated that effectively remove and treat volatile disinfection by-products from drinking water. The process strips low concentration disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, that are formed during the chlori

  12. Water use data to enhance scientific and policy insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.

    2017-12-01

    We live in an era of big data. However, water use data remains sparse. There is an urgent need to enhance both the quality and resolution of water data. Metered water use information - as opposed to estimated water use, typically based on climate - would enhance the quality of existing water databases. Metered water use data would enable the research community to evaluate the "who, where, and when" of water use. Importantly, this information would enable the scientific community to better understand decision making related to water use (i.e. the "why"), providing the insight necessary to guide policies that promote water conservation. Metered water use data is needed at a sufficient resolution (i.e. spatial, temporal, and water user) to fully resolve how water is used throughout the economy and society. Improving the quality and resolution of water use data will enable scientific understanding that can inform policy.

  13. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    processes in the soil, has greatly enhanced understanding of the system, ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage. ... risk clay and duplex soils and high runoff losses, in-field rainwater harvesting ...

  14. Cleaning of polluted water using biological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water at many Danish locations has been polluted by organic substances. This pollution has taken place in relation to leaks or spills of, for example, petrol from leaky tanks or oil separators. The article describes a new biological technique for the purification of ground-water polluted by petrol and diesel oils leaked at a petrol station. The technique involves decompostion by bacteria. During decompostion the biomass in the filter increases and carbon dioxide and water is produced, so there is no waste product from this process. The two units consist of an oil-separator which separates the diesel oil and petrol from the water, and a bio-filter which is constructed as an aired-through inverted filter to which nutrient salts are continually added. The filter-material used is in the form of plastic rings on which the oil-decomposing bacteria grow and reproduce themselves. The system is further described. It is claimed that the bio-filter can decompose 7 kg of petrol and diesel oil in one week, larger ones decompose more. The servicelife of the system is expected to be 4-6 years. Current installation costs are 20.000 - 100.000 Danish kroner, according to size. (AB)

  15. Evaluating Water Conservation and Reuse Policies Using a Dynamic Water Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  16. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of

  17. Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid an increasing water scarcity in many parts of the world, virtual water trade as both a policy instrument and practical means to balance the local, national and global water budget has received much attention in recent years. Building upon the knowledge of virtual water accounting in the literature, this study assesses the efficiency of water use embodied in the international food trade from the perspectives of exporting and importing countries and at the global and country levels. The investigation reveals that the virtual water flows primarily from countries of high crop water productivity to countries of low crop water productivity, generating a global saving in water use. Meanwhile, the total virtual water trade is dominated by green virtual water, which constitutes a low opportunity cost of water use as opposed to blue virtual water. A sensitivity analysis, however, suggests high uncertainties in the virtual water accounting and the estimation of the scale of water saving. The study also raises awareness of the limited effect of water scarcity on the global virtual water trade and the negative implications of the global water saving for the water use efficiency and food security in importing countries and the environment in exporting countries. The analysis shows the complexity in evaluating the efficiency gains in the international virtual water trade. The findings of the study, nevertheless, call for a greater emphasis on rainfed agriculture to improve the global food security and environmental sustainability.

  18. Water and water use in southern Nevada [Chapter 3] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne R. Belcher; Michael J. Moran; Megan E. Rogers

    2013-01-01

    Water and water use in southern Nevada is an important issue. The scarcity of water resources for both human and biologic communities often leads to intense competition for both surface and ground waters. Anthropogenic and climate change impacts on scarce water resources need to be understood to assess human and ecosystem health for southern Nevada. Chapter 3 outlines...

  19. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  20. SACHET WATER: PREVALENCE OF USE, PERCEPTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Analysis of the five different sachet water brands showed normal physical and chemical values. Microbiological ..... luxury of an alternative source of drinking water as do the Western world. .... Changing trends in water policy formulation.

  1. Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Jair Sebastião S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

  2. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  3. Point-of-use water purification using clay pot water filters and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-24

    Nov 24, 2011 ... clay pot water filters (CPWFs) were fabricated using terracotta clay and sawdust. The sawdust was .... developed by educational initiatives and non-governmental .... est filtration rate, it had the disadvantage of not being able to.

  4. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  5. Splish Splash: A Daily Use of Water. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Kristi Rennebohm

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  6. Using soil water sensors to improve irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and som...

  7. Mycobacteria inactivation using Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Gao, Ya; Branco, Alan; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Lemos, Bernardo; Nardell, Edward; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Airborne transmitted pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cause serious, often fatal infectious disease with enormous global health implications. Due to their unique cell wall and slow growth, mycobacteria are among the most resilient microbial forms. Herein we evaluate the ability of an emerging, chemical-free, nanotechnology-based method to inactivate M. parafortuitum (Mtb surrogate). This method is based on the transformation of atmospheric water vapor into engineered water nano-structures (EWNS) via electrospray. We demonstrate that the EWNS can interact with and inactivate airborne mycobacteria, reducing their concentration levels significantly. Additionally, EWNS can inactivate M. parafortuitum on surfaces eight times faster than the control. The mechanism of mycobacteria inactivation was also investigated in this study. It was demonstrated that the EWNS effectively deliver the reactive oxygen species, encapsulated during the electrospray process, to the bacteria oxidizing their cell membrane resulting into inactivation. Overall, this is a method with the potential to become an effective intervention technology in the battle against airborne infections. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mycobacterium inactivation in airborne form or on contact surfaces using electrospray activated water nano-structures. Given that the method is free of toxic chemicals, this might become an important tool in the prevention of mycobacterial infections, which are notoriously hard to treat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis: a case study at water treatment plants, ... water and to detect the source of pollution for the most revealing parameters.

  9. Removal of mercury from water using pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, the sorption of radiocobalt by powdered pottery materials was investigated. The use of these materials as immobilization matrix for liquid radioactive waste requires the employment of pottery vessels. Therefore, the present study aims to give detailed investigations of the decontamination of radionuclides and toxic elements using pottery containers. These investigations are equally useful to elucidate how far these vessels can be utilized for water purification through decontamination of toxic and heavy metals. The radionuclide or heavy metal removal capability using pottery pots, as low cost sorbents, has been investigated for both radioactive ( 203 Hg) and stable mercury. The results indicated that Hg 2+ is better removed by pottery from neutral to alkaline solutions. The capacity of the used pottery container (100 ml in volume) for complete removal of mercury was found to reach 3 x 10 -4 mol/l, and the time needed was 8 hours. The sorption process was suggested to occur via adsorption and ion exchange. The effect of presence of humic or fulvic acid, as ligands abundant in water, is also investigated. The results imply that, in absence of humic or fulvic acid the sorption follows the expected behaviour, i.e. sorption sites with similar affinity for mercury. In presence of humic or fulvic acid, additional sorption sites are available by the organic molecule when it is associated to the pottery. (orig.)

  10. Virtual water transfers unlikely to redress inequality in global water use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seekell, D A; D'Odorico, P; Pace, M L

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of renewable freshwater resources between countries is highly unequal and 80% of humanity lives in regions where water security is threatened. The transfer of agricultural and industrial products to areas where water is limited through global trade may have potential for redressing water imbalances. These transfers represent 'virtual water' used in commodity production. We evaluated the current water-use inequality between countries and the potential of virtual water transfers to equalize water use among nations using multiple statistical measures of inequality. Overall, the actual use of renewable water resources is relatively equal even though the physical distribution of renewable water resources is highly unequal. Most inequality (76%) in water use is due to agricultural production and can be attributed to climate and arable land availability, not social development status. Virtual water use is highly unequal and is almost completely explained by social development status. Virtual water transfer is unlikely to increase water-use equality primarily because agricultural water use dominates national water needs and cannot be completely compensated by virtual water transfers.

  11. Virtual water transfers unlikely to redress inequality in global water use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seekell, D A; D' Odorico, P; Pace, M L [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The distribution of renewable freshwater resources between countries is highly unequal and 80% of humanity lives in regions where water security is threatened. The transfer of agricultural and industrial products to areas where water is limited through global trade may have potential for redressing water imbalances. These transfers represent 'virtual water' used in commodity production. We evaluated the current water-use inequality between countries and the potential of virtual water transfers to equalize water use among nations using multiple statistical measures of inequality. Overall, the actual use of renewable water resources is relatively equal even though the physical distribution of renewable water resources is highly unequal. Most inequality (76%) in water use is due to agricultural production and can be attributed to climate and arable land availability, not social development status. Virtual water use is highly unequal and is almost completely explained by social development status. Virtual water transfer is unlikely to increase water-use equality primarily because agricultural water use dominates national water needs and cannot be completely compensated by virtual water transfers.

  12. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  13. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  14. Water use characteristics of a bambara groundnut ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara groundnut is slow to establish and this has negative implications for total water use. Consideration of bambara groundnut as a water-efficient crop for dry areas will benefit from an understanding of water use efficiency and water use characteristics during establishment. We investigated whether there is an ...

  15. Inland excess water mapping using hyperspectral imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csendes Bálint

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging combined with the potentials of airborne scanning is a powerful tool to monitor environmental processes. The aim of this research was to use high resolution remotely sensed data to map the spatial extent of inland excess water patches in a Hungarian study area that is known for its oil and gas production facilities. Periodic floodings show high spatial and temporal variability, nevertheless, former studies have proven that the affected soil surfaces can be accurately identified. Besides separability measurements, we performed spectral angle classification, which gave a result of 85% overall accuracy and we also compared the generated land cover map with LIDAR elevation data.

  16. Laser cutting technology using water jet waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Miyuki; Shiihara, Katsunori; Chida, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    Laser with water jet is examined to cut in-vessel structure. However, it is necessary to increase the break-up length of water jet to cut a thick plate. Therefore, the effects of the water jet parameter (water pressure, assist gas, laser power) on break-up length were investigated. It was found from observation results of water jet that the longest break-up length is about 135mm under condition of water pressure 40 MPa, laser power 30W and helium assist gas 1L/min. (author)

  17. Water Market-scale Agricultural Planning: Promoting Competing Water Resource Use Efficiency Through Agro-Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.

  18. Precipitable Water Comparisons Over Ghana using PPP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akwasi Afrifa Acheampong

    Abstract. Atmospheric Water vapor is an important greenhouse gas and contributes greatly in maintaining ... enhanced radiation dependent cloud and water vapour feedbacks (IPCC, 2014). ..... COST-716 near real-time demonstration project.

  19. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  20. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.

    1988-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

  1. Treat mine water using passive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hedin, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    Passive treatment represents an alternative to conventional chemical treatment of coal mine drainage. When successful, passive systems require less investment, less maintenance and usually are less expensive than conventional chemical treatment systems. As a result, during the last seven years, more than 500 passive systems have been constructed in the United States to treat coal mine drainage. Some exist as an alternative to conventional treatment; others serve as an inexpensive pretreatment step than can decrease subsequent chemical requirements. Sulfide minerals present in rock disturbed during mining can oxidize to form an acidic metal-laden solution, commonly known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Alkalinity present in the rock may partially or completely neutralize AMD, but if either acidity or excessive metal contaminants remain, the water must be treated before it can be discharged legally. The principal regulated contaminant metals of coal mine drainage are iron and manganese. Metal mine drainage often contains more toxic metals, such as cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc. Chemical treatment of AMD is estimated to cost America's mining industry more than $1 million a day. Three principal passive technologies are used in the treatment of coal mine drainage: Aerobic wetlands, wetlands constructed with an organic substrate and anoxic limestone drains (ALDS). The selection of the technology or combination of technologies to be used depends on the quality of the water being treated

  2. Separation of tritiated water from water using composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.; Nelson, D.

    1996-01-01

    Polymeric composite membranes are being developed to remove tritium from contaminated water at DOE sites. Industrial membrane systems are being developed that have proven to be energy efficient, and membrane technologies such as reverse-osmosis have been well developed for desalination and other industrial/municipal applications. Aromatic polyphosphazene membranes are being investigated because they have excellent radiological, thermal, and chemical stability. The FY 1996 effort is directed toward delineating a potential mechanism, providing a statistical approach to data acquisition, refining a mass balance, and designing a staged array module

  3. Use of nonwettable membranes for water transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausch, H. G.

    1970-01-01

    Transfer of water through nonwettable vinyl fluoride membranes has two unique features - /1/ very low water transfer rates can be held constant by holding temperature and solute concentrations constant, /2/ the pressure gradient against which water is transported is limited only by solution breakthrough or membrane strength.

  4. Desalting a process cooling water using nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radier, R.G.J.; van Oers, C.W.; Steenbergen, A.; Wessling, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The cooling water system of a chemical plant of Akzo Nobel is a partly open system. The site is located at the North Sea. The air in contact with the cooling water contains seawater droplets dissolving and increasing the chloride concentration. The cooling water contains chromate to protect the

  5. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  6. Analysis of Water Use and Water Scarcity in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of Water Use and Water Scarcity in Arid and Semi-arid Regions Susana Samayoa , Muhammed A. G. Chowdhury, Tushar Sinha Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A & M University - Kingsville Freshwater sustainability in arid and semi-arid regions is highly uncertain under increasing demands due to population growth and urban development as well as limited water supply. In particular, six largest cities by population among the top twenty U.S. cities are located in Texas (TX), which also experience high variability in water availability due to frequent droughts and floods. Similarly, several regions in Arizona (AZ) are rapidly growing (e.g. Phoenix and Tucson) despite receiving scanty rainfall. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyze water use and water scarcity in watersheds within TX and AZ between 1985 and 2010. The water use data from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is analyzed by Hydrological Unit Code (HUC) - 8 within TX and AZ. Total freshwater use by county during 1985 and 2010 were converted into water use by HUC-8 using geospatial analysis. Water availability will be estimated by using a large scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC model will be calibrated and validated for multiple basins located in Texas and Arizona. The VIC model simulated total streamflow will be aggregated across the 1/8 degree grids that are within each HUC-8 to estimate water supply. The excess water for upstream HUC-8s (= local supply minus demands) will be routed, in addition to locally generated streamflow, to estimate water availability in downstream HUC-8s. Water Scarcity Index, defined as the ratio of total freshwater demand to supply, will be estimated during 1985 and 2010 to evaluate the effects of water availability and demands on scarcity. Finally, water scarcity and use will be analyzed by HUC-8s within TX and AZ. Such information could be useful in water resources management and planning. Keywords: Water scarcity, water use

  7. How More Data About Direct and Virtual Water Use Could Help People Understand Their Water Footprints and Save More Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madel, R.; Olson-Sawyer, K.; Hanlon, P.; Rabin, K.

    2017-12-01

    Attari (2014) has shown through online surveys that Americans underestimate their water use, don't know what their water footprint is and don't know how much water it takes to produce food. The more people know about their water use, the better decisions they are capable of making and the more likely they are to conserve, which is especially important during periods of water stress. To increase awareness and help people decrease their daily water use, GRACE Communications Foundation created a Water Footprint Calculator [watercalculator.org] using US-oriented data and presented in US units in both English and Spanish. The calculator is based on direct water use data as well as the water consumed to create food, consumer goods and energy (also known as virtual or indirect water use). We learned that there is a lack of comparably-scaled, consumer-level virtual water research available. The direct use data gathered for the calculator came primarily from a study of residential water use in the US by Mayer et al. (1999), who conducted surveys of households in different US cities and averaged data for both inside and outside the home. The indirect use data came from various sources including the US government (USGS, EPA, EIA, NREL, Energy Star, etc.), the Water Footprint Network and the UN FAO. Much of the indirect use data was aggregated at a national level or came from combinations of various data sets. For all users, the food category accounts for the largest part of their water footprints. Gathering data of comparable scale at a personal consumption level proved to be a challenging exercise and provided several takeaways. While there is recent residential direct water use data at a consumer level, there is a lack of data at the personal, consumer level about indirect water use in manufacturing, energy production and agriculture. Because of this, we had to use national averages and generalized calculations. The resulting tool gives people a sense of the impacts of

  8. Assessment of the terrestrial water balance using the global water availability and use model WaterGAP - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Döll, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of the World's water resources has a long tradition and numerous methods for quantification exists. The resulting numbers vary significantly, leaving room for improvement. Since some decades, global hydrological models (GHMs) are being used for large scale water budget assessments. GHMs are designed to represent the macro-scale hydrological processes and many of those models include human water management, e.g. irrigation or reservoir operation, making them currently the first choice for global scale assessments of the terrestrial water balance within the Anthropocene. The Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis (WaterGAP) is a model framework that comprises both the natural and human water dimension and is in development and application since the 1990s. In recent years, efforts were made to assess the sensitivity of water balance components to alternative climate forcing input data and, e.g., how this sensitivity is affected by WaterGAP's calibration scheme. This presentation shows the current best estimate of terrestrial water balance components as simulated with WaterGAP by 1) assessing global and continental water balance components for the climate period 1971-2000 and the IPCC reference period 1986-2005 for the most current WaterGAP version using a homogenized climate forcing data, 2) investigating variations of water balance components for a number of state-of-the-art climate forcing data and 3) discussing the benefit of the calibration approach for a better observation-data constrained global water budget. For the most current WaterGAP version 2.2b and a homogenized combination of the two WATCH Forcing Datasets, global scale (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) river discharge into oceans and inland sinks (Q) is assessed to be 40 000 km3 yr-1 for 1971-2000 and 39 200 km3 yr-1 for 1986-2005. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is close to each other with around 70 600 (70 700) km3 yr-1 as well as water consumption with 1000 (1100) km3 yr-1. The

  9. Evaluating water conservation and reuse policies using a dynamic water balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  10. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...... households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained....... The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water...

  11. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Wade, Jeremy [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  12. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  13. Using geothermal water for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On construction with dimensions 15 x 5 x 2 m, conditions of temperature transmission and vegetables growth are examined. We have been cultivating pepper, cucumber, small cucumber, tomato, and lattice. Over ground heating has been used, consisting of one bent pipe with radius of 10 mm, in the shape of hairpin along the both sides of the construction. Underground heating consists of six pipes with radius of 20 mm on the depth of 350-400 mm. There have been measured the temperature inside construction, the temperature outside construction, the waterflow, and water temperature flowing into and out of the construction. The approximate heating flow factor K is determined by both the equation: heating balance equation and basic equation for temperature transmition. Vegetable growth has been watching during the period of time from March to November 2005.

  14. In-Space Propellant Production Using Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, William; Johnson, Wesley; Swanger, Adam; McQuade, William

    2012-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Manned exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space, and larger science mission directorate payloads can be delivered using cryogenic propulsion stages. Several architecture studies have shown that in-space cryogenic propulsion depots offer benefits including lower launch costs, smaller launch vehicles, and enhanced mission flexibility. NASA is currently planning a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) technology demonstration mission that will use existing technology to demonstrate long duration storage, acquisition, mass gauging, and transfer of liquid hydrogen in low Earth orbit. This mission will demonstrate key technologies, but the CPST architecture is not designed for optimal mission operations for a true propellant depot. This paper will consider cryogenic propellant depots that are designed for operability. The operability principles considered are reusability, commonality, designing for the unique environment of space, and use of active control systems, both thermal and fluid. After considering these operability principles, a proposed depot architecture will be presented that uses water launch and on orbit electrolysis and liquefaction. This could serve as the first true space factory. Critical technologies needed for this depot architecture, including on orbit electrolysis, zero-g liquefaction and storage, rendezvous and docking, and propellant transfer, will be discussed and a developmental path forward will be presented. Finally, use of the depot to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate exploration goals will be presented.

  15. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  16. Measuring domestic water use: a systematic review of methodologies that measure unmetered water use in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamason, Charlotte C; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana; Tulsiani, Suhella M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Gurley, Emily S; Mackie Jensen, Peter Kjaer

    2016-11-01

    To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use. A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried into the household, and some failed to mention whether water was used outside the home. Water use in the selected studies was found to range from two to 113 l per capita per day. No standardised methods for measuring unmetered water use were found, which brings into question the validity and comparability of studies that have measured unmetered water use. In future studies, it will be essential to define all components that make up water use and determine how they will be measured. A pre-study that involves observations and direct measurements during water collection periods (these will have to be determined through questioning) should be used to determine optimal methods for obtaining water use information in a survey. Day-to-day and seasonal variation should be included. A study that investigates water use recall is warranted to further develop standardised methods to measure water use; in the meantime, water use recall should be limited to 24 h or fewer. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sea water desalination using nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first underlines the water shortage problem today and in the years to come when, around the time horizon 2020, two-thirds of the total world population would be without access to potable water. Desalination of sea-water (and, to a limited extent, that of brackish water) is shown to be an attractive solution. In this context, sea-water desalination by nuclear energy appears to be not only technically feasible and safe but also economically very attractive and a sustainable solution. Thus, compared to conventional fossil energy based sources, desalination costs by nuclear options could be 30 to 60% lower. The nuclear options are therefore expected to satisfy the fundamental water needs and electricity demands of human beings without in any way producing large amounts of greenhouse gases which any desalination strategy, based on the employment of fossil fuels, cannot fail to avoid. (author)

  18. Heavy water leak detection using diffusion sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.; Hussain, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Pressurrised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) detection of the sources of heavy water leaks is importent both for the purpose of radiation hazard control as well as for the reduction of escape/loss of heavy water which, is an expensive nuclear material. This paper describes an application of tritium diffusion sampler for heavy water leak detection. The diffusion sampler comprises an usual tritium counting glass vial with a special orifice. The counting vial has water vapour, deficient in HTO concentration. The HTO present outside diffuses in the vial through the orifice, gets exchanged with water of the wet filter paper kept at the bottom and the moisture in the vial atmosphere which has HTO concentration lower than that outside. This results in continuation of net movement of HTO in the vial. The exchanged tritium is counted in liquid scintillation spectrometer. The method has a sensitivity of 10000 dpm/DAC-h. (author). 2 figs., 2 ta bs

  19. Estimated water withdrawals and use in Pennsylvania, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Gast, William A.

    2000-01-01

    In practical terms, water use is divided into two basic types: instream use and offstream use. Instream use is water used in its natural channel, basin, or behind a dam and includes activities such as fishing, boating, and other recreational activities. Instream use also includes hydroelectric power generation. Off-stream use is water pumped or diverted from its natural channel, basin, or aquifer. Off-stream uses are divided into the following categories: public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, thermoelectric power, mining, livestock, and irrigation. This fact sheet provides an overview of offstream and hydroelectric power water use in Pennsylvania. It describes water withdrawals by source, water withdrawals and deliveries by category, changes in water use over time, and water-management responsibilities in the State.

  20. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in ... The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total ... Generally, water pollution not only affects water quality ..... regardless of the natural geology and human activities, it has.

  1. Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Analyses of Water Used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were carried out on well water, stream water and river water used for drinking and swimming purposes in. Abeokuta, Nigeria. The results obtained were compared with WHO and EPA standards for drinking and recreational water. With the exception of Sokori stream and a well ...

  2. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  3. [Water-saving mechanisms of intercropping system in improving cropland water use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Yun; Wu, Pu-Te; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Cheng, Xue-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Based on the multi-disciplinary researches, and in terms of the transformation efficiency of surface water to soil water, availability of cropland soil water, crop canopy structure, total irrigation volume needed on a given area, and crop yield, this paper discussed the water-saving mechanisms of intercropping system in improving cropland water use efficiency. Intercropping system could promote the full use of cropland water by plant roots, increase the water storage in root zone, reduce the inter-row evaporation and control excessive transpiration, and create a special microclimate advantageous to the plant growth and development. In addition, intercropping system could optimize source-sink relationship, provide a sound foundation for intensively utilizing resources temporally and spatially, and increase the crop yield per unit area greatly without increase of water consumption, so as to promote the crop water use efficiency effectively.

  4. Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, K; Meldrum, J; Macknick, J; Newmark, R; Rogers, J; Madden, N; Fisher, J

    2013-01-01

    Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges. (letter)

  5. Water-scarcity patterns : spatiotemporal interdependencies between water use and water availability in a semi-arid river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the interdependencies between water use and water availability and describes a model that has been developed to improve understanding of the processes that drive changes and variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in a semi-arid river basin. These

  6. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  7. Assessment of water quality from water harvesting using small farm reservoir for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Komariah; Samsuri, I. Y.; Senge, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to assess the quality of rainfall-runoff water harvesting using small farm reservoir (SFR) for irrigation. Water quality assessment criteria based on RI Government Regulation number 82 the year 2001 on Water Quality Management and Pollution Control, and FAO Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines 1985. The experiment was conducted in the dry land of Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency. SFR size was 10 m x 3 m x 2 m. Water quality measurements are done every week, ten times. Water samples were taken at 6 points, namely: distance of 2.5 m, 5 m, and 7.5 m from the inlet, at depth 25 cm and 175 cm from surface water. In each sampling point replicated three times. Water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen (DO), Turbidity (TSS), water pH, Nitrate (NO3), and Phosphate. The results show that water harvesting that collected in SFR meets both standards quality used, so the water is feasible for agricultural irrigation. The average value of harvested water was DO 2.6 mg/l, TSS 62.7 mg/l, pH 6.6, P 5.3 mg/l and NO3 0.16 mg/l. Rainfall-runoff water harvesting using SFR prospectus for increasing save water availability for irrigation.

  8. Tracking Water-Use in Colorado's Energy Exploration and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamka, T. A.; Ge, S.

    2017-12-01

    By the year 2050 Colorado's population is projected to nearly double, posing many important questions about the stresses that Colorado's water resources will experience. Growing in tandem with Colorado's population is the state's energy exploration and development industry. As water demands increase across the state, the energy exploration and development industry must adapt to and prepare for future difficulties surrounding the legal acquisition of water. The goal of this study is to map out the potential sources of water within the state of Colorado that are being purchased, or will be eligible for purchase, for unconventional subsurface energy extraction. The background of this study includes an overview of the intertwined relationship between water, the energy industry, and the Colorado economy. The project also aims to determine the original purpose of legally appropriated water that is used in Colorado's energy exploration and development. Is the water primarily being purchased or leased from the agricultural sector? Is the water mostly surface water or groundwater? In order to answer these questions, we accessed data from numerous water reporting agencies and examined legal methods of acquisition of water for use in the energy industry. Using these data, we assess the future water quantity available to the energy industry. Knowledge and foresight on the origins of the water used by the energy industry will allow for better and strategic planning of water resources and how the industry will respond to statewide water-related stresses.

  9. 36 CFR 9.8 - Use of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.8 Use of water. (a) No operator may use for operations any water from... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of water. 9.8 Section 9.8... Regional Director. The Regional Director shall not approve a plan of operations requiring the use of water...

  10. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From energy water use towards integration of multi-purpose water at the local scale. Modelling water resources and water uses for adapting to global changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulhe, P.; Hendrickx, F.; Samie, R.; SAUQUET, E.; Vidal, J.P.; Perrin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Water management within large catchments is a complex question related to local issues, with a high-impact potential for the EDF Group. That is why EDF R and D carried out a scientific study in the Garonne river basin upstream to Golfech, under the framework of a research program partly funded by the French Ministry of Ecology and in partnership with Irstea and the Adour-Garonne Water Agency. This project aims at assessing water availability under present-day conditions and under climate change scenarios in the 2030's, including a detailed analysis of pressure on water resources and actual management rules. Down-scaled IPCC AR4 precipitation and temperature scenarios for 2030 forecast a significant increase in summer temperatures (+ 4 deg. C), more limited in winter (+ 2 deg. C) and a less pronounced decrease in precipitation. This leads to a reduction of natural flows in summer as a result of increased potential evapotranspiration, a reduction in snow contribution and a shift towards earlier snow melt in the mountain basins. Regarding evolution of water uses, the results suggest a decrease of hydropower production, an increase in summer water releases to sustain low water and a lesser flexibility to meet needs of the electrical system. In parallel, a 20% increase in demand for irrigation is projected under 'business-as-usual' practices. This project highlights the challenges of water allocation policy-making that should be considered in a collective way. It opens the way towards a more operational consideration of a 'water resources' risk for both electrical production manager and producers. However, technical issues related to necessary tools for decision support remain. The extension of this type of study encompassing climate, water resources, water uses and socio-economic aspect is considered in other river basins. (authors)

  12. Water use in engineering dormitory in Greenland - Apisseq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin

    The report contains information about the annual water use in the engineering dormitory Apisseq. The report begins with brief description of the dormitory and then presents the water use, its fractions (cold water and DHW) and also the energy use related to DHW heating. Significant portion...... of the energy is covered by the solar plant....

  13. 43 CFR 418.26 - Charges for water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charges for water use. 418.26 Section 418... and Management § 418.26 Charges for water use. The District must maintain a financing and accounting... provides reasonable financial incentives for the economical and efficient use of water. ...

  14. Evaluation of dripper clogging using magnetic water in drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Sayyed Mohammad Javad; Shirazi, Pooya; Valashedi, Reza Norooz

    2018-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the uniformity of distribution of water and discharge variations in drip irrigation using magnetic water. Magnetic water was achieved by transition of water using a robust permanent magnet connected to a feed pipeline. Two main factors including magnetic and non-magnetic water and three sub-factor of salt concentration including well water, addition of 150 and 300 mg L-1 calcium carbonate to irrigation water with three replications were applied. The result of magnetic water on average dripper discharge was significant at ( P ≤ 0.05). At the final irrigation, the average dripper discharge and distribution uniformity were higher for the magnetic water compared to the non-magnetic water. The magnetic water showed a significant effect ( P ≤ 0.01) on distribution uniformity of drippers. At the first irrigation, the water distribution uniformity was almost the same for both the magnetic water and the non-magnetic water. The use of magnetic water for drip irrigation is recommended to achieve higher uniformity.

  15. Evaluating Inequality or Injustice in Water Use for Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability and population density distributions are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources; but is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water and explored the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring plant and animal commodities and the "virtual water" embedded in them. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated country specific patterns of water use for food with, and without trade, over a 25-year period in order to elucidate the influence of trade and inequality on equability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, when related to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.

  16. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H; Mudasser, M; Jensen, P K

    2001-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water reservoirs is to use the water that has seeped from the irrigation canals and irrigated fields and that has formed a small layer of fresh water on top of the brackish groundwater. The objective of this study was to assess whether use of irrigation seepage water for drinking results in less diarrhoea than direct use of irrigation water and how irrigation water management would impact on health. The study was undertaken in an irrigated area in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Over a one-year period, drinking water sources used and diarrhoea episodes were recorded each day for all individuals of 200 households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained by the generally poor quality of water in the in-house storage vessels, reflecting considerable in-house contamination of drinking water. Risk factors for diarrhoea were absence of a water connection and water storage facility, lack of a toilet, low standard of hygiene, and low socio-economic status. The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0

  17. Scenarios for Low Carbon and Low Water Electric Power Plant Operations: Implications for Upstream Water Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodder, Rebecca S; Barnwell, Jessica T; Yelverton, William H

    2016-11-01

    Electric sector water use, in particular for thermoelectric operations, is a critical component of the water-energy nexus. On a life cycle basis per unit of electricity generated, operational (e.g., cooling system) water use is substantially higher than water demands for the fuel cycle (e.g., natural gas and coal) and power plant manufacturing (e.g., equipment and construction). However, could shifting toward low carbon and low water electric power operations create trade-offs across the electricity life cycle? We compare business-as-usual with scenarios of carbon reductions and water constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model. Our scenarios show that, for water withdrawals, the trade-offs are minimal: operational water use accounts for over 95% of life cycle withdrawals. For water consumption, however, this analysis identifies potential trade-offs under some scenarios. Nationally, water use for the fuel cycle and power plant manufacturing can reach up to 26% of the total life cycle consumption. In the western United States, nonoperational consumption can even exceed operational demands. In particular, water use for biomass feedstock irrigation and manufacturing/construction of solar power facilities could increase with high deployment. As the United States moves toward lower carbon electric power operations, consideration of shifting water demands can help avoid unintended consequences.

  18. Discrimination of mineral waters using near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that water is one of the most studied materials today its dynamic properties are still not well understood. Water state in human organism is of high importance for normal healthy functioning of human body. Different kinds of water are usually classified according to its present solutes, and concentrations of these solutes, but though it is known that water molecules can form clusters around present solutes, classification of waters based on types of water molecular organization and present clusters is not present in current literature. In this study we used multivariate analysis for classification of commercial mineral waters based on their near infrared spectra (NIR. Further, we applied Aquaphotomics, a new approach for interpretation of near infrared spectra of water, which gives insight into organization of water molecules in each of these waters.

  19. Harvesting Water from Air: Using Anhydrous Salt with Sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2018-04-02

    Atmospheric water is abundant alternative water resource, equivalent to 6 times of water in all rivers on Earth. This work screens 14 common anhydrous and hydrated salt couples in terms of their physical and chemical stability, water vapor harvesting and release capacity under relevant application scenarios. Among the salts screened, copper chloride (CuCl2), copper sulfate (CuSO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) distinguish themselves and are further made into bi-layer water collection devices, with the top layer being photothermal layer while the bottom layer being salt-loaded fibrous membrane. The water collection devices are capable of capturing water vapor out of the air with low relative humidity (down to 15 %) and releasing water under regular and even weakened sunlight (i.e. 0.7 kW/m2). The work shines light on the potential use of anhydrous salt towards producing drinking water in water scarce regions.

  20. Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network

  1. MONITORING ON PLANT LEAF WATER POTENTIAL USING NIR SPECTROSCOPY FOR WATER STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diding Suhandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the calibration model with temperature compensation for on-plant leaf water potential (LWP determination in tomato plants was evaluated. During a cycle of water stress, the on-plant LWP measurement was conducted. The result showed that the LWP values under water stress and recovery from water stress could be monitored well. It showed that a real time monitoring of the LWP values using NIR spectroscopy could be possible.   Keywords: water stress, real time monitoring of leaf water potential, NIR spectroscopy, plant response-based

  2. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  3. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water

  4. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  5. SACHET WATER: PREVALENCE OF USE, PERCEPTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    perception of safety and assess the quality of sachet water consumed by the population. Methods: A total of 360 ... that meet World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines or ..... been established where poor and middle class who have the least ...

  6. ADSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM WATER USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Currently available treatment methods for removal of excess fluoride from water are broadly divided into three ... the application of nanoparticles as sorbents for fluoride removal. Sundaram [26] studied the ... Characterization of adsorbent.

  7. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min

    2017-07-18

    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  8. Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing for operational water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Tzabiras, John; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-06-01

    An integrated modeling system, developed in the framework of "Hydromentor" research project, is applied to evaluate crop water requirements for operational water resources management at Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The framework includes coupled components for operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and estimation of agricultural water demands at several spatial scales using remote sensing. The study area was sub-divided into irrigation zones based on land use maps derived from Landsat 5 TM images for the year 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat TM imagery. Agricultural water needs were estimated using the FAO method for each zone and each control node of the system for a number of water resources management strategies. Two operational strategies of hydro-technical project development (present situation without operation of the reservoir and future situation with the operation of the reservoir) are coupled with three water demand strategies. In total, eight (8) water management strategies are evaluated and compared. The results show that, under the existing operational water resources management strategies, the crop water requirements are quite large. However, the operation of the proposed hydro-technical projects in Lake Karla watershed coupled with water demand management measures, like improvement of existing water distribution systems, change of irrigation methods, and changes of crop cultivation could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area.

  9. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures) and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation), are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  10. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation, are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  11. An Agent Based Model of Household Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton J. Andrews

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Households consume a significant fraction of total potable water production. Strategies to improve the efficiency of water use tend to emphasize technological interventions to reduce or shift water demand. Behavioral water use reduction strategies can also play an important role, but a flexible framework for exploring the “what-ifs” has not been available. This paper introduces such a framework, presenting an agent-based model of household water-consuming behavior. The model simulates hourly water-using activities of household members within a rich technological and behavioral context, calibrated with appropriate data. Illustrative experiments compare the resulting water usage of U.S. and Dutch households and their associated water-using technologies, different household types (singles, families with children, and retired couples, different water metering regimes, and educational campaigns. All else equal, Dutch and metered households use less water. Retired households use more water because they are more often at home. Water-saving educational campaigns are effective for the part of the population that is receptive. Important interactions among these factors, both technological and behavioral, highlight the value of this framework for integrated analysis of the human-technology-water system.

  12. Outdoor water use and water conservation opportunities in Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, John R.

    2010-01-01

    How much water do you use to water your lawn, wash your car, or fill your swimming pool? Your answers to these questions have important implications for water supplies in the City of Virginia Beach. To help find the answers, the City cooperated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Old Dominion University to learn more about seasonal outdoor water use. In the summer of 2008 the USGS surveyed city residents and asked detailed questions about their outdoor water use. This fact sheet describes what was learned in the survey.

  13. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade.Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants.Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  14. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions.

  15. World water resources and water use: Modern assessment and outlook for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiklomanov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the world water resources, water use, and water availability has been made during 1991-1996. The assessment has been made in retrospective for the period 1921-1985, for 1995, and for the future (2000, 2010 and 2025)

  16. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  17. Analysis of water use by gated communities in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... to develop a method to properly plan for efficient water infrastructure in GCs. Residential water use in general. Guidelines commonly used by planners and engineers to determine the average annual daily water demand (AADD) of residential properties, based on property size, are provided by the CSIR ...

  18. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.101...

  19. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... the adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early warning ...

  20. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early ...

  1. Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Using Satellite Imagery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Work done at Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota has demonstrated the feasibility of performing regional assessment of lake water quality using Landsat...

  2. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,; Ketakee Dagade

    2014-01-01

    In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and contr...

  3. Modeling Stochastic Energy and Water Consumption to Manage Residential Water Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A. M.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Water; Energy Conservation

    2011-12-01

    Water energy linkages have received growing attention from the water and energy utilities as utilities recognize that collaborative efforts can implement more effective conservation and efficiency improvement programs at lower cost with less effort. To date, limited energy-water household data has allowed only deterministic analysis for average, representative households and required coarse assumptions - like the water heater (the primary energy use in a home apart from heating and cooling) be a single end use. Here, we use recent available disaggregated hot and cold water household end-use data to estimate water and energy consumption for toilet, shower, faucet, dishwasher, laundry machine, leaks, and other household uses and savings from appliance retrofits. The disaggregated hot water and bulk water end-use data was previously collected by the USEPA for 96 single family households in Seattle WA and Oakland CA, and Tampa FL between the period from 2000 and 2003 for two weeks before and four weeks after each household was retrofitted with water efficient appliances. Using the disaggregated data, we developed a stochastic model that represents factors that influence water use for each appliance: behavioral (use frequency and duration), demographical (household size), and technological (use volume or flowrate). We also include stochastic factors that govern energy to heat hot water: hot water fraction (percentage of hot water volume to total water volume used in a certain end-use event), heater water intake and dispense temperatures, and energy source for the heater (gas, electric, etc). From the empirical household end-use data, we derive stochastic probability distributions for each water and energy factor where each distribution represents the range and likelihood of values that the factor may take. The uncertainty of the stochastic water and energy factors is propagated using Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the composite probability distribution for water

  4. Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution: A report of the Water Working Group of the International Resource Panel Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global trends have pointed to a relative decoupling of water – that is, the rate of water resource use is increasing at a rate slower than that of economic growth. Despite this progress at the global level, it is projected that by 2030 there will be a 40% gap between water supply and water demand if...

  5. Inequality or injustice in water use for food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2015-02-01

    The global distributions of water availability and population density are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources. Is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water, and the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring ‘virtual water’ embedded in plant and animal commodities. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated patterns of water use with and without trade over a 25-year period to identify the influence of trade and inequality on equitability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, relative to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.

  6. Inequality or injustice in water use for food?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J A; Seekell, D A; D’Odorico, P

    2015-01-01

    The global distributions of water availability and population density are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources. Is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water, and the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring ‘virtual water’ embedded in plant and animal commodities. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated patterns of water use with and without trade over a 25-year period to identify the influence of trade and inequality on equitability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, relative to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality. (letter)

  7. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  8. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, D.; Moilleron, R.; Lorgeoux, C.; El Samarani, A.; Chebbo, Gh.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  9. Handling Uncertain Gross Margin and Water Demand in Agricultural Water Resources Management using Robust Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, D.; Lesmana, E.; Tressiana, N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an application of Robust Optimization in agricultural water resource management problem under gross margin and water demand uncertainty is presented. Water resource management is a series of activities that includes planning, developing, distributing and managing the use of water resource optimally. Water resource management for agriculture can be one of the efforts to optimize the benefits of agricultural output. The objective function of agricultural water resource management problem is to maximizing total benefits by water allocation to agricultural areas covered by the irrigation network in planning horizon. Due to gross margin and water demand uncertainty, we assume that the uncertain data lies within ellipsoidal uncertainty set. We employ robust counterpart methodology to get the robust optimal solution.

  10. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  11. Performance Improvement of Solar Water Stills by Using Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Hamusonde Maambo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of safe and clean drinking water sources is one of the problems faced in most rural communities in Zambia. Water in these communities is mostly obtained from shallow wells and rivers. However, this water might be potentially contaminated with harmful substances such as pathogenic bacteria and therefore, unsafe for drinking. Solar water distillation represents an important alternative to palliate problems of fresh water shortages. Solar water stills can be used to eliminate harmful substances from contaminated water by treating it using free solar energy before it can be consumed. Therefore, there is a need to improve solar still performance to produce a greater quantity of safe drinking water. One possible method to improve performance is through adding reflectors to solar stills. Reflectors improve performance by increasing the quantity of distillate by about 22.3 % at a water depth of 15 mm and about 2 9% at a water depth of 10 mm when compared to the distillate produced from a still without reflectors. The water produced using solar stills with reflectors was tested and adhered to World Health Organization (WHO drinking water standards. This implies that solar distillation with reflectors could be adopted at a larger scale to produce safer drinking water at a reduced cost.

  12. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joan F.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes water-use data collection and quantities of surface water and groundwater diverted for public supply in Kansas for the years 1990 through 2012. Data used in this fact sheet are from the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources and the Kansas Water Office. Water used for public supply represents about 10 percent of all reported water withdrawals in Kansas. Between 1990 and 2012, annual withdrawals for public supply ranged from a low of 121 billion gallons in 1993 to a high of 159 billion gallons in 2012. Differences in annual withdrawals were associated primarily with climatic fluctuations. Six suppliers distributed about one-half of the total water withdrawn for public supply, and nearly three-quarters of the surface water. Surface water represented between 52 and 61 percent of total annual withdrawals for public supply. The proportion of surface water obtained through contracts from Federal reservoirs increased from less than 5 percent in the 1990s to 8 percent in 2011 and 2012. More than 99 percent of the reported water withdrawn for public supply in Kansas in 2012 was metered, which was an increase from 92 percent in 1990. State population increased steadily from 2.5 million people in 1990 to 2.9 million in 2012. Recent estimates indicate that about 95 percent of the total population was served by public water supply; the remainder obtained water from other sources such as private wells. Average per capita water use as calculated for State conservation planning purposes varied by region of the State. The smallest regional average water use for the years 1990–2012 was 98 gallons per person per day in easternmost Kansas, and the largest regional average water use was 274 gallons per person per day in westernmost Kansas.

  13. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; El Banna, I.M.; Ayad, M.A.; Kotby, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  14. Water use patterns and conservation in households of Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fully understanding patterns of water use and water conservation among different consumer groups will help in implementing more effective water conservation programs worldwide. Consequently, we investigated water use patterns, water conservation practices, attitudes, and hindrances to water

  15. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  16. Wise use of water in smart cities - possibilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąk, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The need to save water is due, inter alia, to the paradigm of sustainable development. There are many ways to minimize the consumption of high quality water supplied by the water supply network. These include the simplest way and those complex, requiring additional installation. The lack of water is a big problem, but not only water deficit are dangerous. There is a possibility of secondary water pollution in the water supply network due to changes in network parameters. Changes in these parameters may occur due to reduced demand for water by residents and, as a result, reduced water flow - at the same pipe diameter. The article includes a review with comparative analysis of various classification systems for the tap fittings and other sanitary equipment, such as the Water Efficiency Label (WELL) in Europe or the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) in Australia. Several types of perlators and flow regulators were compared in the research section. This equipment was tested in the household. The possibilities of minimizing water consumption by using them was collated. In addition, the work also analyses the evolution of water consumption in Poland in recent years and their possible relationship with the threats quality of drinking water supplied to consumers.

  17. Wise use of water in smart cities - possibilities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to save water is due, inter alia, to the paradigm of sustainable development. There are many ways to minimize the consumption of high quality water supplied by the water supply network. These include the simplest way and those complex, requiring additional installation. The lack of water is a big problem, but not only water deficit are dangerous. There is a possibility of secondary water pollution in the water supply network due to changes in network parameters. Changes in these parameters may occur due to reduced demand for water by residents and, as a result, reduced water flow - at the same pipe diameter. The article includes a review with comparative analysis of various classification systems for the tap fittings and other sanitary equipment, such as the Water Efficiency Label (WELL in Europe or the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS in Australia. Several types of perlators and flow regulators were compared in the research section. This equipment was tested in the household. The possibilities of minimizing water consumption by using them was collated. In addition, the work also analyses the evolution of water consumption in Poland in recent years and their possible relationship with the threats quality of drinking water supplied to consumers.

  18. Drinking Water Supply without Use of a Disinfectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnochova, Marketa; Tuhovcak, Ladislav; Rucka, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The paper focuses on the issue of drinking water supply without use of any disinfectants. Before the public water supply network operator begins to consider switching to operation without use of chemical disinfection, initial assessment should be made, whether or not the water supply system in question is suitable for this type of operation. The assessment is performed by applying the decision algorithm. The initial assessment is followed by another decision algorithm which serves for managing and controlling the process of switching to drinking water supply without use of a disinfectant. The paper also summarizes previous experience and knowledge of this way operated public water supply systems in the Czech Republic.

  19. Water Jet Technology Used in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Magurová, D.; Valíček, Jan; Kozak, D.; Harničárová, M.; Rakin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2010), s. 237-240 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : abrasive water jet * medicine * technology Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.083, year: 2010

  20. Escherichia Coli Removal from Water Using Electrophotocatalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    inactivation of bacterial microorganisms in areas with low ... disinfection of water contaminated with fecal indicators such as E. coli ... media, brain heart infusion, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide ... furnace at temperature 105 and 320°C f0r 60 min. For 2- and .... charge of E. coli logarithmic growth phase might affect the ...

  1. Uses of warmed water in agriculture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.E.

    1978-11-01

    Energy in the form of warmed water is available from condenser cooling water from fossil fuel or nuclear-electric power-generating facilities, geothermal power plants, geothermal fluids, or spent steam and cooling water from industrial processes. A re-analysis of the characteristics of possible agricultural uses of warmed water has revealed the need to decouple considerations of warmed water sources from those of warmed water users. Conflicting objectives and managerial requirements seem to preclude an integrated system approach. Rather an interface must be established with separate costs and benefits identified for a reliable warmed water source and for its various potential uses. These costs and benefits can be utilized as a basis for decisions separately by the energy supplier and the prospective energy users. A method of classifying uses of warmed water according to need, volume, objective, temperature, and quality is presented and preliminary classifications are discussed for several potential agricultural uses of warmed water. Specific uses for soil warming, space heating in greenhouses, and irrigation are noted. Specific uses in aquaculture for catfish, lobster, and prawn production are discussed. Warmed water use in animal shelters is mentioned. Low-quality heat is required for methane generation from biomass and warmed water heating could be utilized in this industry. 53 references

  2. Case study: Fixture water use and drinking water quality in a new residential green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Abouali, Mohammad; Wang, Mian; Zhou, Zhi; Nejadhashemi, Amir Pouyan; Mitchell, Jade; Caskey, Stephen; Whelton, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Residential plumbing is critical for the health and safety of populations worldwide. A case study was conducted to understand fixture water use, drinking water quality and their possible link, in a newly plumbed residential green building. Water use and water quality were monitored at four in-building locations from September 2015 through December 2015. Once the home was fully inhabited average water stagnation periods were shortest at the 2nd floor hot fixture (90 percentile of 0.6-1.2 h). The maximum water stagnation time was 72.0 h. Bacteria and organic carbon levels increased inside the plumbing system compared to the municipal tap water entering the building. A greater amount of bacteria was detected in hot water samples (6-74,002 gene copy number/mL) compared to cold water (2-597 gene copy number/mL). This suggested that hot water plumbing promoted greater microbial growth. The basement fixture brass needle valve may have caused maximum Zn (5.9 mg/L), Fe (4.1 mg/L), and Pb (23 μg/L) levels compared to other fixture water samples (Zn ≤ 2.1 mg/L, Fe ≤ 0.5 mg/L and Pb ≤ 8 μg/L). At the basement fixture, where the least amount of water use events occurred (cold: 60-105, hot: 21-69 event/month) compared to the other fixtures in the building (cold: 145-856, hot: 326-2230 event/month), greater organic carbon, bacteria, and heavy metal levels were detected. Different fixture use patterns resulted in disparate water quality within a single-family home. The greatest drinking water quality changes were detected at the least frequently used fixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water use efficiency of tomatoes - in greenhouses and hydroponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Massive amounts of water are required for the production of our food, varying from several cubic metres per kilogram of beef to as low as 4 litres per kilogram for tomatoes grown in high-tech glasshouses. This article presents data on Product Water Use (PWU) of some foods and discusses how the water

  4. BOARD-invited review : Quantifying water use in ruminant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legesse, G.; Ominski, K. H.; Beauchemin, K. A.; Pfister, S.; Martel, M.; McGeough, E. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Kroebel, R.; Cordeiro, M. R.C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of

  5. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  6. Using Scientific Inquiry to Teach Students about Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, Helena; Holt, Jame

    2012-01-01

    This semi-guided inquiry activity explores the macroinvertebrate fauna in water sources affected by different levels of pollution. Students develop their ability to identify macroinvertebrates, compare aquatic fauna from different sources of water samples, evaluate water quality using an index, document and analyze data, raise questions and…

  7. Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa Al Hawari; Mohammad Khader; Tarek Zayed; Osama Moselhi

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imagin...

  8. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jamil; M.R. Ahmad; K. Ali; A. Habeeb; M. Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The p...

  9. Emergency field water supply system using natural filtration elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikneswaran, M.; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Ismail, Siti Nor Kamariah

    2018-02-01

    Water is the most important resource in times of emergency and during military missions. In addition, if there is a war in a country, sources of clean water are essential for life. But, the safety and cleanliness of the river water for the campers and hikers still uncertain. Usually, polluted and contaminated river water is not safe to be directly consumed by human. However, this problem can be partly resolved by using water filter where the river water can be consumed directly after the filtration process. In respect of that, this study was conducted to design the filter media for personal water purification system. Hence, the objective of this work also is to develop a personal, portable dual purpose handy water filter to provide an easier way to get safe, clean and healthy drinking water for human wherever they go. The water quality of samples collected before and after filtration were analyzed. Water samples were taken from a waterfall near Lestari Block and Lake beside Marine Centre UPNM Campus. The experimental results were analyzed based on the assessment of water quality parameters. Overall, the analysis of the results showed that the water filter was designed with basic mix tabs aqua filter water purification tablets is showing a better result where it achieve the class I of water quality index (WQI). In details, the water sample taken from waterfall near Lestari Block shown the WQI around 93 which is higher than WQI of water sample from Lake near Marine Centre UPNM which is 86, class II A which can be used for external purpose only.

  10. Impact of climate forcing uncertainty and human water use on global and continental water balance components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Müller Schmied

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971–2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (−6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean. Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.

  11. How much water flows? Examining water allocations using a mobile decision lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickert, G. E.; Gober, P.; Bradford, L. E.; Phillips, P.; Ross, J.

    2016-12-01

    Management of freshwater resources is a complex and multifaceted issues. Big challenges like scarcity, conflicts over water use and access, and ecosystem degradation are widespread around the world. These issues reflects ineffective past practices and signals the need for a fundamental change. Previous actions to mitigate these problems have been incremental rather than innovative, in part because of inherent conservatism in the water management community and an inability to experiment with water allocations in a safe environment. The influence of transboundary water policies was tested using a mobile decision lab which examined three theory areas: limited territorial sovereignty, absolute territorial sovereignty, and shared risk. The experiment allowed people engaged in the water sector to allocate incoming flows to different sectors: agriculture, municipal, industrial and environmental flows in two flow scenarios; slight shortage and extreme water shortage, and to pass on the remaining water to downstream regions. Mandatory sharing 50% of the natural flows between provinces (i.e. limited territorial sovereignty) achieved the most equitable allocation based on water units and points across the three regions. When there were no allocation rules (i.e. absolute territorial sovereignty) the downstream region received significantly less water (e.g. 8-11%. p affect on the amount of water flowing through the region. It is also notable that most participants sought a trade-off of water allocations, minimizing the allocations to agriculture and industry and prioritizing the municipal sector particularity under the severe drought scenario.

  12. Estimated use of water in the United States, 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKichan, K.A.; Kammerer, J.C.

    1961-01-01

    The estimated overage withdrawal use of water in the United States during 1960 was almost 270,000 mgd (million gallons per day), exclusive of water used to develop water power. This estimated use amounts to about 1,500 gpd (galIons per day) per capita. An additional 2,000,000 mgd were used to develop waterpower.Withdrawal use of water requires that the water be removed from the ground or diverted from a stream or lake. In this report the use is divided into five types: public supplies, rural, irrigation, self-supplied industrial, and waterpower. Consumptive use of water is the quantity discharged to the atmosphere or incorporated in the products of the process in which it was used. Only 61,000 mgd of the 270,000 mgd withdrawn was consumed.Of the water withdrawn in 1960, 220,000 mgd (including irrigation conveyance losses) was taken from surface sources and 47,000 from underground sources. Withdrawal of water for uses other than waterpower has increased 12 percent since 1955. The amount of water used for generation of waterpower has! increased 33 percent since 1955. The use of saline water was almost twice as great in 1960 as in 1955.The upper limit of our water supply is the average annual runoff, nearly 1,200,000 mgd. The supply in 1960 was depleted by 61,000 mgd, the amount of water consumed. However, a large part of the water withdrawn but not consumed was deteriorated in quality.

  13. Treatment of waters before use. Processes and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some industrial processes require a water without any particulate in suspension and stable with respect to various aspects: no post-precipitations, no interference with storage and distribution equipments (corrosion or fouling), no development of bacterial, algal or other type of fauna (no chemical nutrients) etc. The water preparation process used will be different depending on the origin of the water (surface or underground). This article describes, first, the different type of treatments depending on the origin of the water and on the quality requested (clear and stable water, drinkable water, specific complementary processes, different processing files). Then, in a second part, the application of these processes to some industries are given (beverage, food, textile, paper, steel-making, aerospace and automotive, petroleum, power plants, ultra-pure waters) and in particular the preparation of demineralized water for nuclear power plants is described. (J.S.)

  14. Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Watershed under Limited Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsung, F.; Möhring, J.; Otto, I. M.; Wang, X.; Guanting Project Team

    2012-04-01

    The Yongding River System is an important water source for the northeastern Chinese provinces Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Guanting Reservoir within this river system is one of the major water sources for Beijing, which is about 70 km away. Original planning assumed a discharge of 44 m3/s for the reservoir, but the current mean discharge rate is only about 5 m3/s; there is often hardly any discharge at all. Water scarcity is a major threat for the socio-economic development of the area. The situation is additionally aggravated by climate change impacts. Typical upstream-downstream conflicts with respect to water quantity and quality requests are mixed up with conflicts between different sectors, mainly mining, industry, and agriculture. These conflicts can be observed on different administrative levels, for example between the provinces, down to households. The German-Chinese research project "Sustainable water and agricultural land use in the Guanting Watershed under limited water resources" investigates problems and solutions related to water scarcity in the Guanting Catchment. The aim of the project is to create a vulnerability study in order to assess options for (and finally achieve) sustainable water and land use management in the Guanting region. This includes a comprehensive characterization of the current state by gap analysis and identification of pressures and impacts. The presentation gives an overview of recent project results regarding regionalization of global change scenarios and specification for water supply, evaluation of surface water quantity balances (supply-demand), evaluation of the surface water quality balances (emissions-impact thresholds), and exploration of integrative measurement planning. The first results show that climate in the area is becoming warmer and drier which leads to even more dramatically shrinking water resources. Water supply is expected to be reduced between one and two thirds. Water demand might be

  15. Making equipment to process paddy water for providing drinking water by using Ozone-UVC& Ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styani, E.; Dja'var, N.; Irawan, C.; Hanafi

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on making equipment which is useful to process paddy water to be consumable as drinking water by using ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration. The equipment which is made by the process of ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis is driven by electric power generated from solar panels. In the experiment, reverse osmosis system with ozone-UVC reactor proves to be good enough in producing high quality drinking water.

  16. The Productive Use of Rural Piped Water in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph P. Hall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a growing interest in the potential benefits related to the productive use of rural piped water around the homestead. However, there is limited empirical research on the extent to which, and conditions under which, this activity occurs. Using data obtained from a comprehensive study of 47 rural piped water systems in Senegal, this paper reveals the extent of piped-water-based productive activity occurring and identifies important system-level variables associated with this activity. Three-quarters (74% of the households surveyed depend on water for their livelihoods with around one-half (54% relying on piped water. High levels of piped-water-based productive activity were found to be associated with shorter distances from a community to a city or paved road (i.e. markets, more capable water system operators and water committees, and communities that contributed to the construction of the piped water system. Further, access to electricity was associated with higher productive incomes from water-based productive activities, highlighting the role that non-water-related inputs have on the extent of productive activities undertaken. Finally, an analysis of the technical performance of piped water systems found no statistically significant association between high vs. low levels of productive activity and system performance; however, a positive relationship was found between system performance and the percentage of households engaged in productive activities.

  17. Patterns of Tamarix water use during a record drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Jesse B; Butler, James J; Kluitenberg, Gerard J; Whittemore, Donald O; Arnold, Dave; Spal, Scott E; Ward, Joy K

    2010-02-01

    During a record drought (2006) in southwest Kansas, USA, we assessed groundwater dynamics in a shallow, unconfined aquifer, along with plant water sources and physiological responses of the invasive riparian shrub Tamarix ramosissima. In early May, diel water table fluctuations indicated evapotranspirative consumption of groundwater by vegetation. During the summer drought, the water table elevation dropped past the lowest position previously recorded. Concurrent with this drop, water table fluctuations abruptly diminished at all wells at which they had previously been observed despite increasing evapotranspirative demand. Following reductions in groundwater fluctuations, volumetric water content declined corresponding to the well-specific depths of the capillary fringe in early May, suggesting a switch from primary dependence on groundwater to vadose-zone water. In at least one well, the fluctuations appear to re-intensify in August, suggesting increased groundwater uptake by Tamarix or other non-senesced species from a deeper water table later in the growing season. Our data suggest that Tamarix can rapidly shift water sources in response to declines in the water table. The use of multiple water sources by Tamarix minimized leaf-level water stress during drought periods. This study illustrates the importance of the previous hydrologic conditions experienced by site vegetation for controlling root establishment at depth and demonstrates the utility of data from high-frequency hydrologic monitoring in the interpretation of plant water sources using isotopic methods.

  18. Water use sources of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhua; Feng, Qi; Cao, Shengkui; Yu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunyan

    2014-09-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main body of natural oases in the lower reaches of inland rivers; its growth and distribution are closely related to water use sources. However, how does the desert riparian forest obtains a stable water source and which water sources it uses to effectively avoid or overcome water stress to survive? This paper describes an analysis of the water sources, using the stable oxygen isotope technique and the linear mixed model of the isotopic values and of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests growing at sites with different groundwater depths and conditions. The results showed that the main water source of Populus euphratica changes from water in a single soil layer or groundwater to deep subsoil water and groundwater as the depth of groundwater increases. This appears to be an adaptive selection to arid and water-deficient conditions and is a primary reason for the long-term survival of P. euphratica in the desert riparian forest of an extremely arid region. Water contributions from the various soil layers and from groundwater differed and the desert riparian P. euphratica forests in different habitats had dissimilar water use strategies.

  19. Investigating the feasibility of using recycled processed water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J. [Urban Systems, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    By the year 2025, 52 countries, with two-thirds of the world's population, are expected to have water shortages. Approximately 3,800 cubic kilometres of fresh water is withdrawn annually from the world's lakes, river and aquifers, which is twice the volume extracted 50 years ago. Water use considerations, alternative water sources, and considerations when using recycled water were discussed in this presentation. A case study of the city of Dawson Creek was provided as it pertained to water reuse in the oil and gas industry. Considerations for recycled water use include health concerns; perception of sewage versus effluent; industrial workers' concerns; and the end product concept. Quality issues were also discussed along with access to water sources, regulations and risks. The case study included a discussion of guiding principles; Dawson Creek's water system; industrial water uses; wastewater system; effluent characteristics; and effluent reuse opportunities. It was concluded that concerns regarding water reuse are not insurmountable providing the driving factors are strong. figs.

  20. Water use by Eucalypt Clones Growing at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out between April and October 2014 to investigate the amount of water used by Eucalypt clones grown at Kongowe, Tanzania. Sap flow sensors using heat pulse velocity were deployed across GC 167, GC 15 and GC 940 in wet and dry seasons. Data on water use were analysed using sap flow software ...

  1. Water use efficiency and integrated water resource management for river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangzheng; Singh, R. B.; Liu, Junguo; Güneralp, Burak

    Water use efficiency and management have attracted increasing attention as water has become scare to challenge the world's sustainable development. Water use efficiency is correlated to the land use and cover changes (LUCC), population distribution, industrial structure, economic development, climate changes, and environmental governance. These factors significantly alter water productivity for water balance through the changes in natural environment and socio-economic system (Wang et al., 2015b). Consequently, dynamics of water inefficiency lower the social welfare of water allocation (Wang et al., 2015b), and induce water management alternation interactively and financially (Wang et al., 2015a). This triggers on actual water price changes through both natural resource and socioeconomic system (Zhou et al., 2015). Therefore, it is very important to figure out a mechanism of water allocation in the course of LUCC (Jin et al., 2015) at a global perspective (Zhao et al., 2015), climate and economic changes of ecosystem service at various spatial and temporal scales (Li et al., 2015).

  2. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  3. Water equity – Contrasting tourism water use with that of the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Becken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism as an economic activity has grown substantially and is increasingly adding to local and seasonal pressures on water supply systems of tourist destinations around the world. Based on data from the AQUASTAT and EarthCheck tourist accommodation databases, this research analysed tourism-related water use in 21 countries and compared it with other municipal use. Tourists׳ water use on a per guest night basis was found to differ substantially, with water usage being highest (up to 956 l per guest night in China and most diverse in developing countries. The disparity between tourist water use and that of locals is also greatest in low or mid-income countries. Industrialised countries, in contrast, are characterised by high tourism water efficiencies, with no apparent discrepancy in water use between tourism and non-tourism users. Implications of this research for managing potential water conflicts and the need for broader tourist destination stewardship for water resources are discussed.

  4. Filtration in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundquist, Arthur; Clarke, Steven; Bettin, William

    2006-01-01

    .... Understanding the ability of filtration to reduce disease-causing microorganisms in water is important in protecting Soldiers, who are considering using this technology, from acute health threats...

  5. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition.

  6. Use of neutron water and gamma density gauges in soil water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirda, C.

    1990-01-01

    Irrigation practices should be improved to increase effective use of water and thereby increasing irrigated areas as well as securing soil productivity under irrigated agriculture. Under dry farming systems of rainfed agriculture, different tillage practices should be tested for improved soil water conservation and rain harvesting. The research work addressing the above mentioned problems requires methods to measure soil water content accurately and conveniently. In the following article, the methods which are currently used to measure field soil water content were discussed. 34 refs, 13 figs, 13 tabs

  7. Water Resources of Tajikistan and Water Use Issues in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mukhabbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the formation and use of water resources in Tajikistan. The natural and geographic conditions as well as distribution of water resources across the economic regions are analyzed. It is stressed that after breakup of the Soviet Union the water use issues in Central Asia have acquired the dimensions of the interstate economic and political problems. Demographic growth, activation of desertification, global warming make most relevant the issue of equitable redistribution of water resources as the most valuable resource for economy.

  8. Hydraulic modeling of clay ceramic water filters for point-of-use water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Ryan W; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-02

    The acceptability of ceramic filters for point-of-use water treatment depends not only on the quality of the filtered water, but also on the quantity of water the filters can produce. This paper presents two mathematical models for the hydraulic performance of ceramic water filters under typical usage. A model is developed for two common filter geometries: paraboloid- and frustum-shaped. Both models are calibrated and evaluated by comparison to experimental data. The hydraulic models are able to predict the following parameters as functions of time: water level in the filter (h), instantaneous volumetric flow rate of filtrate (Q), and cumulative volume of water produced (V). The models' utility is demonstrated by applying them to estimate how the volume of water produced depends on factors such as the filter shape and the frequency of filling. Both models predict that the volume of water produced can be increased by about 45% if users refill the filter three times per day versus only once per day. Also, the models predict that filter geometry affects the volume of water produced: for two filters with equal volume, equal wall thickness, and equal hydraulic conductivity, a filter that is tall and thin will produce as much as 25% more water than one which is shallow and wide. We suggest that the models can be used as tools to help optimize filter performance.

  9. Scenario-based Water Resources Management Using the Water Value Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard

    2013-04-01

    The Saskatchewan River is the key water resource for the 3 prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Western Canada, and thus it is necessary to pursue long-term regional and watershed-based planning for the river basin. The water resources system is complex because it includes multiple components, representing various demand sectors, including the environment, which impose conflicting objectives, and multiple jurisdictions. The biophysical complexity is exacerbated by the socioeconomic dimensions associated for example with impacts of land and water management, value systems including environmental flows, and policy and governance dimensions.. We focus on the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB) in Alberta and Saskatchewan, which is already fully allocated in southern Alberta and is subject to increasing demand due to rapid economic development and a growing population. Multiple sectors and water uses include agricultural, municipal, industrial, mining, hydropower, and environmental flow requirements. The significant spatial variability in the level of development and future needs for water places different values on water across the basin. Water resources planning and decision making must take these complexities into consideration, yet also deal with a new dimension—climate change and its possible future impacts on water resources systems. There is a pressing need to deal with water in terms of its value, rather than a mere commodity subject to traditional quantitative optimization. In this research, a value-based water resources system (VWRS) model is proposed to couple the hydrological and the societal aspects of water resources in one integrated modeling tool for the SSRB. The objective of this work is to develop the VWRS model as a negotiation, planning, and management tool that allows for the assessment of the availability, as well as the allocation scenarios, of water resources for competing users under varying conditions. The proposed

  10. Point-of-use water purification using clay pot water filters and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All other critical parameters such as total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity and ions in the filtered water were also within acceptable levels for drinking water quality. The filtration rate of the pot was also measured as a function of grain size of the sawdust and height of the water column in it. The filtration rate was ...

  11. From water use to water scarcity footprinting in environmentally extended input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley George; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Nolan, Martin; Bryan, Brett A

    2018-05-18

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) supports environmental policy by quantifying how demand for goods and services leads to resource use and emissions across the economy. However, some types of resource use and emissions require spatially-explicit impact assessment for meaningful interpretation, which is not possible in conventional EEIOA. For example, water use in locations of scarcity and abundance is not environmentally equivalent. Opportunities for spatially-explicit impact assessment in conventional EEIOA are limited because official input-output tables tend to be produced at the scale of political units which are not usually well aligned with environmentally relevant spatial units. In this study, spatially-explicit water scarcity factors and a spatially disaggregated Australian water use account were used to develop water scarcity extensions that were coupled with a multi-regional input-output model (MRIO). The results link demand for agricultural commodities to the problem of water scarcity in Australia and globally. Important differences were observed between the water use and water scarcity footprint results, as well as the relative importance of direct and indirect water use, with significant implications for sustainable production and consumption-related policies. The approach presented here is suggested as a feasible general approach for incorporating spatially-explicit impact assessment in EEIOA.

  12. Estimated use of water in South Dakota, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    During 2005, withdrawals from ground-water and surface-water sources in South Dakota for the eight categories of offstream use totaled about 500 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Of total withdrawals, about 271 Mgal/d was withdrawn from ground water and about 230 Mgal/d was withdrawn from surface water. The largest use of water in South Dakota during 2005 was irrigation, which accounted for about 58 percent of the total water withdrawn, followed by public supply, which accounted for about 20 percent of withdrawals. Public-supply systems served about 666,210 people, or about 86 percent of South Dakota's population in 2005. Public-supply systems withdrew about 100 Mgal/d in 2005. Ground-water withdrawals accounted for about 66 percent of the total withdrawals (66 Mgal/d), and surface-water withdrawals accounted for about 34 percent of total withdrawals (35 Mgal/d). Total public-supply withdrawals averaged about 151 gallons per day (gal/d) per capita. About 65 percent of the public-supply water was used for domestic purposes, and the average per capita domestic use was 99 gal/d. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals were about 8 Mgal/d, all of which was from ground water. About 109,750 people obtained household water from private wells in 2005, and per capita use was about 70 gal/d. Industrial self-supplied water use during 2005 was about 4 Mgal/d, of which about 98 percent was from ground water and about 2 percent was from surface water. Total withdrawals for thermoelectric use were about 5 Mgal/d, of which about 1 Mgal/d was from ground water and about 4 Mgal/d was from surface water. Total mining water use was about 10 Mgal/d, of which about 5 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 6 Mgal/d came from surface water. Total livestock water use was about 48 Mgal/d, of which about 19 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 28 Mgal/d came from surface water. Total aquaculture use was about 33 Mgal/d, of which about 19 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 14 Mgal/d came

  13. Design of aquaponics water monitoring system using Arduino microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, S. A. Z.; Harun, A.; Mohyar, S. N.; Sapawi, R.; Ten, S. Y.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the design of aquaponics water monitoring system using Arduino microcontroller. Arduino Development Environment (IDE) software is used to develop a program for the microcontroller to communicate with multiple sensors and other hardware. The circuit of pH sensor, temperature sensor, water sensor, servo, liquid crystal displays (LCD), peristaltic pump, solar and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) are constructed and connected to the system. The system powered by a rechargeable battery using solar energy. When the results of pH, temperature and water sensor are out of range, a notification message will be sent to a mobile phone through GSM. If the pH of water is out of range, peristaltic pump is automatic on to maintain back the pH value of water. The water sensor is fixed in the siphon outlet water flow to detect water flow from grow bed to the fish tank. In addition, servo is used to auto feeding the fish for every 12 hours. Meanwhile, the LCD is indicated the pH, temperature, siphon outlet water flow and remaining time for the next feeding cycle. The pH and temperature of water are set in the ranges of 6 to 7 and 25 °C to 30 °C, respectively.

  14. SEBAL Model Using to Estimate Irrigation Water Efficiency & Water Requirement of Alfalfa Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of irrigation is a complex and comprehensive undertaking, requiring an attention to much more than hydraulics, chemistry, and agronomy. A special combination of human, environmental, and economic factors exists in each irrigated region and must be recognized and evaluated. A way to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation water use for crop production is to consider the so-called crop-water production functions, which express the relation between the yield of a crop and the quantity of water applied to it or consumed by it. The term has been used in a somewhat ambiguous way. Some authors have defined the Crop-Water Production Functions between yield and the total amount of water applied, whereas others have defined it as a relation between yield and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET). In case of high efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied is less than the potential evapotranspiration (PET), then - assuming no significant change of soil moisture storage from beginning of the growing season to its end-the volume of water may be roughly equal to ET. In other case of low efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied exceeds PET, then the excess of volume of water applied over PET must go to either augmenting soil moisture storage (end-of-season moisture being greater than start-of-season soil moisture) or to runoff or/and deep percolation beyond the root zone. In presented contribution some results of a case study of estimation of biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for irrigated alfalfa by SEBAL algorithm will be discussed. The field study was conducted with aim to compare ground biomass of alfalfa at some irrigated fields (provided by agricultural farm) at Saratov and Volgograd Regions of Russia. The study was conducted during vegetation period of 2012 from April till September. All the operations from importing the data to calculation of the output data were carried by eLEAF company and uploaded in Fieldlook web

  15. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  16. Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapat Silalertruksa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is a vital economic sector of many countries in Asia, including Thailand, with the well-being of people relying significantly on selling rice commodities. Water-intensive rice cultivation is facing the challenge of water scarcity. The study assessed the volumetric freshwater use and water scarcity footprint of the major and second rice cultivation systems in the Chao Phraya, Tha Chin, Mun, and Chi watersheds of Thailand. The results revealed that a wide range of freshwater use, i.e., 0.9–3.0 m3/kg of major rice and 0.9–2.3 m3/kg of second rice, and a high water use of rice was found among the watersheds in the northeastern region, like the Mun and Chi watersheds. However, the water scarcity footprint results showed that the second rice cultivation in watersheds, like in Chao Phraya and Tha Chin in the central region, need to be focused for improving the irrigation water use efficiency. The alternate wetting and drying (AWD method was found to be a promising approach for substituting the pre-germinated seed broadcasting system to enhance the water use efficiency of second rice cultivation in the central region. Recommendations vis-à-vis the use of the water stress index as a tool for agricultural zoning policy were also discussed.

  17. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Pontius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited, cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt, total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L, and color (1440 CU. Future wetlands and habitat restoration will have significant ecological benefits, but salinity levels will remain elevated. High salinity eutrophic waters, such as the Salton Sea, are difficult to treat, yet more desirable sources of drinking water are limited. The treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use was evaluated here. Coagulation-sedimentation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride, and alum proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity, with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO achieved initial contaminant rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

  18. Exploring the water-energy nexus in Brazil: The electricity use for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo; Perrella Balestieri, José Antônio

    2015-01-01

    The present work evaluates the electricity use for the water production and supply in Brazil. Five categories of indicators were proposed, that is, per capita, water losses, energy, greenhouse gases (GHGs) and financial/economic, which were used in the definition of municipal average values. It takes an average 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 for production and water supply in the country. The results demonstrate that the water supply systems accounted for, at least, 1.9% of total electricity consumption in Brazil in 2012, and the water loss wastes 27% of water and energy in the water supply systems from Brazil. The production and distribution of 1 m 3 of water in Brazilian cities represents the emission of 0.050 ± 0.004 kgCO2e, being 0.014 ± 0.001 kgCO2e.m −3 associated with the water loss volumes. Furthermore, the average Brazilian cities' expenditure with electricity for the water supply is US$ 0.14 ± US$ 0.01, which corresponds to 16.8% ± 0.7% of operating expenditures and 12.9% ± 0.5% of total expenditure of the WSSs. The NE Region is the one that presents the greatest potential for the application of hydraulic and energy efficiency measures in water supply systems (WSSs). - Highlights: • We analyze the electricity use in Brazilian water supply systems. • Five categories of indicators were analyzed statistically. • Brazilian water supply systems uses 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 to supply water. • At least 1.9% of Brazilian electricity consumption is used in water supply systems. • The Northeast Region of Brazil presents the higher energy/water saving potential

  19. Human Water Use Impacts on the Strength of the Continental Sink for Atmospheric Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jessica; Sulis, Mauro; Kollet, Stefan; Siebert, Stefan; Wada, Yoshihide

    2018-05-01

    In the hydrologic cycle, continental landmasses constitute a sink for atmospheric moisture as annual terrestrial precipitation commonly exceeds evapotranspiration. Simultaneously, humans intervene in the hydrologic cycle and pump groundwater to sustain, for example, drinking water and food production. Here we use a coupled groundwater-to-atmosphere modeling platform, set up over the European continent, to study the influence of groundwater pumping and irrigation on the net atmospheric moisture import of the continental landmasses, which defines the strength of the continental sink. Water use scenarios are constructed to account for uncertainties of atmospheric feedback during the heatwave year 2003. We find that human water use induces groundwater-to-atmosphere feedback, which potentially weaken the continental sink over arid watersheds in southern Europe. This feedback is linked to groundwater storage, which suggests that atmospheric feedbacks to human water use may contribute to drying of watersheds, thereby raising water resources and socio-economic concerns beyond local sustainability considerations.

  20. Body composition and water metabolism in tropical ruminants using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Kalanidhi, A.P.; Gosh, T.K.; Singh, U.B.; Saxena, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    Experiment 1. Studies were conducted on Muzaffarnagri, Muzaffarnagri x Dorset and Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk breeds of sheep to determine the water turnover rates and body composition. The native Muzaffarnagri and crossbred animals did not differ significantly in body composition. The water turnover rates were not significantly different between breeds within the same season, but a significant difference was observed between the two seasons (winter and summer). Experiment 2. Nine animals, three each of crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), buffalo and crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk), were used to determine the body composition by the indirect method in the two seasons. There was a reduction in the TOH space and total body water during the summer season in cattle and buffalo as compared with the winter season. Experiment 3. Four adult Barbari goats were used to study body composition by direct (slaughter) and indirect (isotope dilution) techniques. There was a significant correlation between corrected TOH space and total body water, fat and protein. Experiment 4. Twelve animals, three each of buffalo, crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk) and Barbari goats, were used to determine the water requirements during the two seasons (winter and summer) by the tritiated water (TOH) dilution technique. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the water requirement and water turnover between seasons and between species within a season. The lowest water turnover and water requirement were found in goats, followed by sheep, crossbred cattle and buffalo when expressed as ml/kgsup(0.82).d. The metabolic water production was 10% of the total water input in the case of buffalo and crossbred cattle, but it was more in sheep and goats in both seasons

  1. Copper alloys disintegration using pulsating water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, Jiří; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Królczyk, J. B.; Cárach, J.; Krolczyk, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, March 2016 (2016), s. 375-383 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * generation of pulses * disintegration * surface morphology * copper alloys Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224116000154/1-s2.0-S0263224116000154-main.pdf?_tid=8f8d1de6-99e9-11e6-afbc-00000aacb362&acdnat=1477314089_59912e52847e91e2030d6a1afd09e7b2

  2. Crop modelling and water use efficiency of protected cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moujabber, M.; Atallah, Th.; Darwish, T.

    2002-01-01

    Crop modelling is considered an essential tool of planning. The automation of irrigation scheduling using crop models would contribute to an optimisation of water and fertiliser use of protected crops. To achieve this purpose, two experiments were carried. The first one aimed at determining water requirements and irrigation scheduling using climatic data. The second experiment was to establish the influence of irrigation interval and fertigation regime on water use efficiency. The results gave a simple model for the determination of the water requirements of protected cucumber by the use of climatic data: ETc=K* Ep. K and Ep are calculated using climatic data outside the greenhouse. As for water use efficiency, the second experiment highlighted the fact that a high frequency and continuous feeding are highly recommended for maximising yield. (author)

  3. Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60 Co and 137 Cs isotopes and the 90 Sr- 90 Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

  4. The Water-Use Implications of a Changing Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-12-01

    Changing policies, declining natural gas prices due to shale production and, growing pressure for cleaner energy sources are causing significant shifts in the fuels and technologies utilized for US electricity generation. These shifts have already impacted the volumes of water required for cooling thermal power plants, imposing consequences for watersheds that have yet to be quantified. This research investigates how these regulatory, economic, and socially-driven changes in the power sector have impacted cooling water usage across the US, which currently represents nearly half of US water withdrawals. This study uses plant-specific fuel consumption, generation, and cooling water data to assess water usage trends in the power sector from 2008 to 2014 across HUC-8 hydrologic units. Over this period, transitions from steam-cycle coal and nuclear units towards combined-cycle natural gas units and renewables, as well as transitions from once-through cooling towards wet recirculating tower and dry cooling systems resulted in large shifts in water usage. Trends towards non-traditional cooling water sources such as recycled water reduced freshwater consumption in some watersheds. Although US cooling water withdrawals and consumption increased from 2008 to 2014 largely due to electricity demand growth, the average water withdrawn and consumed per unit of electricity generated decreased and remained similar in magnitude, respectively. Changes at the watershed scale were not uniform, with some experiencing significant water use reductions and environmental benefits, especially due to coal-fired power plant retirements. Results highlight the importance of evaluating both water withdrawals and consumption at local spatial scales, as these shifts have varying consequences on water availability and quality for downstream users and ecosystems. This analysis underscores the importance of prioritizing local water security in global climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.

  5. Realizing the geothermal electricity potential—water use and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar Mishra, Gouri; Glassley, William E.; Yeh, Sonia

    2011-07-01

    Electricity from geothermal resources has the potential to supply a significant portion of US baseload electricity. We estimate the water requirements of geothermal electricity and the impact of potential scaling up of such electricity on water demand in various western states with rich geothermal resources but stressed water resources. Freshwater, degraded water, and geothermal fluid requirements are estimated explicitly. In general, geothermal electricity has higher water intensity (l kWh - 1) than thermoelectric or solar thermal electricity. Water intensity decreases with increase in resource enthalpy, and freshwater gets substituted by degraded water at higher resource temperatures. Electricity from enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) could displace 8-100% of thermoelectricity generated in most western states. Such displacement would increase stress on water resources if re-circulating evaporative cooling, the dominant cooling system in the thermoelectric sector, is adopted. Adoption of dry cooling, which accounts for 78% of geothermal capacity today, will limit changes in state-wide freshwater abstraction, but increase degraded water requirements. We suggest a research and development focus to develop advanced energy conversion and cooling technologies that reduce water use without imposing energy and consequent financial penalties. Policies should incentivize the development of higher enthalpy resources, and support identification of non-traditional degraded water sources and optimized siting of geothermal plants.

  6. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky

    2017-11-01

    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  7. Realizing the geothermal electricity potential-water use and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Yeh, Sonia; Glassley, William E

    2011-01-01

    Electricity from geothermal resources has the potential to supply a significant portion of US baseload electricity. We estimate the water requirements of geothermal electricity and the impact of potential scaling up of such electricity on water demand in various western states with rich geothermal resources but stressed water resources. Freshwater, degraded water, and geothermal fluid requirements are estimated explicitly. In general, geothermal electricity has higher water intensity (l kWh -1 ) than thermoelectric or solar thermal electricity. Water intensity decreases with increase in resource enthalpy, and freshwater gets substituted by degraded water at higher resource temperatures. Electricity from enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) could displace 8-100% of thermoelectricity generated in most western states. Such displacement would increase stress on water resources if re-circulating evaporative cooling, the dominant cooling system in the thermoelectric sector, is adopted. Adoption of dry cooling, which accounts for 78% of geothermal capacity today, will limit changes in state-wide freshwater abstraction, but increase degraded water requirements. We suggest a research and development focus to develop advanced energy conversion and cooling technologies that reduce water use without imposing energy and consequent financial penalties. Policies should incentivize the development of higher enthalpy resources, and support identification of non-traditional degraded water sources and optimized siting of geothermal plants.

  8. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  9. Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Sustainable use of Brackish water for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Iqbal, M.; Subhani, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The good quality surface-water is not sufficient to meet the crop water requirement for potential crop production. To augment the inadequate supplies of good quality water the only alternative is the use of poor quality , ground water. To explore sustainable use of brackish water a study was conducted in Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia South, Bahawalnagar, Punjab during the year 1998-99 to 2000-2001 with the objective to evaluate the impact of different irrigation treatments on physical and chemical properties of soil and crops yield. The experiment was conducted on farmer's field with his collaboration. The initial soil pH was about 8.0 while ECe and SAR ranged between 2.0 to 4.1 dS m/sup -/1 and 7.1 to 15.1 (mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/)1/2, respectively with sandy loam texture. The brackish water used for irrigation had ECiw, SAR and RSC between 5.6 to 6.7 dS m/sup -/1, 15.1 to 16.4 (mmolc L/sup -1/sup 1/2/ and 1.52 to 1.64 (mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/.The crops tested were wheat during Rabi and cotton during Kharif season. The treatments tested were: irrigation with canal water (T/sub 1/), canal water during Rabi and drainage water during Kharif (T/sub 2/), drainage water for two years and canal water for one season(T/sub 3/); and drainage water for three years + application of gypsum at the rate of 25% of CWR and thereafter canal water for one season(T 4). Fertilizers were applied at the rate of 120-60-50 N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K20 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively in the form of urea, diammonium phosphate and sulfate of potash. Crops irrigated with drainage water visualized yield reduction depending upon the share of drainage water in the irrigation delta. Application of gypsum provided reasonable check against salinity build-up with brackish water irrigation besides a nominal boost of 3 and 5% in yield of wheat and cotton, respectively over comparable treatment of year-round brackish water irrigation lacking gypsum application. Drainage water in alternate arrangement of seasonal

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  12. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George

    2017-10-01

    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.

  13. Estimation of water demand in water distribution systems using particle swarm optimization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letting, LK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available and an evolutionary algorithm is a potential solution to the demand estimation problem. This paper presents a detailed process simulation model for water demand estimation using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Nodal water demands and pipe flows...

  14. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  16. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Tree production in desert regions using effluent and water harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin M. Karpiscak; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Treated municipal effluent combined with water harvesting can be used for land restoration and enhancing the growth of important riparian tree species. Paired studies in Arizona are assessing the potential of growing trees using mixtures of effluent and potable water. Trees are grown in the field and in containers. Initial results from the field show high survival for...

  18. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and

  19. A preliminary investigation of the water use efficiency of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh and dry aboveground biomass yield, stalk yield and stalk Brix % were measured at final harvest. Theoretical ethanol yield was calculated from fresh stalk yield and Brix %. Water use for the two growing seasons was 415 mm at Ukulinga and 398 mm at Hatfield. The ethanol water use efficiency (WUE) values for the ...

  20. Hyper-saline produced water treatment for beneficial use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Furaiji, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Producing oil and gas is always accompanied with large amounts of effluent water, called “produced water” (PW). These huge quantities of water can be used (if treated efficiently and economically) for many useful purposes like industrial applications, irrigation, cattle and animal consumption, and

  1. Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.

  2. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  3. 78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  4. 78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  5. 78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the approved by rule projects..., being rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  6. 78 FR 17281 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  7. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  8. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the...

  9. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the...

  10. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  11. 77 FR 66909 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  12. 77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  13. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  14. 77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  15. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  16. 77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects rescinded by the... the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  17. 77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects rescinded by the... rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth...

  18. 77 FR 4859 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  19. 77 FR 55892 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  20. 77 FR 59239 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  1. Seawater desalination using small and medium light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Water is an essential substance for sustaining human life. As Japan is an island country, surrounded by the sea and having abundant rainfall, there is no scarcity of water in daily life except during abnormally dry summers or after disasters such as earthquakes. Consequently, there is hardly any demand for seawater desalination plants except on remote islands, Okinawa and a part of Kyushu. However, the IAEA has forecast a scarcity of drinking water in developing countries at the beginning of the 21st century. Further, much more irrigation water will be required every year to prevent cultivated areas from being lost by desertification. If developing countries were to produce such water by seawater desalination using current fossil fuel energy technology, it would cause increased air pollution and global warming. This paper explains the concept of seawater desalination plants using small and medium water reactors (hereinafter called 'nuclear desalination'), as well as important matters regarding the export nuclear desalination plants to developing countries. (author)

  2. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  3. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  4. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  5. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Zalidis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Mediterranean agricultural areas. It is based on well established methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration through surface energy fluxes, customized for better performance under the Mediterranean conditions: small parcel sizes, detailed crop pattern, and lack of necessary data. The methodology has been tested and validated on the agricultural plain of the river Strimonas (Greece using a time series of Terra MODIS and Landsat 5 TM satellite images, and used to produce a seasonal water use map at a high spatial resolution. Finally, a tool has been designed to implement the methodology with a user-friendly interface, in order to facilitate its operational use.

  6. Investigation of formaldehyde pollution of tap water and rain water using a novel visual colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, K; Okano, M; Kuramitz, H; Hata, N; Kawakami, T; Taguchi, S

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of tap water and rain water with formaldehyde in Toyama Pref., Japan was investigated by means of a simple, rapid and cost-effective visual colorimetry developed by us. The levels of formaldehyde in three tap waters from different sources of dams on mountainside and a well-water pumped in urban area in Toyama Pref. were lower than 0.01 mg L(-1) that was the detection limit of the colorimetry. On the other hand, rain waters were seriously polluted with formaldehyde. Rain waters were sampled from three different sites (urban area, top of hill and industrial area) in Toyama Pref. from autumn to winter in 2006. The levels of formaldehyde in the rain waters ranged from 0.07 to 0.30 mg L(-1). The analytical results by the visual colorimetry were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS method. It was confirmed that the colorimetry is excellent for practical use for the determination of formaldehyde. It must be concerned about the pollution of rainwater with formaldehyde, when rain water is applied for tap water and miscellaneous purpose. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Gas exchanges and water use efficiency in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M E A; Maciel, G M; Fraga Júnior, E F; Machado Júnior, C S; Marquez, G R; Silva, I G; Almeida, R S

    2017-06-20

    Water stress can affect the yield in tomato crops and, despite this, there are few types of research aiming to select tomato genotypes resistant to the water stress using physiological parameters. This experiment aimed to study the variables that are related to the gas exchanges and the efficiency in water use, in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress. It was done in a greenhouse, measuring 7 x 21 m, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications (blocks), being five genotypes in the F 2 BC 1 generation, which were previously obtained from an interspecific cross between Solanum pennellii versus S. lycopersicum and three check treatments, two susceptible [UFU-22 (pre-commercial line) and cultivar Santa Clara] and one resistant (S. pennellii). At the beginning of flowering, the plants were submitted to a water stress condition, through irrigation suspension. After that CO 2 assimilation, internal CO 2 , stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf temperature, instantaneous water use efficiency, intrinsic efficiency of water use, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll a and b, and the potential leaf water (Ψf) were observed. Almost all variables that were analyzed, except CO 2 assimilation and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, demonstrated the superiority of the wild accession, S. pennellii, concerning the susceptible check treatments. The high photosynthetic rate and the low stomatal conductance and transpiration, presented by the UFU22/F 2 BC 1 #2 population, allowed a better water use efficiency. Because of that, these physiological characteristics are promising in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress.

  8. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  9. Efficient Use of Water Resources in the Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Colla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the steel sector water management aims at improving the sustainability of the production cycle, resulting in resource efficiency benefits and in reduced water demand and costs. To be reused, water needs to be cooled and desalinized to avoid salt concentration in water circulation systems. The presented work includes two case studies carried out in an integrated steelmaking plant, respectively, to evaluate the possible implementation of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis to reduce salt concentration in water streams and to investigate, through modelling and simulation, a process integration solution to improve water efficiency. Results showed that most salts are removed by reverse osmosis and that its coupling with ultrafiltration allows obtaining very high quality water; reuse of desalinated wastewater resulted in being more suitable and economically viable than its discharge. Moreover, modelling and simulation showed that the considered blowdown could be reused without significant changes in the receiving water network area. The industrial implementation of water recovery solutions can lead to a decrease of fresh water consumption, effluent discharge, and to improvement of product quality and equipment service life. The considered desalination technologies are transferable and easily implementable, and modelling and simulation are very useful in order to evaluate process modifications before real implementation.

  10. Using an inverse modelling approach to evaluate the water retention in a simple water harvesting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Verbist

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid zones, runoff harvesting techniques are often applied to increase the water retention and infiltration on steep slopes. Additionally, they act as an erosion control measure to reduce land degradation hazards. Nevertheless, few efforts were observed to quantify the water harvesting processes of these techniques and to evaluate their efficiency. In this study, a combination of detailed field measurements and modelling with the HYDRUS-2D software package was used to visualize the effect of an infiltration trench on the soil water content of a bare slope in northern Chile. Rainfall simulations were combined with high spatial and temporal resolution water content monitoring in order to construct a useful dataset for inverse modelling purposes. Initial estimates of model parameters were provided by detailed infiltration and soil water retention measurements. Four different measurement techniques were used to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat independently. The tension infiltrometer measurements proved a good estimator of the Ksat value and a proxy for those measured under simulated rainfall, whereas the pressure and constant head well infiltrometer measurements showed larger variability. Six different parameter optimization functions were tested as a combination of soil-water content, water retention and cumulative infiltration data. Infiltration data alone proved insufficient to obtain high model accuracy, due to large scatter on the data set, and water content data were needed to obtain optimized effective parameter sets with small confidence intervals. Correlation between the observed soil water content and the simulated values was as high as R2=0.93 for ten selected observation points used in the model calibration phase, with overall correlation for the 22 observation points equal to 0.85. The model results indicate that the infiltration trench has a

  11. Household demand for water in Sweden with implications of a potential tax on water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    HöGlund, Lena

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate empirically the effects of a water tax on water use and on the size and stability of the tax revenues. A tax exceeding value-added tax can be motivated on efficiency grounds when there are environmental external costs of water use and when water is a scarce resource. A household demand function for water is estimated using community level data for 282 (out of 286) Swedish communities studied annually over the period 1980-1992. Static and dynamic demand functions are estimated using panel data methods. The results show a long-run price elasticity of -0.10 in marginal price models and -0.20 in average price models. The findings imply that a tax of 1 Swedish Kronor (SEK) m-3 of water used (corresponding to a 5% increase in the mean average price) would generate ˜600 million SEK in tax revenues per year when levied on all households in Sweden. The water consumption would, however, only be reduced by ˜1%.

  12. Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation born of necessity to secure water for the U.S. state of Arizona has yielded a model of water banking that serves as an international prototype for effective use of aquifers for drought and emergency supplies. If understood and adapted to local hydrogeological and water supply and demand conditions, this could provide a highly effective solution for water security elsewhere. Arizona is a semi-arid state in the southwestern United States that has growing water demands, significant groundwater overdraft, and surface water supplies with diminishing reliability. In response, Arizona has developed an institutional and regulatory framework that has allowed large-scale implementation of managed aquifer recharge in the state’s deep alluvial groundwater basins. The most ambitious recharge activities involve the storage of Colorado River water that is delivered through the Central Arizona Project (CAP. The CAP system delivers more than 1850 million cubic meters (MCM per year to Arizona’s two largest metropolitan areas, Phoenix and Tucson, along with agricultural users and sovereign Native American Nations, but the CAP supply has junior priority and is subject to reduction during declared shortages on the Colorado River. In the mid-1980s the State of Arizona established a framework for water storage and recovery; and in 1996 the Arizona Water Banking Authority was created to mitigate the impacts of Colorado River shortages; to create water management benefits; and to allow interstate storage. The Banking Authority has stored more than 4718 MCM of CAP water; including more than 740 MCM for the neighboring state of Nevada. The Nevada storage was made possible through a series of interrelated agreements involving regional water agencies and the federal government. The stored water will be recovered within Arizona; allowing Nevada to divert an equal amount of Colorado River water from Lake Mead; which is upstream of CAP’s point of diversion

  13. Electrodialysis and nanofiltration of surface water for subsequent use as infiltration water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, B; Milis, R; Vandecasteele, C; Bielen, P; Van San, E; Huysman, K

    2003-09-01

    In order to achieve stable groundwater levels, an equilibrium between the use of groundwater for drinking water production and natural or artificial groundwater recharge by infiltration is needed. Local governments usually require that the composition of the water used for artificial recharge is similar to the surface water that is naturally present in the specific recharge area. In this paper, electrodialysis (ED) and nanofiltration were evaluated as possible treatment technologies for surface water from a canal in Flanders, the North of Belgium, in view of infiltration at critical places on heathlands. Both methods were evaluated on the basis of a comparison between the water composition after treatment and the composition of local surface waters. The treatment generally consists of a tuning of pH and the removal of contaminants originating from industrial and agricultural activity, e.g., nitrates and pesticides. Further evaluation of the influence of the composition of the water on the characteristics of the artificial recharge, however, was not envisaged. In a case study of water from the canal Schoten-Dessel, satisfactory concentration reductions of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), HCO(3)(-), Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+) were obtained by ultrafiltration pretreatment followed by ED. Nanofiltration with UTC-20, N30F, Desal 51 HL, UTC-60 and Desal 5 DL membranes resulted in an insufficient removal level, especially for the monovalent ions.

  14. Using Water Footprints to Identify Alternatives for Conserving Local Water Resources in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Marrin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a management tool for addressing water consumption issues, footprints have become increasingly utilized on scales ranging from global to personal. A question posed by this paper is whether water footprint data that are routinely compiled for particular regions may be used to assess the effectiveness of actions taken by local residents to conserve local water resources. The current California drought has affected an agriculturally productive region with large population centers that consume a portion of the locally produced food, and the state’s arid climate demands a large volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports most of its food products, enough is consumed within the state so that residents shifting their food choices and/or habits could save as much or more local blue water as their reduction of household or office water use. One of those shifts is reducing the intake of animal-based products that require the most water of any food group on both a gravimetric and caloric basis. Another shift is reducing food waste, which represents a shared responsibility among consumers and retailers, however, consumer preferences ultimately drive much of this waste.

  15. Environmental taxation and industrial water use in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vallés-Giménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Water Act, 2001 shifted responsibility for wastewater treatment from municipal to regional government, and as a consequence the Autonomous Communities have begun to levy a Sanitation Charge, apparently with environmental objectives. Industrial demand for water in Aragon is estimated in this paper using a double logarithmic model with panel data to establish whether regional Sanitation Charges rationalise water consumption. The key explanatory variable is the Sanitation Charge, in addition to the water supply charges payable in the towns and cities of Aragon and other variables which capture the characteristics of the firms in the sample. The reduction in water demand achieved appears to be due to the environmental charge rather than to any actual increase in firms’ water costs.

  16. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  17. Land use and water pollution in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbona, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, previous water-quality analyses have indicated that most surface-water bodies, as well as ground water, are polluted with both organic and inorganic substances. Contributions to water-quality deterioration come from point and nonpoint sources. These pose a threat on a densely populated island. Urban and industrial development occurred rapidly with a lag in the required infrastructure for expansion. Water pollution has been a by-product of this process and is regarded as the most serious environmental problem on the island. This study examines water-quality parameters in three hydrological basins. It attempts to determine how extensive a problem it is and how the concentration of pollutants compare in different land-use situations. A total of 33 sampling sites distributed among the three watersheds was chosen. Fifteen water-quality parameters were examined. All of the water bodies in spatial association with the land use considered presented detectable concentrations of the selected water-quality parameters

  18. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Improving the water use efficiency of olive trees growing in water harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Leake, Salomon; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit

    2017-04-01

    Water is a primary limiting factor for agricultural development in many arid and semi-arid regions in which a runoff generation is a rather frequent event. If conveyed to dyke surrounded plots and ponded, runoff water can thereafter be used for tree production. One of the most promising runoff collection configurations is that of micro-catchments in which water is collected close to the area in which runoff was generated and stored in adjacent shallow pits. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of the geometry of runoff water collection area (shallow pit or trench) on direct evaporative water losses and on the water use efficiency of olive trees grown in them. The study was conducted during the summer of 2013 and 2014. In this study regular micro-catchments with basins of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) by 0.1 m deep were compared with trenches of one meter deep and one meter wide. Each configuration was replicated three times. One tree was planted in each shallow basin and the distance between trees in the 12 m long trench was four meters. Access tubes for neutron probes were installed in the micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 2.5 m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored periodically throughout drying periods in between simulated runoff events. Transpiration of the trees was estimated from half-hourly sap flow measurements using a Granier system. Total transpiration fluxes were computed for time intervals corresponding to consecutive soil water measurements. During the first year, a large runoff event was simulated by applying once four cubic meters to each plot; and in the second year the same volume of water was split into four applications, simulating a series of small runoff events. In both geometries, trees received the same amount of water per tree. Evaporation from trenches and micro-catchments was estimated as the difference between evapotranspiration obtained computing the differences in total soil water

  20. The use of tritiated water in evaluating animal production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tritiated water (TOH) provides a means of measuring a number of parameters of importance not only to the applied animal physiologist but to those involved in assessing animal productivity. For the examination of animal-environment interactions, TOH is an invaluable tool for assessing total body water, water turnover rate and hence water requirements of different types of animals kept under a variety of climatic and other conditions. It can also be useful for measuring water losses, e.g. through evaporation, and hence is a tool for assessing thermal stress. For animal productivity studies, TOH is useful for assessing such parameters as carcass composition, the intake of forages, supplements and milk. Each of these aspects is described as are the assumptions which have to be made when using TOH for the measurements concerned. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  1. Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Animals fed formulated diets indirectly consume large quantities of water. Globally, about 1.2 m3 of water is needed to produce 1 kg of grain used in animal feeds. Cattle in feedlots consume about 7 kg of feed concentrate to gain 1 kg in weight. For pigs this is close to 4 kg and for poultry

  2. Comparative water use of wattle thickets and indigenous plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The net difference in evapotranspiration (ET) between riparian thickets of alien trees and riparian fynbos may be quite different, due to the yearlong availability of soil water and enhanced plant growth in riparian zones. The water use of alien invasive trees in South Africa remains largely unknown, adding further uncertainty ...

  3. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  4. Using WNTR to Model Water Distribution System Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new open source Python package developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Sandia National Laboratories to model and evaluate resilience of water distribution systems. WNTR can be used to simulate a wide range of di...

  5. Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SVD) of hydrological data was tested for water quality assessment. Using two case studies of waste- and drinking water, PCA via SVD was able to find latent variables which explain 80.8% and 83.7% of the variance, respectively. By means of ...

  6. Water Distribution Network Modelling of a Small Community using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a small community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using WaterCAD simulator. The analysis included a review of pressures, velocities and head loss gradients under steady state average day demand, maximum day demand conditions, and fire flow under maximum day ...

  7. Separation of Process Water using Hydroxy Sodalite Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajavi, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis, characterization, and application of Hydroxy Sodalite (H-SOD) membranes in selective separation of water from aqueous solutions and reaction media. The emphasis has been put on the development of a tight membrane film that could be primarily used for water

  8. Deposits and possibilities of using thermal waters in Debrc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal waters in Debrc are in karstified Triassic limestone and dolomite. Maximal measured temperature is 58°C on the depth of 1000 m. By using geothermal energy from thermal waters of Debrc, is possible intensive agri and aqva culture production, especially organic food according to world ecologic standards, as well as toplification of Debrc.

  9. USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

  10. Use of ozone in a water reuse system for salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.C.; Hughes, S.G.; Rumsey, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A water reuse system is described in which ozone is used in addition to biological filters to remove toxic metabolic wastes from the water. The system functions at a higher rate of efficiency than has been reported for other reuse systems and supports excellent growth of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  11. Characterising the water use and hydraulic properties of riparian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily transpiration was strongly correlated to solar radiation (R2 > 0.81) while the air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) constrained transpiration at high VPD values. We conclude that the water use of the poplar invasions is significantly lower than that of other riparian invasions. The impact of these invasions on the water ...

  12. Estimation of soil water retention curve using fractal dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate plant-available water. Since, direct measurement of SWRC is time-consuming and expensive, different models have been developed to estimate SWRC. In this study, a fractal-based model ...

  13. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method proposed involves the decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas via electrolysis, which is used in internal combustion engines of electrical generators for electricity generation. The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen to replenish the atmosphere.

  14. EFFECTS OF SEASON OF SOWING ON WATER USE AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Received 9 May, 2000; accepted 5 May, 2002) Abstract Soil water availability is a major constraint to crop production in the post-rainy season period in the humid tropics. The seasonal pattern of water use was, therefore, studied in field-grown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) during two consecutive rainy and post-rainy ...

  15. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper examined the turbidity removal efficiency of Tamarindus indica fruit crude pulp extract (CPE) towards evaluating a low-cost option for drinking-water treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high ...

  16. Physiological response, molecular analysis and water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a view to study the effects of irrigation scheduling on the water use efficiency and physiological response and molecular basis of maize hybrids of different maturity groups, a field experiment was conducted at Water Management Research Center (WMRC), Belvatagi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India ...

  17. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a ...

  18. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes all data used in the creation of figures and graphs in the paper: "Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations:...

  19. A water management strategy for balancing water uses in the Rideau Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.; Rae, P.; McGonegal, K.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative water management policies for the Rideau Canal system in eastern Ontario were examined. The methodology of analysis and the impact of policy changes on hydro power production were also focussed on. A historical account of the construction and background of the canal system was providid. Water uses such as navigation, hydroelectric power generation, natural environment, flood abatement, recreation, and water supply were described. Current water management practice was outlined. Various single purpose water management policies were investigated. The impact of the most significant policies on hydroelectric power production were discussed. Integrated policy alternatives were presented and their general effects were described. No long term policy was finalized at the time of writing, but a number of short term operating practices were considered, among them to adjust spring flows for walleye, store flows in the Big Rideau for ice flushings, balance drawdown among reservoirs and raise navigation levels in certain lakes

  20. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  1. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Charles Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of water use in the United States in 1970 indicate that an average of about 370 bgd (billion gallons per day)about 1,800 gallons per capita per day--was withdrawn for the four principal off-channel uses which are (1) public-supply (for domestic, commercial, and industrial uses), (2) rural (domestic and livestock), (3) irrigation, and (4) self-supplied industrial (including thermoelectric power). In 1970, withdrawals for these uses exceeded by 19 percent the 310 bgd estimated for 1965. Increases in the various categories of off-channel water use since 1965 were: approximately 25 percent for self-supplied industry (mainly in electric-utility thermoelectric plants), 13 percent for public supplies, 13 percent for rural supplies, and 8 percent for irrigation. Industrial water withdrawals included 54 bgd of saline water, a 20 percent increase in 5 years. The fifth principal withdrawal use, hydroelectric power (an in-channel use), amounted to 2,800 bgd, a 5-year increase of 22 percent. In computing total withdrawals, recycling within a plant (reuse) is not counted, but withdrawal of the same water by a downstream user (cumulative withdrawals) is counted. The quantity of fresh water consumed--that is, water made unavailable for further possible withdrawal because of evaporation, incorporation in crops and manufactured products, and other causes--was estimated to average 87 bgd for 1970, an increase of about 12 percent since 1965.

  2. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  3. Reduction of Turbidity of Water Using Locally Available Natural Coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Hossain, Md. Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed. PMID:23724307

  4. Lake Chini Water Quality Assessment Using Multivariate Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.K.; Shuhaimi, Othman M.; Lim, E.C.; Aziz, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis was undertaken using the multivariate approach to determine the important water quality for shallow lake water quality assessment. Fourteen water quality parameters which includes biological, physical and chemical components were collected monthly over twelve month period. The data were analysed using factor analysis which involves identification of factor correlation, factor extraction and factor permutations. The first process involved the clustering of high correlation parameters into its respective factor and the removal of parameters that have more than one factor. Agglomerative hierarchy (HACA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were also used to exhibit the important factors that has significant influence on lake water quality. The analysis showed that Lake Chini water quality was determined by more than one factor. The results indicated that the biological and chemical (nutrients) components have significant influence in determining the lake water quality. The biological parameters namely BOD5, COD, chlorophyll a and chemical (nitrate and orthophosphate) are important parameters in Lake Chini. All analysis demonstrated the importance of biological and chemical water quality components in the determination of Lake Chini water quality. (author)

  5. Variable focus microscopy using a suspended water droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, F A; Chau, K J

    2012-01-01

    We explore a low-technology methodology to dispense and shape water droplets for application as the magnifying element in a microscope using either reflection-mode or transmission-mode illumination. A water droplet is created at the end of a syringe and then coated with a thin layer of silicone oil to mitigate evaporation. By applying mechanical pressure to the water droplet using a metal tip, the shape of the droplet is tuned to yield focusing properties amenable for microscopy. Images captured using the microscope demonstrate micron-scale resolution, variable magnification and imaging quality comparable to that obtained by a conventional, laboratory-grade microscope. (paper)

  6. Study of phonon propagation in water using picosecond ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Atay, T; Dang, C H; Grimsley, T J; Che, S; Ma, J; Zhang, Q; Nurmikko, A V; Maris, H J

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of ultra-short sound pulses in water is studied by using the picosecond ultrasonic technique. A sound pulse is generated when light is absorbed in a metal transducer film deposited onto a substrate. The sound propagates across a thin layer of water and is then reflected back to the surface at which it was generated. The efficiency of optoacoustic detection of the reflected sound is enhanced through the use of a resonant optical cavity. We show that the variation of the shape of the returning sound pulse with propagation distance agrees with that calculated by using the attenuation of sound in water that has been measured at lower frequencies

  7. Solar water disinfecting system using compound parabolic concentrating collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghetany, H.H.; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2000-05-31

    Solar water disinfection is an alternative technology using solar radiation and thermal treatment to inactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms present in water. The Compound Parabolic Concentrating, (CPC) collector can be used as an efficient key component for solar disinfectanting system. Two types of the CPC collectors are studied, namely the transparent-tube and the Copper-tube CPC collector. It is found that after 30 minutes of exposing the water sample to solar radiation or heating it up to 65 degree C for a few minuets all the coliform bacterial present in the contaminated water sample were completely eliminated. In this article, the effect of water temperature on the disinfecting process was presented. Thermal and micro-biological measurements were also made to evaluate the system performance. (author)

  8. Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

  9. Computerized tomography using water to render the gastrointestinal tract opaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaa, J.; Deininger, H.K.; Georgi, M.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the technical procedure and results of computerized tomography in the examination of various gastrointestinal disorders using water as an oral and rectal contrast medium. The experience gained so far points to the fact that water as a contrast medium is mainly suitable in the preoperative staging of malignant gastric and colorectal tumours. The rectal injection of water further appears to be favourable in investigations for recidivation following deep anterior resection without impairment of the excretory functions. Our own results were contrary to the findings of other authors in that we had no difficulty in visualizing distal sections of the small intestine in patients suffering from Crohn's disease. The use of water as a contrast medium can, however, not be recommended in the presence of intra-abdominal abscesses, ascites or cystic tumours, as such changes cannot clearly be differentiated from intestinal loops filled with water. (orig./MG) [de

  10. The development of membrane based high purity oily water separators for use in Arctic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Membrane Centre; Veinot, D.E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    With increased exploration and industrial activity in the Canadian Arctic, interest in the Northwest Passage as a shipping route has also increased. The oily wastewater produced by ships must be treated prior to discharge, particularly in the sensitive Arctic environment where biodegradation of organics is very slow due to cold climatic conditions and low sunlight. As such, safe techniques are needed for the treatment of oily wastewater released from ships. However, bilge water is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. Membrane based oily water separators (OWS) are considered to be a key technology for the treatment of bilge water onboard ships. The issues that must be taken into account in the ship-born use of membrane based OWS include the proper treatment of the oily brine before discharge; the substantial reduction in volume that is required; the complexity of the technology; labour associated with the operation of the system due to filter changes and cleaning; and, system automation to simplify its operation. In this study, a membrane-based process for treating bilge water was developed to meet stringent discharge regulations for discharge in Arctic waters. Currently, this discharge limit is set at 0 ppm. A pilot scale membrane cascade system was designed and evaluated. Multilumen ceramic membranes were used in the first stage and Sepa{sup R} test cells were used in the second stage. Optimal membrane pore size was determined. The study investigated the separation of oil and grease using different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes. The study revealed that through proper membrane design, it is possible to remove oil and grease from bilge water to a level permitting its discharge to Arctic waters. However, it was recommended that low level aromatic diesel fuels be used in ships operating in Arctic waters since the presence of soluble aromatics in diesel fuel increases the technical difficulty of reaching

  11. Static dielectric constant of water within a bilayer using recent water models: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Juárez, Efrain; Rivas-Silva, Juan Francisco; González-Melchor, Minerva

    2018-05-01

    The water confined within a surfactant bilayer is studied using different water models via molecular dynamics simulations. We considered four representative rigid models of water: the SPC/E and the TIP4P/2005, which are commonly used in numerical calculations and the more recent TIP4Q and SPC/ε models, developed to reproduce the dielectric behaviour of pure water. The static dielectric constant of the confined water was analyzed as a function of the temperature for the four models. In all cases it decreases as the temperature increases. Additionally, the static dielectric constant of the bilayer-water system was estimated through its expression in terms of the fluctuations in the total dipole moment, usually applied for isotropic systems. The estimated dielectric was compared with the available experimental data. We found that the TIP4Q and the SPC/ε produce closer values to the experimental data than the other models, particularly at room temperature. It was found that the probability of finding the sodium ion close to the head of the surfactant decreases as the temperature increases, thus the head of the surfactant is more exposed to the interaction with water when the temperature is higher.

  12. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  13. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  14. Estimate of livestock water use in Nebraska during 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Water Feature Extraction and Change Detection Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komeil Rokni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia is the 20th largest lake and the second largest hyper saline lake (before September 2010 in the world. It is also the largest inland body of salt water in the Middle East. Nevertheless, the lake has been in a critical situation in recent years due to decreasing surface water and increasing salinity. This study modeled the spatiotemporal changes of Lake Urmia in the period 2000–2013 using the multi-temporal Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images. In doing so, the applicability of different satellite-derived indexes including Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, Water Ratio Index (WRI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI were investigated for the extraction of surface water from Landsat data. Overall, the NDWI was found superior to other indexes and hence it was used to model the spatiotemporal changes of the lake. In addition, a new approach based on Principal Components of multi-temporal NDWI (NDWI-PCs was proposed and evaluated for surface water change detection. The results indicate an intense decreasing trend in Lake Urmia surface area in the period 2000–2013, especially between 2010 and 2013 when the lake lost about one third of its surface area compared to the year 2000. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the NDWI-PCs approach for surface water change detection, especially in detecting the changes between two and three different times, simultaneously.

  16. Using WAS/MYWAS For Water Management And Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F. M.; Huber, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Water is a special economic commodity that cannot be efficiently allocated in a free private market because of social values that are not private ones. The WAS (Water Allocation System) model and its multiyear extension (MYWAS) use demand curves as well as supply conditions to allocate water so as to optimize the total net benefits it brings. However, they permit the user to prescribe policies and constraints on the allocation process so as to take social values into account. These models can be used to perform cost- benefit analyses of projected infrastructure projects taking into account the system-wide effects such projects will bring about. MYWAS, in particular will choose from a menu of possible projects and provide guidance on which ones should be built, when, in what order, and to what capacity. It is a very powerful tool that can be used under varying assumed conditions of climatic conditions. WAS models have been built for Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, and MYWAS models are underway for all three. Aside from their value as domestic management tools, WAS and MYWAS also offer assistance in resolving water disputes, turning what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. They do so by concentrating on water value rather than water quantity and monetizing the disputes in question. In so doing, they provide a method of guiding cooperation in water and separating the analysis of optimal water usage from the often unresolvable question of water ownership and water rights. We have shown in the case of the Middle East, that the gains from such cooperation are typically worth more than the value of fairly large changes in water ownership the size of which is greatly reduced by cooperation. Moreover, disputing parties need not wait for the resolution of the water ownership issue to begin a cooperation that benefits all and permits flexible readjustment of water usage as situations (climatic conditions, populations, etc.) change. They can agree to pay for

  17. The measurement of water vapor permeability of glove materials using dilute tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    As fusion technology progresses, there will be an increasing need to handle tritium and tritiated compounds. Protective clothing, especially drybox gloves, must be an effective barrier to minimize worker exposure. The water vapor permeability of glove materials and finished glove constructions is a crucial property of drybox gloves and is not sufficiently well characterized. We have built an apparatus that measures water vapor permeability of elastomers using dilute tritiated water. The technique is more sensitive than other methods currently available and allows us to make measurements on materials and under conditions previously inaccessible. In particular, we present results on laminated drybox gloves for which data is not currently available. (orig.)

  18. Tracing lipogenesis in humans using deuterated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of quantitative de novo fat synthesis rates is important in our understanding of the role of nutritional factors in macronutient utilization and obesity development. To address these questions, we developed and applied a method for measuring lipogenesis using the uptake of deuterium enrichment in plasma very light density lipoprotein (VLDL) TGFA relative to the maximum as indicative of the fraction of VLDL-TGFA synthesized. Plateau enrichment was observed after 12 h of prime-constant oral deuterium oxide administration. Our initial studies applied this model in healthy humans consuming typical diets to demonstrate rates of TGFA synthesis amounting to 2 g·day -1 . In subsequent experiments it was shown that this level of synthesis was not affected by the frequency with which daily meals were consumed. Furthermore, in a clinical application, our results using this approach demonstrated that compared with normolipidemic controls, individuals with type III hyperlipoproteinemia displayed elevated TGFA but normal cholesterol synthesis rates. In summary, compared with other available methods for determination of lipogenesis, deuterium uptake is safe, direct, and inexpensive. Results suggest that under most dietary circumstances, human de novo lipogenesis is minor, thus dietary fat and carbohydrate balances remain largely independent. (author). 35 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen

    2013-05-08

    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D{sub 2}O within the soil compartments. D{sub 2}O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D{sub 2}O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D{sub 2}O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D{sub 2}O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D{sub 2}O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the

  20. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D 2 O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D 2 O within the soil compartments. D 2 O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D 2 O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D 2 O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D 2 O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D 2 O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D 2 O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D 2 O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal

  1. Investigation of water films on fuel rods in boiling water reactors using neutron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthen, Jonas

    2006-09-01

    In a boiling water reactor, thin films of liquid water around the fuel rods play a very important role in cooling the fuel, and evaporation of the film can lead to fuel damage. If the thickness of the water film could be measured accurately the reactor operation could be both safer and more economical. In this thesis, the possibility to use neutron tomography, to study thin water films on fuel rods in an experimental nuclear fuel set-up, has been investigated. The main tool for this has been a computer simulation software. The simulations have shown that very thin water films, down to around 20 pm, can be seen on fuel rods in an experimental set-up using neutron tomography. The spatial resolution needed to obtain this result is around 300 pm. A suitable detector system for this kind of experiment would be plastic fiber scintillators combined with a CCD camera. As a neutron source it would be possible to use a D-D neutron generator, which generates neutrons with energies of 2.5 MeV. Using a neutron generator with a high enough neutron yield and a detector with high enough detection efficiency, a neutron tomography to measure thin water films should take no longer than 25 - 30 minutes

  2. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Anh T.; Okuda, Tetsuji; Takeuchi, Haruka; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nghiem, Long D.

    2018-01-01

    A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF) of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone) could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection. PMID:29671797

  3. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fujioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection.

  4. Investigation of water films on fuel rods in boiling water reactors using neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanthen, Jonas

    2006-09-15

    In a boiling water reactor, thin films of liquid water around the fuel rods play a very important role in cooling the fuel, and evaporation of the film can lead to fuel damage. If the thickness of the water film could be measured accurately the reactor operation could be both safer and more economical. In this thesis, the possibility to use neutron tomography, to study thin water films on fuel rods in an experimental nuclear fuel set-up, has been investigated. The main tool for this has been a computer simulation software. The simulations have shown that very thin water films, down to around 20 pm, can be seen on fuel rods in an experimental set-up using neutron tomography. The spatial resolution needed to obtain this result is around 300 pm. A suitable detector system for this kind of experiment would be plastic fiber scintillators combined with a CCD camera. As a neutron source it would be possible to use a D-D neutron generator, which generates neutrons with energies of 2.5 MeV. Using a neutron generator with a high enough neutron yield and a detector with high enough detection efficiency, a neutron tomography to measure thin water films should take no longer than 25 - 30 minutes.

  5. Studies on water use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Ismailia region to investigate water use efficiency of 14 bred wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 4 durum wheat cultivars (T. durum L.). Two irrigation water levels were used, an optimum level of 441 mm and a low level of 271 mm during the growing season using a sprinkler irrigation system. Yield and yield components examined showed significant differences among cultivars. The best cultivar for grain yield was Sakha 8 giving 4850 kg/ha. The lowest yield of 2650 kg/ha was produced by Sohag 3. There were also large genotypic differences among cultivars for water use efficiency. The cultivars that are better in water use efficiency may be used for wheat production in areas in Egypt where rainfall is low, or for use in breeding programmes aimed at incorporating the traits of high water use efficiency with high grain yield. Protein and phytin content of grains were negatively correlated with irrigation water level. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Studies on water use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M [Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt). Soil and Water Dept.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Ismailia region to investigate water use efficiency of 14 bred wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 4 durum wheat cultivars (T. durum L.). Two irrigation water levels were used, an optimum level of 441 mm and a low level of 271 mm during the growing season using a sprinkler irrigation system. Yield and yield components examined showed significant differences among cultivars. The best cultivar for grain yield was Sakha 8 giving 4850 kg/ha. The lowest yield of 2650 kg/ha was produced by Sohag 3. There were also large genotypic differences among cultivars for water use efficiency. The cultivars that are better in water use efficiency may be used for wheat production in areas in Egypt where rainfall is low, or for use in breeding programmes aimed at incorporating the traits of high water use efficiency with high grain yield. Protein and phytin content of grains were negatively correlated with irrigation water level. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Water use efficiency and functional traits of a semiarid shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, Oscar; Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Carrara, Arnaud; Palomares-Palacio, Agustí; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2013-04-01

    In semiarid climates, water is the fundamental factor determining ecosystem productivity and thereby the capacity for carbon sequestration. Increased water use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of carbon dioxide assimilation (canopy photosynthesis, Pc) to water transpired (canopy evaporation, Ec), is assumed to be an adaptive strategy for sclerophyll shrublands to improve productivity and stress resistance in water-limited environments. However, the real complexity of WUE lies in its dependence on both plant physiological traits (e.g. stomatal resistance, photosynthetic capacity, leaf chemical composition, structure) and on environmental conditions (e.g. atmospheric CO2 concentration, vapour pressure deficit, temperature, light, soil water availability). We used a transient-state closed canopy-chamber to characterise CO2 and water vapour exchanges at the whole plant scale under different environmental conditions and phenological stages. Diurnal and seasonal variations in Pc, Ec and WUE were explained by both physiological and environmental variables. All species showed symmetric patterns in both Pc and Ec when not water limited, but asymmetry during summer drought when leaf water potential was low. During drought, grasses (Festuca sp.) showed a marked decline in functioning (Pc and Ec), whereas shrubs (Genista sp., Hormathophylla sp.) maintained spring-like assimilation rates all morning until stomatal controls shut down gas exchanges. While grasses showed the highest WUE when not water limited, their near senescence during summer drought yielded the lowest WUE. Shrubs showed reduced WUE under moderate drought stress, in contradiction to the assumptions made in global ecosystem models. The importance of the appropriate time-scale for calculating WUE (daily versus hourly), together with water use strategies and ecological functions of individual species, will be further discussed.

  8. Targeting water and energy conservation using big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water conservation is often the most cost effective source of additional water supply for water stressed regions to maintain supply reliability with increasing population and/or demands, or shorter-term droughts. In previous research we demonstrated how including energy savings of conserved water can increase willingness to adopt conservation measures, at the same time that increases energy and GHG emissions savings. But the capacity to save water, energy and GHG emissions depends fundamentally in the economic benefits for customers and utilities. Utilities have traditionally used rebates, subsidies or incentives to enhance water conservation. But the economic benefits originated by these rebates depend on the actual savings of the water, energy and GHG emissions. A crucial issue that is not considered in the financial analysis of these rebates is the heterogeneity in water consumption, resulting in rebating households that actually do not need improvements in certain appliances. Smart meters with end-use disaggregation allow to consider this heterogeneity and to target rebates. By using an optimization approach that minimizes water and energy residential costs—accounting for retrofit costs and individual benefits according to previous levels of consumption—we are able to assess economically optimal rebate programs both for customers and utilities. Three programs are considered: first, same economic incentives are provided to all households and then they do their optimal decisions; second, traditional appliance-focused rebates are assessed; and third, utilities provide only rebates to those households that maximize water, energy or GHG emissions savings. Results show that the most economically efficient options for households are not the best options for utilities, and that traditional appliance-focused rebates are much less optimal than targeted rebates.

  9. Diet change—a solution to reduce water use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalava, M; Kummu, M; Porkka, M; Varis, O; Siebert, S

    2014-01-01

    Water and land resources are under increasing pressure in many parts of the globe. Diet change has been suggested as a measure to contribute to adequate food security for the growing population. This paper assesses the impact of diet change on the blue and green water footprints of food consumption. We first compare the water consumption of the current diets with that of a scenario where dietary guidelines are followed. Then, we assess these footprints by applying four scenarios in which we gradually limit the amount of protein from animal products to 50%, 25%, 12.5% and finally 0% of the total protein intake. We find that the current water use at the global scale would be sufficient to secure a recommended diet and worldwide energy intake. Reducing the animal product contribution in the diet would decrease global green water consumption by 6%, 11%, 15% and 21% within the four applied scenarios, while for blue water, the reductions would be 4%, 6%, 9% and 14%. In Latin America, Europe, Central and Eastern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, diet change mainly reduces green water use, while in the Middle East region, North America, Australia and Oceania, both blue and green water footprints decrease considerably. At the same time, in South and Southeast Asia, diet change does not result in decreased water use. Our results show that reducing animal products in the human diet offers the potential to save water resources, up to the amount currently required to feed 1.8 billion additional people globally; however, our results show that the adjustments should be considered on a local level. (letter)

  10. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  11. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  12. Hydrogen evolution from water using solid carbon and light energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, T; Sakata, T

    1979-11-15

    Hydrogen is produced from water vapour and solid carbon when mixed powders of TiO2, RuO2 and active carbon exposed to water vapor at room temperature, or up to 80 C, are illuminated. At 80 C, the rate of CO and COat2 formation increased. Therefore solar energy would be useful here as a combination of light energy and heat energy. Oxygen produced on the surface of the photocatalyst has a strong oxidising effect on the carbon. It is suggested that this process could be used for coal gasification and hydrogen production from water, accompanied by storage of solar energy.

  13. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  14. Aerodynamic and related hydrodynamic studies using water facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Related problems, experiences and advancements in aeronautical and maritime fluid dynamics through the use of water facilities are reviewed. In recent years there has been an increasing use of water facilities for aerodynamic investigations. These include water tunnels, towing channels, and stationary tanks. Examples include basic research problems as well as flow fields around fighter aircraft, inlet flows, recirculation flow patterns associated with VTOL, ramjet simulation, etc., and, in general, 3-D flows with vortices or separated regimes as prominent features. The Symposium was organized to provide an appropriate forum for the exchange of information within the aeronautical and maritime fluid dynamics community.

  15. Allegheny County Municipal Building Energy and Water Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains energy and water use information from 2010 to 2014 for 144 County-operated buildings. Metrics include: kBtu (thousand British thermal units),...

  16. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    isotopes methods to investigate groundwater recharge ... and isotopic characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a ..... Chloride concentrations in soil water extracted by lixiviation from.

  17. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak......, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210....... Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a “delivery” mechanism for excess nutrients...

  18. Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid micro- extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction and determination with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  19. Mapping Water Use and Drought with Satellite Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Mapping water use and drought with satellite remote sensing. Martha C. Anderson, Bill Kustas, Feng Gao, Kate Semmens. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Chris Hain NOAA-NESDIS

  20. Efficiency of water removal from water/ethanol mixtures using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques involving supercritical carbon dioxide have been successfully used for the formation of drug particles with controlled size distributions. However, these processes show some limitations, particularly in processing aqueous solutions. A diagram walking algorithm based on available experimental data was developed to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the efficiency of water removal processes under different process conditions. Ethanol feeding was the key parameter resulting in a tenfold increase in the efficiency of water extraction.

  1. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  2. Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water use in Alabama was about 9,958 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) during 2005. Estimates of withdrawals by source indicate that total surface-water withdrawals were about 9,467 Mgal/d (95 percent of the total withdrawals) and the remaining 491 Mgal/d (5 percent) were from ground water. More surface water than ground water was withdrawn for all categories except aquaculture, mining, and self-supplied residential. During 2005, estimated withdrawals by category and in descending order were: thermoelectric power, 8,274 Mgal/d; public supply, 802 Mgal/d; self-supplied industrial, 550 Mgal/d; irrigation, 161 Mgal/d; aquaculture, 75 Mgal/d; self-supplied residential, 39 Mgal/d; livestock, 28 Mgal/d; and mining, 28 Mgal/d.

  3. Estimating plant root water uptake using a neural network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, D M; Shi, H B; Pang, H B

    2010-01-01

    but has not yet been addressed. This paper presents and tests such an approach. The method is based on a neural network model, estimating the water uptake using different types of data that are easy to measure in the field. Sunflower grown in a sandy loam subjected to water stress and salinity was taken......Water uptake by plant roots is an important process in the hydrological cycle, not only for plant growth but also for the role it plays in shaping microbial community and bringing in physical and biochemical changes to soils. The ability of roots to extract water is determined by combined soil...... and plant characteristics, and how to model it has been of interest for many years. Most macroscopic models for water uptake operate at soil profile scale under the assumption that the uptake rate depends on root density and soil moisture. Whilst proved appropriate, these models need spatio-temporal root...

  4. On the use of ultrafiltration membranes in oily water separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, A.Y.; Nottegar, M. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted on the use of ultrafiltration membranes for oil water purification from ships bilges. Bilge water is a complex and highly variable mixture of several components such as seawater, lubricating oil, greases, marine diesel fuel, hydraulic oil, detergents, metal oxides, corrosion inhibitors, asbestos and other wastes. This laboratory study examined the performance of ultrafiltration membranes when separating oily waste water of similar composition to that of bilge water. Ultrafiltration membranes are nanoporous materials produced from ceramic, polymeric or metallic substrates. The ability of the membrane to retain macromolecules, colloids, sub-micron particles and oil emulsions depends on the size of the nanopores. The best results in this study occurred when upper and lower bounds on the membrane pore size were found to exist. It was determined that ultrafiltration is a viable separation process for the treatment of bilge water for compliance with overboard discharge regulations. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. The central role of agricultural water-use productivity in sustainable water management (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    As global and regional populations continue to rise for the next several decades, the need to grow more food will worsen old -- and produce new -- challenges for water resources. Expansion of irrigated agriculture is slowing due to constraints on land and water, and as a result, some have argued that future new food demands will only be met through improvements in agricultural productivity on existing irrigated and rainfed cropland, reductions in field losses and food waste, and social changes such as dietary preferences. This talk will address the central role that improvements in water-use productivity can play in the food/water/population nexus. In particular, the ability to grow more food with less water will have a great influence on whether future food demands will be met successfully. Such improvements can come about through changes in technology, regulatory systems, economic incentives and disincentives, and education of water users. Example of potential savings from three different strategies to improve agricultural water productivity in California. (From Pacific Institute).

  6. Constraining water uptake depths in semiarid environments using water stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Matthias; Königer, Paul; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The biophysical process of transpiration recently received increased attention by ecohydrologists as it has been proven the largest flux of the global water balance. However, fundamental aspects related to the questions how and from which sources plants receive their water are not fully understood. Especially the process of plant water uptake from deeper soil and its impact on the water balance requires increased scientific effort. In this study we combined tracer experiments with the analysis of natural isotopic compositions in order to: i) derive a suitable site-specific root water uptake distribution for hydrological modeling; ii) find indicators for groundwater use by specific plants; and iii) evaluate the importance of deep unsaturated zone water uptake using HYDRUS 1D. The bayesian mixing model MixSIAR was applied at a semiarid site with a deep unsaturated zone in northern Namibia in order to identify source water contributions of the most abundant species (A.erioloba, B.plurijuga, C.collinum, S.luebertii and T.sericea). In addition, a previously developed method for the investigation of root water uptake depths based on deuterium labeling (2H2O) at specific depths (0.5 to 4 m) and monitoring of tracer uptake by plants was carried out with a focus on the deeper unsaturated zone. With the experimental results a root water uptake distribution for the lateral root zone was derived which allows to constrain the source water contributions estimated with MixSIAR. Finally, a HYDRUS 1D model was established and unsaturated zone water transport was evaluated. The analysis of the natural isotopic compositions reveals a significant contribution of groundwater (median: 48%) to the isotopic composition of A.erioloba at the end of the dry season indicating the presence of deep tap roots for a number of individuals. All other investigated species obtain their water from the shallow (median: 22%) or deeper (median: 62%) unsaturated zone at this time of the year. The water

  7. Selection of black poplars for water use efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Orlović Saša S.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthesis, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass production have been investigated in nine black poplar clones (section Aigeiros) in three field experiments. Eastern cottonwood clones (Populus deltoides) had the highest net photosynthesis and water use efficiency. European black poplar clones had the highest transpiration intensity. Correlation analysis showed that net photosynthesis was in a high positive correlation with biomass. Medium negative correlations existed bet...

  8. Water withdrawals, use, and trends in Florida, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,988 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 8,589 Mgal/d (57 percent) and freshwater accounted for 6,399 Mgal/d (43 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,166 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,233 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 659 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2010. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (707 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Hillsborough County (1,715 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 17.33 million people (92 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.47 million people (8 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita use for 2010 was 134 gallons per day, whereas the statewide public-supply domestic per capita use was 85 gallons per day. The majority of groundwater withdrawals (almost 62 percent) in 2010 were obtained from the Floridan aquifer system, which is present throughout most of the State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (56 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 35 percent. Public supply accounted for 48 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (34 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (7 percent), recreational

  9. Reflective measurement of water concentration using millimeter wave illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shijun; Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-04-01

    THz and millimeter wave technology have shown the potential to become a valuable medical imaging tool because of its sensitivity to water and safe, non-ionizing photon energy. Using the high dielectric constant of water in these frequency bands, reflectionmode THz sensing systems can be employed to measure water content in a target with high sensitivity. This phenomenology may lead to the development of clinical systems to measure the hydration state of biological targets. Such measurements may be useful in fast and convenient diagnosis of conditions whose symptoms can be characterized by changes in water concentration such as skin burns, dehydration, or chemical exposure. To explore millimeter wave sensitivity to hydration, a reflectometry system is constructed to make water concentration measurements at 100 GHz, and the minimum detectable water concentration difference is measured. This system employs a 100 GHz Gunn diode source and Golay cell detector to perform point reflectivity measurements of a wetted polypropylene towel as it dries on a mass balance. A noise limited, minimum detectable concentration difference of less than 0.5% by mass can be detected in water concentrations ranging from 70% to 80%. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect hydration changes caused by many diseases and pathologies and may be useful in the future as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of burns and other surface pathologies.

  10. Anticipatory Water Management in Phoenix using Advanced Scenario Planning and Analyses: WaterSim 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complexity, uncertainty, and variability are inherent properties of linked social and natural processes; sustainable resource management must somehow consider all three. Typically, a decision support tool (using scenario analyses) is used to examine management alternatives under suspected trajectories in driver variables (i.e., climate forcing's, growth or economic projections, etc.). This traditional planning focuses on a small set of envisioned scenarios whose outputs are compared against one-another in order to evaluate their differing impacts on desired metrics. Human cognition typically limits this to three to five scenarios. However, complex and highly uncertain issues may require more, often much more, than five scenarios. In this case advanced scenario analysis provides quantitative or qualitative methods that can reveal patterns and associations among scenario metrics for a large ensemble of scenarios. From this analysis, then, a smaller set of heuristics that describe the complexity and uncertainty revealed provides a basis to guide planning in an anticipatory fashion. Our water policy and management model, termed WaterSim, permits advanced scenario planning and analysis for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. In this contribution we examine the concepts of advanced scenario analysis on a large scale ensemble of scenarios using our work with WaterSim as a case study. For this case study we created a range of possible water futures by creating scenarios that encompasses differences in water supplies (our surrogates for climate change, drought, and inherent variability in riverine flows), population growth, and per capital water consumption. We used IPCC estimates of plausible, future, alterations in riverine runoff, locally produced and vetted estimates of population growth projections, and empirical trends in per capita water consumption for metropolitan cities. This ensemble consisted of ~ 30, 700 scenarios (~575 k observations). We compared and contrasted

  11. MINERAL WATERS IN RUPEA CITY: PHYSICOCHEMICAL FEATURES AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MEREŢ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse and highlight certain specificities of mineral waters in Rupea city (Braşov County: physicochemical characteristics, a short history of their use, and future use options. The article is based on the synthesis and analysis of information obtained from scientific papers, archival sources, and field investigations conducted between 2010 and 2015. Rupea City is located in the area situated at the contact between the Transylvanian Subcarpathians the Hârtibaciului Plateau, at 64 km northwest of Braşov and 53 km southeast of Sighişoara. The presence of the salt layer in the Tortonian deposits (Miocene at different depths and thickness accounts for the occurrence of concentrated chlorinated-sodic waters, discovered as early as the second half of the 19th century. The first analyses of the Rupea mineral waters were conducted by Henrik Muller (1856, who considered the mineral waters at Băile Cohalm (old name of the Rupea city to be “among the few chlorinated-sodic-sulphated waters of Transylvania”. The measurements conducted on physico-geographical parameters in the study period and the analysis of water samples performed in specialized laboratories showed that these mineral waters preserved their physicochemical characteristics (chorosodic, sulphated, hypertonic, athermal and, consequently, can be used for therapeutic purposes as was the case in the past. The pavilions of the old spa establishment “survived” until the year 2003 when they began to be gradually demolished, and the mineral water storage basins were consolidated and covered. The only one which is still currently being used (for household activities or sheepfold cheese processing is the “muriatic” salt water from the well locals call “Slatina”, located 1.5 km east towards Homorod, in close proximity to Cozd River (ancient name of the Valea Mare River.

  12. Lithium recovery from shale gas produced water using solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eunyoung; Jang, Yunjai; Chung, Eunhyea

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas produced water is hypersaline wastewater generated after hydraulic fracturing. Since the produced water is a mixture of shale formation water and fracturing fluid, it contains various organic and inorganic components, including lithium, a useful resource for such industries as automobile and electronics. The produced water in the Marcellus shale area contains about 95 mg/L lithium on average. This study suggests a two-stage solvent extraction technique for lithium recovery from shale gas produced water, and determines the extraction mechanism of ions in each stage. All experiments were conducted using synthetic shale gas produced water. In the first-stage, which was designed for the removal of divalent cations, more than 94.4% of Ca"2"+, Mg"2"+, Sr"2"+, and Ba"2"+ ions were removed by using 1.0 M di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant. In the second-stage, for lithium recovery, we could obtain a lithium extraction efficiency of 41.2% by using 1.5 M D2EHPA and 0.3 M tributyl phosphate (TBP). Lithium loss in the first-stage was 25.1%, and therefore, the total amount of lithium recovered at the end of the two-step extraction procedure was 30.8%. Through this study, lithium, one of the useful mineral resources, could be selectively recovered from the shale gas produced water and it would also reduce the wastewater treatment cost during the development of shale gas. - Highlights: • Lithium was extracted from shale gas produced water using an organic solvent. • Two-stage solvent extraction technique was applied. • Divalent cations were removed in the first stage by D2EHPA. • Lithium was selectively recovered in the second stage by using TBP with D2EHPA.

  13. A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Xiaoxin

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shownhere that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Ω to 970 Ω at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Thermodynamic solar water pump with multifunction and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Slama, R. [Gabes Univ. (Tunisia). Dept. of Electromechanics

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a thermodynamic solar water pump design. Reflectors were used on the pump in order to ensure that water evaporation was conducted at the highest possible temperature. A vacuum was created by steam condensation in a closed container. The influence of heating and cooling temperatures on pump vacuum performance was studied experimentally. Water and ambient temperatures were measured along with pressure drop. Incidental solar radiation on the tilted plane of the collector was measured with a pyranometer. The pumping cycle was characterized by measuring the temperature reached during heating before spontaneous cooling occurred. Results of the study were used to obtain curves corresponding to the cooling temperatures. The curves showed that pressure drop is higher when heating temperatures reached 100 degrees C. A cooling device system was included in order to increase the number of potential pumping cycles per day. It was concluded that the pump can also be used to create hot water. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  17. NASA's Impacts Towards Improving International Water Management Using Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lawford, R. G.; Mohr, K. I.; Lee, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Key objectives of the NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs are to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management. This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts to international partners, particularly developing countries. NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. This presentation will outline and describe NASA's international water related research, applications and capacity building programs' efforts to address developing countries critical water challenges in Asia, African and Latin America. This will specifically highlight impacts and case studies from NASA's programs in Water Resources (e.g., drought, snow

  18. Modeling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Hanai, Emmanuel E.

    2017-08-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, including pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and various forms of nitrogen, which were used as input parameters in a kinetic mathematical model. A conceptual model was then developed to model various processes in the system using STELLA 6.0.1 software. The results show that total nitrogen was removed by 63.9%. Denitrification contributed 73.8% of the removed nitrogen. Other dominant nitrogen removal mechanisms are net sedimentation and uptake by water hyacinth, which contributed 16.7% and 9.5% of the removed nitrogen, respectively. The model indicated that in presence of water hyacinth biofilm about 1.26 g Nm-2day-1 of nitrogen was removed. However, in the absence of biofilm in water hyacinth pond, the permanent nitrogen removal was only 0.89 g Nm-2day-1. This suggests that in absence of water hyacinth, the efficiency of nitrogen removal would decrease by 29.4%.

  19. REMOVING BIOMASS FROM WATER PONDS AND SMALL WATER RESERVOIRS BY USING NON-WOVEN FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nieć

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small water bodies, for example garden ponds, play many functions in the environment, including biocenotic, hydrological, climatic, sozological, landfill-creative, and aesthetic. Due to their small size, these reservoirs are sensitive to external and internal factors, they are also a common natural contaminants receivers. Nonwoven filters have been investigated for several years as a useful device for treatment of domestic wastewater pre-treated in a septic tank. The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of using this type of filters for water originating from small water body purification. The effectiveness of filters were tested on the water originating from the garden pond, contained high levels of nutrients and intensive algal bloom. Research was carried out on three filters (each filter consisted of four geotextile TS 20 layers. Basic water quality indicators: total suspended solids, turbidity, COD and BOD5, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured. The research results can be considered as satisfactory in terms of mechanical treatment (removal of turbidity and total suspended solids. An important positive effect of the filters was the oxygenation of the treated water, which is especially important for fish.

  20. Water Use in Florida, 2005 and Trends 1950-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Water is among Florida's most valued resources. The State has more than 1,700 streams and rivers, 7,800 freshwater lakes, 700 springs, 11 million acres of wetlands, and underlying aquifers yielding quantities of freshwater necessary for both human and environmental needs (Fernald and Purdum, 1998). Although renewable, these water resources are finite, and continued growth in population, tourism, and agriculture will place increased demands on these water supplies. The permanent population of Florida in 2005 totaled 17.9 million, ranking fourth in the Nation (University of Florida, 2006); nearly 86 million tourists visited the State (Orlando Business Journal, 2006). In 2005, Florida harvested two-thirds of the total citrus production in the United States and ranked fifth in the Nation net farm income (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2006). Freshwater is vital for sustaining Florida's population, economy, and agricultural production. Accurate estimates reflecting water use and trends in Florida are compiled in 5-year intervals by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Northwest Florida, St. Johns River, South Florida, Southwest Florida, and Suwannee River Water Management Districts (Marella, 2004). This coordinated effort provides the necessary data and information for planning future water needs and resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present the highlights of water use in Florida for 2005 along with some significant trends in withdrawals since 1950.

  1. Surface Water Quality Assessment and Prioritize the Factors Pollute This Water Using Topsis Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Komasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowadays, according to growth of industry and increasing population, water resources are seriousely shortened. This lack of water resources will require special management to be considered in industry and agriculture. Among the various sources of water, surface waters are more susceptible to infection. The most important of these sources of pollution are industrial pollution, detergent, pesticides, radioactive materials, heat and salt concentration.  Materials & methods: In this article, at first the importance of each pollutant will be evaluated base on the effects and its results and then quality evaluation of surface water will be studied. In order to assess the relative importance of these pollutants primarily using TOPSIS software, prioritize these factors as one of the hierarchical analysis and then is modeled with decision tree method using Weka software, the importance of each factor is evaluated and if it does not meet the minimal importance of the decision tree will be removed. Results: The results obtained from the Topsis fuzzy analysis indicate that surface water and groundwater are exposed to pollution about 74% and 26% respectively among the six pollutants examined in this study. In addition, results obtaned from the hierarchical tree in software Weka has shown that the heat factor, soluble salts and industrial pollutants give impac factor or purity about 0.1338, 0.0523 and 1.2694 respectively. Conclusion: Surface water is at greater risk of being polluted compared with groundwater. The heat factor and low concentration of dissolved salts have the low impact and industrial pollutants are considered as the most influential factors in surface water pollution.

  2. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source

    OpenAIRE

    Fronk, Robert Charles

    1996-01-01

    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  3. Filtering Water by Use of Ultrasonically Vibrated Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalas, Lillian Susan

    2009-01-01

    Devices that could be characterized as acoustically driven molecular sieves have been proposed for filtering water to remove all biological contaminants and all molecules larger than water molecules. Originally intended for purifying wastewater for reuse aboard spacecraft, these devices could also be attractive for use on Earth in numerous settings in which there are requirements to obtain potable, medical-grade, or otherwise pure water from contaminated water supplies. These devices could also serve as efficient means of removing some or all water from chemical products . for example, they might be useful as adjuncts or substitutes for stills in the removal of water from alcohols and alcoholic beverages. These devices may be constructed using various materials, such as ceramics, metallics, or polymers, depending on end-use requirements. A representative device of this type (see figure) would include a polymeric disk, about 1 mm in diameter and between 1 and 40 microns thick, within which would be embedded single-wall carbon nanotubes aligned along the thickness axis. The polymeric disk would be part of a unitary polymeric ring assembly. An acoustic transducer in the form of a piezoelectric-film-and-electrode subassembly - typically 9 microns thick and made of poly(vinylidene fluoride) coated with copper 150 nm thick -. would be affixed to the outside of the outer polymeric ring by means of an electrically nonconductive epoxy. The nanotubes would be chosen to have diameters between about 8 and about 13.5 A because water molecules could fit into the nanotubes, but larger molecules could not. Water to be purified would be placed in contact with one face (typically, the upper face) of the filter disk. The surface tension of water is low enough that water molecules should enter and travel along the nanotubes, and computational simulations of molecular dynamics and experimental measurements have shown that the water molecules inside the nanotubes in this size range can

  4. Turbidity and microbes removal from water using an electrochemical filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.; Gokhale, B.K.; Belapurkar, A.D.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Balaji, V.

    2004-01-01

    An in-house designed and fabricated Electrochemical fibrous graphite filter (ECF) was used to remove turbidity and microbes. The filter was found to be effective in removing sub micron size indium turbidity from RAPS-1 moderator water, iron turbidity from Active Process Cooling Water (APCW) of Kaiga Generating Station and microbial reduction from process cooling water RAPS-2. Unlike conventional turbidity removal by addition of coagulants and biocide chemical additions for purification, ECF is a clean way to remove the turbidity without contaminating the system and is best suited for close loop systems

  5. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  6. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  7. Modeling shallow water flows using the discontinuous Galerkin method

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Abdul A

    2014-01-01

    Replacing the Traditional Physical Model Approach Computational models offer promise in improving the modeling of shallow water flows. As new techniques are considered, the process continues to change and evolve. Modeling Shallow Water Flows Using the Discontinuous Galerkin Method examines a technique that focuses on hyperbolic conservation laws and includes one-dimensional and two-dimensional shallow water flows and pollutant transports. Combines the Advantages of Finite Volume and Finite Element Methods This book explores the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, also known as the discontinuous finite element method, in depth. It introduces the DG method and its application to shallow water flows, as well as background information for implementing and applying this method for natural rivers. It considers dam-break problems, shock wave problems, and flows in different regimes (subcritical, supercritical, and transcritical). Readily Adaptable to the Real World While the DG method has been widely used in the fie...

  8. Investigation of metal concentration in water using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, P.K.; Chakraborty, S.; Tiwary, S.S.; Majumder, C.; Sharma, H.P.; Kumar, A.; Singh, K.P.; Shivcharan; Mohanty, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    Availability of clean drinking water is an essential requirement for human health. The Ganga water is being widely used for drinking and irrigation purposes in many cities situated near the bank of the river, which effect the human health. Hence investigation of toxic elements of Ganga water is very important. PIXE (Particle Induce X-ray Emission) is well known and useful technique for finding out qualitative and quantitative analysis of various samples (taken from environment) and may contains about 30-50 elements together with concentration of about 1ppb. The elemental analysis depends on the inner-shell ionization process and measurement of the X-ray yield of the samples. For the present investigation, samples of Ganga water were collected from Varanasi and Allahabad

  9. Using Perceived Differences in Views of Agricultural Water Use to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Taylor, Melissa R.; Lamm, Kevan W.

    2016-01-01

    Water use has become increasingly contentious as the population grows and water resources become scarcer. Recent media coverage of agricultural water use has brought negative attention potentially influencing public and decision makers' attitudes towards agriculture. Negative perceptions could result in uninformed decisions being made that impact…

  10. Water Use and Quality Footprints of Biofuel Crops in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Hendricks, G.; Helsel, Z.; Knowles, J.

    2013-12-01

    The use of biofuel crops for future energy needs will require considerable amounts of water inputs. Favorable growing conditions for large scale biofuel production exist in the sub-tropical environment of South Florida. However, large-scale land use change associated with biofuel crops is likely to affect the quantity and quality of water within the region. South Florida's surface and ground water resources are already stressed by current allocations. Limited data exists to allocate water for growing the energy crops as well as evaluate the accompanying hydrologic and water quality impacts of large-scale land use changes. A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the water supply and quality impacts of three energy crops: sugarcane, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum (with a winter crop). Six lysimeters were used to collect the data needed to quantify crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels in groundwater and discharge (drainage and runoff). Each lysimeter (4.85 x 3.65 x 1.35 m) was equipped to measure water input, output, and storage. The irrigation, runoff, and drainage volumes were measured using flow meters. Groundwater samples were collected bi-weekly and drainage/runoff sampling was event based; samples were analyzed for nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) species. Data collected over the three years revealed that the average annual ETc was highest for sugarcane (1464 mm) followed by switchgrass and sweet sorghum. Sweet sorghum had the highest total N (TN) concentration (7.6 mg/L) in groundwater and TN load (36 kg/ha) in discharge. However, sweet sorghum had the lowest total P (TP) concentration (1.2 mg/L) in groundwater and TP load (9 kg/ha) in discharge. Water use footprint for ethanol (liter of water used per liter of ethanol produced) was lowest for sugarcane and highest for switchgrass. Switchgrass had the highest P-load footprint for ethanol. No differences were observed for the TN load footprint for ethanol. This is the

  11. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  12. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to set water prices that provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently. These new water pricing policies need to consider cost recovery of water services, including financial, environmental and resource cost. Prices were supposed to have been set by 2010. So far the record has been mixed. The European Commission has sent reasoned opinions to a number of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden) requesting them to adjust their national legislation to include all water services. Unbalanced water pricing may negatively affect the agricultural sector, especially in the southern EU countries, which are more dependent on irrigation water for production. The European Commission is funding several projects that aim to reduce the burden of increasing water prices on farmers by developing innovative technologies and decision support systems that will save water and increase productivity. The FP7 ENORASIS project (grant 282949) has developed a new integrated irrigation management decision support platform, which include high-resolution, ensemble weather forecasting, a GIS widget for the location of fields and sensors and a comprehensive decision support and database management software package to optimize irrigation water management. The field component includes wireless, solar-powered soil moisture sensors, small weather stations, and remotely controlled irrigation valves. A mobile App and a web-package are providing user-friendly interfaces for farmers, water companies and environmental consultants. In Cyprus, agricultural water prices have been set to achieve a cost recovery rate of 54% (2010). The pricing policy takes in consideration the social importance and financial viability of the agricultural sector, an important flexibility provided by the Water Framework Directive. The new price was set at 0.24 euro per m3 for water supply

  13. Coupling biophysical processes and water rights to simulate spatially distributed water use in an intensively managed hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bangshuai; Benner, Shawn G.; Bolte, John P.; Vache, Kellie B.; Flores, Alejandro N.

    2017-07-01

    Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this region. In agricultural areas, water demand is estimated as a function of crop type and local environmental conditions. Surface water to meet crop demand is diverted from the stream reaches, constrained by the amount of water available in the stream, the water-rights-appropriated amount, and the priority dates associated with particular places of use. Results, measured by flow rates at gaged stream and canal locations within the study area, suggest that the impacts of irrigation activities on the magnitude and timing of flows through this intensively managed system are well captured. The multi-year averaged diverted water from the Boise River matches observations well, reflecting the appropriation of water according to the water rights database. Because of the spatially explicit implementation of surface water diversion, the model can help diagnose places and times where water resources are likely insufficient to meet agricultural water demands, and inform future water management decisions.

  14. Exchangeable pulmonary water space evaluation using giant liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.C.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Ferreira, N.; De Lima, J.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The present work aims to study the potential use of liposomes for the evaluation of pulmonary exchangeable water space, important parameter in some pulmonary oedema situations. This study is based upon the delivery of a diffusible water radiotracer into pulmonary capillary network, which equilibrates with interstitial water space of the lung and returns to the blood circulation. The time constant of this phenomena depends on the magnitude of the water space under study. The release of the diffusible radiotracer in lung capillaries is performed using liposomes with specific formulation. The giant liposomes (15-30μm diameter) used in this study are instable at 37 deg. C. They are biocompatible, biodegradable, with low toxicity and showed no immunogenicity. A water tracer labelled with 99m Tc, encapsulated in the aqueous phase of giant liposomes, has been used. Liposomes were prepared in sterile conditions and with apyrogenic materials. The lipid films composition is L-α-diestearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC), L-α-phosphatidyl-DL-glycerol (EPG) and cholesterol (CHOL) (60%/10%/30% mass ratio). After iv injection at +-20 deg. C in the femoral vein of Wistar rats (300g-600g) or albine rabbits (4.5-5Kg), the thermolabile liposomes will be entrapped in lung capillaries and release the radiotracer locally. When the radiodrug is diffusible we will evaluate the volume of the exchangeable pulmonary water analyzing the activity/time curves. These curves are slower for greater water spaces. When the radiotracer is non-diffusible, the disappearance curves are not influenced by the extravascular water space. (author)

  15. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  16. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  17. Study on mutagenic and toxic compounds in lake water used as drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Zanardini, A.

    1996-01-01

    Trace amounts of mutagenic and toxic substances are frequently found in drinking water, causing a great concern for their potential health effects. Aim of this work is to develop a reliable and efficient screening method for detecting aquatic mutagens and toxins in surface water used for human consumption. For this purpose different methods of concentration of lake water have been experimented by using three different solid phase extraction systems at different pHs and studying the adsorbates by means of a mutagenicity test (Ames test), a toxicity test (LUMIStox) and chemical analysis (GC,MS). This integrated chemical/biological approach showed to be a suitable system for the preliminary choice of an efficient screening method for aquatic mutagens and toxins and to give useful data for the evaluation of potential health hazards

  18. Monitoring tropospheric water vapor changes using radiosonde data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, W.P.; Smith, M.E.; Angell, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Significant increases in the water vapor content of the troposphere are expected to accompany temperature increases due to rising concentrations of the greenhouse gases. Thus it is important to follow changes in water vapor over time. There are a number of difficulties in developing a homogeneous data set, however, because of changes in radiosonde instrumentation and reporting practices. The authors report here on preliminary attempts to establish indices of water vapor which can be monitored. The precipitable water between the surface and 500 mb is the first candidate. They describe their method for calculating this quantity from radiosonde data for a network very similar to the network Angell uses for detecting temperature trends. Preliminary results suggest that the noise level is low enough to detect trends in water vapor at the individual stations. While a slight increase in global water vapor is hinted at in the data, and the data suggest there may have been a net transfer of water from the Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere, these conclusions are tentative. The authors also discuss the future course of this investigation

  19. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  20. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  1. Applications for remotely sensed evapotranspiration data in monitoring water quality, water use, and water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the globe there are ever-increasing and competing demands for freshwater resources in support of food production, ecosystems services and human/industrial consumption. Recent studies using the GRACE satellite have identified severely stressed aquifers that are being unsustainably depleted du...

  2. Performance of Control System Using Microcontroller for Sea Water Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani, A.; Witanto, Y.; Pratama, A. S.; Supriyadi; Hendra; Tanjung, A.

    2018-02-01

    Now a day control system is very important rule for any process. Control system have been used in the automatic system. Automatic system can be seen in the industrial filed, mechanical field, electrical field and etc. In industrial and mechanical field, control system are used for control of motion component such as motor, conveyor, machine, control of process made of product, control of system and soon. In electrical field, control system can met for control of electrical system as equipment or part electrical like fan, rice cooker, refrigerator, air conditioner and etc. Control system are used for control of temperature and circulation gas, air and water. Control system of temperature and circulation of water also can be used for fisher community. Control system can be create by using microcontroller, PLC and other automatic program [1][2]. In this paper we will focus on the close loop system by using microcontroller Arduino Mega to control of temperature and circulation of sea water for fisher community. Performance control system is influenced by control equipment, sensor sensitivity, test condition, environment and others. The temperature sensor is measured using the DS18S20 and the sea water clarity sensor for circulation indicator with turbidity sensor. From the test results indicated that this control system can circulate sea water and maintain the temperature and clarity of seawater in a short time.

  3. Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angela P; Alarcón, Andrés; Valbuena, Raúl I; Galeano, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Water stress in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) causes considerable losses in yield, and therefore, potato is often considered to be a drought sensitive crop. Identification of water deficit tolerant potato genotypes is an adaptation strategy to mitigate the climatic changes that are occurring in the Cundiboyacense region in Colombia. Previous studies have evaluated potato plants under water stress conditions using physiological analyses. However, these methodologies require considerable amounts of time and plant material to perform these measurements. This study evaluated and compared the physiological and spectral traits between two genotypes, Diacol Capiro and Perla Negra under two drought levels (10 and 15 days without irrigation from flowering). Reflectance information was used to calculate indexes which were associated with the physiological behavior in plants. The results showed that spectral information was correlated (ρ < 0.0001) with physiological variables such as foliar area (FA), total water content (H 2 Ot), relative growth rate of potato tubers (RGTtub), leaf area ratio (LAR), and foliar area index (AFI). In general, there was a higher concentration of chlorophyll under drought treatments. In addition, Perla Negra under water deficit treatments did not show significant differences in its physiological variables. Therefore, it could be considered a drought tolerant genotype because its physiological performance was not affected under water stress conditions. However, yield was affected in both genotypes after being subject to 15 days of drought. The results suggested that reflectance indexes are a useful and affordable approach for potato phenotyping to select parent and segregant populations in breeding programs.

  4. Automated Method for Monitoring Water Quality Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Clay Barrett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring of water quality is increasingly necessary to keep pace with rapid environmental change and protect human health and well-being. Remote sensing has been suggested as a potential solution for monitoring certain water quality parameters without the need for in situ sampling, but universal methods and tools are lacking. While many studies have developed predictive relationships between remotely sensed surface reflectance and water parameters, these relationships are often unique to a particular geographic region and have little applicability in other areas. In order to remotely monitor water quality, these relationships must be developed on a region by region basis. This paper presents an automated method for processing remotely sensed images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and extracting corrected reflectance measurements around known sample locations to allow rapid development of predictive water quality relationships to improve remote monitoring. Using open Python scripting, this study (1 provides an openly accessible and simple method for processing publicly available remote sensing data; and (2 allows determination of relationships between sampled water quality parameters and reflectance values to ultimately allow predictive monitoring. The method is demonstrated through a case study of the Ozark/Ouchita-Appalachian ecoregion in eastern Oklahoma using data collected for the Beneficial Use Monitoring Program (BUMP.

  5. Assessing microbiological water quality in drinking water distribution systems with disinfectant residual using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Simon; Lipphaus, Patrick; Green, James; Parsons, Simon; Weir, Paul; Juskowiak, Kes; Jefferson, Bruce; Jarvis, Peter; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Flow cytometry (FCM) as a diagnostic tool for enumeration and characterization of microorganisms is rapidly gaining popularity and is increasingly applied in the water industry. In this study we applied the method to obtain a better understanding of total and intact cell concentrations in three different drinking water distribution systems (one using chlorine and two using chloramines as secondary disinfectants). Chloramine tended to result in lower proportions of intact cells than chlorine over a wider residual range, in agreement with existing knowledge that chloramine suppresses regrowth more efficiently. For chlorinated systems, free chlorine concentrations above 0.5 mg L(-1) were found to be associated with relatively low proportions of intact cells, whereas lower disinfectant levels could result in substantially higher percentages of intact cells. The threshold for chlorinated systems is in good agreement with guidelines from the World Health Organization. The fact that the vast majority of samples failing the regulatory coliform standard also showed elevated proportions of intact cells suggests that this parameter might be useful for evaluating risk of failure. Another interesting parameter for judging the microbiological status of water, the biological regrowth potential, greatly varied among different finished waters providing potential help for investment decisions. For its measurement, a simple method was introduced that can easily be performed by water utilities with FCM capability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Draining Water from Aircraft Fuel Using Nitrogen Enriched Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a computational study of the process of removing water from an aircraft’s fuel tank by pumping nitrogen enriched air (NEA from the bottom of the tank. This is an important procedure for the smooth, efficient, and safe operation of the aircraft’s engine. Due to the low partial pressure of water in the pumped NEA, it absorbs water from the fuel. The water-laden bubbles enter the ullage, the empty space above the fuel, and escape into the environment. The effects of the number of NEA inlets and the NEA mass flow rate on the timescale of the NEA pumping were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results reveal that the absorption of water by the NEA bubbles is low and is not affected by the number of the inlets used. Yet, the water content in the fuel decreases fast during the procedure, which is the desired outcome. We show that this is due to the relatively dry NEA entering the ullage and displacing the moist air, thus reducing the partial pressure of water at the fuel/ullage interface. This shift from equilibrium conditions forces water to evaporate from the fuel’s entire surface. Furthermore, the amount of water migrating from the fuel directly into the ullage is significantly greater than that absorbed by the rising bubbles. In turn, the rate of decrease of the water content in the ullage is determined by the total NEA mass flow rate and this is the dominant contributor to the draining time, with the number of NEA nozzles playing a minor role. We confirmed this by pumping NEA directly into the ullage, where we observe a significant decrease of water even when the NEA is not pumped through the fuel. We also show that doubling the mass flow rate halves the draining time. When considering the capability of most modern aircraft to pump NEA through the fuel as part of their inerting system, the proposed method for removing water is particularly attractive, requiring very little (if at all design modification.

  7. Survey of instrumentation used for monitoring metals in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1978-06-01

    A study was conducted of instrumentation used to determine metals in water. Several of the techniques most commonly used for analysis and routine determinations of metals in water are shown in Table 1. They are atomic absorption spectroscopy, both flame and flameless, atomic emission spectroscopy using conventional flame sources and inductively-coupled plasma sources, and ultraviolet-visible absorption techniques. Other less frequently employed methods are x-ray fluorescence analysis using both photon and charged particle excitation with energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive spectral analysis. Also electrochemical techniques and activation analysis are studied.

  8. Water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

    2017-12-05

    Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

  9. Water Use and Crop Coefficients in Sprinkler Irrigated Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Spanu

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out during the years 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2006 to analyze water-soil-atmosphere interactions in sprinkler irrigated rice. The research was carried out in Sardinia (39º 59’ N; 8º 40’ E, at altitude 15 m. The cultivars used in the experiments, respectively in 2002 and in 2004-2005-2006, were Irat 212 and Eurosis. In each year cultivars were subjected to the same crop management. Irrigation was applied since the emergence with the sprinkler method, taking into account the loss of water from ‘Class A’ pan evaporation. Soil water content was monitored at 0.10 m intervals until 1.00-m depth using a ‘Diviner 2000’ (Sentek. In 2002 seven irrigation scheduling treatments were compared. In 2004, 2005, 2006 irrigation treatments provided for optimal soil water conditions during the growing season. In 2002 the results highlighted: 1 0-0.20 m depth was the most important layer for crop water uptake and the best correlated layer with rice rough yield; 2 the positive relationship between yield and water supply was significant until 6500 m3 ha-1 of water applied. Further seasonal irrigation volumes did not increase significantly yield. In 2004, 2005 and 2006 the analysis of the soil water balance at different crop phenological stages allowed to estimate crop coefficients (Kc using the Penman-Monteith equation and the ‘Class A’ pan evaporation (Kcev. Kc varied over the three-year period on average from 0.90 to 1.07 and 0.97, respectively for the emergence-end of tillering, end of tillering-heading and heading-maturing periods, while crop coefficients as a ratio between maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETc and Epan, Kcev ranged from 0.78 to 0.92 and 0.81 for the same time periods.

  10. Biomass production and water use efficiency of grassland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the results from a long-term grazing trial in the Dry Highland Sourveld of the KwaZulu-Natal province, we prepared a water use efficiency value (the ratio of the increment in annual biomass to total annual evapotranspiration) for this rangeland type. Using seasonal biomass measurements recorded between March ...

  11. Modelling flow dynamics in water distribution networks using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    was used for modelling the flow and simulate water demand using a Matlab .... This process requires that the neural network compute the error derivative of the .... Furthermore, Matlab was used as a simulation tool; and the first step was ...

  12. Water use efficiency by coffee arabica after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Paolinelli de Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many coffee growers apply glyphosate in directed applications, but some phytotoxicity has been noted. It is believed some herbicides can exert a direct or indirect negative effect on photosynthesis by reducing the metabolic rate in a way that can affect the water use efficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the variables related to water use among coffee cultivars subjected to the application of glyphosate and the effects of each dose. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica, Acaiá (MG-6851, Catucaí Amarelo (2SL and Topázio (MG-1190, and three doses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g acid equivalent ha-1, in a factorial 3 x 3 design. At 15 days after application, a reduction in stomatal conductance was observed, and smaller transpiration rate and water use efficiency were found in the fourth leaf at 15 days after application. There was a decrease in the transpiration rate at 45 DAA, with the Acaiá cultivar showing reductions with 115.2 g ha-1. There was transitory reduction in water use efficiency with glyphosate application, but can affect the growth and production. The Acaiá cultivar showed the highest tolerance to glyphosate because the water use efficiency after herbicide application.

  13. Spatial assessment of water use in an environmentally sensitive wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz; Hafeez, Mohsin; Abbas, Akhtar; Ahmad, Aftab

    2009-05-01

    Wetlands are among the most valuable ecosystems in the world and are crucial in supporting biodiversity. They also provide space for storing surface waters, where intense biological processing occurs that helps improve water quality. Human activities, particularly irrigated agriculture and urban developments instigating water diversions from rivers, have altered the hydrology of most wetlands. The Lower Murrumbidgee wetland, located in the Murrumbidgee River Catchment, is an example and is one of the significant wetlands across the Murray Darling Basin of Australia. Historic estimates show the volumes of water ranged from none in dry years to about 300 to 400 GL (1 GL = 10(9) L) in an average and wet year, respectively. The flows reaching the Lower Murrumbidgee wetland have been drastically reduced by at least 60% because of the upstream diversions introduced during the last century. These reductions have adversely affected the health of natural vegetation and agricultural crops in the Lower Murrumbidgee floodplain. This article presents the results of the quantification of total water consumption of various land uses in the Lower Murrumbidgee floodplain using the remote sensing-based Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) modeling approach. The spatial analysis of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) shows that ETa rates are the highest (13-26%) for the red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests both in summer and winter days. However, in terms of total ETa volume, lignum (Muehlenbeckia florulenta) constitutes the most significant part, which is around 14-30% of the total ETa volume for the area. Actual evapotranspiration from winter cereal cropping areas following the summer ponding is the third highest consumer of water after the river red gum and lignum. Actual evapotranspiration from the fallow land is also significant, representing 5-28% of total ETa from the region. In view of the extent of the unaccounted flows in the overall water balance of the

  14. Discriminating sediment and clear water over coastal water using GD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abd Rahman Mat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently two algorithms are being used routinely by the MODIS Atmosphere and Ocean Team in order to distinguish sediment influence and clear water pixels over turbid water area. These two algorithms require complicated computational analyses. In this paper, a simple algorithm based on empirical technique to detect the sediment-influenced pixels over coastal waters is proposed as an alternative to these two algorithms. This study used apparent reflectance acquired from MODIS L1B product. This algorithm is based on the gradient difference of the line connecting the 0.47- and 1.24-μm channels and 0.47- and 0.66-μm channels of a log-log graph of the apparent reflectance values against MODIS wavelengths. Over clear-water areas (deep blue sea, the 0.47-, 0.66- and 1.24-μm channels fitted very well in line with correlation R > 0.99. Over turbid waters, a substantial increase of 0.66 μm in the reflectance leads to a low correlation value. By computing the difference between the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 0.66 μm and the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 1.24 μm, the threshold to discriminate turbid and shallow coastal waters from clear-water pixels can be obtained. If the gradient difference is greater than 0, the pixels were then marked as sediment-influenced pixels. This proposed algorithm works well for MODIS Terra and Aqua sensor. The comparison of this algorithm with an established algorithm also showed a good agreement.

  15. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  16. Using ELECTRE TRI to support maintenance of water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Trojan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems encountered in the context of the maintenance management of water supply are evidenced by the lack of decision support models which gives a manager overview of the system. This paper, therefore, develops a model that uses, in its framework, the multicriteria outranking method ELECTRE TRI. The objective is to sort the areas of water flow measurement of a water distribution network, by priority of maintenance, with data collected from an automated system of abnormalities detection. This sorting is designed to support maintenance decisions in terms of the measure more appropriate to be applied per region. To illustrate the proposed model, an application was performed in a city with 100 thousand water connections. With this model it becomes possible to improve the allocation of maintenance measures for regions and mainly to improve the operation of the distribution network.

  17. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved. PMID:27551860

  18. Assessing and evaluating recreational uses of water resources: implications for an integrated management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina Kakoyannis; George H. Stankey

    2002-01-01

    To resolve conflicts over water, we need an understanding of human uses and values for water. In this study, we explore how water-based recreation affects and is affected by the water regime and water management and how key social trends might influence future water-based recreation. We found that although water is a critical component of many recreational experiences...

  19. Condition, use, and management of water resources among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that water supply in Harshin district is 100% surface water ... Besides, 76% of the respondents were not satisfied with the quality of drinking water. ... Key words: Water resources, pastoralists, rainwater, water-harvesting, gender ...

  20. Water stress detection in the Amazon using radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Paget, Aaron; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Bittencourt, Paulo R. L.; Barros, Fernanda de V.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest plays an important role in the global water and carbon cycle, and though it is predicted to continue drying in the future, the effect of drought remains uncertain. Developments in remote sensing missions now facilitate large-scale observations. The RapidScat scatterometer (Ku band) mounted on the International Space Station observes the Earth in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit, which allows for studying changes in the diurnal cycle of radar backscatter over the Amazon. Diurnal cycles in backscatter are significantly affected by the state of the canopy, especially during periods of increased water stress. We use RapidScat backscatter time series and water deficit measurements from dendrometers in 20 trees during a 9 month period to relate variations in backscatter to increased tree water deficit. Morning radar bacskcatter dropped significantly with increased tree water deficit measured with dendrometers. This provides unique observational evidence that demonstrates the sensitivity of radar backscatter to vegetation water stress, highlighting the potential of drought detection and monitoring using radar.

  1. Using Green Water Farm to Improve Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hsiou Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs are human-made floating structures capable of supporting aquatic vegetation. Previous studies pointed out that most AFIs use aquatic plants to carry out improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. This study proposed a modified AFI system, named Green Water Farm (GWF, to increase the practical application value of traditional AFIs, and added a special design to create an environment that allows for terrestrial plants (including vegetables and flowers to grow and to carry out improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. The research site was located at the waterfront of Li-tze Lake in Pitou Township, Taiwan. A GWF was established to evaluate the improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. During one year, water quality and ecological conservation assessments were recorded to investigate the performance of GWF system. The research results showed that GWF could improve water quality and ecological conservation. In addition, the results of this study can provide useful information for more food sources for humans and animals, and increase biodiversity and ecological conservation.

  2. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jamil

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The performance study of the pasteurizer was performed during the month of May 2008. The designed pasteurizer maintained water temperature in the range of60 oC to 70 oC continuously for more than an hour which is enough for deactivation of coliform bacteria. The maximum water temperature on a clear sunny day was found to be 67 oC, corresponding to an ambient temperature of40 oC. With the pasteurizer facing south, a very little repositioning was required. The low cost and operational simplicity of the pasteurizer make it affordable and usable. It is more useful in rural areas where other sources of energy like electricity and gas are not easily available

  3. Using natural biomass microorganisms for drinking water denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Darleila Damasceno; Gomes, Anderson Albino; Fernandes, Mylena; Lopes da Costa Bortoluzzi, Roseli; Magalhães, Maria de Lourdes Borba; Skoronski, Everton

    2018-07-01

    Among the methods that are studied to eliminate nitrate from drinking water, biological denitrification is an attractive strategy. Although several studies report the use of denitrifying bacteria for nitrate removal, they usually involve the use of sewage sludge as biomass to obtain the microbiota. In the present study, denitrifying bacteria was isolated from bamboo, and variable parameters were controlled focusing on optimal bacterial performance followed by physicochemical analysis of water adequacy. In this way, bamboo was used as a source of denitrifying microorganisms, using either Immobilized Microorganisms (IM) or Suspended Microorganisms (SM) for nitrate removal. Denitrification parameters optimization was carried out by analysis of denitrification at different pH values, temperature, nitrate concentrations, carbon sources as well as different C/N ratios. In addition, operational stability and denitrification kinetics were evaluated. Microorganisms present in the biomass responsible for denitrification were identified as Proteus mirabilis. The denitrified water was submitted to physicochemical treatment such as coagulation and flocculation to adjust to the parameters of color and turbidity to drinking water standards. Denitrification using IM occurred with 73% efficiency in the absence of an external carbon source. The use of SM provided superior denitrification efficiency using ethanol (96.46%), glucose (98.58%) or glycerol (98.5%) as carbon source. The evaluation of the operational stability allowed 12 cycles of biomass reuse using the IM and 9 cycles using the SM. After physical-chemical treatment, only SM denitrified water remained within drinking water standards parameters of color and turbidity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE USE OF FLUORIDE CONTAINING MINERAL WATER IN WORT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Yonkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the quality of wort produced using fluoride containing mineral water. The results show that the mineral water has a negative impact on the enzymatic destruction of starch, proteins, color intensity and pH of the wort. The changes of pH during mashing process using tap and mineral water was studied. The lower acidity of wort obtained using mineral water didn’t change during the brewing process. The fluoride content of beer is lower than 5 mg.L-1 when wort is produced using mineral and tap water in 1:1 ratio and citric acid for pH correction. At the same time, the final degree of fermentation, α-amine nitrogen content and the intensity of color of produced wort are close to the control sample. The changes in fluoride ion concentration are monitored using ion-selective potentiometry. The fluoride content is decreased from 5.7 to 4.75 mg.L-1, the most intense change is observed during the mashing process.

  5. Extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella sp. using subcritical water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, S. M.; Mustapa Kamal, S. M.; Harun, M. R.; Omar, R.; Siajam, S. I.

    2017-06-01

    Chlorella sp. microalgae is one of the main source of natural bioactive compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subcritical water extraction is the technique that offers an efficient, non-toxic, and environmental-friendly method to obtain natural ingredients. In this work, the extracts of Chlorella sp. microalgae was evaluated in terms of: chemical composition, extraction (polysaccharides) yield and antioxidant activity, using subcritical water extraction. Extractions were performed at temperatures ranging from 100°C to 300°C. The results show that by using subcritical water, the highest yield of polysaccharides is 23.6 that obtained at 150°C. Analysis on the polysaccharides yield show that the contents were highly influenced by the extraction temperature. The individual antioxidant activity were evaluated by in vitro assay using a free radical method. In general, the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained at different water temperatures was high, with values of 31.08-54.29 . The results indicated that extraction by subcritical water was effective and Chlorella sp. can be a useful source of natural antioxidants.

  6. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  8. Environmental assessment of the projected uses for geopressured waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; Manning, J.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    An assessment of possible environmental effects of the use of geopressured water of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast has been made. The uses considered include generation of electric power, production of low pressure steam for process heat and the direct use of the hot water for space heating. Based upon the projected uses, the direct and indirect emissions are estimated and the impact of these emissions upon the environment are discussed. The possible impacts of the production of large volumes of geopressured fluids are also considered in terms of possibility of subsidence and earthquakes. A summary of available analyses of Gulf Coast deep waters is listed as a guide for estimating expected emissions. Primary environmental problems are identified as waste brine disposal, accidental releases of brines, and subsidence. Minor problems such as cooling tower blowdown streams, noncondensable gas emissions, wind drift from exhaust plumes, noise levels, and construction activities are considered.

  9. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Empowering scientists to discover, use, store, and share water data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, A. L.; Hooper, R. P.; Arrigo, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The proposed CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) will provide production-quality water data resources based upon the successful large-scale data services prototype developed by the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project. The WDC, using the HIS technology, concentrates on providing time series data collected at fixed points or on moving platforms from sensors primarily (but not exclusively) in the medium of water. The WDC's missions include providing simple and effective data discovery tools useful to researchers in a variety of water-related disciplines, and providing simple and cost-effective data publication mechanisms for projects that do not desire to run their own data servers. The WDC's activities will include: 1. Rigorous curation of the water data catalog already assembled during the CUAHSI HIS project, to ensure accuracy of records and existence of declared sources. 2. Data backup and failover services for "at risk" data sources. 3. Creation and support for ubiquitously accessible data discovery and access, web-based search and smartphone applications. 4. Partnerships with researchers to extend the state of the art in water data use. 5. Partnerships with industry to create plug-and-play data publishing from sensors, and to create domain-specific tools. The WDC will serve as a knowledge resource for researchers of water-related issues, and will interface with other data centers to make their data more accessible to water researchers. The WDC will serve as a vehicle for addressing some of the grand challenges of accessing and using water data, including: a. Cross-domain data discovery: different scientific domains refer to the same kind of water data using different terminologies, making discovery of data difficult for researchers outside the data provider's domain. b. Cross-validation of data sources: much water data comes from sources lacking rigorous quality control procedures; such sources can be compared against others with rigorous quality

  10. Policy and Ethics In Agricultural and Ecological Water Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Bo

    Agricultural water use accounts for about 70 percent of abstracted waters reaching 92 percent of the collective uses of all water resources when rain water is included. Agriculture is the traditional first sector and linked to a wide range of social, economic and cultural issues at local and global level that reach beyond the production of cheap food and industrial fibres. With the dominance in agricultural water uses and linkages with land use and soil conservation the sector is critical to the protection of global and local environmental values especially in sensitive dryland systems. Ethical principles related to development and nature conservation have traditionally been focused on sustainability imperatives building on precaution and preventive action or on indisputable natural systems values, but are by necessity turning more and more towards solidarity-based risk management approaches. Policy and management have in general failed to consider social dimensions with solidarity, consistency and realism for societal acceptance and practical application. As a consequence agriculture and water related land degradation is resulting in accelerated losses in land productivity and biodiversity in dryland and in humid eco- systems. Increasingly faced with the deer social consequences in the form of large man-made hydrological disasters and with pragmatic requirements driven by drastic increases in the related social cost the preferences are moving to short-term risk management approaches with civil protection objectives. Water scarcity assessment combined with crisis diagnoses and overriding statements on demographic growth, poverty and natural resources scarcity and deteriorating food security in developing countries have become common in the last decades. Such studies are increasingly questioned for purpose, ethical integrity and methodology and lack of consideration of interdependencies between society, economy and environment and of society's capacity to adapt to

  11. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin S. Babitha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it’s biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  13. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, S. Babitha; Abirami, M.; Kumar, R. Suresh

    2018-03-01

    Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it's biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant) followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  14. River water remediation using pulsed corona, pulsed spark or ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izdebski, T.; Dors, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Mizeraczyk, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Gdynia Maritime Univ., Morska (Poland). Dept. of Marine Electronics

    2010-07-01

    The most common reason for epidemic formation is the pollution of surface and drinking water by wastewater bacteria. Pathogenic microorganisms that form the largest part of this are fecal bacteria, such as escherichia coli (E. coli). Wastewater treatment plants reduce the amount of the fecal bacteria by 1-3 orders of magnitude, depending on the initial number of bacteria. There is a lack of data on waste and drinking water purification by the electrohydraulic discharges method, which causes the destruction and inactivation of viruses, yeast, and bacteria. This paper investigated river water cleaning from microorganisms using pulsed corona, spark discharge and ozonization. The paper discussed the experimental setup and results. It was concluded that ozonization is the most efficient method of water disinfection as compared with pulsed spark and pulsed corona discharges. The pulsed spark discharge in water was capable of killing all microorganism similarly to ozonization, but with much lower energy efficiency. The pulsed corona discharge was found to be the less effective method of water disinfection. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  16. Structural material anomaly detection system using water chemistry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Nagase, Makoto; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ohsumi, Katsumi.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of an advanced water chemistry diagnosis system for detection of anomalies and preventive maintenance of system components is proposed and put into a concrete form. Using the analogy to a medical inspection system, analyses of water chemistry change will make it possible to detect symptoms of anomalies in system components. Then, correlations between water chemistry change and anomaly occurrence in the components of the BWR primary cooling system are analyzed theoretically. These fragmentary correlations are organized and reduced to an algorithm for the on-line diagnosis system using on-line monitoring data, pH and conductivity. By using actual plant data, the on-line diagnosis model system is verified to be applicable for early and automatic finding of the anomaly cause and for timely supply of much diagnostic information to plant operators. (author)

  17. Simulation of root water uptake. II. Non-uniform transient water stress using different reduction functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homaee, M.; Feddes, R.A.; Dirksen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The macroscopic root water uptake approach was used in the numerical simulation model HYSWASOR to test four different pressure head-dependent reduction functions. The input parameter values were obtained from the literature and derived from extensive measurements under controlled conditions in the

  18. Monitoring water quality in Northwest Atlantic coastal waters using dinoflagellate cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution is a major environmental problem in many coastal waters around the US. Determining the total input of nutrients to estuaries is a challenge. One method to evaluate nutrient input is through nutrient loading models. Another method relies upon using indicators as...

  19. Cover crop biomass production and water use in the central great plains under varying water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-limited environment of the semi-arid central Great Plains may not have potential to produce enough cover crop biomass to generate benefits associated with cover crop use in more humid regions. There have been reports that cover crops grown in mixtures produce more biomass with greater wate...

  20. Hydrological cycle and water use efficiency of veld in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic non-floating lysimeters were used to determine the evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (W.U.E.) of veld in different successional stages for the period September 1978 to June 1979. In addition runoff of the various successional stages was recorded on runoff plots.Averages of 1,018 litres, 1,258 litres ...

  1. Fluoride removal from rural spring water using wood ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makhado, R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a report on an investigation on the use of cheap wood ash as an effective means of removing excess fluoride from drinking water used by an impoverished rural community of the Didi village in Limpopo province....

  2. Removal of ammonia from tarry water using a tubular furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.V. Grabko; V.A. Kofanova; V.M. Li; M.A. Solov' ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    An ammonia-processing system without the use of live steam from OAO Alchevskkoks plant's supply network is considered. Steam obtained from the wastewater that leaves the ammonia column is used to process the excess tarry water, with the release of volatile ammonia.

  3. Prokaryotic communities in drinking water biofilters using alternative filter medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Inês Lousinha Ribeiro; Roslev, Peter; Ramsay, Loren

    in an alternative filter medium during the start-up of manganese removal. Filter media properties were measured using gravimetric methods and a photometric particle analyzer. Physical, chemical and microbial analyses were used to follow the manganese ripening. Microbial analyses of both inlet water and filter...

  4. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-22

    Oct 22, 2013 ... It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, ...

  5. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, in practice the high ...

  6. Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.

  7. Anthropogenic Water Uses and River Flow Regime Alterations by Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, M.; Botter, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dams and impoundments have been designed to reconcile the systematic conflict between patterns of anthropogenic water uses and the temporal variability of river flows. Over the past seven decades, population growth and economic development led to a marked increase in the number of these water infrastructures, so that unregulated free-flowing rivers are now rare in developed countries and alterations of the hydrologic cycle at global scale have to be properly considered and characterized. Therefore, improving our understanding of the influence of dams and reservoirs on hydrologic regimes is going to play a key role in water planning and management. In this study, a physically based analytic approach is combined to extensive hydrologic data to investigate natural flow regime alterations downstream of dams in the Central-Eastern United States. These representative case studies span a wide range of different uses, including flood control, water supply and hydropower production. Our analysis reveals that the most evident effects of flood control through dams is a decrease in the intra-seasonal variability of flows, whose extent is controlled by the ratio between the storage capacity for flood control and the average incoming streamflow. Conversely, reservoirs used for water supply lead to an increase of daily streamflow variability and an enhanced inter-catchment heterogeneity. Over the last decades, the supply of fresh water required to sustain human populations has become a major concern at global scale. Accordingly, the number of reservoirs devoted to water supply increased by 50% in the US. This pattern foreshadows a possible shift in the cumulative effect of dams on river flow regimes in terms of inter-catchment homogenization and intra-annual flow variability.

  8. Preparation of water-soluble carbon nanotubes using a pulsed streamer discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaka, Kiminobu; Suehiro, Junya; Kanatake, Yusuke; Kato, Yuki; Hara, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    A novel technique for the preparation of water-soluble carbon nanotubes was demonstrated using a pulsed streamer discharge generated in water. The technique involved chemical reactions between radicals generated by the pulsed streamer discharge and carbon nanotubes. The pulsed streamer-treated carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed and well solubilized in water for a month or longer. The mechanism of solubilization of carbon nanotubes by the pulsed streamer discharge is discussed based on FTIR spectroscopy and optical emission spectra measurements. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that -OH groups, which are known to impart a hydrophilic nature to carbon material, were introduced on the carbon nanotube surface. Optical emission spectra from the pulsed streamer plasma showed that highly oxidative O * and H * radicals were generated in water. These results suggest that the functionalization of the carbon nanotube surface by -OH group can be attributed to the O * and H * radicals. An advantage of the proposed method is that there is no need for any chemical agents or additives for solubilization. Chemical agents for solubilization are generated from the water itself by the electrochemical reactions induced by the pulsed streamer discharge

  9. The Urban Food-Water Nexus: Modeling Water Footprints of Urban Agriculture using CityCrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooke, T. R.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Coops, N. C.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban agriculture provides a potential contribution towards more sustainable food production and mitigating some of the human impacts that accompany volatility in regional and global food supply. When considering the capacity of urban landscapes to produce food products, the impact of urban water demand required for food production in cities is often neglected. Urban agricultural studies also tend to be undertaken at broad spatial scales, overlooking the heterogeneity of urban form that exerts an extreme influence on the urban energy balance. As a result, urban planning and management practitioners require, but often do not have, spatially explicit and detailed information to support informed urban agricultural policy, especially as it relates to potential conflicts with sustainability goals targeting water-use. In this research we introduce a new model, CityCrop, a hybrid evapotranspiration-plant growth model that incorporates detailed digital representations of the urban surface and biophysical impacts of the built environment and urban trees to account for the daily variations in net surface radiation. The model enables very fine-scale (sub-meter) estimates of water footprints of potential urban agricultural production. Results of the model are demonstrated for an area in the City of Vancouver, Canada and compared to aspatial model estimates, demonstrating the unique considerations and sensitivities for current and future water footprints of urban agriculture and the implications for urban water planning and policy.

  10. Neotropical dry forest wildlife water hole use and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected wildlife species diurnal use of a natural water hole (QD and an artificial water hole (AW were studied during 1990 dry season at Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. In total, 919 individuals (six mammal and one game bird species consumed water from QD, while 713 individuals (four mammal species consumed water from AW. Estimated daily water consumption by selected wildlife species was 29.7 l at QD and 27.3 l at AW. Estimated 24-h water consumed by all wildlife species or evaporated was 44.6 l at QD and 41.1 l at AW. This resulted from summing: a water consumed by studied species, b estimated 24-hour water consumed by other wildlife (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l and c daily water evaporation (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.10 l. During a 120-day dry season, AW required about 4 932 l of water from the park administration. Management implications for neotropical dry forest water holes are discussed.Se estudió el uso diurno de un ojo de agua natural (QD y otro artificial (AW a finales de la época seca de 1990 en el Area de Conservacion de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. En total 919 individuos (seis especies de mamíferos y una de ave cinegética consumieron agua de QD y 713 individuos (cuatro especies de mamíferos de AQ. Se estimó que en un dia, las especies de vida silvestre estudiados tomaron 29.7 l y 27.3 l de agua de QD y AW, respectivamente. El total de agua consumido o evaporado de cada ojo de agua durante 24-horas fue estimado en 44.6 l en QD y 41.1 l en AW, con base en: a agua bebida durante 12 h por las especies seleccionadas, b agua bebida por todos los otros individuos durante 24 h (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l y c evaporación diaria (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.01 l. Para abastecer AW durante una epoca seca de 120 días, la administración del parque debe proveer 4 932 l de agua. Se discute las implicaciones de manejo en las regiones de bosque seco neotropical.

  11. Internal doses to Ukrainian populations using Dnieper River water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, V.; Ratia, G.; Nasvit, O.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of internal doses from 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a consequence of the use of Dnieper River water were calculated. Local peculiarities of municipal tap, irrigation, and fish consumption in the Ukraine were considered. The dynamics of 90 Sr accumulation in human bone as a result of the use of Dnieper water is simulated. The dose predictions are based on de facto data and the stochastic forecast of radionuclide concentrations in Dnieper reservoirs. A large array of statistical data on the age-structures of exposed populations, food consumption rate, agricultural production, fish contamination, and site-specific parameters were used. Exposures are estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea Republic. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses are 1.7 x 10 -5 and 2.7 x 10 -5 Sv from 90 Sr and 137 Cs, respectively, due to the use of water in 1986 by members of the population in the Kievska region. Commercial fishermen on the Kievska reservoir, who consumed 360 kg y -1 of fish in 1986, received 4.7 x 10 -4 and 5 x 10 -3 Sv from 90 Sr and 137 Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective (over 70 6) effective dose of irrigation, municipal tap water, and fish consumption for members of the general public, respectively, are 18%, 43%,39% in the Kievska region; 8%,25%,67% in the Poltavska region; 50% 50%, 0% (no Dnieper fish consumed) in the Crimea Republic. The predicted contribution of 90 Sr to collective dose resulting from the use of water is 80%. The collective dose to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3,000 person-Sv, due to the use of water. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  13. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  14. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  15. Water Desalination Studies Using Forward Osmosis Technology, A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El-Nour, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water and energy shortage represent a great challenge facing the whole world now. To cover the global water demand, an energy-efficient approach is required to be applied in the suitable technology to achieve the shortage in the fresh water demand. Different techniques are used to solve this problem. A mong the different methods applied to desalinate seawater is the osmosis technologies . Although reversible osmosis (RO) is the most familiar method used for this purpose, forward osmosis (FO) represents a more suitable technique due to several arguments including low energy cost. The present study represents the use of FO technique for water desalination with adsorption regeneration. In this respect, a self-prepared granular active carbon produced from dates is to be used as an adsorbent agent. The physical characteristics of the active carbon are studied such as BET specific surface area, pore size, particle size and the structure using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different advanced apparatus are used for such measurements. In addition, the adsorption is otherms (Langmuier and Freundlich) are established to explain the adsorption mechanism of the process. Accordingly, the review includes essential information and sufficient backgrounds in the field of desalination using FO or simply direct osmosis, which overcome the different difficulties present in reversible RO

  16. Use of water towing tanks for aerodynamics and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhak, Mohamed

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnels and flumes have become standard laboratory tools for modeling a variety of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems. Less available, although by no means less useful, are facilities in which a model can be towed (or propelled) through air or water. This article emphasizes the use of the water towing tank as an experimental tool for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic studies. Its advantages and disadvantages over other flow rigs are discussed, and its usefullness is illustrated through many examples of research results obtained over the past few years in a typical towing tank facility.

  17. Estimating virus occurrence using Bayesian modeling in multiple drinking water systems of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment plants rely on purification of contaminated source waters to provide communities with potable water. One group of possible contaminants are enteric viruses. Measurement of viral quantities in environmental water systems are often performed using polymeras...

  18. Water withdrawal for brackish and inland aquaculture, and options to produce more fish in ponds with present water use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews freshwater use in inland and coastal pond aquaculture, and focuses on options to increase productivity while reducing water use. Total freshwater use depends on system-associated and feed-associated water losses. System-associated water losses depend on total area, evaporation,

  19. The estimation of soil water fluxes using lysimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehenkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    The validation of soil water balance models regarding soil water fluxes in the field is still a problem. This requires time series of measured model outputs. In our study, a soil water balance model was validated using lysimeter time series of measured model outputs. The soil water balance model used in our study was the Hydrus-1D-model. This model was tested by a comparison of simulated with measured daily rates of actual evapotranspiration, soil water storage, groundwater recharge and capillary rise. These rates were obtained from twelve weighable lysimeters with three different soils and two different lower boundary conditions for the time period from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1998. In that period, grass vegetation was grown on all lysimeters. These lysimeters are located in Berlin, Germany. One potential source of error in lysimeter experiments is preferential flow caused by an artificial channeling of water due to the occurrence of air space between the soil monolith and the inside wall of the lysimeters. To analyse such sources of errors, Hydrus-1D was applied with different modelling procedures. The first procedure consists of a general uncalibrated appli-cation of Hydrus-1D. The second one includes a calibration of soil hydraulic parameters via inverse modelling of different percolation events with Hydrus-1D. In the third procedure, the model DUALP_1D was applied with the optimized hydraulic parameter set to test the hy-pothesis of the existence of preferential flow paths in the lysimeters. The results of the different modelling procedures indicated that, in addition to a precise determination of the soil water retention functions, vegetation parameters such as rooting depth should also be taken into account. Without such information, the rooting depth is a calibration parameter. However, in some cases, the uncalibrated application of both models also led to an acceptable fit between measured and simulated model outputs.

  20. Exergy costs analysis of groundwater use and water transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquer, Beatriz; Uche, Javier; Martínez-Gracia, Amaya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate the unit exergy cost of water supply alternatives is provided. • Two alternatives (water transfers and groundwaters) are defined. • The unit exergy costs are given as a function of design and operating parameters. • Unit exergy cost of groundwaters go from 1.01 to 2.67 and from 1 to 4.06 in water transfers. • Unit exergy costs are calculated and contrasted for the medium course of the Ebro. - Abstract: In the search for new alternatives to meet the water demands, it is interesting to analyze the cost of using alternatives different from those such as desalination and pumping. The exergy cost analysis can be a useful tool to estimate costs of those alternatives as a function of its energy efficiency and its relative abundance with respect to existing resources in their surroundings. This study proposes a methodology for assessing the costs of groundwaters and water transfers from surplus basins within the exergy perspective. An equation to assess the exergy costs of these alternatives is proposed. System boundaries are first identified to the assessment of input and output currents to the system in exergy values for the design and certain operating conditions. Next, an equation to assess water supply costs depending on design and operational parameters is proposed, from the analysis of different examples. Pumping efficiency, altitude gap and flow among other features are introduced in the calculations as those characteristics parameters. In the developed examples, unit exergy costs of groundwaters go from 1.01 to 2.67, and from 1 to 4.06 in case of water transfers. Maximum values, as expected within this perspective, are found at high pumped/transferred flows and high pumping levels and/or low pumping efficiency if pumping is required.

  1. Production of hydrogen using composite membrane in PEM water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi priya, E.L.; Mahender, C.; Mahesh, Naga; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 085, A.P (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [Director, TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Electrolysis of water is the best known technology till today to produce hydrogen. The only practical way to produce hydrogen using renewable energy sources is by proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The most commonly used PEM membrane is Nafion. Composite membrane of TiO2 is synthesized by casting method using Nafion 5wt% solution. RuO2 is used as anode and 10 wt% Pd on activated carbon is used as cathode in the water electrolyser system. The performance of this Composite membrane is studied by varying voltage range 1.8 to 2.6V with respect to hydrogen yield and at current density 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5(A cm-2). This Composite membrane has been tested using in-house fabricated single cell PEM water electrolysis cell with 10cm2 active area at temperatures ranging from 30,45,65 850c and at 1 atmosphere pressure.

  2. Relationship between land use and water quality in Pesanggrahan River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Muslimah, Sri; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2018-05-01

    Pesanggrahan River watershed has several activities such as residential and commercial area in its catchment area. The purpose of this study was to analyse water quality related to spatial land use in Pesanggrahan River using GIS Analysis. River water quality in some locations, did not meet water quality standard of class III. From pollution load estimation it was revealed that segment 2 (Bogor City) has the highest BOD, COD, and TSS of 15,043 kg/day, 25,619 kg/day, and 18,104 kg/day respectively. On the other hand, the most developed area in Pesanggrahan Watershed is located in segment 7 (24.5%). Hence, it can be concluded that although an area has a fairly small developed area, high urban activity can cause high BOD, COD, and TSS.

  3. Determination of radium-226 in fresh water, using alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrakdar, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    Four radium isotopes are present in nature, i.e. Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228. The first three are alpha emitters while the last is a beta emitter. Because of the importance of the determination of Alpha isotope emitters in pure water (drinking water), this work focuses on the determination of radium-226 as it has the longest half-life (1600 years, in comparison to 11.4 day, 3.66 days for Ra-223 and Ra-224, respectively) using Alpha spectroscopy. This method has the capability to be applied in sampling fields and low detection limit which in turn makes the analysis of low-level radioactive environmental water samples, with hardness does not exceed 40 French Degree, satisfying for health and environment control programmes. However, counting the samples using Alpha spectroscopy has to be immediate (or within 48 hours). (author)

  4. Oil-water separators for use in ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, G.; Nuttall, P.J.

    1978-11-04

    After ratification by the United Nations Assembly of the 15 ppm limit for the oil content in water discharges from ships, as recommended by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, all oil separating systems used to treat cargo tank washings, oil-contaminated ballast water from double-bottom tanks, engineroom bilge water, or oily sludge from self-cleaning fuel oil purifiers, will be subjected to a stringent test procedure specified by IMCO. This specification requires the use of centrifugal supply pumps capable of discharging at 1.5 times the separator capacity and operating at over 1000 rpm. To meet the 15 ppm standards, filtration or coalescence equipment must be added to conventional single-stage static separators. Tests by Alexander Esplen and Co. Ltd. showed that a two-stage Comyn coagulator incorporating elements specially designed by Vokes Ltd. meets the IMCO requirements. Separator system control and maintenance problems are discussed.

  5. Links between river water acidity, land use and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.; Celebi, A.; Kloeve, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Lab.], Email: tuomas.saarinen@oulu.fi

    2013-11-01

    In western Finland, acid leaching to watercourses is mainly due to drainage of acid sulphate (As) soils. This study examined how different land-use and land-cover types affect water acidity in the northwestern coastal region of Finland, which has abundant drained AS soils and peatlands. Sampling conducted in different hydrological conditions in studied river basins revealed two different catchment types: catchments dominated by drained forested peatlands and catchments used by agriculture. Low pH and high electric conductivity (EC) were typical in rivers affected by agriculture. In rivers dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands, EC was considerably lower. During spring and autumn high runoff events, water quality was poor and showed large spatial variation. Thus it is important to ensure that in river basin status assessment, sampling is carried out in different hydrological situations and in also water from some tributaries is sampled. (orig.)

  6. Water supply pipe dimensioning using hydraulic power dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemathy, J. R.; Rashmi, G.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Proper sizing of the pipe component of water distribution networks play an important role in the overall design of the any water supply system. Several approaches have been applied for the design of networks from an economical point of view. Traditional optimization techniques and population based stochastic algorithms are widely used to optimize the networks. But the use of these approaches is mostly found to be limited to the research level due to difficulties in understanding by the practicing engineers, design engineers and consulting firms. More over due to non-availability of commercial software related to the optimal design of water distribution system,it forces the practicing engineers to adopt either trial and error or experience-based design. This paper presents a simple approach based on power dissipation in each pipeline as a parameter to design the network economically, but not to the level of global minimum cost.

  7. Water quality evaluation system to assess the status and the suitability of the Citarum river water to different uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2010-09-01

    Water quality degradation in the Citarum river will increase from the year to year due to increasing pollutant loads when released particularly from Bandung region of the upstream areas into the river without treatment. This will be facing the problems on water quality status to use for multi-purposes in the downstream areas. The water quality evaluation system is used to evaluate the available water condition that distinguishes into two categories, i.e., the water quality index (WQI) and water quality aptitude (WQA). The assessment of water quality for the Citarum river from 10 selected stations was found that the WQI situates in the bad category generally and the WQA ranges from the suitable quality for agriculture and livestock watering uses to the unsuitable for biological potential function, drinking water production, and leisure activities and sports in the upstream areas of Saguling dam generally.

  8. Assessment of surface water quality using hierarchical cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Kumar Dabgerwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the physicochemical quality river Varuna inVaranasi,India. Water samples were collected from 10 sites during January-June 2015. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the direction and strength of relationship between physicochemical parameters. Hierarchical Cluster analysis was also performed to determine the sources of pollution in the river Varuna. The result showed quite high value of DO, Nitrate, BOD, COD and Total Alkalinity, above the BIS permissible limit. The results of correlation analysis identified key water parameters as pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity and nitrate, which influence the concentration of other water parameters. Cluster analysis identified three major clusters of sampling sites out of total 10 sites, according to the similarity in water quality. This study illustrated the usefulness of correlation and cluster analysis for getting better information about the river water quality.International Journal of Environment Vol. 5 (1 2016,  pp: 32-44

  9. A seepage meter designed for use in flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    Seepage meters provide one of the most direct means to measure exchange of water across the sediment-water interface, but they generally have been unsuitable for use in fluvial settings. Although the seepage bag can be placed inside a rigid container to minimize velocity head concerns, the seepage cylinder installed in the sediment bed projects into and disrupts the flow field, altering both the local-scale fluid exchange as well as measurement of that exchange. A low-profile seepage meter designed for use in moving water was tested in a seepage meter flux tank where both current velocity and seepage velocity could be controlled. The conical seepage cylinder protrudes only slightly above the sediment bed and is connected via tubing to a seepage bag or flowmeter positioned inside a rigid shelter that is located nearby where current velocity is much slower. Laboratory and field tests indicate that the net effect of the small protrusion of the seepage cylinder into the surface water flow field is inconsequentially small for surface water currents up to 65 cm s-1. Current velocity affects the variability of seepage measurements; seepage standard deviation increased from ???2 to ???6 cm d-1 as current velocity increased from 9 to 65 cm s-1. Substantial bias can result if the shelter is not placed to minimize hydraulic gradient between the bag and the seepage cylinder.

  10. Evaluation of river water genotoxicity using the piscine micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergene, Serap; Cavaş, Tolga; Celik, Ayla; Köleli, Nurcan; Aymak, Cemil

    2007-07-01

    The Berdan River, which empties into the Mediterranean Sea on the east coast of Turkey, receives discharges of industrial and municipal waste. In the present study, the in vivo piscine micronucleus (MN) test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples collected from different locations along the Berdan River. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in the laboratory for 2, 4, and 6 days, and micronuclei were evaluated in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill cells, and caudal fin epithelial cells. A single dose of 5 mg/L cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. In addition to micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as binucleated cells and blebbed, notched, and lobed nuclei, were assessed in the erythrocytes, and chemical analyses were carried out to determine the amount of heavy metals in the water samples. MN and NA frequencies were significantly elevated (up to 2- to 3-fold) in fish exposed to river water samples taken downstream of potential discharges, and the elevated responses in gill and fin cells were related to the concentration of heavy metals in the water. MN frequencies (expressed as micronucleated cells/1,000 cells), in both treated and untreated fish, were greatest in gill cells (range: 0.80-3.70), and generally lower in erythrocytes (range: 0.50-2.80), and fin cells (range: 0.45-1.70). The results of this study indicate that the Berdan River is contaminated with genotoxic pollutants and that the genotoxicity is related to the discharge of wastes into the river water.

  11. Climate and land use controls over terrestrial water use efficiency in monsoon Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanqin Tian; Chaoqun Lu; Guangsheng Chen; Xiaofeng Xu; Mingliang Liu; et al

    2011-01-01

    Much concern has been raised regarding how and to what extent climate change and intensive human activities have altered water use efficiency (WUE, amount of carbon uptake per unit of water use) in monsoon Asia. By using a process-based ecosystem model [dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM)], we examined effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land...

  12. Water Withdrawals, Use, and Trends in Florida, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the total amount of water withdrawals in Florida was estimated at 18,359 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 11,486 Mgal/d (63 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,873 Mgal/d (37 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,247 Mgal/d (62 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,626 Mgal/d (38 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 660 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2005. The largest amount of freshwater was withdrawn from Palm Beach County, and the largest amount of saline water was withdrawn from Pasco County. Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 16.19 million people (90 percent of Florida's population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.73 million people (10 percent). The majority of groundwater withdrawals (nearly 60 percent) in 2005 was obtained from the Floridan aquifer system which is present throughout the entire State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (59 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 37 percent. Public supply accounted for 52 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (31 percent), ommercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (8.5 percent), recreational irrigation and domestic self-supplied (4 percent each), and power generation (0.5 percent). Agricultural self-supplied accounted for 56 percent of fresh surface-water withdrawals, followed by power

  13. Measurement of rates of cholesterol synthesis using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietschy, J.M.; Spady, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Rates of sterol synthesis in various tissues commonly are assessed by assaying levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase on isolated microsomes or by measuring the rates of incorporation of various 14 C-labeled substrates or [ 3 H]water into cholesterol by whole cell preparations in vitro or by the tissues of the whole animal in vivo. While measurement of activities of HMG-CoA reductase or rates of incorporation of 14 C-labeled substrates into cholesterol give useful relative rates of sterol production, neither method yields absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis. The use of [ 3 H]water circumvents the problem of variable and unknown dilution of the specific activity of the precursor pool encountered when 14 C-labeled substrates are used and does yield absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis provided that the 3 H/C incorporation ratio is known for a particular tissue. In 12 different experimental situations it has been found that from 21 to 27 micrograms atoms of 3 H are incorporated into cholesterol from [ 3 H]water in different tissues of several animal species, so that the 3 H/C incorporation ratio is similar under nearly all experimental conditions and varies from 0.78 to 1.00. When administered in vivo, [ 3 H]water rapidly equilibrates with intracellular water and is incorporated into sterols within the various organs at rates that are linear with respect to time. From such data it is possible to obtain absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis in the whole animal and in the various organs of the animal. Current data suggest, therefore, that use of [ 3 H]water yields the most accurate rates of cholesterol synthesis both in vitro and in vivo

  14. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  15. Spatial Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity Using the SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokal, Rajesh Tulshiram; Gorantiwar, S. D.; Kothari, Mahesh; Bhakar, S. R.; Nandwana, B. P.

    2015-03-01

    The Sina river basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Sina river basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. In the simulation year (1998-1999), the inflow to reservoir from upstream side was the major contributor to the reservoir accounting for 92 % of the total required water release for irrigation purpose (119.5 Mm3), while precipitation accounted for 4.1 Mm3. Annual release of water for irrigation was 119.5 Mm3 out of which 54 % water was diverted for irrigation purpose, 26 % was wasted as conveyance loss, average discharge at the command outlet was estimated as 4 % and annual average ground-water recharge coefficient was in the range of 13-17 %. Various scenarios involving water allocation rule were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Sina Irrigation Scheme. Out of those, only most benefited allocation rule is analyzed in this paper. Crop yield varied from 1.98 to 25.9 t/ha, with the majority of the area between 2.14 and 2.78 t/ha. Yield and WP declined significantly in loamy soils of the irrigation command. Crop productivity in the basin was found in the lower range when compared with potential and global values. The findings suggested that there was a potential to improve further. Spatial variations in yield and WP were found to be very high for the crops grown during rabi season, while those were low for the crops grown during kharif season. The crop yields and WP during kharif season were more in the lower reach of the irrigation commands, where loamy soil is more concentrated. Sorghum in both seasons was most profitable. Sorghum fetched net income fivefold that of sunflower, two and half fold of pearl millet and one and half fold of mung beans as far as crop during kharif season were concerned and it fetched fourfold that of

  16. Surface water classification and monitoring using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Katherine Elizabeth

    Surface water classification using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an established practice for monitoring flood hazards due to the high temporal and spatial resolution it provides. Surface water change is a dynamic process that varies both spatially and temporally, and can occur on various scales resulting in significant impacts on affected areas. Small-scale flooding hazards, caused by beaver dam failure, is an example of surface water change, which can impact nearby infrastructure and ecosystems. Assessing these hazards is essential to transportation and infrastructure maintenance. With current satellite missions operating in multiple polarizations, spatio-temporal resolutions, and frequencies, a comprehensive comparison between SAR products for surface water monitoring is necessary. In this thesis, surface water extent models derived from high resolution single-polarization TerraSAR-X (TSX) data, medium resolution dual-polarization TSX data and low resolution quad-polarization RADARSAT-2 (RS-2) data are compared. There exists a compromise between acquiring SAR data with a high resolution or high information content. Multi-polarization data provides additional phase and intensity information, which makes it possible to better classify areas of flooded vegetation and wetlands. These locations are often where fluctuations in surface water occur and are essential for understanding dynamic underlying processes. However, often multi-polarized data is acquired at a low resolution, which cannot image these zones effectively. High spatial resolution, single-polarization TSX data provides the best model of open water. However, these single-polarization observations have limited information content and are affected by shadow and layover errors. This often hinders the classification of other land cover types. The dual-polarization TSX data allows for the classification of flooded vegetation, but classification is less accurate compared to the quad-polarization RS-2 data

  17. Disinfection of Water and Wastewater Using Gamma Irradiation in Isfahan Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the disinfection of water and wastewater, water samples were collected from raw and filtered water and wastewater samples were taken from the effluent of the secondary sedimentation, polished effluent (1-day retention time, and also from filtered (rapid sand filter effluent. The samples were irradiated with gamma collimated beam in a batch system using a Co-60 therapeutic gamma radiation machine with a radioactive source emission rate of 405.38CGy/min at different doses of 20-160 Gy and 80-240 Gy, respectively. The samples were analyzed before and after irradiation for total and fecal coliforms. It was observed that nearly 100% reduction was achieved in total and fecal coliforms in water samples treated with a dose of 160 Gy. Depending on effluent quality, disinfection efficiencies achieved using 240 Gy gamma irradiation for inactivation of total coliforms in wastewater samples were 83, 64, and 56 percent for filtered, clarified, and secondary effluents, respectively. The same values were nearly 81, 58, and 46 percent, respectively, for inactivation of fecal coliforms. At lower doses of 120-240Gy, the coliform bacteria were successfully inactivated. It was concluded that a linear correlation holds between the dose delivered and the inactivation of microorganisms, so that inactivation increases with increasing irradiation time.

  18. Drip and Surface Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop Using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellouli, H.J.; Askri, H.; Mougou, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nations in the arid and semi-arid regions, especially the Arab countries, will have to take up an important challenge at the beginning of the 21 st century: increasing food production in order to realise food security for growing population, wile optimising the use of limited water resources. Using and adapting management techniques like the drip irrigation system could obtain the later. This would allow reduction in water losses by bare soil evaporation and deep percolation. Consequently improved water use efficiency could be realised. In this way, this work was conducted as a contribution on the Tunisian national programs on the optimisation of the water use. By mean a field study at Cherfech Experimental Station (30 km from Tunis), the effect of the irrigation system on the water use efficiency (WUE)-by a season tomato crop-was monitored by comparing three treatments receiving equivalent quantities of fertiliser: Fertigation, Drip irrigation and Furrow irrigation. Irrigation was scheduled by mean calculation of the water requirement based on the agro meteorological data, the plant physiological stage and the soil water characteristics (Clay Loam). The plant water consumption (ETR) was determined by using soil water balance method, where rainfall and amount of irrigation water readily measured

  19. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  20. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K.; Bacha, H. Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results

  1. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  2. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K. [Sfax University, (Turkey); Bacha, H. Ben [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

  3. Acid deposition and water use efficiency in Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcomb, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple studies have reported increases in forest water use efficiency in recent decades, but the drivers of these trends remain uncertain. While acid deposition has profoundly altered the biogeochemistry of Appalachian forests in the past century, its impacts on forest water use efficiency have been largely overlooked. Plant ecophysiology literature suggests that plants up-regulate transpiration in response to soil nutrient limitation in order to maintain sufficient mass flow of nutrients. To test the impacts of acid deposition on forest eco-hydrology in central Appalachia, we integrated dendrochronological techniques, including tree ring δ13C analysis, with catchment water balance data from the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. Tree cores from four species were collected in Fernow Watershed 3, which has received experimental ammonium sulfate additions since 1989, and Watershed 7, an adjacent control catchment. Initial results suggest that acidification treatments have not significantly influenced tree productivity compared to a control watershed, but the effect varies by species, with tulip poplar showing greatest sensitivity to acidification. Climatic water balance, defined as the difference between growing season precipitation and evapotranspiration, is significantly related to annual tree ring growth, suggesting that climate may be driving tree growth trends in chronically acidified Appalachian forests. Tree ring 13C analysis from Fernow cores is underway and these data will be integrated with catchment hydrology data from five other sites in central Appalachia and the U.S. Northeast, representing a range of forest types, soil base saturations, and acid deposition histories. This work will advance understanding of how climate and acid deposition interact to influence forest productivity and water use efficiency, and improve our ability to model carbon and water cycling in forested ecosystems impacted by acid deposition.

  4. Harvesting Water from Air: Using Anhydrous Salt with Sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan; Shi, Yusuf; Shi, Le; Alsaedi, Mossab.; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric water is abundant alternative water resource, equivalent to 6 times of water in all rivers on Earth. This work screens 14 common anhydrous and hydrated salt couples in terms of their physical and chemical stability, water vapor

  5. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solley, Wayne B.; Merk, Charles F.; Pierce, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Water withdrawals in the United States during 1985 were estimated to average 399,000 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of freshwater and saline water for offstream uses--10 percent less than the 1980 estimate. Average per-capita use for all offstream uses was 1,650 gallons per day (gal/d) of freshwater and saline water combined and 1,400 gal/d of freshwater alone. Offstream water-use categories are classified in this report as public supply, domestic, commercial, irrigation, livestock, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power. During 1985, public-supply withdrawals were estimated to be 36,500 Mgal/d, and self-supplied withdrawals were estimated as follows: domestic, 3,320 Mgal/d: commercial, 1,230 Mgal/d; irrigation, 137,000 Mgal/d: livestock, 4,470 Mgal/d; industrial, 25,800 Mgal/d; mining, 3,440 Mgal/d; and thermoelectric power, 187,000 Mgal/d. Water use for hydroelectric power generation, the only instream use compiled in this report, was estimated to be 3,050,000 Mgal/d during 1985, or 7 percent less than during 1980. This is in contrast to an increasing trend that persisted from 1950 to 1980. Estimates of withdrawals by source indicate that, during 1985, total surface-water withdrawals were 325,000 Mgal/d, or 10 percent less than during 1980, and total ground-water withdrawals were 74,000 Mgal/d, or 12 percent less than during 1980. Total saline-water withdrawals during 1985 were 60,300 Mgal/d, or 16 percent less than during 1980; most was saline surface water. Reclaimed sewage averaged about 579 Mgal/d during 1985, or 22 percent more than during 1980. Total freshwater consumptive use was estimated to be 92,300 Mgal/d during 1985, or 9 percent less than during 1980. Consumptive use by irrigation accounted for the largest part of consumptive use during 1985 and was estimated to be 73,800 Mgal/d. A comparison of total withdrawals (fresh and saline) by State indicates that 37 States and Puerto Rico had less water withdrawn for offstream uses during 1985 than

  6. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motkuri, Radha K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frost, Anthony P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bratton, Wesley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 µCi/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-µm-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion® membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 × 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 × 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to

  7. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2017-07-15

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  8. Use of microphytoalgae for purification of radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al.; Palamaru, Ileana; Humelnicu, Doina; Popa, K.; Rudic, V.; Cepoi, Liliana; Gulea, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with a study on the purification of some radioactive waters, simulating radioactive waste waters, by some microbial collectors. For a given ion the retaining degree varies as 134 Cs - > 60 Co 2- > 51 Cr 3- > 55-59 Fe 3- , but for same algae types, this parameter decreases as follows: Scenedesmus quadricauda > Cylindrospermum major > Nostoc microscopicum. Furthermore, using the radioactive 60 Co 2- ions, the biochemical mechanism of retaining for such cations by different separated components of living cells was established. More retention is observed in proteins, pigments and polysaccharides, but the glycides are not able to keep such cations. (authors)

  9. Estimation of octanol/water partition coefficients using LSER parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.; Godbole, Kalpana A.; Rogers, Tony N.

    1998-01-01

    The logarithms of octanol/water partition coefficients, logKow, were regressed against the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters for a training set of 981 diverse organic chemicals. The standard deviation for logKow was 0.49. The regression equation was then used to estimate logKow for a test of 146 chemicals which included pesticides and other diverse polyfunctional compounds. Thus the octanol/water partition coefficient may be estimated by LSER parameters without elaborate software but only moderate accuracy should be expected.

  10. Uses of communication satellites in water utility operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, W. S.

    This paper proposes a system to serve the communications needs of the operating side of a water utility and estimates the requirements and capabilities of the equipment needed. The system requires the shared use of a satellite transponder with 100% backup. Messages consist of data packets containing data and control information, plus voice transmission. Satellite communication may have a price advantage in some instances over wire line or VHF radio and have greater survivability in case of a natural disaster. Water and other utilities represent a significant market for low cost mass produced satellite earth terminals.

  11. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K.

    2017-01-01

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  12. Possibility of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, B.; Mihajlovic, A.; Drobnjak, Dj.

    1965-01-01

    The review of metal uranium properties including irradiation in the reactor core lead to the following conclusions. Using metal uranium in the heavy water reactors would be favourable from economic point of view for ita high density, i.e. high conversion factor and low cost of fuel elements fabrication. Most important constraint is swelling during burnup and corrosion

  13. Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve Using Fractal Dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate ... suitable to model the heterogeneous soil structure with tortuous pore space (Rieu ... so, soil texture determined according to the USDA texture classification.

  14. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global warming is on the increase and the current energy trends are headed towards the use of alternative sources of energy that produce less amounts of carbon dioxide. This paper proposes water as an alternative energy source that is cheap, abundant in nature and will achieve minimum emission goal. The method ...

  15. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of different grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...

  16. Quantification of soil water evaporation using TDR-microlysimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water evaporation is conventionally measured using microlysimeters by evaluating the daily change in mass. Daily removal is laborious and replacement immediately after irrigation events is impractical because of field wetness which leads to delays and an underestimation of evaporation. Irrigati...

  17. Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess fluoride in water causes health hazards to the natural environment. The removal of fluoride was attempted using natural materials such as red soil, charcoal, brick, fly-ash and serpentine. Each material was set up in a column for a known volume and the defluoridation capacities of these materials were studied with ...

  18. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  19. Nearshore Water Quality Estimation Using Atmospherically Corrected AVIRIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Bagheri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to characterize the surface spectral reflectance of the nearshore waters using atmospheric correction code—Tafkaa for retrieval of the marine water constituent concentrations from hyperspectral data. The study area is the nearshore waters of New York/New Jersey considered as a valued ecological, economic and recreational resource within the New York metropolitan area. Comparison of the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS measured radiance and in situ reflectance measurement shows the effect of the solar source and atmosphere in the total upwelling spectral radiance measured by AVIRIS. Radiative transfer code, Tafkaa was applied to remove the effects of the atmosphere and to generate accurate reflectance (R(0 from the AVIRIS radiance for retrieving water quality parameters (i.e., total chlorophyll. Chlorophyll estimation as index of phytoplankton abundance was optimized using AVIRIS band ratio at 675 nm and 702 nm resulting in a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.98. Use of the radiative transfer code in conjunction with bio optical model is the main tool for using ocean color remote sensing as an operational tool for monitoring of the key nearshore ecological communities of phytoplankton important in global change studies.

  20. Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a fuzzy system to control the pressure in a water distribution network, by using valves and controlling the rotor speed of the pumping systems. The variable frequency drive tracks the minimum head of the pumping system, while the control valves have the function of eliminating the excess pressure at ...