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Sample records for water thyme hydrilla

  1. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    to drought, but largely due to the loss of aquatic vegetation, particularly Hydrilla verticillata ... Hydrilla for aeration, or through migrant water birds to whose feathers and feet the ... biological control of this weed [6]. This is a case of beneficial.

  2. Acclimation of Hydrilla verticillata to sediment anoxia in vegetation restoration in eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Dai, Yanran; Rui, Shengyang; Cui, Naxin; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2015-12-01

    Sediment anoxia generally results from intense organic enrichment and is a limiting factor in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters. To investigate the effect of sediment anoxia on a typical pollution-tolerant submerged macrophyte species, Hydrilla verticillata, and acclimation mechanisms in the plant, a gradient of sediment anoxia was simulated with additions of sucrose to the sediment, which can stimulate increased concentrations of total nitrogen, NH4(+) and Fe in pore water. H. verticillata growth was significantly affected by highly anoxic conditions, as indicated by reduced total biomass in the 0.5 and 1% sucrose treatments. However, slight anoxia (0.1% sucrose addition) promoted growth, and the shoot biomass was 22.64% higher than in the control. In addition to morphologic alterations, H. verticillata showed physiological acclimations to anoxia, including increased anaerobic respiration and changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in roots. The soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate contents in roots of the 1% treatment were both significantly higher compared with those in the control. The increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate content in the roots suggested that H. verticillata has a well-developed capacity for anaerobic fermentation. This study suggests that highly anoxic sediments inhibit the growth of H. verticillata and the species has a degree of tolerance to anoxic conditions. Further in situ investigations should be conducted on the interactions between sediment conditions and macrophytes to comprehensively evaluate the roles of sediment in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters.

  3. Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) Collected from Hydrilla Verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata was conducted in selected Kenyan and Ugandan lakes, and emerging chironomid adults were collected from samples of Hydrilla and seven other aquatic macrophytes. Hydrilla was absent from Lake Victoria, in sites where it previously occurred. Hydrilla was found in four of ...

  4. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    California ( Madeira et al. 2004). Monoecious hydrilla was first discovered in Delaware in 1976 and later in the Potomac River (Haller 1982, Steward et al...1984). It has now expanded its distribution through the Atlantic States and northward to Maine ( Madeira et al. 2004). Separate populations have...the water surface and then spreading laterally and forming a mat (Van 1989). Madeira et al. (1997) hypothesized that this growth form was an

  5. Sequential disinfection of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves by aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nepal; Singh, Rakesh K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Stroshine, Richard L.; Simon, James E.

    2001-03-01

    There have been numerous studies on effectiveness of different sanitizers for microbial inactivation. However, results obtained from different studies indicate that microorganism cannot be easily removed from fresh cut vegetables because of puncture and cut surfaces with varying surface topographies. In this study, three step disinfection approach was evaluated for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves. Sequential application of thyme oil, ozonated water, and aqueous chlorine dioxide was evaluated in which thyme oil was applied first followed by ozonated water and aqueous chlorine dioxide. Shredded lettuce leaves inoculated with cocktail culture of E. coli O157:H7 (C7927, EDL 933 and 204 P), were washed with ozonated water (15 mg/l for 10min), aqueous chlorine dioxide (10 mg/l,for 10min) and thyme oil suspension (0.1%, v/v for 5min). Washing of lettuce leaves with ozonated water, chlorine dioxide and thyme oil suspension resulted in 0.44, 1.20, and 1.46 log reduction (log10 cfu/g), respectively. However, the sequential treatment achieved approximately 3.13 log reductions (log10 cfu/g). These results demonstrate the efficacy of sequential treatments in decontaminating shredded lettuce leaves containing E. coli O157:H7.

  6. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  7. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    this definition. Monoecious hydrilla is considered highly invasive in large reservoirs of the Mid- Atlantic states; however, widespread use of grass...drawdowns or fluctuations in water levels, high spring flows, and early spring turbidity (i.e. disturbance) as the dormant tuber bank is largely... West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky) are of particular concern, as these infestations may be a source of new and continuing introductions into

  8. The Ecology and Environmental Impacts of Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-15

    in the dewatered areas. The drawdown also encouraged the germination of waterhyacinth seeds in the dewatered areas. Plant Analysis The productivity of...controls hydrilla in most situations. Sonar is the DowElanco registered trademark for products containing the active ingredient fluridone . Sonar aquatic

  9. Integrated Weed Management Strategies for Control of Hydrilla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Linda S; Shearer, Judy F

    2009-01-01

    ...), and the fungal pathogen Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Ostazeski, applied alone and in combination with one another, as an integrated weed management strategy against the nuisance aquatic plant, hydrilla...

  10. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Efficacy and Induction of Resistance against Botrytis cinerea through Priming of Defense Responses in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Banani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation. After 6 h of pathogen inoculation, thyme essential oil induced a 2.5-fold increase of PR-8 gene expression compared to inoculated fruits. After 24 h of inoculation, PR-8 was highly induced (7-fold in both thyme oil-treated and untreated apples inoculated with B. cinerea. After 48 h of inoculation, PR-8 expression in thyme-treated and inoculated apples was 4- and 6-fold higher than in inoculated and water-treated apples. Neither thyme oil application nor B. cinerea inoculation markedly affected PR-5 expression. These results suggest that thyme oil induces resistance against B. cinerea through the priming of defense responses in apple fruit, and the PR-8 gene of apple may play a key role in the mechanism by which thyme essential oil effectively inhibits gray mold in apple fruit.

  11. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Efficacy and Induction of Resistance against Botrytis cinerea through Priming of Defense Responses in Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Houda; Olivieri, Leone; Santoro, Karin; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2018-01-23

    The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation. After 6 h of pathogen inoculation, thyme essential oil induced a 2.5-fold increase of PR-8 gene expression compared to inoculated fruits. After 24 h of inoculation, PR-8 was highly induced (7-fold) in both thyme oil-treated and untreated apples inoculated with B. cinerea . After 48 h of inoculation, PR-8 expression in thyme-treated and inoculated apples was 4- and 6-fold higher than in inoculated and water-treated apples. Neither thyme oil application nor B. cinerea inoculation markedly affected PR-5 expression. These results suggest that thyme oil induces resistance against B. cinerea through the priming of defense responses in apple fruit, and the PR-8 gene of apple may play a key role in the mechanism by which thyme essential oil effectively inhibits gray mold in apple fruit.

  12. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    has given it new status as an invasive species of great concern. Monoecious hydrilla management is primarily through chemical control using endothall...result in removal of non-target species , an outcome that might be highly undesirable in native aquatic plant restoration efforts. While the ephydrid...and Wisconsin have also been eradicated1. The most recent invasions have appeared in Lake Cayuga, the Erie Canal at North Tonawanda, upstate New

  13. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    throughout this large distribution, although they may be due to environmentally induced plasticity , rather than being indicative of taxonomic...Surveys of hydrilla herbivores have been undertaken in India, Pakistan, Malaysia , Korea, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Africa, and Australia (Bennett and... Malaysia (Steward 1993). US monoecious hydrilla plants likely originated in Korea (Madeira et al. 2007, Benoit 2011); therefore, natural enemy

  14. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    mandibles and heads than the scavengers. Bill Beck of Florida A&M University, who identified the hydrilla midge as a species of Polypedilum, feels...that the head and mandibles of this midge resemble those of the scavenger section instead of the herbivore section of the genus, as the types occur in...Lakshmanan, K. K. 1965. " Embryological Studies in the Hydrocharitaceae. IV. Post-Fertilization Development in Hydrilla verticillata Royle," Phyton Rev

  15. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Serpil; Turhan, Sadettin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus ) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (p<0.05). The incorporation of thyme essential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5% of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (p<0.05). In the film matrix, molecular organisation and intermolecular interaction were changed by thyme essential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction.

  16. Overseas Surveys (1981-1983) for Insects to Control Hydrilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    various aquatic habitats, but no hydrilla was found. Because of the Hari Raya holidays, most hotels were booked and almost a quarter of the total of 1,400...assistant. Mr. Ho spent most of morn- ing telephoning people in Malaysian Agriculture and Irrigation Departments. Because of holidays (Harl Raya ) that

  17. Effect of essential oils of thyme, oregano and their combination on quality of quail meat in comparison with virginiamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Hajipour dehbalaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, poultry meat is prone to oxidative deterioration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oils of thyme, oregano and their combination in comparison with virginiamycin on quality of quail’s meat. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal control (without any added compounds or with 100 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 100 and 200 mg/kg of thyme and oregano essential oils, as well as an equal mixture of thyme and oregano essential oil (levels of 50 and 100 mg /kg.  At the end of 35 days of the experiment, two birds from each group were slaughtered for testing the meat quality (including malondialdehyde, pH, water holding capacity, dripping loss and cooking loss. Results showed that essential oils of thyme, oregano and their mixture reduced the thiobarbituric acid value, dripping loss and cooking loss; on the other hand pH value and water holding capacity was increased. Oregano and thyme essential oils contain compounds with high antioxidant properties. Therefore, the presence of these compounds in the bloodstream and their accumulation in the muscle tissue could results in an increase in the antioxidant capacity and consequently enhance the keeping quality of meat. It seems that the application of natural antioxidants such as thymol or carvacrol could be helpful to improve the quality of poultry meat.

  18. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sable N, Gaikwad S, Bonde S, Gade A, Rai M. 2012. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 45-49. In the context of current drive to developed new green technology in nanomaterials, synthesis of nanoparticles is of considerable importance. There has been considerable work done in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology during the last decade due to the introduction of various protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles by using plants and microorganisms. Here we firstly report the extracellular phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs using aquatic plants Hydrilla verticilata. The characterization of the phytosynthesized Ag-NPs was done with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, Zeta potential and SEM. The SEM micrograph revealed the synthesis of polydispersed spherical nanoparticles, with the average size of 65.55 nm. The phytofabricated Ag-NPs can be used in the field of medicine and agriculture, due to their antimicrobial potential.

  19. Evaluation of protective and treatment of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil on Toxocara vitulorum infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; El-Kabany, H.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara vitulorum (T.vitulorum) is a nematode parasite of the small intestine of cattle and water buffalo, particularly buffalo calves between one and three months of age, causing high morbidity and mortality. Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) oil has used in the Middle East as a traditional medicine for several complaints. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical, parasitological, histopathological and hematological changes in Toxocara vitulorum-infected rat after treatment with Thymus vulgaris oil. In the present study, 50 rats divided into 4 groups. The first group: normal control, the second group :animals given with thyme oil, the third group: rats infected with 1500 T.vitulorum eggs/rat, the fourth group: rats treated with (42.5 mg/kg body weight ) thyme oil for 7 consecutive days pre-infection with T.vitulorum eggs, the fifth group: infected with T.vitulorum and treated with thyme orally for 7 days starting 1hour from infection. Rats were scarified at 7th and 14th days after last treatment. Blood were collected for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver, kidney and heart were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Larvae of Toxocara were counted in a part of the studied organs tissues. In the present study, Toxocara infection resulted in decrease in RBCs count and Hb %, lymphocyte %, and MCHC% while a remarkable increase was observed in WBCs count and monocytes % and granulocytes %. Also, there was increase in lipid peroxidation concentration as malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in organs tissue. Serum biochemical parameters showed a significant increase in the activities, Asparta amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, albumin and globulin of untreated infected rats in untreated infected rats compared to normal control. Administration of thyme pre , or after infection ameliorate the observed changes occurred by

  20. Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu-Baykut, Esra; Gunes, Gurbuz; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-15

    Thyme is a good source of antioxidant compounds but it can be contaminated by microorganisms. An experimental fluid bed ultraviolet (UV) reactor was designed for microbial decontamination of thyme samples and the effect of shortwave ultraviolet light (UV-C) radiation on antioxidant properties of thyme was studied. Samples were exposed to UV-C radiation for 16 or 64 min. UV-C treatment led to 1.04 and 1.38 log CFU/g reduction of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) counts. Hunter a(∗) value was the most sensitive colour parameter during UV-C treatment. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of extracts was not significantly affected by UV-C. Addition of thyme extracts at 0.15 and 0.3 μmol GAE/ml emulsion delayed the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal in the 5.0%(wt) corn oil-in-water emulsion from 4 to 9 and 14 days, respectively. No significant changes in oxidation rates were observed between UV-C treated and untreated samples at same concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of the decomposing liquid of Cladophora oligoclona on Hydrilla verticillata turion germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Peng, Xue; Liu, Biyun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2018-08-15

    Excessive proliferation of filamentous green algae (FGA) has been considered an important factor resulting in the poor growth or even decline of submerged macrophytes. However, there is a lack of detailed information regarding the effect of decaying FGA on submerged macrophytes. This study aimed to investigate whether the decomposing liquid from Cladophora oligoclona negatively affects Hydrilla verticillata turion germination and seedling growth. The results showed that the highest concentrations of decomposing liquid treatments inhibited the turion germination rate, which was the lowest than other treatments, at only 84%. The chlorophyll a fluorescence (JIP test) and physiological indicators (chlorophyll a content, soluble sugars, Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -ATPase and PAL activity) were also measured. The chlorophyll a content in the highest concentration (40% of original decomposing liquid) treatment group decreased by 43.53% than that of the control; however, soluble sugars, Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -ATPase, and PAL activity increased by 172.46%, 271.19%, and 26.43% respectively. The overall results indicated that FGA decay has a considerable effect on submerged macrophyte turion germination and seedling growth, which could inhibit their expansion and reproduction. This study emphasized the need to focus on effects of FGA decomposition on the early growth stages of submerged macrophytes and offered technological guidance for submerged vegetation restoration in lakes and shallow waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert D Mercurio

    Full Text Available Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium". Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata, colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB. We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity" was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the

  3. New methods for the analysis of invasion processes: multi-criteria evaluation of the invasion of Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, I; Binimelis, R; Rodríguez-Labajos, B

    2011-03-01

    The study described in this article incorporates stakeholders' views on aquatic invasion processes and combines expert analysis with information from field work into an evaluation exercise. Management scenarios are designed based on available technical data and stakeholders' perceptions. These scenarios are evaluated using the Social Multi-Criteria Evaluation framework employing the NAIADE model. Two evaluations are carried out, technical and social. Social acceptance of different management scenarios, distribution of costs and benefits, and attribution of responsibility are discussed. The case study was carried out on Lake Izabal, a body of water connected to the Caribbean Sea in Northeastern Guatemala. In 2000, local fishermen reported the presence of an alien species in the lake, the macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata. Two years later, this alien species was established around the entire lakeshore, damaging the ecosystem, endangering native species and the subsistence of local inhabitants through impacts on transportation, fishing practices, and tourism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyme Oil Encapsulated in Halloysite Nanotubes for Antimicrobial Packaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hyeock; Seo, Hyun-Sun; Park, Hyun Jin

    2017-04-01

    An antimicrobial capsule releasing thyme oil was developed using modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). In order to increase the pore volume, HNTs were treated with 5.0 mol/L NaOH solution, which resulted in the encapsulation of more thyme oil molecules inside the HNTs. The morphology of the raw HNTs and NaOH-treated HNTs (N-HNTs) was characterized using transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The loading capacity increased from 180.7 ± 12.7 to 256.4 ± 16.7 mg thyme oil/g HNT after the NaOH treatment. The aerial release characteristics of thyme oil from both the HNT capsules were investigated in a closed-package atmosphere system at 4, 25, and 40 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the capsule against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined using the vapor phase assay. Moreover, the antimicrobial effects of the capsule against E. coli O157:H7, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), and molds and yeasts (MY) on the surfaces of cherry tomatoes were investigated at 4 and 25 °C for 5 d. When the cherry tomatoes were exposed to the thyme oil-loaded N-HNT capsule, the number of E. coli O157:H7, MAB, and MY significantly reduced during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    taxonomists for full identification. Chironomid larvae damaging tips and emerging adults were collected from hydrilla at Chetian Town, Lizui Town, and...R. S. Arias, B. E. Scheffler, S. O. Duke, M. Netherland, F. E. Dayan. 2004. Somatic mutation-mediated evolution of herbicide resistance in the

  6. Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla Verticillata; Final Report on Surveys in East Africa, 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    vast numbers of chironomid larvae, together with small nematodes , trichopterans, and various other less abundant insect larvae. However, most of these...Luond, R. 1982. "A Revision of the Genus Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae)," Aquatic Botany, Vol 13, pp 485-504. Markham, R. H. 1982. "Search for Biocontrol

  7. Molecular techniques to distinguish morphologically similar Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa, Elodea nuttallii, and Elodea canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Nancy B.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    The four submerged aquatic species, hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata [monoecious and dioecious]), Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa), Canadian waterweed (Elodea canadensis), and western waterweed (Elodea nuttallii), are difficult to positively identify because of their morphological similarity to each other, resulting in possible misidentification. This limits our ability to understand their past and present distribution, which is important in aquatic plant management. We investigated a molecular technique to identify these species, which are problematic because of their invasive nature on multiple continents. Approximately 100 samples of these species, ranging in age from 40-yr-old herbarium samples to recently collected plants, were collected from regions across the United States. The distribution and range of the samples collected in this research were compared to those reported in the literature. We confirmed information on the current wide distribution of both hydrilla biotypes in the United States and discovered that hydrilla had actually invaded the waterways near Washington, DC 6 yr earlier than originally reported. In addition, we found evidence of the confusion, dating back to the 1980s, between Canadian waterweed and western waterweed in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Canadian waterweed was previously reported as common and western waterweed as rare; however, our samples indicate the opposite is true. This information indicates there is a need for investigators to anticipate the spread of hydrilla populations to northern U.S. waterways, where it will compete with existing plant species, including Canadian and western waterweeds. Our ability to confirm distribution and pace of spread of invasive and noninvasive species will improve with increased application of molecular techniques.

  8. Identification and quantification of a major anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic compound found in basil, lemon, thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, lemon thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme are in the mint family of plants that are used as culinary herbs world-wide. These herbs contain phenolic compounds that are believed to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the major phenolic compounds fr...

  9. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  extract supplemented group (t 18  = 8.11, p  antioxidant capacity between groups. Furthermore, thyme supplementation significantly ( p  extract supplementation increased endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  11. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS OF VAGINAL SUPPOSITORY WITH THYME OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Melnikova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main stages in new medicines creation is the development of their making technology. Technological process of suppository making includes ratherlongthermal treatment during preparation and homogenization of suppository base, active substancesaddition. These factors create danger of chemical and physical transformation of active substances and excipients in suppository up to their destruction and change of pharmacological and physical-chemical properties. Use of thermogravimetric analysis in pharmaceutical technology allows to studythepossibility of chemical interaction in dosage forms over the wide temperature range. The aim of this work is study of thermal treatmenteffects of suppository base with thyme oil over the temperature range of suppository manufacturing. Methods and results. As an object of thermogravimetric study vaginal suppository with thyme oil 0,2 g, suppository-placebo containing propylenglycol, polyethylene glycol 400, proxanol 268, twin 80 and the active ingredient of «Царствоароматов», Ukraine, production were used. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out on the derivatograph«Shimadzu DTG-60», Japan, with the platinum and platinum-rhodiumthermopair with samples heating in aluminiumcrucibles from 25 to 200ºС. As standard α-Al2O3was used.Heating rate was 10ºСper min.Mass of the samples was 23,45– 39,63 mg. Obtained data were registered by the derivatograph as curves T, DTA, TGA. The T curve on the derivatogramm shows the temperature change and the TGA curve demonstrates the sample mass change during investigation. The DTA curve reflects differentiation of thermal effects and contains information about endothermic and exothermal maximum and is used for qualitative valuation of derivatogramm. According to results of thermogravimetric investigation the thyme oil is thermostable substance which is gradually evaporating during heating. So, at the beginning of study the test sample mass was 23

  12. Antimicrobial activity of thyme oil co-nanoemulsified with sodium caseinate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Michael Davidson, P; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-10-01

    Emulsions of essential oils are investigated as potential intervention strategies to improve food safety and are preferably prepared from generally-recognized-as-safe emulsifiers. Stable thyme oil nanoemulsions can be prepared using combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and soy lecithin. The objective of the present research was to study the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions and understand the impacts of emulsifier concentrations. 10 g/L thyme oil was emulsified using combinations of (A) 4% w/v NaCas and 0.5% w/v lecithin or (B) 2% w/v NaCas and 0.25% w/v lecithin by high shear homogenization. Combination A resulted in a transparent emulsion with a mean droplet diameter of 82.5 nm, while it was turbid for the Combination B with an average diameter of 125.5 nm. Nanoemulsified thyme oil exhibited quicker initial reductions of bacteria than free thyme oil in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 2% reduced fat milk at 21 °C, due to the improved dispersibility of thyme oil. In TSB with 0.3 g/L thyme oil, it took less than 4 and 8 h for two nanoemulsions and free oil, respectively, to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes to be below the detection limit. The emulsified thyme oil also demonstrated more significant reductions of bacteria initially (4 and 8 h) in 2% reduced fat milk than free thyme oil. Especially, with 4 g/L thyme oil, the nanoemulsion prepared with Combination A reduced L. monocytogenes to be below the detection limit after 72 h, while the free thyme oil treatment was only bacteriostatic and the turbid nanoemulsion treatment with Combination B resulted in about 1 log CFU/mL reduction. However, E. coli O157:H7 treated with 3 g/L emulsified thyme oil and Salmonella Enteritidis treated with 4 g/L emulsified thyme oil recovered to a higher extent in milk than free thyme oil treatments. The increased concentration of emulsifiers in Combination A apparently reduced the antimicrobials available to alter bacteria membrane permeability

  13. Thyme oil nanoemulsions coemulsified by sodium caseinate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-08

    Many nanoemulsions are currently formulated with synthetic surfactants. The objective of the present work was to study the possibility of blending sodium caseinate (NaCas) and lecithin to prepare transparent thyme oil nanoemulsions. Thyme oil was emulsified using NaCas and soy lecithin individually or in combination at neutral pH by shear homogenization. The surfactant combination improved the oil content in transparent/translucent nanoemulsions, from 1.0% to 2.5% w/v for 5% NaCas with and without 1% lecithin, respectively. Nanoemulsions prepared with the NaCas-lecithin blend had hydrodynamic diameters smaller than 100 nm and had significantly smaller and more narrowly distributed droplets than those prepared with NaCas or lecithin alone. Particle dimension and protein surface load data suggested the coadsorption of both surfactants on oil droplets. These characteristics of nanoemulsions minimized destabilization mechanisms of creaming, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening, as evidenced by no significant changes in appearance and particle dimension after 120-day storage at 21 °C.

  14. Formulation and Characterization of Potential Antifungal Oleogel with Essential Oil of Thyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedre Kasparaviciene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to formulate oleogel with thyme essential oil with potential antimicrobial activity, design optimal formulation, and evaluate the influence of ingredients on texture parameters of preparation. Central composite design was applied to statistical optimization of colloidal silica and paraffin oil mixture for the modeling of oleogel delivery system. The influence of designed formulations on response variables (texture parameters, firmness, cohesiveness, consistency, and index of viscosity, was evaluated. Quality of essential oil of thyme was assessed by determinate concentration of thymol and carvacrol using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Microbiological tests have shown that oleogel with thyme essential oil affects Candida albicans microorganism when thyme essential oil’s concentration is 0,05% in oleogel mixture.

  15. Development of antifungal films based on low-density polyethylene and thyme oil for avocado packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Trilayer low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of thyme oil, as the antifungal active additive for avocado packaging. A comprehensive thermal, structural, mechanical, and functional...

  16. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S. K.; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Materials and Methods: Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, ...

  17. Management of Surface Drying Temperature to Increase Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme Leaf Extracts (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ CORTINA, JADER; Melo, E.C.; Mulet Pons, Antonio; Bon Corbín, José

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Thyme leaves are an important source of essential oils with antioxidant activity; these compounds are located in trichomes on the leaf surface. The drying conditions affect not only the drying time but also the antioxidant activity. In the literature, a drying temperature of 70 ºC appears to be the best for drying thyme leaves according to their antioxidant capacity. Considering drying periods at different temperature also could be quality beneficial. From these considerations, the goal ...

  18. Antifungal potential of thyme essential oil as a preservative for storage of wheat seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Anžlovar, Sabina; Likar, Matevž; Dolenc Koce, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Plant essential oils are potential food preservatives due to their inhibitory effects on bacterial and fungal growth. Antifungal activities of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil were tested against endophytic fungi grown from wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain, molecularly identified as Alternaria alternata, Alternaria infectoria, Aspergillus fl avus, Epicoccum nigrum and Fusarium poae. Their susceptibility to thyme essential oil was tested in vitro, and ranged from fungicidal to fu...

  19. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  20. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water. PMID:24102060

  1. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Banat, Fawzi; Rababah, Anfal; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic extracts and antioxidant activity and anthocyanins of varieties of the investigated plants. These plants include oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. The optimum extraction conditions including temperature and solvent of the extraction process itself were investigated. Total phenolic and anthocyanin extracts were examined according to Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Rabino and Mancinelli method, respectively. The effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on extracts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were studied. Plant samples were evaluated for their antioxidant chemical activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl assay, to determine their potential as a source of natural antioxidant. Results showed that all tested plants exhibited appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract (60 °C) of sour pomegranate peel contained the highest phenolic extract (4952.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Terebinth green seed had the lowest phenolic extract (599.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Anthocyanins ranged between 3.5 (terebinth red seed) and 0.2 mg/100 g of dry material (thyme). Significant effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on total phenolics and anthocyanin extracts were found. The methanol and 60 °C of extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting phenolic compounds. The distilled water and 60 °C extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting anthocyanin.

  2. Characteristics and kinetic studies of Hydrilla verticillata pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiquan; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Genbao; Chen, Xiaojuan; Hu, Mian; Laghari, Mahmood; Wang, Xun; Guo, Dabin

    2015-10-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of Hydrilla verticillata (HV) have been investigated using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the pyrolysis behavior of HV can be divided into two independent stages. The kinetics of Stage I was investigated using a distributed activation energy model (DAEM) with discrete 99 first-order reactions. Stage II was an independent stage which corresponds to the decomposition of calcium oxalate, whose kinetics was studied using iso-conversional method together with compensation effect and master-plots method. The activation energies ranged from 92.39 to 506.17 and 190.42 to 222.48 kJ/mol for the first and second stages respectively. Calculated data gave very good fit to the experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interspecific competition effects on phosphorus accumulation by Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhengwen

    2011-01-01

    The competition between submersed plants has been recognized as an important factor influencing the structure of plant communities in shallow lakes. The ability of different species to take up and store nutrients from the surrounding ambience varies, and hence plant community structure might be expected to affect the cycling of nutrients in lake ecosystems. In this study, the uptake of phosphorus by Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans was studied and compared in monoculture and competitive mixed-culture plantings. Results showed that for both studied species the phosphorus concentrations of different tissues and of whole plants was unaffected by competition. However, the quantity of phosphorus accumulated by whole plants of H. verticillata was significantly higher in mixture culture than in monoculture, while that of V. natans was lower in the mixed culture. The results indicated that H. verticillata has a competitive advantage over V. natans, when the two species are grown in competition, and is able to accumulate a greater quantity of phosphorus.

  4. Lipidomics Unravels the Role of Leaf Lipids in Thyme Plant Response to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Moradi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thymus is one of the best known genera within the Labiatae (Lamiaceae family, with more than 200 species and many medicinal and culinary uses. The effects of prolonged drought on lipid profile were investigated in tolerant and sensitive thyme plants (Thymus serpyllum L. and Thymus vulgaris L., respectively. Non-targeted non-polar metabolite profiling was carried out using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR mass spectrometry with one-month-old plants exposed to drought stress, and their morpho-physiological parameters were also evaluated. Tolerant and sensitive plants exhibited clearly different responses at a physiological level. In addition, different trends for a number of non-polar metabolites were observed when comparing stressed and control samples, for both sensitive and tolerant plants. Sensitive plants showed the highest decrease (55% in main lipid components such as galactolipids and phospholipids. In tolerant plants, the level of lipids involved in signaling increased, while intensities of those induced by stress (e.g., oxylipins dramatically decreased (50–60%, in particular with respect to metabolites with m/z values of 519.3331, 521.3488, and 581.3709. Partial least square discriminant analysis separated all the samples into four groups: tolerant watered, tolerant stressed, sensitive watered and sensitive stressed. The combination of lipid profiling and physiological parameters represented a promising tool for investigating the mechanisms of plant response to drought stress at non-polar metabolome level.

  5. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-03

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry.

  6. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry. PMID:29301339

  7. Comprehensive list of metabolites measured by DI-FTICR mass spectrometry in thyme plants with contrasting tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the main research entitled “Metabolomic approach reveals the biochemical mechanisms underlying drought stress tolerance in Thyme” (Moradi et al., 2017 [1]. Two thyme populations with contrasting drought tolerance were subjected to long term water deficit. Leaf samples harvested at the end of stress period and bi-phasic extraction carried out to get polar and non-polar fractions. Extracted samples were analyzed through Direct Infusion FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Date files comprise of four separate tables for all the putatively identified metabolites and their intensities in watered and droughted plants. P-values beside each m/z values indicate significances of difference between peak intensities of stressed and control conditions.

  8. Preservation of chicken breast meat treated with thyme and balm essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Melone, Antonio; De Feo, Vincenzo; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2010-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of thyme and balm essential oils on the 3-wk storage of fresh chicken breast meat at 4 °C. Thyme and, to a lesser extent, balm essential oils reduced DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical formation in the meat (25% to 30% and 20%, respectively). Treatment with the 2 essential oils also limited lipid peroxidation and the deterioration of sarcoplasmic proteins, helping to preserve the meat even after 2 wk of storage. Thyme and balm essential oils decreased the natural microflora present in the meat; total microbial content decreased down to 50% in comparison to the control samples. In addition, a clear effect on lactic acid bacterial growth was recorded. Balm essential oil significantly limited the growth of Salmonella sp., whereas thyme essential oil effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Our data demonstrate that these 2 essential oils effectively reduced deteriorative processes in chicken meat and extended the shelf life of this fresh product. Practical Application: The essential oils of thyme and balm can protect the chicken meat from decomposition during the storage time.

  9. Essential Oil of Common Thyme as a Natural Antimicrobial Food Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Dolenc Koce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of thyme essential oil against selected microorganisms, including Fusarium sp., Armillaria mellea, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Buttiauxella sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli K-12, AmpC-producing E. coli Z, ESBL-producing E. coli strain of KM clonal group ST131, and E. coli 1138 were evaluated. The antimicrobial efficacy of thyme essential oil was determined using agar well diffusion assays. The growth of all tested bacteria was inhibited at thyme essential oil fractions higher than 1 %, while a fraction of 10 % was needed to inhibit the growth of fungi. We demonstrate that thyme essential oil has a promising activity against food spoilage bacteria, and also against multiresistant AmpC-producing and ESBL-producing bacterial strains isolated from food, which have recently been recognised as public health concerns. On the basis of our data, the thyme essential oil has a potential for use as a growth inhibitor of multidrug-resistant bacteria, and food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and fungi, to replace commonly used semi-synthetic antimicrobial products.

  10. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  11. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S K; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied using buffalo rumen liquor. Thyme oil at higher dose level (600 ppm) reduced (p0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels. 600 ppm dose level of clove oil reduced (pclove and peppermint oil. Right combination of these essential oils may prove to enhance performance of animals by reducing methane production and inhibiting protein degradation in rumen.

  12. Application of ADM1 for modeling of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xun; Huo, Chan; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Mian

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the application of anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) to simulate biogas production from Hydrilla verticillata. Model simulation was carried out by implementing ADM1 in AQUASIM 2.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the most sensitive parameters for estimation using the absolute-relative sensitivity function. Among all the kinetic parameters, disintegration constant (kdis), hydrolysis constant of protein (khyd_pr), Monod maximum specific substrate uptake rate (km_aa, km_ac, km_h2) and half-saturation constants (Ks_aa, Ks_ac) affect biogas production significantly, which were optimized by fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to well predict the experimental results of daily biogas production and biogas composition. The simulation results of evolution of organic acids, bacteria concentrations and inhibition effects also helped to get insight into the reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A modern approach to the authentication and quality assessment of thyme using UV spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Haidy A; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Abou-Shoer, Mohamed I; Al-Azizi, Mohamed M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the fields of chemometrics and multivariate analysis have been widely implemented in the quality control of herbal drugs to produce precise results, which is crucial in the field of medicine. Thyme represents an essential medicinal herb that is constantly adulterated due to its resemblance to many other plants with similar organoleptic properties. To establish a simple model for the quality assessment of Thymus species using UV spectroscopy together with known chemometric techniques. The success of this model may also serve as a technique for the quality control of other herbal drugs. The model was constructed using 30 samples of authenticated Thymus vulgaris and challenged with 20 samples of different botanical origins. The methanolic extracts of all samples were assessed using UV spectroscopy together with chemometric techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The model was able to discriminate T. vulgaris from other Thymus, Satureja, Origanum, Plectranthus and Eriocephalus species, all traded in the Egyptian market as different types of thyme. The model was also able to classify closely related species in clusters using PCA and HCA. The model was finally used to classify 12 commercial thyme varieties into clusters of species incorporated in the model as thyme or non-thyme. The model constructed is highly recommended as a simple and efficient method for distinguishing T. vulgaris from other related species as well as the classification of marketed herbs as thyme or non-thyme. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  15. Extraction and Antibacterial Properties of Thyme Leaf Extracts: Authentic Practice of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sean C.; Pande, Prithvi; Lin, Yingxin; Rivera, Ernesto J.; Paw U, Latisha; Smallwood, Luisa M.; Kerstiens, Geri A.; Armstrong, Laura B.; Robak, MaryAnn T.; Baranger, Anne M.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    In this undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment, students quantitatively assess the antibacterial activity of essential oils found in thyme leaves ("Thymus vulgaris") in an authentic, research-like environment. This multi-week experiment aims to instill green chemistry principles as intrinsic to chemical problem solving. Students…

  16. Lipid Oxidation, Color Changes, and Microbiological Quality of Frozen Beef Burgers Incorporated with Shirazi Thyme, Cinnamon, and Rosemary Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hashemi Gahruie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oxidative stability of beef burgers incorporated with Shirazi thyme, cinnamon, and rosemary extracts was compared with that of BHT-incorporated and antioxidant-free samples. The chemical composition, TBARS, metmyoglobin, pH, color, and microbial and sensory characteristics were evaluated during storage at −18°C for 2 months. The results indicated that Shirazi thyme and cinnamon extracts did not change the colorimetric properties significantly (P BHT > Shirazi thyme > rosemary > control. Finally, the results showed that these plant extracts can be utilized as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants in formulation of burgers.

  17. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect Of GAMMA Irradiated Thyme As Natural Antioxidant On Hypercholesterolemia Senile Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahat, A.N.; Hamza, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia, high cholesterol diet and oxidative stress increase serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels resulting in increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Thyme (as antioxidant) has been commonly used in foods mainly for the flavour and preservation and also as herbal medicinal products. Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus, providing protection to humans against infectious and degenerative diseases. This study was carried out to determine the effect of using thyme as supplement on serum levels of lipids, glucose and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemia senile rats. GC-MS analysis of essential oil showed that the number of identified compounds was 12, especially thymol and carvacrol (natural antioxidants). Senile male rats were fed on hypercholesterolemia diet (HCD) containing cholesterol (1% w/w) and sodium cholate (0.2% w/w). Twenty eight male rats were equally and randomly categorized into four groups. Rats of group (1) fed on balanced commercial diet, group (2) fed on high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks, groups (3) and (4) fed on high cholesterol diet supplemented with either raw or irradiated thyme (1% w/w) for 8 weeks. The results obtained revealed that rats fed on high cholesterol diet significantly showed increase in serum total lipids, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C as well as ratio risk, associated with remarkable decrease in HDL-C. A significant increase was observed in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) associated with significant decrease in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (glutathion reductase; GSH and catalase; CAT) and total antioxidant capacity. Also, high cholesterol diet induced significant elevation in the level of glucose and liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP). The results obtained revealed that feeding rats on HCD containing either raw or irradiated thyme (1% w/w) induced significant improvement in the mentioned parameters. Also, the thyme suppressed lipid peroxidation

  19. Influence of drying and irradiation on the composition of volatile compounds of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venskutonis, R.; Poll, L.; Larsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of air-drying, freeze-drying, γ- and β-irradiation and storage for up to 10 months on the composition of volatile compounds in thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris L.) is presented. Altogether, 70 constituents were identified (53 positively and 17 tentatively), including those considered most important for thyme flavour. Quantitative results did not reveal significant differences in the composition of irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and the reduction of the amount of some volatile compounds after drying was comparable for air-dried and freeze-dried herb. The largest changes in flavour composition were observed during storage, especially the reduction in the concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons

  20. Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Ran; Sharma, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85 µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30 µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30 µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).

  1. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  2. Improving communication with palliative care cancer patients at home - A pilot study of SAGE & THYME communication skills model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jane; Wilson, Charlotte; Ewing, Gail; Connolly, Michael; Grande, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    To pilot an evidence-based communication skills model (SAGE & THYME) with UK District Nurses (DNs) who visit patients with advanced cancer early in the dying trajectory. Evidence suggests that DNs lack confidence in communication skills and in assessing cancer patients' psycho-social needs; also that they lack time. SAGE & THYME is a highly structured model for teaching patient centred interactions. It addresses concerns about confidence and time. Mixed methods. 33 DNs were trained in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop and interviewed in focus groups on three occasions: pre-training, immediately post-training and two months post-training. Questionnaires measuring perceived outcomes of communication, confidence in communication and motivation to use SAGE & THYME were administered at the focus groups. SAGE & THYME provided a structure for conversations and facilitated opening and closing of interactions. The main principle of patient centeredness was reportedly used by all. Knowledge about communication behaviours helpful to patients improved and was sustained two months after training. Increased confidence in communication skills was also sustained. Motivation to use SAGE & THYME was high and remained so at two months, and some said the model saved them time. Challenges with using the model included controlling the home environment and a change in style of communication which was so marked some DNs preferred to use it with new patients. Training DNs in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop appears to be a promising model for improving communication skills when working with cancer patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of thyme oil-alginate-based coating on quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarengaowa; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Xiu, Zhilong; Feng, Ke

    2018-04-01

    Food preservation is critical for keeping fresh-cut products fresh, nutritious, safe, attractive and available for consumers. To improve the safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits, 15 essential oils (EOs) were screened to test the antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7). The effect of alginate-based edible coating (EC) incorporating different concentrations thyme oil on fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples was investigated. Results showed that thyme oil, cinnamon oil and oregano oil were more effective in inhibiting the microbes than other EOs. The result showed that the combined usage of 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil incorporated with alginate-based EC could significantly inhibit the microbial growth, respiration, weight loss, firmness and browning of fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples. The edible coating and natural additives like thyme oil could be used to preserve the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It revealed that EC incorporated with 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil can be a safe preservative for fresh-cut apples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Thyme, Eucalyptus, Chamomile and Fennel on Virulence Factors of Escherichia Coli, Causative Agent of Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dashti-Zadeh

    2017-11-01

    Results: The results showed that, the alcoholic extract of thyme in three concentrations of 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/ml can prevent motility of the studied strain. Among the four plants studied, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of thyme had the most effect in inhibiting the formation of biofilm. Alcoholic extract of thyme at concentration of 218.75 µg/ml and the alcoholic eucalyptus Extract at Concentration of 54.6875 µg/ml had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacterium, also the thyme alcoholic extract at concentration of 3500 μg / ml had bactericidal effect. None of the extracts had an effect on hemolysin production. Conclusion: Considering the inhibitory effect of thyme and eucalyptus alcoholic extracts on bacterial growth and the ability of these extracts to prevent biofilm formation and bacterial motility, these two herbs can be considered as the first choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  5. Effects of Essential Oils from Thyme, Cinnamon and Clove on Mycelial Growth of Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the volatile phase of thyme, cinnamon and clove essential oils onColletotrichum acutatum were investigated. Mycelial disc was placed in the center of thePetri dish (V=66 ml containing PDA. Different volumes of either non- or ethanol-dilutedessential oils were placed on the inner side of the dish cover to obtain final concentrationsof 153, 107, 76, 46, 15, 14, 12, 11, 7.6, 3.82, 1.53, 0.153 and 0.0153 μl/L of air. The dishes were sealed with Parafilm and incubated in up-side-down position. After 7 days of incubation,mycelial growth was recorded by measuring the colony diameter. If no mycelial growthwas recorded, the disc was transferred to a new PDA plate in order to evaluate whetherthe activity was either fungistatic or fungicidal. Mean growth values were obtained andthen converted to inhibition percentage of mycelial growth compared with the controltreatment. All the tested essential oils inhibited mycelial growth of C. acutatum in the dosedependent manner. Mycelial growth was totally inhibited by thyme oil in the concentrationof 76 μl/L of air. The same results were obtained by cinnamon and clove oil in the concentrationof 107 μl/L of air. Thyme and cinnamon oil had fungicidal effect in concentrationsof 107 and 153 μl/L respectively. The results obtained provide evidence on the antifungalin vitro effect of the tested essential oils as potential means for the control of C. acutatum.

  6. Comparative studies of antimycotic potential of thyme and clove oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... in turn fed into the Still and 120 ml of distilled water was added. Heating was at 100°C at standard pressure. .... growth of the organisms with the strips of different ... activities against a wide range of microorganisms includ-.

  7. Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 μl ml-1.

  8. Communication in palliative care: the applicability of the SAGE and THYME model in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ang Seng Hock; Costello, John; Griffiths, Jane

    2017-06-02

    Majority of the progress and development in palliative care in the last decade has been improvements in physical aspects of treatment, namely pain and symptom management. Psychosocial aspects of care have improved, although not enough to meet the needs of many patients and family members. This is evident in many parts of the world and notably in Singapore, where palliative care is seen as an emerging medical and nursing specialty. To discuss the implementation of the SAGE and THYME communication model in a palliative care context. The article examines the use of the model and how its implementation can improve communication between patients and nurses. The model works by reviewing contemporary developments made in relation to improving communication in palliative care. These include, highlighting the importance of meeting individual needs, therapeutic relationship building, and advanced communication training within a Singaporean context. The implementation of the SAGE and THYME model can be a useful way of enabling nurses to improve and maintain effective communication in a medically dominated health care system. The challenges and constraints in educating and training nurses with limited skills in palliative care, forms part of the review, including the cultural and attitude constraints specific to Singaporean palliative care.

  9. Enhanced bactericidal effect of enterocin A in combination with thyme essential oils against L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrairi, Taoufik; Hani, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    The combined effects of enterocin A with Thymus vulgaris essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were investigated in vitro by enumeration of surviving populations of testing pathogens and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Enterocin A was purified to homogeneity by RP-HPLC from the culture fluid of Enterococcus strain and thyme EOs were extracted from local Thymus vulgaris plants. The major constituent of thyme EOs oils determined by GC-MS was thymol (78.4 %). Combination of enterocin A with thyme EOs showed an enhanced bactericidal effect against Listeria monocytogenes. Checkerboard assay and isobologram construction displayed a synergistic interaction between these compounds against Listeria (FIC index enterocin A has fallen fivefold (from 4.57 to 0.9 μg/ml), while the MIC of thyme EOs decreased threefold (from 3.6 to 1.2 μg/ml). Treatments with enterocin A alone did not affect the growth of the enteric pathogen E. coli O157:H7. However, the addition of thyme EOs and enterocin A yielded a synergistic antimicrobial effect against E. coli (MIC thyme EOs decrease from 2.2 to 0.71 μg/ml). This is the first report on the combined effect of enterocin A and thyme EOs against food pathogen bacteria. This combination could be useful in food bio-preservation.

  10. The Effect of Thyme and Savory Essential Oils on Quality and Vase life of Cut Narcissus Flowers (Narcissus tazetta L. cv. Shahla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    iman baninaeim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcissus is a genus of hardy, spring-blooming, bulbous plants in the family Amaryllidaceae. Numerous studies have demonstrated positive effects of various chemical additives (e.g. biocides, surfactants, ethylene inhibitors, wound healing enzyme inhibitors on the postharvest, water relations and longevity of cut flowers. Cut flowers can have limited commercial value because of their dehydrating during vase life that decreased water uptake. Petal senescence is part of a developmental continuum in cut flowers and proceeded by tissue differentiation, growth and development of seeds and coordinated by plant hormones. Senescence can be studied at cellular, tissue, organ or organization level as a genetically programmed event. The vase life of cut narcissus flowers is often very short. The development of senescence symptoms is caused by vascular occlusion, which inhibits water supply to the flowers. Petal senescence was marked by the loss of turgor in petal tissue followed by complete wilting. The development of occlusions is thought to be caused by various factors, such as bacteria, air emboli and physiological responses of stems to cutting. However, despite anecdotal evidence of positive effects, improving postharvest water relations of cut flowers by various physical stem-end treatments is little researched. Materials and Methods: The Narcissus flowers harvested from Khafr city of Fars province, in February 2015. The Thyme plants harvested in September 2014 and Savory plants harvested in December 2014 and then submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours. This study was carried out in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The treatments included control (distilled water, two levels of Savory essential oil (50 and 100 ppm and two levels of Thyme essential oil (100 and 200 ppm. 2% sucrose were added to control and other of treatments . The cut flowers were also kept at temperature of 20±2 º

  11. Antioxidant activity for spice oils (1) anti oxidative stability of thyme and caraway oil extracts under UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atef Ghazy, M.; Shaker, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    The anti oxidative activity for some spice essential oils have been investigated using thiocyanate method and compared with common natural antioxidant. The antioxidant activity for nine spice oils has been measured at 500 ppm after 13 days. The most potent one was the lemon grass (99.8), followed by orange peel, thyme, and caraway. The activities for these four oils were higher than that for Alpha-tocopherol (87.7%). Petitgrain, and geranium oils have marched activity but less than that for Alpha-tocopherol. No obvious has been found for citronella. fennel, and cardamon oils. The aqueous, butanoic, methanolic and hexanoic extracts for thyme and caraway oil exhibit effective anti oxidative activities under UV irradiation (254 nm) for 6 and 10 hr compared with that for alpha-tocopherol. The anti oxidative effect of thyme and caraway oil extracts were found to be strong and stable towards UV-irradiation, and equal to that for Alpha-tocopherol. Thyme's aqueous and caraway's hexanal extracts were the most potent extracts under the same conditions

  12. Soil microorganisms alleviate the allelochemical effects of a thyme monoterpene on the performance of an associated grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Bodil K

    2011-01-01

    Plant allelochemicals released into the soil can significantly impact the performance of associated plant species thereby affecting their competitive ability. Soil microbes can potentially affect the interaction between plant and plant chemicals by degrading the allelochemicals. However, most often plant-plant chemical interactions are studied using filter paper bioassays examining the pair-wise interaction between a plant and a plant chemical, not taking into account the potential role of soil microorganisms. To explore if the allelopathic effects on a grass by the common thyme monoterpene "carvacrol" are affected by soil microorganisms. Seedlings of the grass Agrostis capillaris originating from 3 different thyme sites were raised in the greenhouse. Seedlings were grown under four different soil treatments in a 2*2 fully factorial experiment. The monoterpene carvacrol was either added to standard greenhouse soil or left out, and soil was either sterilized (no soil microorganisms) or not (soil microorganisms present in soil). The presence of carvacrol in the soil strongly increased mortality of Agrostis plants, and this increase was highest on sterile soil. Plant biomass was reduced on soil amended with carvacrol, but only when the soil was also sterilized. Plants originating from sites where thyme produces essential oils containing mostly carvacrol had higher survival on soil treated with that monoterpene than plants originating from a site where thyme produced different types of terpenes, suggesting an adaptive response to the locally occurring terpene. The study shows that presence of soil microorganisms can alleviate the negative effect of a common thyme monoterpene on the performance of an associated plant species, emphasizing the role of soil microbes in modulating plant-plant chemical interactions.

  13. Soil microorganisms alleviate the allelochemical effects of a thyme monoterpene on the performance of an associated grass species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil K Ehlers

    Full Text Available Plant allelochemicals released into the soil can significantly impact the performance of associated plant species thereby affecting their competitive ability. Soil microbes can potentially affect the interaction between plant and plant chemicals by degrading the allelochemicals. However, most often plant-plant chemical interactions are studied using filter paper bioassays examining the pair-wise interaction between a plant and a plant chemical, not taking into account the potential role of soil microorganisms.To explore if the allelopathic effects on a grass by the common thyme monoterpene "carvacrol" are affected by soil microorganisms. Seedlings of the grass Agrostis capillaris originating from 3 different thyme sites were raised in the greenhouse. Seedlings were grown under four different soil treatments in a 2*2 fully factorial experiment. The monoterpene carvacrol was either added to standard greenhouse soil or left out, and soil was either sterilized (no soil microorganisms or not (soil microorganisms present in soil. The presence of carvacrol in the soil strongly increased mortality of Agrostis plants, and this increase was highest on sterile soil. Plant biomass was reduced on soil amended with carvacrol, but only when the soil was also sterilized. Plants originating from sites where thyme produces essential oils containing mostly carvacrol had higher survival on soil treated with that monoterpene than plants originating from a site where thyme produced different types of terpenes, suggesting an adaptive response to the locally occurring terpene.The study shows that presence of soil microorganisms can alleviate the negative effect of a common thyme monoterpene on the performance of an associated plant species, emphasizing the role of soil microbes in modulating plant-plant chemical interactions.

  14. Thyme and basil essential oils included in edible coatings as a natural preserving method of oilseed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Cecilia G; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2016-01-15

    Sunflower seeds are susceptible to developing rancidity and off-flavours through lipid oxidation. Edible coatings and essential oils have proven antioxidant properties in different food products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of using an edible coating and thyme and basil essential oils to preserve the chemical and sensory quality parameters of roasted sunflower seeds during storage. 50% DPPH inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.278 and 0.0997 µg mL(-1) were observed for thyme and basil, respectively. On storage day 40, peroxide values were 80.68, 70.28, 68.43, 49.31 and 33.87 mEq O2 kg(-1) in roasted sunflower seeds (RS), roasted sunflower seeds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (RS-CMC), roasted sunflower seeds coated with CMC added with basil (RS-CMC-A), thyme (RS-CMC-T) and butylated hydroxytoluene (RS-CMC-BHT), respectively. RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-BHT presented the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and p-anisidine values during storage. RS-CMC-BHT, RS-CMC-T, and RS-CMC-A showed the lowest oxidized and cardboard flavour intensity ratings. On storage day 40, roasted sunflower flavour intensity ratings were higher in RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-A. Thyme and basil essential oils added to the CMC coating improved the sensory stability of this product during storage, but only thyme essential oil increased their chemical stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Soil Microorganisms Alleviate the Allelochemical Effects of a Thyme Monoterpene on the Performance of an Associated Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Bodil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant allelochemicals released into the soil can significantly impact the performance of associated plant species thereby affecting their competitive ability. Soil microbes can potentially affect the interaction between plant and plant chemicals by degrading the allelochemicals. However, most often plant-plant chemical interactions are studied using filter paper bioassays examining the pair-wise interaction between a plant and a plant chemical, not taking into account the potential role of soil microorganisms. Methodology/Principal findings To explore if the allelopathic effects on a grass by the common thyme monoterpene “carvacrol” are affected by soil microorganisms. Seedlings of the grass Agrostis capillaris originating from 3 different thyme sites were raised in the greenhouse. Seedlings were grown under four different soil treatments in a 2*2 fully factorial experiment. The monoterpene carvacrol was either added to standard greenhouse soil or left out, and soil was either sterilized (no soil microorganisms) or not (soil microorganisms present in soil). The presence of carvacrol in the soil strongly increased mortality of Agrostis plants, and this increase was highest on sterile soil. Plant biomass was reduced on soil amended with carvacrol, but only when the soil was also sterilized. Plants originating from sites where thyme produces essential oils containing mostly carvacrol had higher survival on soil treated with that monoterpene than plants originating from a site where thyme produced different types of terpenes, suggesting an adaptive response to the locally occurring terpene. Conclusions/Significance The study shows that presence of soil microorganisms can alleviate the negative effect of a common thyme monoterpene on the performance of an associated plant species, emphasizing the role of soil microbes in modulating plant-plant chemical interactions. PMID:22125596

  16. Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove essential oils to control spoilage microorganisms in pork under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena D'Amato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP. In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL, and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL. Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP.

  17. Person-centred communication for emotional support in district nursing: SAGE and THYME model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jane

    2017-12-02

    Patients on district nursing caseloads have multiple physical morbidities, and related emotional concerns. District nurses are ideally placed to assess and meet patients' emotional needs but in increasingly stretched workplaces, it is difficult to find time. There is also evidence that district nurses sometimes believe they lack skills to address patients' concerns. Traditional communication skills training is useful for encouraging patients to open up about their concerns, but less helpful at finding workable solutions. District nurses can be afraid to open a 'can of worms' of concerns that they are unable to deal with. SAGE and THYME is a person-centred, evidence-based communication skills model that addresses district nurses' concerns about time and skills. It provides a structure for conversations about concerns, and empowers patients to work with district nurses to find solutions. Research suggests that it is a promising model for district nursing practice.

  18. Composition of essential oil of lemon thyme (Thymus × citriodorus) at different hydrodistillation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurevičiūtė, Rūta; Ložienė, Kristina; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio

    2018-02-02

    Distillation time can both to optimise the production and to engineer the composition of essential oil in essential oil bearing plants. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of duration of hydrodistillation on composition of essential oil of Thymus × citriodorus, the natural source of commercially important geraniol and citral, a component with valuable biological properties. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation at different distillation times and analysed by GC/MS analytical methods. Increase in percentage of essential oil during all hydrodistillation time gradient was uneven. Elongation of hydrodistillation time decreased percentages of monoterpenes but increased percentages of sesquiterpenes in essential oil. Results showed that the hydrodistillation of essential oil from lemon thyme longer than 60 min is useless.

  19. Genetic variation for sensitivity to a thyme monoterpene in associated plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Catrine Grønberg; Ehlers, Bodil Kirstine

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that plant allelochemicals can have profound effects on the performance of associated species, such that plants with a history of co-existence with "chemical neighbour" plants perform better in their presence compared to naïve plants. This has cast new light on the complexity of plant-plant interactions and plant communities and has led to debates on whether plant communities are more co-evolved than traditionally thought. In order to determine whether plants may indeed evolve in response to other plants' allelochemicals it is crucial to determine the presence of genetic variation for performance under the influence of specific allelochemicals and show that natural selection indeed operates on this variation. We studied the effect of the monoterpene carvacrol-a dominant compound in the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides-on three associated plant species originating from sites where thyme is either present or absent. We found the presence of genetic variation in both naïve and experienced populations for performance under the influence of the allelochemical but the response varied among naïve and experienced plant. Plants from experienced populations performed better than naïve plants on carvacrol soil and contained significantly more seed families with an adaptive response to carvacrol than naïve populations. This suggests that the presence of T. pulegioides can act as a selective agent on associated species, by favouring genotypes which perform best in the presence of its allelochemicals. The response to the thyme allelochemical varied from negative to neutral to positive among the species. The different responses within a species suggest that plant-plant interactions can evolve; this has implications for community dynamics and stability.

  20. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse reduces chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutluay Yayla, Ezgi; Izgu, Nur; Ozdemir, Leyla; Aslan Erdem, Sinem; Kartal, Murat

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse used in conjunction with basic oral care on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. An open-label randomized controlled study. Two oncology hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Patients receiving 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens were divided into the intervention group (N=30) and control group (N=30). Basic oral care was prescribed to the control group, while the intervention group was prescribed sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol in addition to basic oral care. All patients were called to assess their compliance with the study instructions on day 5 and 14. Oral mucositis was evaluated using an inspection method or by assessing oral cavity photos based on the World Health Organization oral toxicity scale on day 5 and 14. Most of the patients in the intervention group did not develop oral mucositis on day 5. In addition, the incidence of grade 1 oral mucositis was statistically lower in the intervention group (10%) than the control group (53.3%) on day 5. By day 14, the majority of patients in both the groups had grade 0 oral mucositis. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse has promising results in alleviating oral mucositis. This hydrosol can be recommended for clinical use as it is well tolerated and cost-effective. However, further randomized controlled trials are needed to support the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The combine effects of salting and thyme oil on sensory and chemical changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period.

  3. Cinética del secado de tomillo Drying kinetics of thyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronicely P. da Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueran estudiar la cinética del secado de tomillo con posterior ajuste de diferentes modelos matemáticos a los datos experimentales y determinar los valores de la difusividad efectiva y energía de activación. Para el desarrollo del experimento de secado fueran utilizadas las temperaturas 30, 40, 50, 60 y 70 oC. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con tres repeticiones. Para el ajuste de los modelos matemáticos a los datos experimentales fue realizado el análisis de regresión no lineal, por el método Simplex-Quasi-Newton. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo matemático de Page obtuve un mejor ajuste a los datos experimentales, los valores de los coeficientes de difusividad efectiva variaron entre 3,69 x 10-12 e 1,19 x 10-10 m² s-1 y el valor de la energía de activación fue de 77,16 kJ mol-1.This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of thyme and subsequent adjustment of different mathematical models to the experimental data and to determine the effective diffusivity and the activation energy. In order to conduct the experiment the temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 ºC were used. The experimental design employed was in randomized blocks with three repetitions. For the adjustment of the mathematical models to the experimental data non-linear regression was performed using Simplex-Quasi-Newton method. The results showed that the Page model was the one that promoted the best fit of the experimental data to describe the drying kinetics of the thyme leaves. The values of effective diffusivity coefficients ranged between 3.69 x 10-12 and 1.19 x 10-10 m² s-1 and the value of activation was 77.16 kJ mol-1.

  4. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Moneoecious hydrilla in the Potomac River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    K. Van USDA/ARS 3205 SW College Avenue Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314 Dr. Howard E. Westerdahl * US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station ATTN: WESES-A...PO Box 631 Vicksburg, MS 39180-0631 * Dr. Westerdahl was primarily responsible for the development of this chapter and should be used as a point of...composition of the water system ( Westerdahl 1981). The literature is often contradictory in regard to these effects. Walker (1963) found increases in the

  5. Halloysite Nanocapsules Containing Thyme Essential Oil: Preparation, Characterization, and Application in Packaging Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Si-Hoon; Jang, So-Ri; Lee, Gyeong-Min; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Park, Su-Il; Park, No-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which are natural nanomaterials, have a hollow tubular structure with about 15 nm inner and 50 nm outer diameters. Because of their tubular shape, HNTs loaded with various materials have been investigated as functional nanocapsules. In this study, thyme essential oil (TO) was encapsulated successfully in HNTs using vacuum pulling methods, followed by end-capping or a layer-by-layer surface coating process for complete encapsulation. Nanocapsules loaded with TO were mixed with flexographic ink and coated on a paper for applications as food packaging materials. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the nanocapsules and to confirm the TO loading of the nanocapsules. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses analysis were used to complement the structural information. In addition, the controlled release of TO from the nanocapsules showed sustained release properties over a period of many days. The results reveal that the release properties of TO in these nanocapsules could be controlled by surface modifications such as end-capping and/or surface coating of bare nanocapsules. The packaging paper with TO-loaded HNT capsules was effective in eliminating against Escherichia coli during the first 5 d and showed strong antibacterial activity for about 10 d. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Sensory evaluation and cooking loss of meat of broiler chicken fed probiotics and thyme essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Alfaig

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics and thyme essential oil (TEO as feed additives on the sensory attributes, cooking loss and the texture of broiler chicken meat. Day-old broilers Ross 308  (n = 400 were randomly divided into four groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics 0.05%, TEO 0.05% and combination of probiotics and TEO, while the fattening period was 42 days. Warner Bratzler shear force, cooking loss and the following sensory attributes (colour, odour, taste, texture, meat decomposing and overall acceptability were tested. The obtained results of the Warner Bratzler shear force show that there was significant different (P < 0.05 between control and TEO group and for the cooking loss there was no significant difference between groups. The descriptive sensory analysis results show that the probiotics group results were somewhat similar to that obtained by control while the TEO group and the combination group results were similar. Regarding the sensory analysis we can state that the combination of the probiotics and TEO have a positive effect on the chicken meat sensory characteristics.

  7. Thyme oil vapour and modified atmosphere packaging reduce anthracnose incidence and maintain fruit quality in avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Mafune, Mpho; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2013-09-01

    Postharvest application of prochloraz fungicide is commercially practiced to control anthracnose, a postharvest disease in avocado. Increasing consumer concern regarding food safety and demand for organically produced fruits make it necessary to search for natural environmentally friendly alternative products and processes for the fruit industry. A combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; ∼8% CO₂, 2% O₂) plus thyme oil (TO) was evaluated on the incidence and severity of anthracnose, physiological disorders (grey pulp, vascular browning), fruit quality parameters (L*, h°, firmness, weight loss) and sensory parameters (taste, texture, flavour and overall acceptance), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in avocados ('Fuerte' and 'Hass' cultivars) held at 10 °C cold storage for 18 days and thereafter, ripened at 25 °C for 5-10 days. Stand-alone MAP, commercial treatment (prochloraz 0.05%) and untreated (control) fruit were included for comparison. MAP + TO treatment significantly (P anthracnose, grey pulp, vascular browning, weight loss and loss of fruit firmness, and showed acceptable taste, flavour, texture and higher overall acceptance, increased PAL activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, after ripening at 25 °C followed by cold storage at 10 °C. This investigation recommends MAP + TO combination treatment as a suitable alternative to the currently adopted prochloraz application. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Comparative analyses of diffusion coefficients for different extraction processes from thyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Slobodan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed to analyze kinetics and mass transfer phenomena for different extraction processes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. leaves. Different extraction processes with ethanol were studied: Soxhlet extraction and ultrasound-assisted batch extraction on the laboratory scale as well as pilot plant batch extraction with mixing. The extraction processes with ethanol were compared to the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction performed at 10 MPa and 40°C. Experimental data were analyzed by mathematical model derived from the Fick’s second law to determine and compare diffusion coefficients in the periods of constant and decreasing extraction rate. In the fast extraction period, values of diffusion coefficients were one to three orders of magnitude higher compared to those determined for the period of slow extraction. The highest diffusion coefficient was reported for the fast extraction period of supercritical fluid extraction. In the case of extraction processes with ethanol, ultrasound, stirring and extraction temperature increase enhanced mass transfer rate in the washing phase. On the other hand, ultrasound contributed the most to the increase of mass transfer rate in the period of slow extraction.

  9. Assessment of Radiation-Attenuated Vaccine or Thyme Oil Treatment on Controlling DNA Damage and Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Brain of Rat Infected with Toxocara canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; Hafez, E.N.; Abd Raboo, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a worldwide zoonotic roundworm that infects a number of hosts including humans. It exhibits marked affinity to the nervous tissues. This study deals with the changes in the brain of Toxocara canis infected rats regarding parasitological, nitric oxide (NO) level and DNA damage compared to the effect of vaccination with gamma radiation-attenuated embryonated egg or thyme oil treatment. Eighty rats were classified into four groups (twenty each): GI (normal control); GII infected with 2500 T. canis infective eggs/ml/rat (infected control); GIII vaccinated with 800 Gy gamma-attenuated embryonated eggs (vaccinated group) and GIV infected with 2500 T. canis eggs and treated with thyme oil (thyme treated group). At the 14th day post-infection, ten rats from each group were sacrificed and the remaining were re-infected (challenged) with the same number of eggs. At the 14th days post challenge, brain tissues were taken for larval recovery, nitric oxide level evaluation and DNA damage using fragmentation and comet assay. The results exhibited a significant decrease in larval count and nitric oxide level with less damage in brain cells in thyme treated and gamma radiation-attenuated vaccinated groups compared to control infected group. It is also, concluded that vaccination using γ- rays is more effective in protection compared to using thyme oil.

  10. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farsaraei*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The antifungal activity of the essential oils and their constituents against some phytopathogenic fungi has been reported. Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae is one of the Thymus species.  A large number of studies have concerned the chemical compositions and antifungal activity of thyme’s oil. In order to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides, recently considerable attention has been given to search for naturally occurring compounds. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical composition and antifungal activity of T. vulgaris oil cultivated in Iran. Methods: The essential oil from aerial parts of the plant at full flowering stage was subjected to hydrodistillation and chemical compounds were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and Macrophomina phaseolinaby of the oil was evaluated by agar dilution method. The data were subjected to ANOVA according to the SPSS 21 software. Results: Totally 45 compounds representing 96.75% of the oil were found. Thymol (36.81% and ρ-cymene (30.90% were the main components of thyme oil. According to the results, the antifungal activity of the oil increased with a rising in concentration. All of the tested fungi growth was completely inhibited on 1600 µL/L. In this study fungicidal activity was only observed on F. oxysporum and D. spicifera at concentrations higher than 800 µL/L.  Conclusion: The antifungal activity of T. vulgaris essential oil could be probably due to the high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (thymol and monoterpene hydrocarbons (ρ-cymene.

  12. Effect of thyme and oregano aqueous tea infusions on the microbiological characteristics of sausages

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    Miroslav Kročko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the antimicrobial effect of Thymus vulgare and Origanum vulgare aqueous tea infusion on the total mesophilic bacterial count (TVC, psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC and enterococci count in the heat treated meat product - sausages were evaluated. To prepare 1 kg of sausage in experimental groups were used 10 cm3 of Thymus vulgare resp. Origanum vulgare aqueous tea infusions. It was found that value of TVC and PBC in the experimental groups of sausages with Thymus vulgare addition after 7 days of storage (4 °C were 2.78 resp. 2.14 log cfu.g-1 and with the Origanum vulgare addition were 2.49 resp. 1.90 log cfu.g-1. The value of TVC and PBC in the control group of sausage were 3.13 resp. 2.72 log cfu.g-1. During 10 days of storage (4 °C the TVC and PBC in the sausages with Thymus vulgare addition increase and reached the value 4.81 resp. 3.52 log cfu.g-1. In the sausages with the Origanum vulgare addition TVC and PBC after 10 days of storage reached the value 3.67 resp. 1.60 log cfu.g-1. The value of TVC and PBC in the control group of sausage after 10 days of storage were 6.47 resp. 5.47 log cfu.g-1. Counts of enterococci in control and experimental groups of sausages during 10 days of storage were not detected. Thyme and origanum aqueous tea infusions suppressed the development of TVC and PBC compare to control samples. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  13. The effect of vacuum packaging, EDTA, oregano and thyme oils on the microbiological quality of chicken's breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelková, Adriana; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Rovná, Katarína; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils, on the chicken breast fillets was examined in this study. The chicken breast fillets were stored under vacuum packaging (VP), at 4 ± 0.5 °C for a period of 18 days. There were used the following treatments of chicken breast fillets: Air-packaged (AC, control samples), vacuum-packaged (VPC, control samples), VP with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w (VPEC, control samples), VP with oregano oil 0.20% v/w (VP + O) and VP with thyme oil 0.20% v/w, (VP + T). The quality assessment for vacuum packaging of the product in accordance with the terms above and EDTA treatment, oregano and thyme oil was established by microbiological analyzes. The microbiological properties as the total viable counts on Plate Count Agar, after incubation for 2 days at 37 °C and coliform bacteria on Violet Red Bile Glucose agar incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, lactobacilli on Rogosa and Sharpe agar after incubation 48-78 h at 37 °C in an aerobic atmosphere supplemented with carbon dioxide (5% CO2) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Pseudomonas Isolation agar (PIA, Oxoid, UK) after incubation at 48 h at 35 °C were monitored. The using of oregano, thyme oil and EDTA with combination of vacuum packaging has significant effects to reduction of all followed groups of microorganisms compared with control group without vacuum packaging and untreated control group. The natural preservatives can be used as alternatives to chemical additives which could extend the meat and meat products shelf life. The knowledge about them can have an important economic feedback by reducing losses attributed to spoilage and by allowing the products to reach distant and new markets. This study shows how using of natural antimicrobials can extend the shelf-life of the meat product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-adhesion activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract, thyme post-distillation waste, and olive (Olea europea L.) leaf extract against Campylobacter jejuni on polystyrene and intestine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šikić Pogačar, Maja; Klančnik, Anja; Bucar, Franz; Langerholc, Tomaž; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-06-01

    In order to survive in food-processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to the human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. Phytochemical analysis of thyme ethanolic extract (TE), thyme post-hydrodistillation residue (TE-R), and olive leaf extract (OE) using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array indicates that the major compounds in TE and TE-R are flavone glucuronides and rosmarinic acid derivatives, and in OE verbascoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside and oleuroside. TE and TE-R reduced C. jejuni adhesion to abiotic surfaces by up to 30% at 0.2-12.5 µg mL(-1) , with TE-R showing a greater effect. OE from 3.125 to 200 µg mL(-1) reduced C. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene by 10-23%. On the other hand, C. jejuni adhesion to PSI cl1 cells was inhibited by almost 30% over a large concentration range of these extracts. Our findings suggest that TE, the agro-food waste material TE-R, and the by-product OE represent sources of bioactive phytochemicals that are effective at low concentrations and can be used as therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial adhesion. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The impact of the SAGE & THYME foundation level workshop on factors influencing communication skills in health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Michael; Thomas, Joanne M; Orford, Julie A; Schofield, Nicola; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Heaven, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The "SAGE & THYME Foundation Level Workshop" delivers evidence-based communication skills training to 30 health care workers in 3 hours. It teaches a structured approach (the SAGE & THYME model) to discuss patient/carer concerns. The aim of this study was to determine whether the workshop had a positive outcome on factors that influence communication skills. The study had a pragmatic, mixed methods design. Workshops were run in an acute hospital. One hundred seventy health care workers completed questionnaires pre- and post-workshop; 141 were sent follow-up questionnaires at 2 weeks and 2 months; and 9 were filmed talking to a simulated patient pre- and post-workshop. From pre- to post-workshop, there was a significant increase in knowledge (p communication skills knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy of hospital health care workers who are predominantly white, female, nursing, or nonclinical staff. This suggests that the workshop may have a positive impact on some factors influencing communication skills in this group. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  16. The effect of different dietary levels of thyme essential oil on serum biochemical indices in Mahua broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day trial was undertaken to study the effect of different dietary levels of thyme essential oil (TEO on serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Seven hundred and sixty-eight selected one-day-old Mahua broilers were divided into 8 dietary treatment groups with an addition of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.35 mg/kg of thyme essential oil respectively, with 4 replicate pens per treatment group (24 birds each. The feeding programme included a starter diet until day 21 and a finisher diet from day 22 until day 42. The results suggested that TEO markedly increased serum total proteins and globulins on day 21, significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activity (P≤0.05, the albumin- to-globulin ratio, and serum urea on day 21 and 42, and in particular it improved highdensity lipoproteins on day 21 and 42 (P≤0.05. In conclusion, TEO can promote protein metabolism, enhance lipolysis and strengthen the immune function. Furthermore, after a comprehensive analysis, the ideal range of the essential oil addition to the broiler feed proved to be between 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg.

  17. Effects of γ-Irradiation of Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. on the Phenolic Compounds Profile of Its Ethanolic Extract

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    Janiak Michał A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented study revealed that there were changes in the phenolic compounds profile of extract of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. after γ-irradiation at the dose of 5 kGy. Ethanolic extracts of irradiated and non-irradiated herb were prepared and their compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD technique. Between thirty two detected constituents, twelve phenolic compounds classified as hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives, flavones and flavanones were identified. Among them, caffeic acid derivatives and flavones predominated with the highest content of rosmarinic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside, respectively. Additionally, thymol was recognized in the analyzed extracts. γ-Irradiation slightly affected the quantitative profile of phenolic compounds of a wild thyme ethanolic extract. Only four constituents differed significantly (P<0.05 in terms of their content in the irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The content of phenolic acids (p-coumaric and caffeic acids decreased and that of flavonoid aglycons (luteolin and eriodictyol increased after the γ-ray treatment.

  18. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines. PMID:29303966

  19. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Santoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO, was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  20. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Bosio, Pietro; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-05

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v / v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola , but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea . In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea . Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fournomiti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods: Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27, Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16 strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results: Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for

  2. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8-28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage. Most efficient were the EOs

  3. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage

  4. Physical and antibacterial properties of açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia, Paula J P; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Du, Wen-Xian; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Williams, Tina G; Wood, Delilah; McHugh, Tara H; Soares, Nilda F F

    2014-05-01

    Thyme essential oil (TEO) and apple skin polyphenols (ASP) are natural compounds considered as generally recognized as safe by FDA, with biological effects against bacteria and fungi. This work aimed to evaluate physical and antimicrobial properties of açaí edible films formulated with TEO and ASP at 3% and 6% (w/w) individually or combined at 3% (w/w) each. Physical properties studied include mechanical resistance, water vapor permeability (WVP), color, and thermal resistance. Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes was determined using the overlay diffusion test. Addition of ASP resulted in improved mechanical properties. TEO at 6% (w/w) resulted in increased elongation. ASP films had significant higher WVP than control film. ASP films were lighter and had more red color than other films. Incorporation of ASP resulted in improved film thermal stability, whereas TEO caused rapid thermal decomposition. Presence of clusters was observed on the surface of films. Addition of ASP resulted in a smoother surface, whereas addition of TEO led to the formation of crater-like pits on the film surface. Açaí edible film incorporated with 6% (w/w) TEO presented the highest antimicrobial activity. However, both antimicrobials are necessary in the açaí films in order to obtain edible films with suitable physical-mechanical properties. The results of the present study showed that TEO and ASP can be used to prepare açaí edible films with adequate physical-mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity for food applications by direct contact. Developed açaí edible films presented antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes and good physical-mechanical properties, showing the potential use of açaí edible films in food preservation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Effects of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth Characteristics, Essential Oil and Yield of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

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    Naeemeh Bitarafan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is one of the most important essential oil plants that its essential oil constituent be used in different medicinal and food industries. Vermicompost is organic manure that significant amounts of macro and micronutrients make available to the plants. Although some of this material is minerals but most of them gradually and slowly released through the mineralization of organic matter. Mycorrhizal fungi are one of the biological factors in the rhizosphere, which include a relatively important part of soil organisms. Under water deficit conditions, mycorrhiza enhances photosynthesis and carbon fixation during the growing season by increasing the leaf area. This condition does not directly contribute to increased photosynthesis in the host plant, but keeps the photosynthesis level higher than control by improving water relations and changing the hormonal relations. Materials and methods The treatments included vermicompost in four levels (0, 2, 4, and 6 ton.ha-1 and mycorrhiza in three levels (without inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices was arranged based on randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and 3 replications. Fresh leaf tissue was used to measure chlorophyll content. Dimethyl sulfoxide (7 ml was added to 0.1 g leaf tissue and the samples were incubated at 70°Cfor 4h. The light absorptance was measured at 663, 645 and 470 nm with spectrophotometer (Jenway, 6305 to obtain chlorophyll content. To measure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, plant roots were collected one week before harvesting, cleaned by 10% KOH at 80˚C for 2h, and acidified in 1% HCL for 60 min. Then the cleaned up roots were stained in a solution of trypan blue. The roots were destained in a mixture of 500 ml glycerol, 450 ml water and 5 ml HCL for 24 h, allowing the fungus to be revealed under microscopic examination (Taylor et al. 2008. Statistical analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA

  7. Elaboración de abono orgánico a partir de plantas acuáticas: Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto o Lirio de agua (Eichhornia crassipes), procedentes del Lago de Coatepeque y Lago de Güija

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes de Cabrales, Cecilia Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por finalidad elaborar un abono orgánico bajo la técnica de compostaje, conocida como proceso de descomposición aeróbica. Se realizaron tres formulaciones de abono a partir de las plantas acuáticas Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto de agua (Eichhornia crassipes) en las siguientes proporciones: Elodea 100%, Jacinto de agua 100% y mezcla de ambas en una proporción de 50:50. A los abonos obtenidos se les realizaron análisis químico con la finalidad de cuantificar...

  8. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

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    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  9. The effectiveness of thyme honey for the management of treatment-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: A feasibility randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Katodritis, Nicos; Vomvas, Dimitrios; Raftopoulos, Vasilios; Georgiou, Morpho; Paikousis, Lefkios; Charalambous, Melanie

    2017-04-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is one of the most common side effects that head and neck cancer patients experience during and after treatment. Despite the various methods for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia, it remains highly prevalent among patients treated for head and neck cancers negatively influencing their lives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of thyme honey as a means for managing radiation-induced xerostomia. This was a parallel randomised controlled trial with two equal arms, the experimental arm (thyme honey) and the control arm (saline). 72 head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy or/and surgery were recruited in a specialised cancer centre. Patients in both arms followed the same administration protocol with thyme honey and saline respectively. Identical assessments at baseline, 1 month and 6 months following completion of the intervention were performed in both arms including the National Cancer Institute (NCI) xerostomia scale and the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) additionally to weekly oral clinical assessments. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier for this study is NCT01465308. Linear Mixed Models revealed the statistically significant effect of the intervention on xerostomia (F = 8.474 p xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress mediated toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles after a concentration and time dependent exposure of the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Annette; Wanninger, Lena; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    The present study focused on oxidative stress effects in the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata after exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs). Experiments were conducted with different TiO 2 -NPs and concentrations (0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) in a time-dependent manner (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, 168 h). To assess various levels of the oxidative stress response in H. verticillata, the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and activities of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Study results imply oxidative stress effects after TiO 2 -NP exposure as adaptations in plant metabolism became apparent to counteract increased ROS formation. All TiO 2 -NPs caused elevated activities of the enzymes CAT and GR. Moreover, decreased ratios of GSH/GSSG indicated an activation of GSH-dependent pathways counteracting ROS formation. Plants exposed to a bulk-sized control revealed a size-dependent influence on the antioxidative stress response. As H 2 O 2 level increases were solely detected after exposure to 10 mg/L TiO 2 -NPs and nano-exposed plants showed normalization in its antioxidative stress response after 168h of exposure, it can be suggested that macrophytes are able to cope with currently predicted low-level exposures to TiO 2 -NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of drought stress and bio-fertilizers inoculation on growth, essential oil yield and constituents of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is perennial aromatic shrub belonging to the mint family which has anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, carminative, anti-cough, sputum and antioxidant properties. In order to study the effects of drought stress and bio-fertilizer on plant growth, essential oil yield and constituents of thyme plant, an experiment was conducted in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with two replications, at the Research Farm of Zabol University, during growing season of 2012 and 2013. Main plots consisted of irrigation with 30, 50, 70 and 90% field capacity and subplots including plant inoculation with nitroxin, bio-phosphorus and mycorrhiza. Plant traits such as plant height, fresh and dry weight of herb per plant, essential oil percentage, yield and constituents of Thyme were measured. Effects of drought stress, bio-fertilizer and their interactions on all studied traits were significant at the 1% probability level. The highest plant height (35.09 cm, fresh and dry weight of herb per plant (103.52 and 43,27 g.plant-1, respectively and essential oil yield (0.350 ml.plant-1 belong to treatment of irrigation with 90% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer. The maximum essential oil percentage with 0.413% was obtained by irrigation with 70% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer. Fresh weight of herb per plant was the most crucial component in determining essential oil yield in Thyme. Plants irrigated with 70% filed capacity gave the highest relative percentage of thymol, which reached 71.32, 50.68 and 47.71% in nitroxin, biophosphorus and mycorrhiza biofertilizer, respectively. This effect was accompanied with decrease in -cymene content. Inoculation with nitroxin bio-fertilizer as compared to other fertilizers could further amend drought stress and improved the plant growth, essential oil percentage and yield and phenolic compound thymol of Thyme. Thus, it appears that in order to achieve sustainable agriculture

  12. Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in avocados fumigated with thyme oil vapours and control of anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Malick; Sivakumar, Dharini; Beukes, Mervyn; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Thyme oil (TO) fumigation (96μll(-1)) to cv. Hass and Ryan avocados significantly reduced anthracnose incidence compared to prochloraz and the untreated control. Also, enhanced activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase were noted in both cultivars. TO fumigation induced the expression of both β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase genes in naturally infected fruit of both cultivars, during storage at 7 or 7.5°C for up to 21d and during subsequent simulated market shelf conditions at 20°C for 5d. However, the impact of TO fumigation on the β-1,3-glucanase gene expression was higher in both cultivars. Higher gene regulation and β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase activities were observed in cv. Ryan compared to Hass. Although TO fumigation significantly reduced anthracnose incidence in both naturally infected cultivars, the inhibitory effect was slightly higher in cv. Ryan than Hass. Thus, postharvest TO fumigation had positive effects on enhancing anthracnose disease resistance during storage and also gave a residual effect during the simulated shelf life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

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    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  14. Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M B; Brunton, N P; Martin-Diana, A B; Barry-Ryan, C

    2010-12-01

    The present study optimized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions using Dionex ASE® 200, USA to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] and total polyphenol content (TP) of the extracts from three spices of Lamiaceae family (sage, basil and thyme). Optimal conditions with regard to extraction temperature (66-129 °C) and solvent concentration (32-88% methanol) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). For all three spices, results showed that 129 °C was the optimum temperature with regard to antioxidant activity. Optimal methanol concentrations with respect to the antioxidant activity of sage and basil extracts were 58% and 60% respectively. Thyme showed a different trend with regard to methanol concentration and was optimally extracted at 33%. Antioxidant activity yields of the optimal PLE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for both total phenol (TP) and FRAP values in all the spices with high regression coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.651 to 0.999.

  15. Effect of thyme essential oil and Lactococcus lactis CBM21 on the microbiota composition and quality of minimally processed lamb's lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Russo, Alessandra; Torriani, Sandra; Putignani, Lorenza; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate, at pilot scale in an industrial environment, the effects of the biocontrol agent Lactococcus lactis CBM21 and thyme essential oil compared to chlorine, used in the washing step of fresh-cut lamb's lettuce, on the microbiota and its changes in relation to the time of storage. The modification of the microbial population was studied through pyrosequencing in addition to the traditional plate counts. In addition, the volatile molecule and sensory profiles were evaluated during the storage. The results showed no significant differences in terms of total aerobic mesophilic cell loads in relation to the washing solution adopted. However, the pyrosequencing data permitted to identify the genera and species able to dominate the spoilage associations over storage in relation to the treatment applied. Also, the analyses of the volatile molecule profiles of the samples during storage allowed the identification of specific molecules as markers of the spoilage for each different treatment. The sensory analyses after 3 and 5 days of storage showed the preference of the panelists for samples washed with the combination thyme EO and the biocontrol agent. These samples were preferred for attributes such as flavor, acceptability and overall quality. These results highlighted the effect of the innovative washing solutions on the quality of lettuce through the shift of microbiota towards genera and species with lower potential in decreasing the sensory properties of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytotoxic effect of essential oil of thyme (Thymus broussonettii on the IGR-OV1 tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy

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    L. Ait M'Barek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-tumor effect of the Moroccan endemic thyme (Thymus broussonettii essential oil (EOT was investigated in vitro using the human ovarian adenocarcinoma IGR-OV1 parental cell line OV1/P and its chemoresistant counterparts OV1/adriamycin (OV1/ADR, OV1/vincristine (OV1/VCR, and OV1/cisplatin (OV1/CDDP. All of these cell lines elicited various degrees of sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of EOT. The IC50 values (mean ± SEM, v/v were 0.40 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, 0.94 ± 0.05, and 0.65 ± 0.03% for OV1/P, OV1/ADR, OV1/VCR, and OV1/CDDP, respectively. Using the DBA-2/P815 (H2d mouse model, tumors were developed by subcutaneous grafting of tumor fragments of similar size obtained from P815 (murin mastocytoma cell line injected in donor mouse. Interestingly, intra-tumoral injection of EOT significantly reduced solid tumor development. Indeed, by the 30th day of repeated EOT treatment, the tumor volumes of the animals were 2.00 ± 0.27, 1.35 ± 0.20, and 0.85 ± 0.18 cm³ after injection with 10, 30, or 50 µL per 72 h (six times, respectively, as opposed to 3.88 ± 0.50 cm³ for the control animals. This tumoricidal effect was associated with a marked decrease of mouse mortality. In fact, in these groups of mice, the recorded mortality by the 30th day of treatment was 30 ± 4, 18 ± 4, and 8 ± 3%, respectively, while the control animals showed 75 ± 10% of mortality. These data indicate that the EOT which contains carvacrol as the major component has an important in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy as well as a significant antitumor effect in mice. However, our data do not distinguish between carvacrol and the other components of EOT as the active factor.

  17. Tissue-specific gene-expression patterns of genes associated with thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their differential changes upon treatment with abiotic elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majdi, Mohammad; Malekzadeh-Mashhady, Atefe; Maroufi, Asad

    2017-01-01

    of the regulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in thyme, the expression of genes related to thymol and carvacrol biosynthesis in different tissues and in response to abiotic elicitors was analyzed. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) and UV-C irradiation were applied to T. vulgare...

  18. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  19. The Impact of in ovo Injection of Silver Nanoparticles, Thyme and Savory Extracts in Broiler Breeder eggs on Growth Performance, Lymphoid-Organ Weights, and Blood and Immune Parameters of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki AA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of in ovo injection of nano-silver, thyme and savory extracts in broiler breeder eggs on growth performance, lymphoid organ weights, immune and blood parameters and bone mineral concentration of broiler chicks. A total of 560 fertilized broiler breeder eggs were divided into 7 groups. On d 5 of incubation, eggs were treated with the following groups. Group 1 (control, no injection; group 2 (placebo, 1 mL of 0.9% NaCl; group 3 and 4 (placebo + 30 and 45 mg of nano-silver, respectively; group 5 and 6 (placebo + 75 and 100 mg of thyme, respectively and group 7 (placebo + 75 mg of savory. After hatch, chickens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet under the controlled conditions and slaughtered at 14 and 21 d of age for sample collection and analysis. The lymphoid-organ weights and growth rate were not affected by dietary treatments at 14 and 21 d of age. The results also showed that nano-silver injected into broiler breeder eggs during incubation improved the bone mineral concentration and cell-mediated immunity at 14 and 21 d of age, respectively. Humoral immunity was improved by thyme and savory extracts (P < 0.05. Overall, the effect of in ovo injection of nano-silver, thyme and savory extracts during embryonic development is a potential means to improve immune activities of broiler chickens, while does not have any detrimental effect on embryo hatchability.

  20. The distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation and water lettuce in the fresh and oligohaline tidal Potomac River, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah Hunter; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys documenting the composition of species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been conducted in the Potomac River for decades. These surveys can help managers assess the proportion of native and exotic plants in the river or can be used to determine relationships between native and exotic plants, environmental conditions, and wildlife. SAV coverage increased from 2005 to 2007 throughout the fresh and oligohaline study area. The 2007 survey documented here determined that eleven species of SAV were present. The abundance of the exotic species Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) was relatively low, and species diversity was relatively high compared to previous years. The survey also revealed a new population of the invasive, floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). In 2007, water lettuce, the latest exotic aquatic plant to be found in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River, was most abundant in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. However, it was not observed in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River in the summer of 2008. An understanding of the distribution of SAV species and factors governing the abundance of native and invasive aquatic species is enhanced by long-term surveys.

  1. Eficácia do diquat no controle de Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa e Egeria najas e toxicidade aguda para o Guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of diquat in the control of Hydrylla verticillata, Egeria densa and Egeria najas and its acute toxicity to Phallocerus caudimaculatus, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.P. Henares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as macrófitas aquáticas submersas, Egeria densa e Egeria najas, têm causado prejuízos aos usos múltiplos da água. Hydrilla verticillata foi recentemente introduzida, mas tem histórico como planta problemática nos EUA, no México e na Austrália. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as suscetibilidades relativas dessas três macrófitas aquáticas ao diquat e os riscos da utilização desse herbicida para o guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para isso, foram instalados ensaios em condições de laboratório, a fim de avaliar a suscetibilidade relativa das três macrófitas por meio da manutenção de ponteiros dessas plantas em soluções contendo 0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; e 1,6 mg L-1 de diquat (Reward® por 14 dias. A avaliação foi realizada pela variação do acúmulo de matéria fresca e do comprimento dos ponteiros no período de exposição ao herbicida. H. verticillata mostrou maior sensibilidade ao diquat em comparação com as duas macrófitas do gênero Egeria, mesmo em baixas concentrações do herbicida. Nas maiores concentrações, E. densa mostrou maior sensibilidade que E. najas. O risco da aplicação do diquat para P. caudimaculatus foi estimado pela toxicidade aguda. Alevinos de P. caudimaculatus de 0,4 ± 0,2 mg foram expostos a soluções de 0,0; 1,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0; 20,0; 25,0; e 30,0 mg L-1 de diquat. A concentração letal de 50% (CL(I (50;96h do diquat estimada para P. caudimaculatus foi de 7,17 mg L-1. Para P. caudimaculatus, a toxicidade aguda foi superior à concentração recomendada para o controle de macrófitas aquáticas submersas, indicando risco muito baixo para esse peixe.In Brazil, the submerged plants Egeria densa and Egeria najas have caused damage to multiple uses of water. Hydrilla verticillata has been recently introduced, but it has a history as a problem plant in the U.S., Mexico and Australia. The objectives of this work were to assess the relative susceptibilities of these three

  2. Antifungal activity of lemon, eucalyptus, thyme, oregano, sage and lavender essential oils against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is very important to find out the protection of products of natural origin as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. The promising alternative is the use of the essential oils (EOs. Essential oils from plants have great potential as a new source of fungicide to control the pathogenic fungi.The main objective of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus LABILL., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. sage (Salvia officinalis L. and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia MILLER. EOs against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes and their ability to affect the growth. It was tested by using the vapor contact with them. At first both tested isolates were identified by using PCR method. Sequence data of 18S rRNA supported the assignment of these isolates to the genus Aspergillus and species A. niger (ITS region: KT824061; RPB2: KT824060 and A. tubingensis (ITS region: KT824062; RPB2: KT824059. Second, EO antifungal activity was evaluated. The effect of the EO volatile phase was confirmed to inhibit growth of A. niger and A tubingensis. EOs were diluted in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide final volume of 100 μL. Only 50 μL this solution was distributed on a round sterile filter paper (1 x 1 cm by micropipette, and the paper was placed in the center of the lid of Petri dishes. Dishes were kept in an inverted position. The essential oils with the most significant activity were determined by method of graded concentration of oils - minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs. The most effective tested EOs were oregano and thyme oils, which totally inhibited growth of tested isolates for all days of incubation at 0.625 μL.cm-3 (in air with MFDs 0.125 μL.cm-3 (in air. Lavender EO was less active aginst tested strains (MIDs 0.313 μL.cm-3. The results showed that the tested EOs had antifungal activity, except lemon and eucalyptus. Sage EO was the only

  3. Impact of Sweet Potato Starch-Based Nanocomposite Films Activated With Thyme Essential Oil on the Shelf-Life of Baby Spinach Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Issa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi and Escherichia coli (E. coli have been responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks linked to fresh produce, such as baby spinach leaves, in the last two decades. More recently, antimicrobial biodegradable packaging systems have been attracting much attention in the food packaging industry as eco-friendly alternatives to conventional plastic packaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibacterial nanocomposite films on inoculated spinach leaves and on the sensory properties of these leaves during eight days of refrigerated storage. In this study, an antibacterial film comprised of sweet potato starch (SPS, montmorillonite (MMT nanoclays and thyme essential oil (TEO as a natural antimicrobial agent was developed. Our results showed that the incorporation of TEO in the film significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the population of E. coli and S. Typhi on fresh baby spinach leaves to below detectable levels within five days, whereas the control samples without essential oil maintained approximately 4.5 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g. The sensory scores for spinach samples wrapped in films containing TEO were higher than those of the control. This study thus suggests that TEO has the potential to be directly incorporated into a SPS film to prepare antimicrobial nanocomposite films for food packaging applications.

  4. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidative response of the three macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to a time dependent exposure of cell-free crude extracts containing three microcystins from cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Amatitlán, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Oliva, Claudia Suseth; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria in natural environments are a potential risk to the integrity of ecosystems. In this study, the effects of cyanobacterial cell-free crude extracts from a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom containing three MC-congeners MC-LR, -RR, and -YR at environmental relevant concentrations of 49.3±2.9, 49.8±5.9, and 6.9±3.8μg/L, respectively, were evaluated on Ceratophyllum demersum (L.), Egeria densa (Planch.), and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.). Effects on photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll (chl), chl a, chl b, and carotenoids), enzymatic defense led by catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR), and biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured after 1, 4, and 8h and after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of exposure. Results show that in all exposed macrophytes, photosynthetic pigments were negatively affected. While chl a and total chl decreased with increasing exposure time, a parallel increase in chl b was observed after 8h. Concomitant increase of ∼5, 16, and 34% of antioxidant carotenoid concentration in exposed C. demersum, E. densa, and H. verticillata, respectively, was also displayed. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems in all exposed macrophytes were initiated within the first hour of exposure. In exposed E. densa, highest values of CAT and GR activities were observed after 4 and 8h, respectively, while in exposed H. verticillata highest value of POD activity was observed after 8h. An early induction with a significant increase of biotransformation enzyme GST was observed in E. densa after 4h and in C. demersum and H. verticillata after 8h. These results are the first to show rapid induction of stress and further possible MC biotransformation (based on the activation of GST enzymatic activity included in MC metabolization during the biotransformation mechanism) in macrophytes exposed to crude extract containing a mixture of MCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. Effect of soil application of humic acid on nutrients uptake, essential oil and chemical compositions of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozisharaf, Alireza; Kaviani, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    Humic acid is natural biological organic, which has a high effect on plant growth and quality. However, the mechanisms of the promoting effect of humic acid on the volatile composition were rarely reported. In this study, the effects of soil application of humic acid on the chemical composition and nutrients uptake of Thymus vulgaris were investigated. Treatments comprised 0, 50, 75 and 100 g m -2 . Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID. Essential oil content was enhanced by increase of the humic acid level and its content ranged from 0.8% (control) to 2.0% (75 g m -2 ). Thirty-two volatile compounds were identified and these compounds were considerably affected by humic acid. The highest percentage of thymol (74.15%), carvacrol (6.20%), p -cymene (4.24%), borneol (3.42%), trans -caryophyllene (1.70%) and cis -sabinene hydrate (1.35%) as major compounds were observed in T. vulgaris under 100 g m -2 humic acid. There was a linear relationship ( R 2  = 97%) between humic acid levels and thymol as a major compound. The oils were dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Based on the path coefficient analysis, the highest direct effects on essential oil content were observed in monoterpene esters (3.465) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (3.146). The humic acid application also enhanced the uptake of N, P, K, Mg and Fe in garden thyme. The highest N (2.42%), P (0.75%), K (2.63%), Mg (0.23%) and Fe (1436.58 ppm) were observed in medium supplemented with 100 g m -2 humic acid. In all, the utilization of humic acid could positively change nutrients uptake, essential oil content and its major constituents in T. vulgaris .

  8. Application of predictive models to assess the influence of thyme essential oil on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour during shelf life of ready-to-eat turkey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possas, Arícia; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Valero, Antonio; García-Gimeno, Rosa M; Duarte, Marta C T

    2017-01-02

    Consumers' demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat is attributed to its convenience and healthy properties. However, as cooked meat product it is subjected to post-process contamination, thus allowing presence and growth of microbial pathogens, such as Salmonella spp.. The aim of this study was to include a natural antimicrobial, thyme essential oil (TEO), on RTE turkey products in order to evaluate its effectiveness throughout the shelf life. To do so, the effect of four different formulations of cooked RTE turkey products on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour was investigated. Products' slices were surface inoculated with S. Enteritidis (ca. 4 to 5logcfu/g), subsequently stored at 10 and 25°C and microbiologically analysed during 18 and 12days, respectively. Predictive microbiology models fitted to count data were used to evaluate microbial behaviour. Results showed that S. Enteritidis behaviour on RTE turkey products slices during storage was strongly dependent on temperature. The pathogen was able to grow on slices at all tested conditions during storage at 25°C and no statistical differences were detected (p>0.05) between growth parameters. At 10°C, different behaviour patterns were observed. The application of TEO led to higher Salmonella inactivation rates on a product exempt of chemical preservatives. The addition of this novel antimicrobial on meat products or its incorporation on meat active packaging systems as a part of hurdle technology could increase RTE turkey products safety while satisfying the demand of more natural foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of Salmonella by thyme essential oil and its effect on microbiological and sensory properties of minced pork meat packaged under vacuum and modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Marija; Djordjevic, Jasna; Ivanovic, Jelena; Janjic, Jelena; Zdravkovic, Nemanja; Glisic, Milica; Glamoclija, Natasa; Baltic, Branislav; Djordjevic, Vesna; Baltic, Milan

    2017-10-03

    The antibacterial activity of thyme essential oil (TEO) was evaluated against four serovars of Salmonella (S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Montevideo and S. Infantis), experimentally inoculated (10 6 CFU/g) in minced pork, which was treated with different concentrations of the TEO (0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9%) packaged under vacuum or MAP (30%O 2 /50%CO 2 /20% N 2 ) and stored at 3±1°C for 15days. GC-MS analysis of the TEO was performed in order to determine composition, and the predominant constituent was thymol (50.48%), followed by p-cymene and linalool. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for each Salmonella serovar studied. Among the tested active compounds, thymol and carvacrol exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect followed by TEO, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 320 to 640μg/ml. S. Enteritidis was the most sensitive serovar. During the storage period, Salmonella counts in pork were reduced by 1.69-4.05logCFU/g. The influence of TEO on Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and total viable count was determined in control mince with no added Salmonella. The most pronounced antibacterial effect was achieved by the combination MAP and 0.9% TEO. Although the antibacterial activities of all studied concentrations of TEO in pork were evident and significant (P<0.05), sensory analysis showed that 0.3% TEO was the most acceptable to trained panellists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  11. Understanding the potential benefits of thyme and its derived products for food industry and consumer health: From extraction of value-added compounds to the evaluation of bioaccessibility, bioavailability, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose M; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Gavahian, Mohsen; Marszałek, Krystian; Eş, Ismail; Munekata, Paulo E S; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barba, Francisco J

    2018-05-17

    Natural bioactive compounds isolated from several aromatic plants have been studied for centuries due to their unique characteristics that carry great importance in food, and pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. For instance, several beneficial activities have been attributed to some specific compounds found in Thymus such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiseptic properties. Moreover, these compounds are classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) which means they can be used as an ingrident of may food producs. Conventional extraction processes of these compounds and their derived forms from thyme leaves are well established. Hoewever, they present some important drawbacks such as long extraction time, low yield, high solvent consumption and degradation thermolabile compounds. Therefore, innovative extraction techniques such as ultrasound, microwave, enzyme, ohmic and heat-assisted methods can be useful strategies to enhance the exytraction yield and to reduce processing temperature, extraction time, and energy and solvent consumption. Furthermore, bioaccessibility and bioavailability aspects of these bioactive compounds as well as their metabolic fates are crucial for developing novel functional foods. Additionally, immobilization methods to improve stability, solubility, and the overall bioavailability of these valuable compounds are necessary for their commercial applications. This review aims to give an overall perspective of innovative extraction techniques to extract the targeted compounds with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Moreover, the bioaccessi-bility and bioavailability of these compounds before and after processing discussed. In addition, some of the most important characteristics of thyme and their derived products discussed in this paper.

  12. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  13. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  14. Water

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    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  15. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  16. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  17. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  18. [Influence of submerged macrophytes on phosphorus transference between sediment and overlying water in the growth period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Chen, Qiu-Min; Li, Zhen-Guo

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the process of phosphorus transfer between sediment and overlying water, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were cultured in spring, Potamogeton crispus was cultured in winter. Changes of environmental factors and phosphorus concentrations in water and sediment were investigated. The results indicated that: submerged macrophytes could reduce all phosphorus fractions in the overlying water. Phosphorus concentrations in overlying water maintained in a relative low level in the growth period of submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 0.03-0.05, 0.04-0.12, 0.02-0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. All phosphorus fractions in sediment were reduced. The maximum value between submerged macrophyte and control of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 35.34, 60.67 and 25.92 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh) and pH in overlying water increased (DO 10.0-14.0 mg x L(-1), Eh 185-240 mV, pH 8.0-11.0) in the submerged macrophytes groups. Submerged macrophytes increased Eh( -140 - -23 mV) and maintained pH(7.2-8.0) in neutral range. The results indicated that submerged macrophytes affected phosphorus transferring between sediment and overlying water through increasing DO, Eh and pH in overlying water, and Eh in sediment.

  19. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  20. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Li

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm. Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  1. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed (P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg (P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  2. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  3. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius N. Lugemwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h.

  4. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  5. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  6. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  7. Extrato de casca de café, óleo essencial de tomilho e acibenzolar-S-metil no manejo da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro Coffee berry husk extract, thyme essential oil and acibenzolar-S-methyl in the control of brown eye spot of coffee tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de concentrações de extrato de casca de café, óleo essencial de tomilho e acibenzolar-S-metil na germinação, no crescimento micelial e no desenvolvimento in vivo de Cercospora coffeicola, além de caracterizar a eficiência deles como indutores de resistência, e determinar a atividade da enzima peroxidase e o acúmulo de lignina nos tecidos de cafeeiro. O extrato de casca de café não afetou a germinação, entretanto, inibiu o crescimento micelial proporcionalmente ao aumento das concentrações. O óleo essencial de tomilho inibiu a germinação e o crescimento micelial com o aumento das concentrações. O extrato de casca de café e o acibenzolar-S-metil não afetaram a germinação nem o desenvolvimento dos tubos germinativos, diferentemente do óleo essencial de tomilho. Mudas tratadas com acibenzolar-S-metil, extrato de casca de café e óleo essencial de tomilho, apresentaram picos de atividade da peroxidase aos 2 e 11, 7 e 11 e, 2 e 9 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, respectivamente. Os tratamentos não diferiram quanto à concentração de lignina. Extrato de casca de café e acibenzolar-S-metil induziram resistência em mudas de cafeeiro contra C. coffeicola e o óleo essencial de tomilho apresentou efeito tóxico ao patógeno.The objective of this work was to assess the effect of the coffee berry husk extract, thyme essential oil and acibenzolar-S-methyl on the germination and micelial growth and on in vivo development of Cercospora coffeicola, and to characterize their efficiency as resistance inducers in coffee plants, and to determine the peroxidase activity and lignin accumulation in tissues of coffee tree. The coffee berry husk extract presented no toxic effect on germination; however, it inhibited the mycelial growth proportionally to the increase of the concentrations. The thyme essential oil inhibited the germination and the mycelial growth with the increase of

  8. Effectiveness on mild stress and mixed urinary incontinence and impact on Quality of Life of a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations. Results from a monocentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Risi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess any beneficial effect on quality of life of a daily treatment with a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations in a cohort of female patients complaining mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI. Materials and methods: 42 non-consecutive female out-patients with mild SUI or mild MUI were assessed with a clinical evaluation, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF and Patients’ Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS at baseline the start of the study and after two months of therapy with the phytotherapic product. At the end of the therapy the patients also compiled Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I. Results: After the completion of the study there was a trend towards better results in each item of ICIQ-SF, but without any statistical significance with an average score in ICIQ-SF-1 of 3.12 ± 0.981 versus 3.21 ± 0.914 (p = 0.556, in ICIQ-SF-2 of 3.69 ± 1.422 versus 3.79 ± 1.372 (p = 0.68 and in ICIQ-SF-3 of 5.95 ± 1.618 versus 6.14 ± 1.670 (p = 0.462. The average reduction of PPIUS was of 0.09 (1.26 ± 1.481 versus 1.357 ± 1.509, p = 0.705. There was a reduction of average consumption of pads/die from 1.69 ± 0.636 to 1.54 ± 0.543 (p = 0.101. In relation to the PGI score, 23/42 patients (54.7% reported no changes after the completion of the therapy, 13/42 (30.9% reported a slight improvement, 5/42 (11.9% were much improved and 1/42 (2.3% was slightly worsened. Only 2/42 (4.7% patients discontinued the treatment before of the completion of the study. We did not observe any adverse effects during the period of the study. Conclusions: The phytotherapic product seems to cause a slight improvement of the symptoms in a good rate of patients. Moreover it has a low rate of withdrawal, due to the lack of adverse events.

  9. Effectiveness on mild stress and mixed urinary incontinence and impact on Quality of Life of a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations. Results from a monocentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Oreste; Manica, Michele; Lisanti, Rocca Carmela; Manfredi, Antonio; Tecci, Giuseppe Romeo

    2017-12-31

    To assess any beneficial effect on quality of life of a daily treatment with a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations in a cohort of female patients complaining mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). 42 non-consecutive female out-patients with mild SUI or mild MUI were assessed with a clinical evaluation, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and Patients' Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS) at baseline the start of the study and after two months of therapy with the phytotherapic product. At the end of the therapy the patients also compiled Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I). After the completion of the study there was a trend towards better results in each item of ICIQ-SF, but without any statistical significance with an average score in ICIQ-SF-1 of 3.12 ± 0.981 versus 3.21 ± 0.914 (p = 0.556), in ICIQ-SF-2 of 3.69 ± 1.422 versus 3.79 ± 1.372 (p = 0.68) and in ICIQ-SF-3 of 5.95 ± 1.618 versus 6.14 ± 1.670 (p = 0.462). The average reduction of PPIUS was of 0.09 (1.26 ± 1.481 versus 1.357 ± 1.509, p = 0.705). There was a reduction of average consumption of pads/die from 1.69 ± 0.636 to 1.54 ± 0.543 (p = 0.101). In relation to the PGI score, 23/42 patients (54.7%) reported no changes after the completion of the therapy, 13/42 (30.9%) reported a slight improvement, 5/42 (11.9%) were much improved and 1/42 (2.3%) was slightly worsened. Only 2/42 (4.7%) patients discontinued the treatment before of the completion of the study. We did not observe any adverse effects during the period of the study. The phytotherapic product seems to cause a slight improvement of the symptoms in a good rate of patients. Moreover it has a low rate of withdrawal, due to the lack of adverse events.

  10. Effect of Essential Oils of Peppermint, Lemon, Thyme and Ajwain on Performance, Blood Metabolites and Hepatic lipogenic Gene Expression of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Samadian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction Essential oils (EOs are important aromatic components of herbs and spices which are complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites consisting of low-boiling-phenylpropenes and terpenes. Their biological activities have been known and utilized since ancient times in perfumery, food preservation, flavoring, and medicine. Some of their biological activities include antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has stimulated the search for alternative feed supplements in animal production. EOs have received attention in recent years as potential ‘natural’ alternatives for replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in animal diets due to their positive impact on growth performance and welfare. A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of EOs on broiler performance rather than the physiological effects, but the results have not been consistent (or constant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four essential oils (Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Citrus lemon, Carum copticom on growth performance, some of the serum biochemistry parameters and lipogenic gene expression in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods A total of 312, 1-day-old broiler chicks were allocated in completely randomized design to 13 groups with 6 replicate cages per treatment. After 2-day adjustment with the basal diet, the birds were randomly assigned to the corresponding experimental diets supplemented with 0 (Control, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg diet essential oils extracted from Crum capticum, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Cirtus lemon. The basal diet composed of maize–soybean meal prepared in our laboratory and all birds had free access to water for the entire period. Food intake and BW were recorded to determine growth performance and feed: gain ratio. At the end of the experiment (42 day blood samples (6 samples per treatment

  11. The Effect of Isabgol (Plantago psyllium Mucilage and Shiraz Thyme Essential Oils on Microbial Load and Improving Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fresh-cut produce graduated to retail during the1990s, especially for lettuce, cabbage, carrots and other similar vegetables. The high microbial loads of these products after harvest can be substantially reduced through a cleaning in flowing chlorinated water and adistribution under ensured controlledrefrigeration. Therefore, a good number of convenient ready-to-use greens were launched to the market in the past decade. Nowadays, theuse of this technology to achieve similar results in fruit products is one of the most challengingtargets for processors. However, there is anumber of issues that still need to beovercomebeforefresh-cut fruit commodities can be sparked off to anoutstanding position in the segment of lightly-treatedrefrigerated foods. The importance of freshly cut products increases day by day. Tissue and cell rupture leads to a decrease in the shelf life of these products. On the other hand, these products due to increased enzyme activity, respiration rate and microbiological considerations that affect the health of these productsrequires highly attention.To increase the shelf life of the products and prevent undesirable changes in cut slices of fruit or vegetables a coating on the surface of these products has been suggested. Mucilages and essential oils of herbs are natural compounds that can be used to create such covers. The advantages of these coatings are their bactericidal effect, maintenanceof pleasant taste and other physical and chemical characteristics of the product and even decrease of environmental pollution. In this research, the effect of natural compounds such as Zataria multiflora essential oil (EO and Plantagopsyllium mucilage on storage life and microbial load of fresh cut carrot was studied. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in two separate experiments on fresh-cut carrot: In the first experiment, the effect of different concentrations of Plantago psyllium mucilage (0,100, 200, and

  12. Opportunities for Phytoremediation and Bioindication of Arsenic Contaminated Water Using a Submerged Aquatic Plant:Vallisneria natans (lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xingmei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The identification of plants with high arsenic hyperaccumulating efficiency from water is required to ensure the successful application of phytoremediation technology. Five dominant submerged plant species (Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara., Potamageton crispus L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) in China were used to determine their potential to remove As from contaminated water. V. natans had the highest accumulation of As among them. The characteristics of As accumulation, transformation and the effect of phosphate on As accumulation in V. natans were then further studied. The growth of V. natans was not inhibited even when the As concentration reached 2.0 mg L(-1). After 21 d of As treatment, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached 1300. The As concentration in the environment and exposure time are major factors controlling the As concentration in V. natans. After being absorbed, As(V) is efficiently reduced to As(III) in plants. The synthesis of non-enzymic antioxidants may play an important role under As stress and increase As detoxication. In addition, As(V) uptake by V. natans was negatively correlated with phosphate (P) uptake when P was sufficiently supplied. As(V) is probably taken up via P transporters in V. natans.

  13. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    were identified to genus and species when possible. Those that did not sporulate were placed in categories of moniliaceous (hyaline hyphae ) or...dematiaceous (dark hyphae ) Ascomycetes. Each isolate was also transferred to a one-half strength corn meal agar (Difco Inc., Detroit, Michigan) slant

  14. Determinação de óleos essenciais de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L., orégano (Origanum vulgare L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. Determination of essential oils of basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., oregano (Ocimum gratissimum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Borges

    2012-01-01

    apresentam potencial para o enriquecimento dos alimentos ou para a obtenção dos óleos essenciais.This study aimed to characterize commercial fresh and dry medicinal plants (basil, oregano and thyme, to obtain essential oil by the steam distillation method and to quantify chemical compounds by means of GC/MS. The fresh and dry plants were subjected to the following analyses moisture, ether extract, protein, crude fiber, ash, non-nitrogenous extract, caloric value, essential oil content and identification of major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Considering the obtained characterization, the following results on dry basis proved promising: protein and ash content in commercial dry basil with 17.34 g 100 g-1 and 8.12 g 100 g-1, respectively; crude fiber in commercial dry oregano with 15.65 g 100 g-1; ether extract, non-nitrogenous extract and caloric value in commercial dry thyme with 9.30 g 100 g-1, 52.72 g 100 g-1 and 356.74 Kcal 100 g-1, respectively. The highest essential oil yield was obtained for commercial dry basil with 1.02% and the lowest yield was obtained for fresh basil with only 0.13%. Chromatography indicated 87.38% eugenol and 6.27% thymol in fresh basil. For commercial dry basil, the chromatogram showed a reduction in eugenol (71.12% and an increase in thymol (13.28%. Four peaks were quantified for fresh oregano the γ-terpinene (33.45%, 4-terpineol (25.59%, thymol (14.21% and carvacrol (2.30%. For the essential oil of commercial dry oregano, there was a decrease in γ-terpinene (28.73% and an increase in 4-terpineol (27.58%, thymol (19.71% and carvacrol (3.67%. In the chromatogram of the essential oil of fresh thyme, three peaks were quantified: borneol (66.66%, thymol (13.41% and linalool (3.24%. On the other hand, in the chromatogram of the essential oil of commercial dry thyme, there was a decrease in borneol (37.90% and an increase in thymol (20.61% and linalool (10.34%. It can be concluded that commercial dry leaves of basil, oregano

  15. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  16. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano, tomilho e canela frente a sorovares de Salmonella enterica de origem avícola Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, thyme and cinnamon against Salmonella enterica sorovars from avian source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janio Morais Santurio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano (Origanum vulgare, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris e canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum frente a 60 amostras de Salmonella enterica distribuídas entre 20 sorovares, todos isolados de carcaças de aves. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado, utilizando-se a técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de orégano evidenciou forte atividade antibacteriana (CIM média = 529mig ml-1 e CBM média= 661mig ml-1, seguido do tomilho (CIM média=961mig ml-1 e CBM média= 1074mig ml-1, com atividade moderada, enquanto que a menor atividade foi observada com o óleo essencial de canela (CIM média= 1335mig ml-1 e CBM média = 1979mig ml-1. Apesar deste claro padrão de atividade, os sorovares de Salmonella enterica evidenciaram significativas variações de suscetibilidade, embora nenhuma, em particular, pudesse ser classificada como totalmente sensível ou resistente aos três óleos essenciais avaliados. Assim, no momento em que os antibacterianos utilizados como promotores de crescimento estão sendo substituídos. E os óleos essenciais de temperos e condimentos se constituem numa alternativa importante, os resultados aqui apresentados sinalizam dois pontos: os óleos essenciais de orégano e tomilho são efetivos contra Salmonella, mas as variações de suscetibilidade entre os sorovares deverão também ser consideradas.Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamom (Cinnamomum zeylanicum were tested for their inhibitory activity against sixty Salmonella sp. isolates. These microorganisms were distributed in 20 serovars, all of them isolated from broiler chickens. Based on microdilution technique, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was obtained for oregano

  17. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  18. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  19. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  20. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  1. Water, water everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of water in Lesotho, it is argued that future development of the Lesotho Highlands water project is not yet required. Lesotho exports water to arid regions in South Africa. However, some South Africans believe that further development of the scheme is unnecessary and they argue that Gauteng Province has enough water for the immediate future provided the demand is managed effectively - this being the case, there would be no urgency for completing what is termed phase 1B. It is argued that if 1B is completed before the water is required, then costs to the consumer would increase. It was also argued that proceeding with 1B would give South Africa greater flexibility in augmenting supply to the Vaal river system. Some disadvantages to Lesotho if 1B does not proceed would be loss of royalties and job opportunities and a curb on development of its infrastructure

  2. Comparative studies of antimycotic potential of thyme and clove oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluconazole and ketoconazole against Candida albicans in vitro. This is necessary if oil extracts can replace antifungal antibiotics as agents for the treatment of candidiasis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the essential oils were determined by first solubilizing them with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) followed ...

  3. Ingredients for an Integrated Dinner: Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In 1966, Simon and Garfunkel combined the English traditional "Scarborough Fair" with a counter melody. This is one of the manifold techniques of the Kontrapunktik described by Bach around 1745 in "The Art of the Fugue": combining completely different and seemingly independent melodies (or motifs) into a coherent piece of music, pleasant for the audience. This achievement, transposed into Computer Science, could be of great benefit for geo services as we look at the currently disparate situation: On the one hand, we have metadata - traditionally, they are understood as being small in volume, but rich in content and semantics, and flexibly queryable through the rich body of technologies established over several decades of database research, centering around query languages like SQL. On the other hand, we have data themselves, such as remote sensing and other measured and observed data sets - they are considered difficult to interpret, semantic-poor, and only for clumsy download, as they are the main constituent of what we today call Big Data. The traditional advantages of databases, such as information integration, query flexibility, and scalability seem to be unavailable. These are the melodies that require a kontrapunctic harmonization, leading to a Holy Grail where different information categories enjoy individually tailored support, while an overall integrating framework allows seamless and convenient access and processing by the user. Most of the data categories to be integrated are well known in fact: ontologies, geospatial meshes, spatiotemporal arrays, and free text constitute major ingredients in this orchestration. For many of them, isolated solutions have been presented, and for some of them (like ontologies and text) integration has been achieved already; a complete harmonic integration, though, is still lacking as of today. In our talk, we detail our vision on such integration through query models and languages which merge established concepts and novel paradigms in a harmonic way. We present the EarthServer initiative which has set out to demonstrate flexible ad-hoc processing and filtering on massive Earth data sets.

  4. MEMPELAJARI FISIOLOGI PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DENGAN TEHNIK RADIOISOTOP (Study in the Physiology of Environment Pollution Using Radiotracer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1. Perbedaan kemampuan daya serap tumbuhan air Hydrilla verticillata, Enceng gondok (Eichhomia crassipes dan Kangkung terhadap residu Malathion, menggunakan akuarium (diisi dengan air + Hydrilla Verticillata + Enceng Gondok + Kangkung + Malathion radioisotope 14C. 2. Perbandingan kadar malathion dalam jaringan ikan yang mendapat makanan Hydrilla verticilata dengan yang mendapat makanan kangkung, menggunakan: (akuarium pertama diisi air + Hydrilla Vericillata + ikan mas + Malathion radioisotope 14C; akuarium ke dua diisi air + kangkung + ikan mas + malathion radiisotop 14C. 3. Perbandingan ukuran penyerapan pada jaringan mammalia (tikus yang diberi makan jaringan ikan mas dengan yang diberi makan tumbuhan air (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. Jaringan ikan mas dan kangkung dilakukan pengabuan basah, lalu diberikan masing-masing kepada 30 ekor tikus. Kadar Malathion dari semua percobaan satu, dua dan tiga, diketahui dengan menggunakan alat pencacah Sintilator cair (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer, LSC- 753 (ALOKA”. Hasil yang didapat dibandingkan dengan menggunakan uji-t Student. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa: 1. Hydrilla Verticillata lebih efisien dari pada Enceng Gondok dan Kangkung dalam menyerap residu insektisida malathion dalam air. 2. Ikan yang diberi makan Hydrilla verticillata mengkonsentrasikan malathion lebih tinggi dari pada ikan yang diberi makan kangkung. 3. Mammalia (tikus yang mengkonsumsi daging ikan yang terkontaminasi akan mengkonsentrasikan malathion dalam tubuhnya lebih banyak dari pada tikus yang memakan sayuran (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine: 1.The comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata, water hyacinth and water spinach of Malathion insecticide residues in water, (aquarium filled with water + Hydrilla verticillata + water hyacinth + water spinach + 20 mci 14C malathion radioisotope; 2

  5. Water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The overall NRC program for the resolution of the water hammer issue is divided into four tasks: water hammer summary reports; revision of CP and OL review procedures; water hammer positions for operating reactors; and water hammer safety studies

  6. Branding water

    OpenAIRE

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and ra...

  7. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  8. Coconut Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water because the immature coconuts are green in color. Coconut water is different than coconut milk. Coconut milk is produced from an emulsion of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly ...

  9. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  10. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  11. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Water Safety What's in ... remains your best measure of protection. Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  12. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  13. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  14. Hurricane Effects on a Shallow Lake Ecosystem and Its Response to a Controlled Manipulation of Water Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E. Havens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reverse the damage to aquatic plant communities caused by multiple years of high water levels in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (U.S., the Governing Board of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD authorized a "managed recession" to substantially lower the surface elevation of the lake in spring 2000. The operation was intended to achieve lower water levels for at least 8 weeks during the summer growing season, and was predicted to result in a large-scale recovery of submerged vascular plants. We treated this operation as a whole ecosystem experiment, and assessed ecological responses using data from an existing network of water quality and submerged plant monitoring sites. As a result of large-scale discharges of water from the lake, coupled with losses to evaporation and to water supply deliveries to agriculture and other regional users, the lake surface elevation receded by approximately 1 m between April and June. Water depths in shoreline areas that historically supported submerged plant communities declined from near 1.5 m to below 0.5 m. Low water levels persisted for the entire summer. Despite shallow depths, the initial response (in June 2000 of submerged plants was very limited and water remained highly turbid (due at first to abiotic seston and later to phytoplankton blooms. Turbidity decreased in July and the biomass of plants increased. However, submerged plant biomass did not exceed levels observed during summer 1999 (when water depths were greater until August. Furthermore, a vascular plant-dominated assemblage (Vallisnera, Potamogeton, and Hydrilla that occurred in 1999 was replaced with a community of nearly 98% Chara spp. (a macro-alga in 2000. Hence, the lake’s submerged plant community appeared to revert to an earlier successional stage despite what appeared to be better conditions for growth. To explain this unexpected response, we evaluated the impacts that Hurricane Irene may have had on the lake in the

  15. Hurricane effects on a shallow lake ecosystem and its response to a controlled manipulation of water level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, K E; Jin, K R; Rodusky, A J; Sharfstein, B; Brady, M A; East, T L; Iricanin, N; James, R T; Harwell, M C; Steinman, A D

    2001-04-04

    In order to reverse the damage to aquatic plant communities caused by multiple years of high water levels in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (U.S.), the Governing Board of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) authorized a "managed recession" to substantially lower the surface elevation of the lake in spring 2000. The operation was intended to achieve lower water levels for at least 8 weeks during the summer growing season, and was predicted to result in a large-scale recovery of submerged vascular plants. We treated this operation as a whole ecosystem experiment, and assessed ecological responses using data from an existing network of water quality and submerged plant monitoring sites. As a result of large-scale discharges of water from the lake, coupled with losses to evaporation and to water supply deliveries to agriculture and other regional users, the lake surface elevation receded by approximately 1 m between April and June. Water depths in shoreline areas that historically supported submerged plant communities declined from near 1.5 m to below 0.5 m. Low water levels persisted for the entire summer. Despite shallow depths, the initial response (in June 2000) of submerged plants was very limited and water remained highly turbid (due at first to abiotic seston and later to phytoplankton blooms). Turbidity decreased in July and the biomass of plants increased. However, submerged plant biomass did not exceed levels observed during summer 1999 (when water depths were greater) until August. Furthermore, a vascular plant-dominated assemblage (Vallisneria, Potamogeton, and Hydrilla) that occurred in 1999 was replaced with a community of nearly 98% Chara spp. (a macro-alga) in 2000. Hence, the lake"s submerged plant community appeared to revert to an earlier successional stage despite what appeared to be better conditions for growth. To explain this unexpected response, we evaluated the impacts that Hurricane Irene may have had on the lake in the previous

  16. Reusing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management System Environmental Outreach Feature Stories Individual Permit for Storm Water Public Reading Room Sustainability » Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by

  17. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  18. Decomposition characteristics of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes and their potential application as carbon resource in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; He, Shengbing; Zhou, Weili; Gu, Jianya; Huang, Jungchen; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes usually generates significant influence on aquatic environment. Study on the aquatic macrophytes decomposition may help reusing the aquatic macrophytes litters, as well as controlling the water pollution caused by the decomposition process. This study verified that the decomposition processes of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes (water hyacinth, hydrilla and cattail) could exert significant influences on water quality of the receiving water, including the change extent of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, etc. The influence of decomposition on water quality and the concentrations of the released chemical materials both followed the order of water hyacinth > hydrilla > cattail. Greater influence was obtained with higher dosage of plant litter addition. The influence also varied with sediment addition. Moreover, nitrogen released from the decomposition of water hyacinth and hydrilla were mainly NH 3 -N and organic nitrogen while those from cattail litter included organic nitrogen and NO 3 - -N. After the decomposition, the average carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in the receiving water was about 2.6 (water hyacinth), 5.3 (hydrilla) and 20.3 (cattail). Therefore, cattail litter might be a potential plant carbon source for denitrification in ecological system of a constructed wetland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Water tight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use

  20. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Branding water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  2. Evaluation of butachlor for control of some submerged macrophytes along with its impact on biotic components of freshwater system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chattopadhyay, S. Adhikari, S. P. Adhikary, S. Ayyappan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the efficacy of the herbicide butachlor, (N-butoxymethyl-2 chloro-21, 61 diethyl acetanilide was tested against few common submerged macrophytes namely Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L. Royale, Najas (Najas minor All., Nechamandra (Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. Thwaites and Ottelia (Ottelia alismoides (L. Pers. of freshwater fish ponds. Almost complete decay of Hydrilla, Nechamandra and Ottelia was achieved at 7.5 L of active ingredient/ha/m butachlor within 15 days while the herbicide showed no negative effect on Najas. However at the same concentration of butachlor, total mortality of zooplankton and water fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana Lamarck occurred within seven days. In case of few freshwater fish species like Rohu (Labeo rohita, Channa (Channa punctatus, Anabas (Anabas testitudineus and Heteropneustes (Heteropneustes fossilis, total mortality occurred upto 90 days after application of the same dose of butachlor but fish survived beyond 120 days of herbicide application indicating degradation of the herbicides.

  3. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  4. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  5. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  6. Social Water

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Franz; Salverda, Tijo; Hollington , Andrea; Tappe, Oliver; Kloß, Sinah; Schneider, Nina

    2017-01-01

    We encounter water every day. It is a vital substance biologically as much as socially. We may notice this in art exhibitions and university courses communicating submersed and subversive facts about water; the rhythms of floods and tides resonating with fishing techniques and conflict patterns; inundations carrying moral and political weight as much as water and pollution; and particular mixtures of water and land generating wealth, anxieties and memories. In short, wherever people deal with...

  7. Water Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Perreault, T.; Vos, J.M.C.

    2018-01-01

    Water justice is becoming an ever-more pressing issue in times of increasing water-based inequalities and discrimination. Megacities, mining, forestry, industry and agribusiness claim an increasingly large share of available surface and groundwater reserves. Water grabbing and pollution generate

  8. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  9. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  10. Water rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Yokomizo, Osamu; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a BWR type reactor, the area of a flow channel in a lower portion of a downcoming pipe for downwardly releasing steams present at the top portion in a water rod is increased. Further, a third coolant flow channel (an inner water rod) is disposed in an uprising having an exit opened near the inlet of the water rod and an inlet opened at the outside near the top portion of the water and having an increase flow channel area in the upper portion. The downcoming pipe in the water rod is filled with steams, and the void ratio is increased by so much as the flow channel area of the downcoming pipe is increased. Since the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the inner water rod is greater than the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the water rod, most of water flown into the inner water rod is discharged out of the exit in the form of water as it is. Since the area of the flow channel is increased in the portion of the inner water rod, void efficiency in the upper portion of the reactor core is decreased by so much. Since the void ratio is thus increased in the lower portion and the void efficiency is decreased in the upper portion of the reactor core, axial void distribution can be flattened. (N.H.)

  11. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  12. Water curtain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    The patented water curtain is used to eliminate gas-oil gushers and is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify operation, the water-line collector is made out of two symmetrical parts installed with the possibility of relative rotation. The collector is equipped with at least one pipe arranged in the zone of the collector and has openings for the supply of water.

  13. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  14. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  15. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  16. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes water systems used in green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also outlines some calculations that can be used to design water systems in green buildings. Finally, aspects of green building...

  17. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  18. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  19. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  20. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  1. Radiating water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.

    1987-04-01

    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  2. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  4. Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  5. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  6. Water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been technically responsible for technical assistance projects aimed at improving water management practices in the following developing Member States: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Costa Rica, Egypt, Greece, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lebanon, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Republic of Korea, Romania, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda and Zambia. The Division has also contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of water use through the implementation of three 5-year co-ordinated research programmes. Participants from eight to 15 countries have conducted research towards a common goal of improving nuclear techniques in water-use efficiency studies and developing practices to increase the food produced from a unit of irrigation water or rainfall. In many cases this was the first time such techniques have been used in the above countries. It was thus necessary to provide expert assistance to train local counterparts in the safe and efficient use of the equipment. Training courses have also been held in more advanced countries to familiarize young scientists from developing countries with the most modern techniques in soil/water research. Results obtained through the nuclear techniques aided research programmes will, when applied in farmers' fields on irrigated land, lead to increased yields, to reduced losses of nutrients through leaching below the rooting zone, and to conserving soil through avoiding the accumulation of salts close to the soil surface. Under rainfed agriculture, research results would help controlling erosion, conserving water, and ensuring sustained production at acceptable yield levels

  7. Water analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, J.R.; Steinheimer, T.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    This is the twenty-first biennial review of the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry of water. The format of this review differs somewhat from previous reviews in this series - the most recent of which appeared in Analytical Chemistry in April 1983. Changes in format have occurred in the presentation of material concerning review articles and the inorganic analysis of water sections. Organic analysis of water sections are organized as in previous reviews. Review articles have been compiled and tabulated in an Appendix with respect to subject, title, author(s), citation, and number of references cited. The inorganic water analysis sections are now grouped by constituent using the periodic chart; for example, alkali, alkaline earth, 1st series transition metals, etc. Within these groupings the references are roughly grouped by instrumental technique; for example, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, etc. Multiconstituent methods for determining analytes that cannot be grouped in this manner are compiled into a separate section sorted by instrumental technique. References used in preparing this review were compiled from nearly 60 major journals published during the period from October 1982 through September 1984. Conference proceedings, most foreign journals, most trade journals, and most government publications are excluded. References cited were obtained using the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts for sections on inorganic analytical chemistry, organic analytical chemistry, water, and sewage waste. Cross-references of these sections were also included. 860 references

  8. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  9. Water Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillinger, Frank H.

    1980-07-01

    Liquid water consists of a macroscopically connected, random network of hydrogen bonds, with frequent strained and broken bonds, that is continually undergoing topological reformation. Anomalous properties of water arise from the competition between relatively bulky ways of connecting molecules into local patterns characterized by strong bonds and nearly tetrahedral angles and more compact arrangements characterized by more strain and bond breakage. However, these alternatives constitute virtually a continuum of architectural possibilities rather than a discrete pair of options. The singular behavior of supercooled water near -45 degrees C and the ``hydrophobic'' attraction between nonpolar entities are due to the same underlying phenomenon, namely, the clumping tendency of relatively strain-free convex cages or polyhedra.

  10. Water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Manitoba Hydro's efforts to maximize production efficiency while meeting safety and environmental concerns regarding water management were discussed. The four-step dam safety program was outlined, consisting of inspection, repairs and improvements, flooding studies, and emergency preparedness plans. An oil spill which occurred in 1995 on the Nelson River after a transformer at the Kettle Generating Station failed, was described. A boom was used to contain the oil, and a skimmer unit was used to remove oil and soot from the surface of the water. Manitoba Hydro is also conducting studies to find ways to protect the generating stations from zebra mussels, and precautions are being taken to prevent old lead-based paint from reaching the Winnipeg River. It was noted that the drought which hit northern Manitoba during the spring and summer of 1995 reduced the water supplies to the lowest levels ever recorded at the Churchill River Diversion. 2 figs

  11. Water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Manitoba Hydro`s efforts to maximize production efficiency while meeting safety and environmental concerns regarding water management were discussed. The four-step dam safety program was outlined, consisting of inspection, repairs and improvements, flooding studies, and emergency preparedness plans. An oil spill which occurred in 1995 on the Nelson River after a transformer at the Kettle Generating Station failed, was described. A boom was used to contain the oil, and a skimmer unit was used to remove oil and soot from the surface of the water. Manitoba Hydro is also conducting studies to find ways to protect the generating stations from zebra mussels, and precautions are being taken to prevent old lead-based paint from reaching the Winnipeg River. It was noted that the drought which hit northern Manitoba during the spring and summer of 1995 reduced the water supplies to the lowest levels ever recorded at the Churchill River Diversion. 2 figs.

  12. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  13. Ultrahydrophobic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.

    2017-05-01

    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  14. Water lettuce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive values, Mineral and Antioxidant properties of Pistia stratiotes (Water lettuce). 1R .S.U. Wasagu ... The use of plants as medicines predates written human history and some of ... used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose ...

  15. Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil wastewater treatment ... on the performance of anaerobic treatment systems of municipal wastewater ... Comparison of the chemical quality of rainwater harvested from roof and ... pore water and surface sediment from uMngeni River, KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

  16. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  17. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  18. Water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Baston, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the accident, the coolants in the primary and secondary systems were within normal chemistry specifications for an operating pressurized water reactor with once-through steam generators. During and immediately after the accident, additional boric acid and sodium hydroxide were added to the primary coolant for control of criticality and radioiodine solubility. A primary to secondary leak developed contaminating the water in one steam generator. For about 5 years after the accident, the primary coolant was maintained at 3800 +. 100 ppm boron and 1000 +. 100 ppm sodium concentrations. Dissolved oxygen was maintained 7.5, corrosion caused by increased dissolved oxygen levels (up to 8 ppm) and higher chloride ion content (up to 5 ppm) is minimized. Chemical control of dissolved oxygen was discontinued and the coolant was processed. Prior to removal of the reactor vessel head, the boron concentration in the coolant was increased to ≅ 5000 ppm to support future defueling operations. Decontamination of the accident generated water is described in terms of contaminated water management. In addition, the decontamination and chemical lay-up conditions for the secondary system are presented along with an overview of chemical management at TMI-2

  19. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  20. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water…

  1. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... is suitable for a particular use. How is water quality measured? Some aspects of water quality can be ...

  2. Water Pavilion

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Katlin

    2013-01-01

    Architecture consists of parts that make a whole. These parts can be defined as decisions, details, joints, spaces, forms. But what if these parts are experiences, specific encounters woven together to create the whole? This project is a whole, assembled by episodic moments. The pavilion is designed on Daingerfield Island, located south of Ronald Reagan National Airport along the Potomac River in Alexandria, Virginia. The site offers a panoramic view across the water of the airport,...

  3. Water Technology Lecture 3: Water Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is the third lecture in the course Water Technology dealing with water distribution. This is a PowerPoint lecture which is free to use and modify. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the course text Gray, N.F. (2017) Water Science and Technology: An Introduction, published by CRC Press, Oxford. The basis of water distribution is explored including water pipe materials, distribution systems, leakage, water quality problems, pressure issue, water hydrants, effect of floods,...

  4. Water and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    This is material of the 18th world water day in 2010 which reports current situation of water resources such as water world, in water in Korea and water dispute, water and disaster like climate change, flood, drought, historical report about drought and flood, water resources facilities in Korea, disaster management system, development and management of eco-friendly water resources, eco-friendly water resources management and river maintenance, renovating four rivers and supply and procure of safe water.

  5. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer

  6. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savings Septic Unsafe Disposable Wipe Woes FacebookLogo FOCUS AREAS Drinking Water Wastewater Training Security Conservation & Water Efficiency Water We Drink Source Water Protection SORA/COI EPA MOU CartIcon Links Listserv Educators Homeowners Operators Small Systems Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest

  7. Water Power Research | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Power Research Water Power Research NREL conducts water power research; develops design tools ; and evaluates, validates, and supports the demonstration of innovative water power technologies. Photo of a buoy designed around the oscillating water column principle wherein the turbine captures the

  8. Iowa Water Center | Iowa Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Iowa State University Extension Iowa Water Center Submitted by mollyd on April 24, 2012 - 09 :42 Advancing the state of water knowledge and management The Iowa Water Center is a part of a nationwide network of university-based water centers created to encourage interdisciplinary water research

  9. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  10. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  11. Healing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra Tomás, María

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork in four different spas —two in Spain and two in Portugal— this paper shows the mutiple social mediations operating in water therapies in different contexts: from the local use inscribed in popular knowledge, including playful elements inserted in therapeutic practices under the illusion of a return to nature when nature itself has stopped being «natural», to others in which leisure time is an expression of an exclusive life style including a reevaluation of landscape as part of a time-bound aesthetics and as a refuge from urban stress. These different uses of water allow us to understand spas both as nature sanatoriums as well as a form of business where medical power bends to the interests of turistic enterpreneurs transformed into health advisors, linked to different conceptions not only of water but also of society itself.

    Focalizando la reflexión en cuatro balnearios diferentes —dos en España y dos en Portugal—, el artículo muestra las múltiples mediaciones sociales que operan en la terapéutica del agua en diferentes contextos: desde el uso local inserto en saberes populares, incluyendo lo lúdico en lo terapéutico que puede conectarse con la ilusión de un regreso a la naturaleza cuando ésta ya ha dejado de ser “natural”, a otros en los que el ocio es expresión de un estilo de vida exclusivo que incluye un acercamiento al paisaje como parte de la estética de una época y como refugio ante el stress urbano. Se observa así cómo estos usos del agua, que permiten concebir los balnearios bien como sanatorios de la naturaleza bien como negocios en los que el poder médico se pliega al de promotores turísticos convertidos en asesores de salud, se vinculan a concepciones diferentes no sólo del agua, sino de la sociedad misma y sus diferentes grupos.

  12. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  13. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  14. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  15. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Thyroid Disease Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about one ...

  16. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  17. Determination of heavy water in heavy water - light water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza M, A.

    1986-01-01

    A description about experimental methodology to determine isotopic composition of heavy water - light water mixtures is presented. The employed methods are Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0 to 100% with intervals of 10% approx., and mass Spectrometry, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0.1 to 1% with intervals of 0.15% approx., by means of an indirect method of Dilution. (Author)

  18. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  19. Colorado Water Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Water Institute Colorado State University header HomeMission StatementGRAD592NewslettersPublications/ReportsCSU Water ExpertsFunding OpportunitiesScholarshipsSubscribeEmploymentAdvisory BoardStaffContact UsCommentsLinks Water Center Logo Water Resources Archive Office of Engagement Ag Water

  20. Water Scarcity and Water Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Facchini, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the possible solutions to control demand and supply of water for a sustainable environment in Mexico, along with a detailed analyses of economic implications related to the water sector. At the same time it focuses on the opportunities and constraints to improve the use of water and the allocation in the agricultural sector, by a system of transferable water-use permits. Actual examples are provided nationwide to the current situation in Mexico, focusing on problems rela...

  1. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  2. Surveys for Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla verticillata in the People’s Republic of China in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Cullen , D. T. Briese, D. J. Kriticos, W. M. Lonsdale, L. Morin, and J. K. Scott, 529-538. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO. ERDC/EL TR-17-3 15 Grodowitz M...J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 46:42-50 Manrique, V., J. P. Cuda, W. A. Overholt, D. Williams , G. Wheeler, G. 2008. Effect of host-plant genotypes on the...Review of the Literature. www.northeastans.org/docs/hydrillalitsearch12.31.12.pdf. Accessed14 April 2014. Overholt, W. A., R. Copeland, D. Williams

  3. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  4. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  5. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  6. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  7. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  8. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  9. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  10. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR . Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  11. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  12. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  13. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  14. Mine water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komissarov, S V

    1980-10-01

    This article discusses composition of chemical compounds dissolved or suspended in mine waters in various coal basins of the USSR: Moscow basin, Kuzbass, Pechora, Kizelovsk, Karaganda, Donetsk and Chelyabinsk basins. Percentage of suspended materials in water depending on water source (water from water drainage system of dust suppression system) is evaluated. Pollution of mine waters with oils and coli bacteria is also described. Recommendations on construction, capacity of water settling tanks, and methods of mine water treatment are presented. In mines where coal seams 2 m or thicker are mined a system of two settling tanks should be used: in the upper one large grains are settled, in the lower one finer grains. The upper tank should be large enough to store mine water discharged during one month, and the lower one to store water discharged over two months. Salty waters from coal mines mining thin coal seams should be treated in a system of water reservoirs from which water evaporates (if climatic conditions permit). Mine waters from mines with thin coal seams but without high salt content can be treated in a system of long channels with water plants, which increase amount of oxygen in treated water. System of biological treatment of waste waters from mine wash-houses and baths is also described. Influence of temperature, sunshine and season of the year on efficiency of mine water treatment is also assessed. (In Russian)

  15. Global Water Issues and Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Grafton, Quentin R.; Wyrwoll, Paul; White , Chris; Allendes, David

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together some of the world’s leading water researchers with an especially written collection of chapters on: water economics; transboundary water; water and development; water and energy; and water concepts.

  16. Effect of foliar nutrition on the essential oil yield of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 112 (2018), s. 762-765 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510160 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Thymus * Essential oils * Aromatic plants * Plant nutrition * Plant technology Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  17. Effect of Dietary Thyme Oil and Vitamin E on the Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ziraat2

    LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in broilers. ... total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on an .... and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared to those fed the control diet (without vitamin E) ...

  18. Quality preservation of deliberately contaminated milk using thyme free and nanoemulsified essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemaa, Mariem; Falleh, Hanen; Neves, Marcos A; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Ksouri, Riadh

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of either a solution of Thymus capitatus essential oil or its nanoemulsion on the quality of milk contaminated by bacteria. After 24h of S. aureus inoculation, bacterial growth reached 202×10(3)CFU/ml in the presence of the essential oil while it was limited to 132×10(3)CFU/ml when treated with nanoemulsion. The reduction of antioxidant capacity of milk treated with essential oil was higher when treated with nanoemulsion. Moreover, free essential oil was more efficient in protecting proteins from degradation than the nanoemulsion. For instance, after 24h of E. hirae contamination, 26% of the total proteins were consumed in the presence of nano-encapsulated essential oil, while only 14% of the initial content was consumed when free essential oil was added. Concerning milk acidity increase and the inhibition of peroxide production, no statistical differences have been recorded between the use of free essential oil or its nano-emulsion. In conclusion, bulk or nano-encapsulated T. capitatus essential oil preserve milk quality and can extend its shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  20. Extraction of Thyme Oil: Comparison between Hydrodistillation and Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aleksovski, S. A.; Sovová, Helena; Poposka, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2001), s. 305-310 ISSN 1330-0075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : thymus serpyllum * supercritical fluid extraction * assential oil Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. Potential use of Rosemary, Propolis and Thyme as Natural Food Preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzima, K.; Makris, D.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Mourtzinos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in food stuffs and beverages is essential in order to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. However, the use of synthetic additives has been associated with various health problems. Therefore, consumers have turned suspicious and obverted

  2. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE PORTE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7 %, p-cymene (18.6 % and g-terpinene (16.5 %.

  3. Essential oils of thyme and Rosemary in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Maciel Mattos de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in order to evaluate two alternatives for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine meat pieces, both based on the use of Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (EOs. The antilisterial activity of different concentrations of the EOs was tested in vitro using agar dilution and disk volatilization techniques. In addition, L. monocytogenes was inoculated in meat pieces, which were submerged in edible gelatin coatings containing 2% (v/v EOs or submitted to the vapor of EOs (0.74 μL.cm-3. L. monocytogenes was quantified after one, 48 and 96 hours of storage (7 °C. In the in vitro tests, the EO of T. vulgaris presented higher activity. The two options used (edible gelatin coating and vapor activity, in spite of exercising effects with differentiated behaviors, presented antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes inoculated in raw bovine meat (p < 0.05. Greatest antibacterial activity were obtained in the experiment that used edible coatings containing EOs, at 48 hours of storage reductions in bacterial counts between 1.09 and 1.25 Log CFU.g-1 were obtained. In the vapor effect experiment, the EO of T. vulgaris caused the highest reduction in the population of bacteria inoculated in raw bovine meat (p < 0.05, 0.40 Log CFU.g-1 at 96 hours of storage. This study supplied important information regarding new and promising natural alternatives, based on the concept of active packaging, for the control of L. monocytogenes in the meat industry.

  4. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  5. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  6. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  7. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  8. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  9. Understanding Your Water Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    An easy to way to understand individual water use is to look at your water bill—not just the amount due, but how much water you used. Pull out your water bill and follow our steps to learn more about it.

  10. Managing water use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses meeting and maintaining water pollution controls while keeping up with the new regulations. The topics discussed in the article include discharge regulations, stormwater discharges, wetlands regulation, water use, water-related programs, and keeping an inventory of water pollution regulations, especially those involving pre-approvals, permits or registrations

  11. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  12. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  13. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  14. Alabama Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  15. Water and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Water and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Water Solubility Drinking Water and Pesticides Fact Sheet

  16. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  17. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  18. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  19. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiatti, M.; Mascini, M.; Monanni, R.; Filipponi, M.; Piangoloni, A.; Mancini, G.

    2001-01-01

    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project [it

  20. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  1. Water Technology Lecture 1: Introducing Water Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is a full set of PowerPoint lectures for a course in Water Technology currently given at Trinity College, University of Dublin by professor N.F. Gray. The lectures cover all aspects of water and wastewater treatment and are available for use to lecturers or those interested in the subject. The lecture series is to be used in conjunction with the new textbook ?Water Science and Technology? (4th edition) published by CRC Press in 2017. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the water indust...

  2. World Water Day 2002: Water for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture consumes about 70 per cent of the world's available water but experts say that where there are competing demands for water use, and groundwater sources have been depleted, small farmers are the first to lose their supply. As a consequence farmers are displaced from their land and the landless, who help them, are made jobless. Environmental damage to wetlands and estuaries from upstream depletion, as well as an increase of water-borne disease, also occurs.There must be more emphasis towards increasing the efficiency of water management systems and increasing water productivity, getting more crops per drop, says the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Water stress leaves women the most vulnerable. Without a ready source of water they may have to walk for several hours every day to find it, or send their children to fetch it. Child nurturing and education suffer and the water available maybe unfit for human use. The U.N. estimates that 1.2 billion people lack access to safe water and about 2.5 billion are without access to proper sanitation. The absence of safe water translates into a tremendous burden of disease, linked to gastro-intestinal infection, making it a key water associated development issue, the World Health Organization (WHO) says. 'Access to sanitation facilities is a basic human right that safeguards health and human dignity,' said Sir Richard Jolly, Chair of the Geneva-based Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSCC). 'We know from experience that clean water alone leads only to minor health improvements. Sound hygiene behaviour must be recognized as a separate issue in its own right, with adequate sanitation and clean water as supporting components.' This year, water pollution, poor sanitation and water shortages will kill over 12 million people, said Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Millions more are in bad health and trapped in poverty, said Mr. Toepfer, much of

  3. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  4. Disinfection of grey water

    OpenAIRE

    Winward, Gideon Paul

    2007-01-01

    The reuse of grey water, for applications such as toilet flushing and irrigation, represents a potential sustainable solution to water shortages experienced by regions worldwide. Although reused grey water is not intended for potable use, the potential for transmission of waterborne pathogens by aerosol inhalation, topical contact, or indirect ingestion is a key concern for grey water reuse. This thesis explores the pathogen content of grey water and investigates pathogen remov...

  5. Water availability and trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    West, S.; Lynch, M.; Turner, V.; Munoz, B.; Rapoza, P.; Mmbaga, B. B.; Taylor, H. R.

    1989-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological survey of risk factors for trachoma in 20 villages in the United Republic of Tanzania, we investigated the relationship of village water pumps, distance to water source, and quantity of household water to the risk of inflammatory trachoma. We also evaluated whether there was an association between the cleanliness of children's faces and these water variables. No association was found between the presence of a village water supply and the prevalence of trachoma. H...

  6. Deuterium and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, G.; Ursu, D.; Mihaila, A.; Szentgyorgyi, P.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography on deuterium and heavy water contains 3763 references (1932-1974) from 43 sources of information. An author index and a subject index are given. The latter contains a list of 136 subjects, arranged in 13 main topics: abundance of deuterium , catalysts, catalytic exchange, chemical equilibria, chemical kinetics, deuterium and heavy water analysis, deuterium and heavy water properties, deuterium and heavy water separation, exchange reactions, general review, heavy water as moderator, isotope effects, synthesis of deuterium compounds

  7. Solvation in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, H.D.; Cummings, P.T.; Karaborni, S.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the solvation structure in supercritical water composed with that in ambient water and in simple supercritical solvents. Molecular dynamics studies have been undertaken of systems that model ionic sodium and chloride, atomic argon, and molecular methanol in supercritical aqueous solutions using the simple point charge model of Berendsen for water. Because of the strong interactions between water and ions, ionic solutes are strongly attractive in supercritical water, forming large clusters of water molecules around each ion. Methanol is found to be a weakly-attractive solute in supercritical water. The cluster of excess water molecules surrounding a dissolved ion or polar molecule in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to the solvent clusters surrounding attractive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. Likewise, the deficit of water molecules surrounding a dissolved argon atom in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to that surrounding repulsive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in supercritical water was found to be about one third the number in ambient water. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule surrounding a central particle in supercritical water was only mildly affected by the identify of the central particle--atom, molecule, or ion. These results should be helpful in developing a qualitative understanding of important processes that occur in supercritical water. 29 refs., 6 figs

  8. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  9. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  10. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under ... model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage.

  11. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  12. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  13. Culture Methodology for Experimental Investigations Involving Rooted Submersed Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    stolons or runners are best planted as intact plants (Sculthorpe 1967). Many species can be propagated from seed in addition to the above methods...J. 1984. Growth response of Myriophyllwm spicatu and Hydrilla verticillata when exposed to continuous, low concentrations of fluridone . Tech. Rept. A...aquatic plants, water, and bottom sediments. Weed Sci. 20:482-486. Sastroutomo, S. S. 1980. Dormancy and germination in axillary turions of iijiilZla

  14. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  15. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  16. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  17. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  18. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  19. Deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Steflea, Dumitru; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Deuterium depleted water is produced by vacuum distillation in columns equipped with structured packing made from phosphor bronze or stainless steel. Deuterium-depleted water, the production technique and structured packing are patents of National Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies at Rm. Valcea. Researches made in the last few years showed the deuterium-depleted water is a biological active product that could have many applications in medicine and agriculture. (authors)

  20. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  1. The water almanac 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Water Almanac 1992 - a yearbook for the entire water field - presents contributions on current topics in water engineering and in water law and environmental law and information on FRG public authorities or institutions responsible for water resources management or water research, as well as on educational facilities in this field in the FRG, Austria and Switzerland, including independent scientific institutions. The contribution on the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the environment in western Europe has been analysed as a separate document for retrieval from the database. (BBR) [de

  2. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  3. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  4. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  5. Water availability and trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S; Lynch, M; Turner, V; Munoz, B; Rapoza, P; Mmbaga, B B; Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological survey of risk factors for trachoma in 20 villages in the United Republic of Tanzania, we investigated the relationship of village water pumps, distance to water source, and quantity of household water to the risk of inflammatory trachoma. We also evaluated whether there was an association between the cleanliness of children's faces and these water variables. No association was found between the presence of a village water supply and the prevalence of trachoma. However, the risk of trachoma in the household increased with the distance to a water source--although there was no association with the estimated daily amount of water brought into the house. Likewise, children were more likely to have unclean faces if they lived more than 30 minutes from a water source, but whether they had clean faces was not associated with the daily quantity of water brought into the household. The effect of the distance to water supply on trachoma may well reflect the value placed on water within the family, and this determines the priority for its use for hygiene purposes. The results of the study suggest that changing the access to water per se may be insufficient to alter the prevalence of trachoma without also a concomitant effort to change the perception of how water should be utilized in the home.

  6. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  7. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli , Salmonella , and Cryptosporidium species. More information regarding the ... page. Water Quality Indicators: Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli) pH Contaminants: Nitrate Volatile Organic Compounds ( ...

  8. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  9. Managing Water Demand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a public ... Initiated in June 2004, WaDImena promotes effective water governance by enhancing ..... In agriculture, the source of water and the costs of abstraction are key to valuation.

  10. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensenauer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ) [de

  11. Disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensenauer, P

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection.

  12. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  13. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  14. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  15. VT Water Classifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Water Quality Standards (VTWQS) are rules intended to achieve the goals of the Vermont Surface Water Strategy, as well as the objective of the federal...

  16. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  17. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  18. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  19. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  20. Water Management in Islam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 1995, the World Bank helped sponsor a conference on "Ethics and Spiritual ..... "that the strategy of water conservation communication must be global and interactive, and ...... 16 All environmental media have rights, including a right to water.

  1. Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  2. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  3. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2014-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  4. Urban Waters Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes information on 14 Federal member agencies for the Urban Waters Federal Partnership and 19 designated urban waters locations and the local stakeholder groups and activities. Content was formerly at www.epa.gov/urbanwaters/

  5. Treating mine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlak, E S; Kochegarova, L V; Zaslavskaya, I Yu

    1980-10-01

    Taking into account the negative influence of mine waters with suspended matter on the natural environment on the surface, the maximum treatment of mine water underground, is proposed. It is noted that full treatment of mine water, using conventional filtration methods, would be rather expensive, but a limited treatment of mine water is possible. Such treated mine water can be used in dust suppression and fire fighting systems. Mine water treated underground should be free of any odor, with pH level ranging from 6 to 9.5, with suspended matter content not exceeding 50 mg/l and coli-titre not less than 300 cm$SUP$3. It is suggested that water treatment to produce water characterized by these parameters is possible and economical. Recommendations on construction of underground sedimentation tanks and channels, and a hydraulic system of cleaning sedimentation tanks are proposed. The settling would be stored underground in abandoned workings. (2 refs.) (In Russian)

  6. About water. Vol. 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference papers discuss the following subjects: pollution of soil and groundwater from landfills or agricultural fertilizers, waste water analysis and treatment, water treatment technology, analytical procedures. (EF) [de

  7. Water Safety (Recreational)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  8. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  9. Water Flow Experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year undergraduate student at Ashoka University,. Sonipat, Haryana. This article studies how the height of water varies with time when water ... Experiment using a one-bottle system with a small bore tube at- tached to .... restricting free flow.

  10. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  11. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  12. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  13. Virtual water: Virtuous impact? : the unsteady state of virtual water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    “Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes discussions on water scarcity, ecological

  14. Save water, save money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  15. Exploding Water Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly…

  16. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  17. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  18. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70

  19. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  20. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  1. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  2. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Maier, Eugen; Pecnik, Rene; Holler, Gert; Eisenkoelbl, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  3. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  4. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  5. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  6. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  7. Water Reuse Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  8. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  9. WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  10. Water Resources Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document  Search Welcome to the University of Hawai'i at Manoa Water Resources Research Center At WRRC we concentrate on addressing the unique water and wastewater management problems and issues elsewhere by researching water-related issues distinctive to these areas. We are Hawaii's link in a network

  11. Ohio Water Resources Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  12. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  13. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  14. Water access, water scarcity, and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukheibir, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.

  15. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  16. Water environment and water preservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, M.; Ofuchi, M.; Tsuzuki, K. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Technologies on monitoring, purification, and simulation were described concerning water quality preservation, especially in closed water bodies such as lakes. In order to detect an increase in plankton bloom causing unpleasant taste and order, a water quality monitoring system using image analysis was developed. The main feature of this system is the use of a microscope to obtain images of plankton, coupled with a high speed image processor containing VLSI circuits used exclusively for image processing. The original gray image, obtained from the ITV in the microscope, is treated in the image processor, which extracts the features of isolated plankton, then classifies them, based on data previously input into the memory. As one of the water purification measures for lakes, a sprinkler system was developed. The sprinkler system has a pump in a boat-like structure set on a lake. It pumps up large quantities of cold water from depth of 10 m, then jets and sprays it from many nozzles after pressurization. In addition, a simulation technique was developed which can forecast the extent of water pollution and the effects of purification systems using the finite element method. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Virtual scarce water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  18. Water Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.. This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing results connecting excellent interdisciplinary research applied to different regional and sectoral problems around the world. The 22 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into five broad categories: Water valuation and accounting; Economic instruments; Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and Water productivity and Governance. They are briefly presented.

  19. Infested ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-01-01

    Ballast water discharged into harbours and coastal waters often brings unwanted organisms from distant regions (non-indigenous species). Some of the species that have come this way and that are now threatening Norwegian coasts and rivers are red algae, ghost shrimps (Caprella linearis) and the Japanese alga Sargassum muticum. Norway receives between 15 and 30 million tonnes of ballast water each year. International regulations about ballast water will not appear for many years, and in the meantime Norway is evaluating national immediate measures. Some ship owners in some countries are purifying the ballast water. However, harmful non-indigenous species may also come from mariculture

  20. Water: The Strangest Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2009-02-24

    Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

  1. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  2. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  3. Altimetry for inland water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Villadsen, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    With the globally decreasing amount of in-situ stations, satellite altimetry based water levels are an important supplement to obtain continuous time series of the worlds inland water. In this study we demonstrate two new services, that are related to inland water and altimetry. The first...... is Altimetry for inland water (AltWater), which is a new open service, that provides altimetry based time series for inland water. Currently, the service includes data from cryoSat- 2, but we intend to add other missions in future versions. The second,tsHydro, is a software package, that is implemented...... in the open source environment "R". The package enables the user to easily construct water level time series for lakes and rivers based on along-track altimetry data....

  4. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  5. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the performance of wood for decades ahead is important when using the material for structural purposes. The performance is closely related to the hierarchical material structure of wood and the dependent interaction with water in the structure. Accurately predicting wood performance...... therefore requires an understanding of material structure from molecular to macroscopic level as well as of the impact of water molecules. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of wood in terms of mechanical response of the material and effect of water. To understand the latter, one...... must first know in which parts of the wood structure, water is located. If parts of the water in wood are held in capillaries in the wood structure, these water molecules interact with the material differently than those held within wood cell walls. In this study, the occurrence of capillary water...

  6. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  7. Water harvest via dewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia.

  8. The Mars water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

  9. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  10. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  11. Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF): Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CWSRF can provide financial assistance for water conservation projects that reduce the demand for POTW capacity through reduced water consumption (i.e., water efficiency), as well as water reuse and precipitation harvesting.

  12. Heavy water production by alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Sachin; Sandeep, K.C.; Bhanja, Kalyan; Mohan, Sadhana; Sugilal, G.

    2014-01-01

    Several heavy water isotope production processes are reported in literature. Water electrolysis in combination with catalytic exchange CECE process is considered as a futuristic process to increase the throughput and reduce the cryogenic distillation load but the application is limited due to the high cost of electricity. Any improvement in the efficiency of electrolyzers would make this process more attractive. The efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis is governed by various phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization in the cell. A systematic study on the effect of these factors can lead to methods for improving the efficiency of the electrolyzer. A bipolar and compact type arrangement of the alkaline water electrolyzer leads to increased efficiency and reduced inventory in comparison to uni-polar tank type electrolyzers. The bipolar type arrangement is formed when a number of single cells are stacked together. Although a few experimental studies have been reported in the open literature, CFD simulation of a bipolar compact alkaline water electrolyzer with porous electrodes is not readily available.The principal aim of this study is to simulate the characteristics of a single cell compact electrolyzer unit. The simulation can be used to predict the Voltage-Current Density (V-I) characteristics, which is a measure of the efficiency of the process.The model equations were solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The simulated V-I characteristic is compared with the experimental data

  13. Waste water discharges into natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, P.; Barsanti, P.; Mione, A.; Posarelli, M.

    1996-12-01

    The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

  14. Energy and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This book presents data and other information for those who desire an understanding of the relationship between water and energy development. The book is not a tract for a grand plan. It does not present solutions. Many of the issues, especially regarding conflict over water allocations and use, are controlled and reconciled at the state level. This report draws together some of the physical and institutional data useful for identifying and understanding water issues which rise in regard to the various aspects of energy development. Three basic water-energy areas are considered in this report: water quality, water supply, and their institutional framework. Water consumption by energy was three percent of the nation's total consumption in 1975, not a large proportion. It is projected to increase to six percent by 2000. Water consumption rates by the energy technologies addressed in this document are tabulated. Water pollutant loadings expected from these technologies are summarized. Finally, a summary of water-related legislation which have particular ramifications in regard to the production of energy is presented

  15. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  17. Super critical water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.

    2005-01-01

    Water is used as a calori-porter and moderator in the most major nuclear centers which are actually in function. In the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR), water is maintained under critical point of water (21 bar, 374 Centigrade) which limits the efficiency of thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion (yield gain of about 33%) Crossing the critical point, one can then use s upercritical water , the obtained pressure and temperature allow a significant yield gains. In addition, the supercritical water offers important properties. Particularly there is no more possible coexistence between vapor and liquid. Therefore, we don't have more boiling problem, one of the phenomena which limits the specific power of PWR and BWR. Since 1950s, the reactor of supercritical water was the subject of studies more or less detailed but neglected. From the early 1990s, this type of conception benefits of some additional interests. Therefore, in the international term G eneration IV , the supercritical water reactors had been considered as one of the big options for study as Generation IV reactors. In the CEA, an active city has engaged from 1930 with the participation to a European program: The HPWR (High Performance Light Water Reactor). In this contest, the R and D studies are focused on the fields of neutrons, thermodynamic and materials. The CEA intends to pursue a limited effort of R and D in this field, in the framework of international cooperation, preferring the study of versions of rapid spectrum. (author)

  18. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  19. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  20. Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives increase the durability of wood by enabling the wood to repel liquid water. This report focuses on water-repellent finishes for wood exposed outdoors above ground. The report includes a discussion of the effects of outdoor exposure on wood, the characteristics of water repellent and water-repellent preservative...

  1. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  2. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  3. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  4. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo R. da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual water trade focused on virtual water importers or water-scarce countries, this is the first study to concentrate on a water-abundant virtual water-exporting country. Besides, it is the first study establishing international virtual water trade balances per state, which is relevant given the fact that water scarcity varies across states within the country, so the origin of virtual water exports matters. The results show that the average water footprint of Brazilian food consumption is 1619 m3/person/year. Beef contributes most (21% to this total. We find a net virtual water export of 54.8 billion m3/year, mainly to Europe, which imports 41% of the gross amount of the virtual water exported from Brazil. The northeast, the region with the highest water scarcity, has a net import of virtual water. The southeast, next in terms of water scarcity, shows large virtual water exports, mainly related to the export of sugar. The north, which has the most water, does not show a high virtual water export rate.

  5. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  6. Quiz: Water and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health Quiz: Water and your health Quiz: Water and your health Clean water is an important part of being healthy. Do you know all of these fun facts about water? Take this quiz to find out! Then, test ...

  7. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  8. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  9. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  10. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  11. Water hammer research in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anželika Jurkienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2015-01-01

    Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps...

  12. Surface freezing of water

    OpenAIRE

    P?rez-D?az, J. L.; ?lvarez-Valenzuela, M. A.; Rodr?guez-Celis, F.

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered?exclusively?by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on ...

  13. Purified water quality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

  14. World water day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The symposium on world water day for the year 2005 was held on 22nd March by the Pakistan Engineering congress in collaboration with Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Six technical papers by engineers/experts presented on the diverse fields from large dams to drinking water and public hygiene. Paper published in this volume are open for written discussion. (orig./A.B.)

  15. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  16. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  17. Oil water laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Junior, Oswaldo A.; Verli, Fernando; Lopes, Humberto E.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

  18. Water structure around trehalose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnotta, S.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM-CNR, Unita di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: pagnotta@fis.uniroma3.it; Ricci, M.A.; Bruni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); McLain, S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratories, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Magazu, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, C. da Papardo 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2008-04-18

    A diluted solution of trehalose in water has been investigated by means of neutron diffraction with isotopic H/D substitution of the water hydrogens. Data have been analyzed in terms of site-site radial distribution functions, via the EPSR simulation code. This is the first time that the capabilities of this data refinement method are tested against neutron diffraction data of a complex carbohydrate molecule. A small perturbation of water hydration shell and short hydrogen bonds between trehalose oxygens and water hydrogens has been evidenced.

  19. Water purification in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell' Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  20. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  1. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  2. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  3. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  4. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  5. Sulphurous mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous waters contain at least 1mg H2S, HS, S or thiosulphate per liter or complex colloidal sulfur water is presented as of simple or mixed sulphide (alkali, carbonated, chlorinated sodium.In the sulphurous waters, sulfur is found in several forms (hydrogen sulfide, free sulfide, sulfide groups, polysulfides acids. Yellow, opalescent white precipitate and deposit a glass of water on the bottom of sulphur oxidation by indicates the intensity of the wateroxidation process by oxygen in the air.

  6. Water old and new

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-12-15

    Part of a collection of rain-water samples obtained for the IAEA/World Meteorological Organization global project for the determination of the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rain-water. Samples are collected monthly at about 100 stations all over the world, and are analyzed for tritium (radioactive hydrogen) concentration at the Agency 's laboratory and some other advanced laboratories. The purpose is to study the circulation pattern of water vapour and to measure the tritium concentration of rain-water in different parts of the world. This knowledge is needed for solving local, regional and global problems of water supply. Containers labelled 'dead water' contain no tritium. This water is used to check the counting equipment in order to ensure consistent measurement, and to assess background radiation. Tritium is produced in the atmosphere in nature and by nuclear testing, and is brought down by rainfall. In a particular water body, absence of tritium or a lower-than-normal concentration, indicates the radioactive decay (loss of radioactivity) of the original tritium without fresh injection of tritium from rain - i.e., the water would be old. As the rate of decay of tritium is known, the measurement of tritium can solve problems of hydrological chronology.

  7. Production of heavy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  8. Jumping on water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-11-01

    Water striders can jump on water as high as they can jump on land. Quick jumps allow them to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore understanding how they make such a dramatic motion for survival can shed light on the ultimate level of semi-aquatic motility achievable through evolution. However, the mechanism of their vertical jumping from a water surface has eluded hydrodynamic explanations so far. By observing movements of water strider legs and theoretically analyzing their dynamic interactions with deforming liquid-air interface, we have recently found that different species of jumping striders always tune their leg rotation speed with a force just below that required to break the water surface to reach the maximum take-off velocity. Here, we start with discussing the fundamental theories of dynamics of floating and sinking of small objects. The theories then enable us to analyze forces acting on a water strider while it presses down the water surface to fully exploit the capillary force. We further introduce a 68-milligram at-scale robotic insect capable of jumping on water without splash, strikingly similar to the real strider, by utilizing the water surface just as a trampoline.

  9. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  10. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  11. Threats to the World's Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Riviere, J. W. Maurits

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the management of the earth's water resources. Describes the global water cycle and the status of water pollution. Recommends that a water-management project should lean toward increasing the efficiency of water consumption rather than toward increasing the supply of water. (YP)

  12. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  13. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  14. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  15. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  16. A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  17. The Water Security Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    As the editor of a new journal on water security, I have been pondering what it can mean theoretically and practically. At one level, it is pretty aobvious that it refers to the ability to affordably and reliably access water of appropriate quality, and to be protected from the water related ravages of nature, such as floods, droughts and water borne disease. The concept of water security can apply to a family, a company, a state or globally. Of course, since we value the environment, water security embraces the needs of the environment. Where, we consider economic development or energy production, water security also emerges as a critical factor. So, in short it touches almost all things about water that pertain to our lives. New stresses are created by a changing climate, growing populations and an ever changing society, economic activity and environment. Thus, if assuring water security is a goal at any of the scales of interest, many factors need to be considered, and what can really be assured, where and for how long emerges as an interesting question. Local (place, time, individuals, politics) as well as global (climate, economics, hydrology) factors interact to determine outcomes, not all of which are readily mapped in our mathematical or cognitive models to a functional notion of what constitutes security in the face of changing conditions and actors. Further, assurance implies going beyond characterization to developing actions, responses to stressors and risk mitigation strategies. How these perform in the short and long run, and what are the outcomes and strategies for impact mitigation in the event of failure then determines water security. Recognizing that providing assurance of water security has always been the goal of water management, regulation and development, perhaps the challenge is to understand what this means from the perspective of not just the "water managers" but the individuals who are the unwitting beneficiaries, or the instruments for

  18. A primer on water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1960-01-01

    When you open the faucet you expect water to flow. And you expect it to flow night or day, summer or winter, whether you want to fill a glass or water the lawn. It should be clean and pure, without any odor.You have seen or read about places where the water doesn't have these qualities. You may have lived in a city where you were allowed to water the lawn only during a few hours of certain days. We know a large town where the water turns brown after every big rainstorm.Beginning shortly after World War II, large areas in the Southwestern United States had a 10-year drought, and newspapers published a lot of information about its effects. Some people say that the growing demand for water will cause serious shortages over much of the country in the next 10 to 40 years. But it has always been true that while water wells and springs dry up in some places, floods may be occurring in other places at the same time.Nearly every month news stories are published describing floods somewhere in the country. In fact, every year, on the average, 75,000 persons are forced from their homes by floods. In some years, as in 1951 when the lower Kansas River experienced a great flood, half a million people are affected. To understand the reasons for such recurring distress, it is necessary to know something about rivers and about the flat land or flood plain that borders the river.Interest in water and related problems is growing as our population increases and as the use of water becomes steadily greater. To help meet this heightened interest in general information about water and its use and control is the reason this primer was written. The primer is in two parts. The first part tells about hydrology, or the science that concerns the relation of water to our earth, and the second part describes the development of water supplies and the use of water. The Geological Survey is publishing this primer in nontechnical language in the hope that it will enable the general reader to

  19. Water hammer simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Madia, J.; Dixon, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has constructed a first-of-a-kind water hammer events simulator for use at its training center. The Learning Center, Con Edison's central training facility, intends to use the simulator as an educational tool to demonstrate the various mechanisms of the water hammer phenomenon to power plant designers, engineers and operators. The water hammer phenomenon has been studied extensively for the past 15 years for the nuclear industry. However, the acknowledge of the various water hammer mechanisms and the measures to prevent or mitigate water hammer have not been widely disseminated among the operators of fossil-fueled power plants. Con Edison personnel who operate the various generation stations and the New York City steam distribution systems are expected to benefit from the new simulator. Knowledge gained from interacting with the simulator will be very important in helping the Con Edison prevent, mitigate, or accommodate water hammer at its facilities. The water hammer simulator was fabricated in Con Edison's central machine shop. Details of the design and construction of the simulator were finalized in consultation with Creare, Inc., an engineering research firm, located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The simulator seeks to recreate the essential features of water hammer in steam mines following the buildup of cold (subcooled) water by condensation and steam-water interaction. This paper describes the fabrication, design, testing, and operation of the Con Edison water hammer simulator. A discussion of how Con Edison plans to use the facility at The Learning Center is included

  20. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R.; de Oliveira, Sonaly D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Neto, Jose Dantas; Campos, João Hugo B.C.; Braga, Celia C.; Araújo, Lincoln Eloi; Oliveira Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, Jose Ivaldo B.; de Souza, Marcio Dionisio; de Holanda, Romildo M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual w...

  1. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.36 Navigable waters...

  2. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  3. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  4. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; Lockerby, W.E.; Rae, H.K.

    1977-05-01

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  5. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  7. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  8. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  9. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  10. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  11. Economics of Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Water is a scarce natural resource. It is not only used as an input to economic activity such as irrigation, household and industrial water use, and hydropower generation, but also provides ecosystem services such as the maintenance of wetlands, wildlife support, and river flows for aquatic

  12. Water for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Human civilization has always rested on access to water, and, more specifically, on its utilization. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the critical linkages between water and energy and the impact on both of climate change. It identifies areas of opportunity where investment and new regulations are needed, to ensure sustainable global development.

  13. Fighting over water values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena-Vásconez, Patricio; Vincent, Linden; Vos, Jeroen; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    Water management studies often overlook community diversity, different stakeholders’ values, and frames to claim water rights. Using a political-ecology approach, this article examines an irrigation system in Ecuador’s highlands via Fraser’s principles of justice (recognition, representation,

  14. Archives: Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 71 ... Archives: Water SA. Journal Home > Archives: Water SA. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 71 Items, 1 2 > >>. 2018. Vol 44, No 1 (2018) ...

  15. Governing the water user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, Edwin; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst

  16. THE SOUNDING WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2018-01-01

    Church as harmonious moving waters. This vision is shared both by the Eastern and the Western world. With its renewed marble revetments, Aquasgrani still conveys the appearance of the Ambrosian vision of the primordial waters. The church is constructed according to propria dispositione, this is...

  17. Drinking Water - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialect)) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention French (français) Expand Section Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Emergency - English HTML Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Emergency - français (French) HTML Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Haitian ...

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  19. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  20. Private Water Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...

  1. Shallow water tides

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  3. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  5. Jumping hoops on water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunjin; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    Small aquatic arthropods, such as water striders and fishing spiders, are able to jump off water to a height several times their body length. Inspired by the unique biological motility on water, we study a simple model using a flexible hoop to provide fundamental understanding and a mimicking principle of small jumpers on water. Behavior of a hoop on water, which is coated with superhydrophobic particles and initially bent into an ellipse from an equilibrium circular shape, is visualized with a high speed camera upon launching it into air by releasing its initial elastic strain energy. We observe that jumping of our hoops is dominated by the dynamic pressure of water rather than surface tension, and thus it corresponds to the dynamic condition experienced by fishing spiders. We calculate the reaction forces provided by water adopting the unsteady Bernoulli equation as well as the momentum loss into liquid inertia and viscous friction. Our analysis allows us to predict the jumping efficiency of the hoop on water in comparison to that on ground, and to discuss the evolutionary pressure rendering fishing spiders select such dynamic behavior.

  6. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  7. Water footprints and 'pozas'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez Guzmán, Carolina; Verzijl, Andres; Zwarteveen, Margreet

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present two logics of water efficiency: that of the Water Footprint and that of mango smallholder farmers on the desert coast of Peru (in Motupe). We do so in order to explore how both can learn from each other and to discuss what happens when the two logics meet. Rather than

  8. Water loop for training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1983-02-01

    The procedures used to operate the water loop of the Institute of Nuclear Enginering (IEN) in Brazil are presented. The aim is to help future operators of the training water loop in the operation technique and in a better comprehension of the phenomena occured during the execution of an experience. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  10. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  11. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  12. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M andO, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case

  13. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  14. Water management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuber, W.; Bosenius, U.; Henke, J.

    1994-03-01

    The report was drawn up for the US day on water pollution prevention on 22 March 1994, as a follow-up to the 1992 Rio de Janairo conference on the environment and development, and presented to the International Water Conference in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. It gives a current overview of the foundations and structure, the development, position and points of emphasis for the german water industry. The report illustrates the extent of the success of german measures towards resolving it's water pollution problems, in particular the reduction of contamination. It clarifies the great challenges facing the german water industry in the Nineties, and hence illustrates more long-term goals - which will only be achieved through greater international cooperation. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Water curative treatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrihsons, J.

    2011-01-01

    The device is made of two water containers (water that is intended to be activated) which are connected with a glass pipe in lower parts. In these containers disinfectant ultraviolet radiance “U” type luminescent light bulbs are placed which are connected to a mono-phase electrical power network from the shell surface spiral steel wire electrodes through a voltage duplicator. In water such harmless chemical composition coagulator is placed which automatically in the lower part of the connecting glass pipe creates residue hydra-gate that separates fractions of anion and cation. The lower parts of the containers are equipped with coal filter taps; mixing the anion and cation in equal proportions allows collecting single fractions of activated water selectively and gain drinking water which is refined from residues and processed antibacterially. (author)

  16. Heat plumes in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1977-01-01

    With the aid of a time-dependent, two-dimensional remote-field model - remote-field meaning that region of the water where the effect of the discharge of cooling water on the flow velocity is negligible - three parameters of importance for the water quality in waters are determined. Distributions are calculated for temperature, biochemical need of oxygen and oxygen content. The influence of water depth is accounted for by integration over the vertical axis. Allowance is made for turbulence by taking the time means of the respective variables. The influence of a time-dependent heat flow through the free surface is taken into account as well as a variation in time of the flow velocity, occuring, e.g., in tidal rivers (Elbe). (orig.) [de

  17. Heavy water and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.M.

    1980-05-01

    This report begins with a historical sketch of heavy water. The report next assesses the nonproliferation implications of the use of heavy water-moderated power reactors; several different reactor types are discussed, but the focus is on the natural uranium, on-power fueled, pressure tube reactor CANDU. The need for and development of on-power fueling safeguards is discussed. Also considered is the use of heavy water in plutonium production reactors as well as the broader issue of the relative nuclear leverage that suppliers can bring to bear on countries with natural uranium-fueled reactors as compared to those using enriched designs. The final chapter reviews heavy water production methods and analyzes the difficulties involved in implementing these on both a large and a small scale. It concludes with an overview of proprietary and nonproliferation constraints on heavy water technology transfer

  18. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  19. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  20. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  1. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  2. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  3. Surface Water in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  4. Trihalomethanes in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Bajahalan, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments were conducted to evaluate the quality of potable water in Yanbu AI-Sinaiyah, one of the leading industrial city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The major source of water is Redsea. Desalinated water is distributed in the whole city for domestic uses. At the treatment plant chlorine is being used as disinfectant in pre and post desalination. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of disinfection by-products in potable water. Trihalomethanes are the major disinfection by-products found in the chlorinated water. Trihalomethanes identified in these experiments are chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane. Thichloromethanes are considered to be carcinogenic, hence it is very important to investigate the presence of these compounds in potable water. Samples were collected from consumers tap and preserved at the site for analysis. In the laboratory samples were extracted by Tekmar Velocity XPT purge and trap unit. High purity nitrogen was purged through a sparger in the samples and purged volatiles were trapped in a carbo trap at room temperature. Then trapped components were desorbed with high purity helium and transferred to gas chromatograph injector and analysed by Varian Saturn 2200 GC-MS using 30 m long factor four capillary column. The effect of temperature and seasonal variation (winter and summer) was also monitored. Mean trihalomethane level was higher in summer (8.617 micro g/L) than in winter (5.173 micro g/L). Mean concentration of all the four THMs was 6.9 micro g/L, much less than prescribed EPA limits (80 micro g/L). About 13 brands of bottled water were also analysed for THMs. Only tribromomethane and dibromochloromethane were detected in few brands. Experiments were also conducted to remove THMs from chlorinated water and found that passing through activated charcoal and boiling the water for couple of minutes were sufficient to remove all the THMs from chlorinated water. (author)

  5. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  6. Hydrogen water chemistry for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.L.; Cowan, R.L.; Kass, J.N.; Law, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) is now a practical countermeasure for intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of reactor structural materials in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). The concept, which involves adding hydrogen to the feedwater to suppress the formation of oxidizing species in the reactor, has been extensively studied in both the laboratory and in several operating plants. The Dresden-2 Unit of Commonwealth Edison Company has completed operation for one full 18-month fuel cycle under HWC conditions. The specifications, procedures, equipment, instrumentation and surveillance programs needed for commercial application of the technology are available now. This paper provides a review of the benefits to be obtained, the side affects, and the special operational considerations needed for commercial implementation of HWC. Technological and management ''Lessons Learned'' from work conducted to date are also described

  7. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  8. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. Water-driven micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Pei, Allen; Wang, Joseph

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate the first example of a water-driven bubble-propelled micromotor that eliminates the requirement for the common hydrogen peroxide fuel. The new water-driven Janus micromotor is composed of a partially coated Al-Ga binary alloy microsphere prepared via microcontact mixing of aluminum microparticles and liquid gallium. The ejection of hydrogen bubbles from the exposed Al-Ga alloy hemisphere side, upon its contact with water, provides a powerful directional propulsion thrust. Such spontaneous generation of hydrogen bubbles reflects the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloy and water. The resulting water-driven spherical motors can move at remarkable speeds of 3 mm s(-1) (i.e., 150 body length s(-1)), while exerting large forces exceeding 500 pN. Factors influencing the efficiency of the aluminum-water reaction and the resulting propulsion behavior and motor lifetime, including the ionic strength and environmental pH, are investigated. The resulting water-propelled Al-Ga/Ti motors move efficiently in different biological media (e.g., human serum) and hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical or industrial applications.

  10. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  11. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO 2 as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe

  12. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  13. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  14. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  16. Remember the water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Wybrandt, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between water and activated sludge components was examined. Reevaluation of published data on freezing point depression, drying rates and dewatering has been performed. The basis of this has been the assumption that the water/sludge relationship is considered to be a colligative...... effect. Since the results indicate this to be the case, we suggest that the published concepts of "pools of water" are false. Data on swelling properties of EPS as a function of pH suggests that the colligative properties are largely determined by the counterions of charged polymers and surfaces....

  17. Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  18. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available , for permission to present this paper. ?8? References 1. REPORT. CONMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANAGEMEZIT OF PME SANITARY ENGINEERING DIVISION (1970). Engineering evaluation of virus hazard in water. Jour. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. SA 1, 7112... Water Systems, Austin, Texas, 1974 13. CARESON, G.F., WOODA.RD, F.E., WENTWORTII, D.P. and SPRODI, O.J. (1968) Virus inactivation on clay particles in natural waters. Journ. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed., 4Q R39, 7116. 14. MOSJ~EY, J.W. (1967...

  19. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  20. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  1. Water hammer research in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anželika Jurkienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps in pumping station. Successful measurement of water hammer depends on accuracy of the measurement equipment, therefore during the research surge wave fluctuations were measured with especially high resolution pressure meters. Detailed analysis of water hammer and selection of protecting equipment hydraulic model of water supply network was created. Protection against water hammer helps to avoid breaking of the water network and extend operation time.

  2. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  3. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  4. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ... Value Method was employed to estimate the average production value of irrigation water, ... invasions of this nature, as they present significant costs to the economy and ...

  5. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  6. Water Quality Assessment of Selected Domestic Water Sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    @yahoo.com ... were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... centers often depend on the water vendors for domestic water supply ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... water balance problems for individual aquatic organisms.

  7. Chemical composition of water extracts from shungite and shungite water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charykova, M.V.; Bornyakova, I.I.; Polekhovskij, Yu.S.; Charykov, N.A.; Kustova, E.V.; Arapov, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water extracts from shungite-3 of Zagozhino deposit (Karelia) and natural water contacting with shungite rocks are done. Chemical composition and bactericide properties of shungite water are studied [ru

  8. Water brief — Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-04

    Jan 4, 2011 ... Water Demand Management (WDM) is a water management approach that aims to ... WDM is simply defined as 'getting the most of the water that we have', while taking into ... Villages in Nepal prepare for weather extremes.

  9. Standards for heavy water concentration determinations in light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, M.; Steflea, D.; Pavelescu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a method to prepare heavy water -light water standards within the range 144 ppm - 1%. A formula for computing standards concentration based on initial concentration of D 2 O and distilled water is given

  10. Managing water pressure for water savings in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... effort into providing customers with a reliable level of service, often via poor water ... budgets. There are many factors contributing to water losses in water .... given relationship does not reflect the impact of pressure on.

  11. Water users associations and irrigation water productivity in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Heerink, N.; Dries, L.K.E.; Qu, F.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional irrigation water management systems in China are increasingly replaced by user-based, participatory management through water users associations (WUAs) with the purpose to promote, economically and ecologically beneficial, water savings and increase farm incomes. Existing research shows

  12. Hydrogen by water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis (aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide) is shortly presented with theoretical aspects (thermodynamics and kinetics), and components of the electrolytic cell (structural materials, cathodes, anodes, diaphragms), and examples of industrial processes. (A.B.). 4 figs

  13. Water cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a cooling water intake collector for a nuclear reactor. It includes multiple sub-collectors extending out in a generally parallel manner to each other, each one having a first end and a second one separated along their length, and multiple water outlets for connecting each one to a corresponding pressure tube of the reactor. A first end tube and a second one connect the sub-collector tubes together to their first and second ends respectively. It also includes multiple collector tubes extending transversely by crossing over the sub-collector tubes and separated from each other in the direction of these tubes. Each collector tubes has a water intake for connecting to a water pump and multiple connecting tubes separated over its length and connecting each one to the corresponding sub-collector [fr

  14. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  15. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  16. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    .... This also requires an awareness of the complex economic, environmental, and social issues that increasingly compound what once was considered a purely technological problem, to be left to water...

  17. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    .... This involves learning something about the alternative strategies--some ancient and others not yet operational--for increasing water supplies and/or modifying demand so a supply/demand balance is maintained...

  18. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  19. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  20. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever