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Sample records for water thickness index

  1. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  2. investigating water absorption and thickness swelling tendencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In addition, G30E (30% reinforced glass fibre in the epoxy composite) was more resilient to moisture ... determine its suitability as per its water absorption and thickness ... lower thermal conductivity and low density as outlined in the Tables.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  4. Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid in Osteoarthritis Patients ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... and moderate phase patients after intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate, while the effect ...

  5. Simultaneous measurement of group refractive index and thickness of optical samples using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3x3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.

  6. Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurement with the transmission interferometric adsorption sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Voeroes, Janos [Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Balmer, Tobias E [Materials Research Center, ETH Zurich, 8093, Zurich (Switzerland); Heuberger, Manfred, E-mail: sannomiya@biomed.ee.ethz.c, E-mail: tobias.balmer@mat.ethz.c, E-mail: manfred.heuberger@empa.c, E-mail: janos.voros@biomed.ee.ethz.c [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-13

    Refractive index and thickness of the adlayer are determined simultaneously using the transmission interferometric adsorption sensor (TInAS). Optical biosensors, where both refractive index and thickness of a homogeneous adlayer (thus the adsorbed mass) are determined simultaneously, so-called model-free biosensors, are important tools to investigate the adsorbed mass of biomolecules with unknown conformation. Our proposed calculation method enables model-free biosensing from a single spectrum acquired by a simple TInAS setup, namely using information of peak/dip positions as well as peak/dip intensities. The feasibility of this method was experimentally tested by adsorbing polyelectrolyte multilayer as well as biomolecules. To validate the new method also for the more intricate heterogeneous adlayer, the apparent refractive index and thickness were assessed theoretically by simulating a selection of different adsorbate configurations with the multiple multipole program (MMP). We found that a lateral inhomogeneity of the adsorbate (e.g. islands or adsorbed colloids) results in correct thickness and in reduced refractive index averaged in proportion to their density while vertically inhomogeneous density caused more complex responses. However, the apparent mass was always correct. Measurement errors can lead to significant errors in the apparent refractive index, particularly when the adlayer is very thin (<5 nm). This model-free TInAS technique would be useful not only for the measurement of adsorbed mass but also for the conformational analysis of the adsorbed molecules.

  7. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  8. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  9. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  10. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  11. Development of sea water pipe thickness measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Wakayama, Seiichi; Takeuchi, Iwao; Masamori, Sigero; Yamasita, Takesi.

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear and thermal power plants, wall wear of sea water pipes is reported to occur in the inner surface due to corrosion and erosion. From the viewpoint of improving the equipments reliability, it is desirable that wall thickness should be measured from the outer surface of the pipe during operation. In the conventional method, paint on the outer surface of the pipe was locally removed at each point of a 20 by 50 mm grid, and inspection was carried out at these spots. However, this method had some problems, such as (1) it was necessary to replace the paint, and (2) it was difficult to obtain the precise distribution of wall thickness. Therefore, we have developed a wall thickness measuring system which has the following features. (1) It is possible to perform inspection from the outer surface without removing paint during operation. (2) It is possible to measure the distribution of wall thickness and display it as color contour map simultaneously. (3) The work of inspectors can be alleviated by the automatic recording of measured data. (author)

  12. Pulse wave velocity as a diagnostic index: The effect of wall thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Simona

    2018-06-01

    Vascular compliance is a major determinant of wave propagation within the vascular system, and hence the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) is commonly used clinically as a method of detecting vascular stiffening. The accuracy of that assessment is important because vascular stiffening is a major risk factor for hypertension. PWV is usually measured by timing a pressure wave as it travels from the carotid artery to the femoral or radial artery and estimating the distance that it traveled in each case to obtain the required velocity. A major assumption on which this technique is based is that the vessel wall thickness h is negligibly small compared with the vessel radius a . The extent to which this assumption is satisfied in the cardiovascular system is not known because the ratio h /a varies widely across different regions of the vascular tree and under different pathological conditions. Using the PWV as a diagnostic test without knowing the effect of wall thickness on the measurement could lead to error when interpreting the PWV value as an index of vessel wall compliance. The aim of the present study was to extend the validity of the current practice of assessing wall stiffness by developing a method of analysis that goes beyond the assumption of a thin wall. We analyzed PWVs calculated with different wall models, depending on the ratio of wall thickness to vessel radius and the results showed that PWV is not reliable when it is estimated with the classic thin wall theory if the vessel wall is not around 25% of vessel radius. If the arterial wall is thicker than 25% of vessel radius, then the wave velocity calculated with the thin wall theory could be overestimated and in the clinical setting, this could lead to a false positive. For thicker walls, a thick wall model presented here should be considered to account for the stresses within the wall thickness that become dominant compared with the wall inertia.

  13. Wetting of water on graphene nanopowders of different thicknesses

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Mishra, Himanshu; Belyaeva, Liubov A.; Schneider, Gré gory F.; Bonn, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    We study the wetting of graphene nanopowders by measuring the water adsorption in nanopowder flakes of different flake thicknesses. Chemical analysis shows that the graphene flakes, especially the thin ones, might exist in the partially oxidized state. We observe that the thinnest graphene nanopowder flakes do not adsorb water at all, independent of the relative humidity. Thicker flakes, on the other hand, do adsorb an increasing amount of water with increasing humidity. This allows us to assess their wetting behavior which is actually the result of the competition between the adhesive interactions of water and graphene and the cohesive interactions of water. Explicit calculation of these contributions from the van der Waals interactions confirms that the adhesive interactions between very thin flakes of graphene oxide and water are extremely weak, which makes the flakes superhydrophobic. “Liquid marble” tests with graphene nanopowder flakes confirm the superhydrophobicity. This shows that the origin of the much debated “wetting transparency” of graphene is due to the fact that a single graphene or graphene oxide layer does not contribute significantly to the adhesion between a wetting phase and the substrate.

  14. Wetting of water on graphene nanopowders of different thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Mishra, Himanshu; Belyaeva, Liubov A.; Schneider, Grégory F.; Bonn, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    We study the wetting of graphene nanopowders by measuring the water adsorption in nanopowder flakes of different flake thicknesses. Chemical analysis shows that the graphene flakes, especially the thin ones, might exist in the partially oxidized state. We observe that the thinnest graphene nanopowder flakes do not adsorb water at all, independent of the relative humidity. Thicker flakes, on the other hand, do adsorb an increasing amount of water with increasing humidity. This allows us to assess their wetting behavior which is actually the result of the competition between the adhesive interactions of water and graphene and the cohesive interactions of water. Explicit calculation of these contributions from the van der Waals interactions confirms that the adhesive interactions between very thin flakes of graphene oxide and water are extremely weak, which makes the flakes superhydrophobic. "Liquid marble" tests with graphene nanopowder flakes confirm the superhydrophobicity. This shows that the origin of the much debated "wetting transparency" of graphene is due to the fact that a single graphene or graphene oxide layer does not contribute significantly to the adhesion between a wetting phase and the substrate.

  15. Wetting of water on graphene nanopowders of different thicknesses

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra

    2018-04-12

    We study the wetting of graphene nanopowders by measuring the water adsorption in nanopowder flakes of different flake thicknesses. Chemical analysis shows that the graphene flakes, especially the thin ones, might exist in the partially oxidized state. We observe that the thinnest graphene nanopowder flakes do not adsorb water at all, independent of the relative humidity. Thicker flakes, on the other hand, do adsorb an increasing amount of water with increasing humidity. This allows us to assess their wetting behavior which is actually the result of the competition between the adhesive interactions of water and graphene and the cohesive interactions of water. Explicit calculation of these contributions from the van der Waals interactions confirms that the adhesive interactions between very thin flakes of graphene oxide and water are extremely weak, which makes the flakes superhydrophobic. “Liquid marble” tests with graphene nanopowder flakes confirm the superhydrophobicity. This shows that the origin of the much debated “wetting transparency” of graphene is due to the fact that a single graphene or graphene oxide layer does not contribute significantly to the adhesion between a wetting phase and the substrate.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness distributions using low-coherence digital holography and vertical scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kaho; Ohshima, Masashi; Nomura, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement method of a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution using low-coherence digital holography with a vertical scanning is proposed. The proposed method consists of a combination of digital holography and low-coherence interferometry. The introduction of a datum plane enables the measurement of both a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution. By the optical experiment, the potential of the proposed method is confirmed. (paper)

  17. Phase-conjugate interferometer to estimate refractive index and thickness of transparent plane parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana-Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez-Zurita, G.; Vazquez-Castillo, J. F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    A technique to estimate the refractive index and thickness of homogeneous plane parallel dielectric plates is proposed using a phase-conjugate interferometer, in which counting of interference fringes is employed. The light beam impinges a tilted plate before it enters a phase-conjugate interferometer, and a count of the fringes passing through a given reference at the observing plane gives the phase changes as a function of tilting angle. The obtained data is fitted to a mathematical model, which leads to the determination of both refractive index and thickness simultaneously. In this letter, experimental data from two interferometers are also discussed for comparison. One with an externally-pumped phase-conjugate mirror achieved with a BSO photorefractive crystal and another one with conventional mirrors. Results show that the phase sensitivity of the phase-conjugate interferometer is not simply twice the corresponding sensitivity of the conventional version. [Spanish] Se propone una tecnica para medir indices de refraccion y espesores de placas dielectricas plano paralelas homogeneas empleando un interferometro con fase conjugada, en el cual se usa el conteo de franjas. El haz luminoso incide en una placa inclinada bajo inspeccion antes de entrar en un interferometro equipado con un espejo conjugador de fase, y se realiza un conteo de las franjas que pasan por determinada referencia en el plano de observacion, proporcionando los cambios de fase en funcion del angulo de inclinacion. Los datos obtenidos se ajustan a un modelo, el cual conduce a la determinacion, tanto del indice de refraccion como del espesor, simultaneamente. En este trabajo se discuten datos experimentales provenientes de dos interferometros para su comparacion. Uno de ellos tiene un espejo conjugador basado en un cristal BSO fotorrefractivo, mientras que el otro es una variante con espejos convencionales. Se muestra que la sensibilidad de fase del interferometro con conjugador de fase no

  18. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality of River Ravi, a tributary of Indus River System was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water ...

  19. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deo; Shaaban, E.R.; Shapaan, M.; Mohamed, S.H.; Othman, A.A.; Verma, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  20. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Deo [School of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, SMVD University, Kakryal, Katra 182320, J& K (India); Shaaban, E.R., E-mail: esam_ramadan2008@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71542 (Egypt); Shapaan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azahar University, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, S.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); Othman, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Verma, K.D., E-mail: kdverma1215868@gmail.com [Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh 202001, U.P. (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  1. Relationship of body mass index, ankle dorsiflexion, and foot pronation on plantar fascia thickness in healthy, asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier; García, Juan Maria Alarcón; Matamoros, Eva Cosin; Matamoros, Julia Cosin; Martínez, Teresa Díaz

    2008-01-01

    We sought to investigate the thickness of plantar fascia, measured by means of ultrasonographic evaluation in healthy, asymptomatic subjects, and its relationship to body mass index, ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and foot pronation in static stance. One hundred two feet of 51 healthy volunteers were examined. Sonographic evaluation with a 10-MHz linear array transducer was performed 1 and 2 cm distal to its insertion. Physical examination was also performed to assess body mass index, ankle joint dorsiflexion, and degree of foot pronation in static stance. Both examinations were performed in a blinded manner. Body mass index showed moderate correlation with plantar fascia thickness at the 1- and 2-cm locations. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion showed no correlation at either location. Foot pronation showed an inverse correlation with plantar fascia thickness at the 2-cm location and no correlation at the 1-cm location. Body mass index and foot supination at the subtalar joint are related to increased thickness at the plantar fascia in healthy, asymptomatic subjects. Although the changes in thickness were small compared with those in patients with symptomatic plantar fasciitis, they could play a role in the mechanical properties of plantar fascia and in the development of plantar fasciitis.

  2. Application of Nemerow Index Method and Integrated Water Quality Index Method in Water Quality Assessment of Zhangze Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Feng, Minquan; Hao, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] Based on the water quality historical data from the Zhangze Reservoir from the last five years, the water quality was assessed by the integrated water quality identification index method and the Nemerow pollution index method. The results of different evaluation methods were analyzed and compared and the characteristics of each method were identified.[Methods] The suitability of the water quality assessment methods were compared and analyzed, based on these results.[Results] the water quality tended to decrease over time with 2016 being the year with the worst water quality. The sections with the worst water quality were the southern and northern sections.[Conclusion] The results produced by the traditional Nemerow index method fluctuated greatly in each section of water quality monitoring and therefore could not effectively reveal the trend of water quality at each section. The combination of qualitative and quantitative measures of the comprehensive pollution index identification method meant it could evaluate the degree of water pollution as well as determine that the river water was black and odorous. However, the evaluation results showed that the water pollution was relatively low.The results from the improved Nemerow index evaluation were better as the single indicators and evaluation results are in strong agreement; therefore the method is able to objectively reflect the water quality of each water quality monitoring section and is more suitable for the water quality evaluation of the reservoir.

  3. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This index has advantages over pre-existing indices by reflecting the appropriateness of water for specific use, e.g. drinking water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are ...

  4. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-24

    Aug 24, 2006 ... The mathematical equations to transform the actual concentration values ... The application of the new index was demonstrated at a sampling station on ..... Descriptive statistics of reservoir water quality data set. Variable. Unit.

  5. Effect of refraction index and thickness of the light guide in the position-sensitive gamma-ray detector using compact PS-PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Saito, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hyodo, T.; Nagai, Y.; Muramatsu, S.; Nagai, S.

    2000-01-01

    We constructed a position-sensitive gamma-ray detector consisting of an array of BGO scintillators, a light guide and compact PS-PMTs. The effects of refractive index and thickness of the light guide of a glass plate on the detector performance were investigated. A light guide with higher refractive index and smaller thickness is found better for a good spatial resolution.

  6. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  7. Interfacial water thickness at inorganic nanoconstructs and biomolecules: Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.asinari@polito.it

    2016-04-29

    Water molecules in the proximity of solid nanostructures influence both the overall properties of liquid and the structure and functionality of solid particles. The study of water dynamics at solid–liquid interfaces has strong implications in energy, environmental and biomedical fields. This article focuses on the hydration layer properties in the proximity of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and biomolecules (proteins, polypeptides and amino acids). Here we show a quantitative relation between the solid surface extension and the characteristic length of water nanolayer (δ), which is confined at solid–liquid interfaces. Specifically, the size dependence is attributed to the limited superposition of nonbonded interactions in case of small molecules. These results may facilitate the design of novel energy or biomedical colloidal nanosuspensions, and a more fundamental understanding of biomolecular processes influenced by nanoscale water dynamics. - Highlights: • Properties of the water hydration layer are investigated. • New relation between extension of solid size and hydration layer established. • Possible impact on rational design of nanosuspensions.

  8. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  9. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    water sources (31.96 - 47.31) falls within the classification “Bad” despite the slight increase during the dry season. The quality of water in the study area is poor and portends health risk; ... tributary that originates from the New Calabar River.

  10. Reduced Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship Between Cortical Thickness in the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Mwangi, Benson; Bauer, Isabelle E; Cao, Bo; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Prossin, Alan; Soares, Jair C

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviors often develop in the setting of inadequate inhibitory control, a function broadly ascribed to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regulation of inhibitory control by the PFC and its anatomical components and their contribution to increasing body mass index (BMI) are poorly understood. To study the role of PFC in the regulation of inhibitory control and body weight, we examined measures of cortical thickness in PFC sub-regions, inhibitory control (color-word interference task (CWIT)), and BMI in 91 healthy volunteers. We tested the predictive effect of PFC sub-regional cortical thickness on BMI and mediation by inhibitory control measured with CWIT. Measures of depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-T) and trauma-related symptoms (TSC-40) were collected; the disinhibition scale of the three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess disinhibited eating. We then tested the relationship between BD-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, TFEQ, CWIT, and BMI with correlation analyses. Right superior frontal gyrus cortical thickness significantly predicted BMI (β=-0.91; t=-3.2; p=0.002). Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of cortical thickness on BMI mediated by inhibitory control (95% CI=-6.1, -0.67). BMI was unrelated to BDI-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, or TFEQ scores. We found an inverse relationship between cortical thickness in the right-superior frontal gyrus and BMI, which was fully mediated by inhibitory control neurocognitive performance. Our results suggest possible targets for neuromodulation in obesity (ie superior frontal gyrus) and a quantifiable mediator of their effects (ie inhibitory control).

  11. Determination of symmetrical index for 3H in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, B.; Nikolic, J.; Sarap, N.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of determining the symmetric index, which describes the magnitude of the tritium content changes with time, for samples of Sava and Danube river waters and Mlaka creek water. The results cover the period from 2003 to 2008. It was shown that the value of the symmetric index is the highest for Mlaka samples, which is in accordance with the fact that in these samples the highest concentration of tritium was found in comparison with samples of the Sava and Danube. [sr

  12. Ellipsometry measurements of thickness of oxide and water layers on spherical and flat silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Netterfield, R.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Ellipsometry has been used to measure the thickness of oxide layers on single crystal silicon surfaces, both flat and spherical and also to measure the extent of adsorption of moisture on the surface as a function of partial water vapour pressure. The measurements form part of an international collaborative project to make a precise determination of the Avogadro constant (ΔN A /N A -8 ) which will then be used to obtain an absolute definition of the kilogram, rather than one in terms of an artefact. Typically the native oxide layer on a cleaned silicon wafer is about 2 nm thick. On a polished sphere this oxide layer is typically 8 to 10 nm thick, the increased thickness being attributed to parameters related to the polishing process. Ellipsometry measurements on an 89 mm diameter polished silicon sphere at both VUW and CSIRO indicated a SiO 2 layer at 7 to 10 nm thick. It was observed that this thickness varied regularly. The crystal orientation of the sphere was determined using electron patterns generated from an electron microscope and the oxide layer was then measured through 180 arcs of great circles along (110) and (100) planes. It was observed that the thickness varied systematically with orientation. The minimum thickness was 7.4 nm at the axis (softest direction in silicon) and the greatest thickness was 9.5 nm at the axis (hardest direction in silicon). This is similar to an orientation dependent cubic pattern which has been observed to be superimposed on polished silicon spheres. At VUW, the sphere was placed in an evacuated bell jar and the ellipsometry signal was observed as the water vapour pressure was progressively increased up to saturation. The amount of water vapour adsorbed at saturation was one or two monolayers, indicating that the sphere does not wet

  13. A thermal sensor for water using self-heated NTC thick-film segmented thermistors

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Maria Vesna; Radojčić, B. M.; Aleksić, Obrad; Luković, Miloljub D.; Nikolić, Pantelija

    2011-01-01

    A simple thermal (heat loss) sensor system was designed in a small plastic tube housing using a negative thermal coefficient (NTC) thick-film thermistor as a self-heating sensor. The voltage power supply [range constant voltage (RCV)-range constant voltage] uses the measured input water temperature to select the applied voltage in steps (up and down) in order to enable operation of the sensor at optimal sensitivity for different water temperatures. The input water temperature was measured usi...

  14. Chloride accelerated test: influence of silica fume, water/binder ratio and concrete cover thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pereira

    Full Text Available In developed countries like the UK, France, Italy and Germany, it is estimated that spending on maintenance and repair is practically the same as investment in new constructions. Therefore, this paper aims to study different ways of interfering in the corrosion kinetic using an accelerated corrosion test - CAIM, that simulates the chloride attack. The three variables are: concrete cover thickness, use of silica fume and the water/binder ratio. It was found, by analysis of variance of the weight loss of the steel bars and chloride content in the concrete cover thickness, there is significant influence of the three variables. Also, the results indicate that the addition of silica fume is the path to improve the corrosion protection of low water/binder ratio concretes (like 0.4 and elevation of the concrete cover thickness is the most effective solution to increase protection of high water/binder ratio concrete (above 0.5.

  15. Thickness and structure of the water film deposited from vapour on calcite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Wogelius, Roy A.; Morris, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from......Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from...

  16. Comparison between body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference in Saudi adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalkhail, B.; Shawky, S.

    2002-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period in an individual's life. Overweight and obesity are fraught with several health problems even late in life. The objective of this study was estimate the overweight, obesity, body fat and muscle content of Saudi adolescents as compared to a recognized reference population. Data were collected from a sample of Saudi adolescents in Jeddah from 42 boys' and 42 girls' school during the month of April 2000. Data collection was done by personal interviews to collect sociodemograhic factors and by direct measurement of weight, height, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC). The 50th, 85th and 95th percentiles(P50, P85 and P95) for body mass index (BMI) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were taken, then the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles (P50, P90 and P95) for the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were calculated. These measurements were compared with corresponding values of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I). The P85 and P95 for the BMI and TSF were higher for Saudi adolescents than the NHANES I and the difference was wider for P95. Conversely, there was a lower MAMC at P90 and P95thane the NHANES I reference population curves. The lower MAMC curves were less marked in girls than in boys. On the other hand Saudi boys and girls showed on average similar body mass index indicated by MBI at P50, which was misleading, since those adolescents showing similar body mass index had more fatness than of average reference population indicated by TSF and P50, and less muscularity on average than reference population indicated MAMC at P-50. Overweight and obesity with increased body fat content and decreased body muscle content appear to be widespread among Saudi adolescents even among those adolescents showing average body index. Public health interventions are required to improve quality of food, encourage physical, activity and exercise, as well as correct the perception of

  17. Application of Excel-VBA for Computation of Water Quality Index and Air Pollutant Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Zainal Abidin; Hafizan Juahir; Azman Azid; Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Fazureen Azaman

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, there are two main indices which are Water Quality Index (WQI) and Air Pollutant Index (API). These indices are used as an indicator for the water quality and ambient air quality status of the environment. In conducting research regarding water and air quality, lots of time has been used to conduct other activities, an application to calculate the indices might come in handy. This project aims to construct an application for the computation of WQI and API using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) available in Microsoft Excel. VBA is actually a programming language of Microsoft Excel and can be used to write programming and run through in an Excel workbook. The user only required to enter the value for each parameter and then press (OK) to automatically calculate the index. This will provide instance result without wasting time just to refer to the class standard and other formula. The application also has been used as a teaching tool for the secondary students. An environmental based race game called Young Environmental Scientist (YES) Explorace was conducted by Environmental East Coast Research Institute (ESERI) where secondary student are invited as the participant. The application not only provides early exposure to the environmental pollution, but also exposure to the application of computer sciences to the student. (author)

  18. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2017-06-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  19. Water quality index and eutrophication indices of Caiabi River, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiane Andrietti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Caiabi River based upon the water quality index (WQI and the trophic state index (TSI, considering seasonal and spatial variations, with the aim of determining the most appropriate monitoring design for this study site. Sampling for water quality monitoring was conducted at five points on the Caiabi River from July 2012 to June 2013. Quality parameters quantified were as follows: pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total and thermotolerant coliforms, turbidity, Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, series of solids, and chlorophyll a. Sampling procedures and analysis followed the methods recommended by the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The WQI results showed that the quality of the Caiabi River water is good. TSI results demonstrated the low risk of eutrophication in the Caiabi River, indicating an ultra-oligotrophic lotic environment. Analysis of variance showed that 10 of the 16 monitored quality parameters presented differences of means between the dry and rainy seasons or among the monitored points or in the interaction between seasons and points. These results indicate that two annual sampling collections at two points may be sufficient to describe the water quality behavior in the basin, as long as the conditions of land use are stable.

  20. Water scarcity: moving beyond indexes to innovative institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, W Todd

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a media darling often times described as a trigger of conflict in arid regions, a by-product of human influences ranging from desertification to climate change, or a combination of natural- and human-induced changes in the water cycle. A multitude of indexes have been developed over the past 20 years to define water scarcity to map the "problem" and guide international donor investment. Few indexes include groundwater within the metrics of "scarcity." Institutional communication contributes to the recognition of local or regional water scarcity. However, evaluations that neglect groundwater resources may incorrectly define conditions as scarce. In cases where there is a perception of scarcity, the incorporation of groundwater and related storage in aquifers, political willpower, new policy tools, and niche diplomacy often results in a revised status, either reducing or even eliminating the moniker locally. Imaginative conceptualization and innovative uses of aquifers are increasingly used to overcome water scarcity. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Plasticity of skin water permeability and skin thickness in the amphibious mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffell, Quentin; Turko, Andy J; Wright, Patricia A

    2018-03-01

    The skin of amphibious fishes is a multipurpose organ, important for gas and ion exchange and nitrogen excretion when fish are out of water (emersed). We tested the hypothesis that skin permeability is altered to maintain water balance through changes in water permeability and skin thickness during salinity acclimation and/or when fish emerse, using the euryhaline, amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus as a model. We first recorded the behaviour of fish out of water to determine which part of the cutaneous surface was in contact with the substrate. Fish spent about 70% of their time on their ventral surface when out of water. Osmotic permeability of the skin was assessed in fish acclimated to 0.3 or 45‰ using 3 H 2 O fluxes in an in vitro micro-Ussing chamber setup. In freshwater-acclimated fish, 3 H 2 O influx across the skin was significantly higher compared to hypersaline-acclimated fish, with no significant changes in efflux. Prolonged emersion (7 days) resulted in an increase in skin 3 H 2 O influx, but not efflux in fish acclimated to a moist 45‰ substrate. In a separate experiment, dorsal epidermal skin thickness increased while the ventral dermis thickness decreased in fish emersed for over a week. However, there was no link between regional skin thickness and water flux in our experiments. Taken together, these findings suggest that K. marmoratus alter skin permeability to maximize water uptake while emersed in hypersaline conditions, adjustments that probably help them survive months of emersion during the dry season when drinking to replace water loss is not possible.

  2. Measurement of thickness of thin water film in two-phase flow by capacitance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.K.; Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.

    1981-09-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring water film thickness in a two-phase annular flow system by the capacitance method. An experimental model of the flow system with two types of electrodes mounted on the inner wall of a cylindrical tube has been constructed and evaluated. The apparatus and its ability to observe fluctuations and wave motions of the water film passing over the electrodes is described in some detail

  3. Soil water infiltration affected by topsoil thickness in row crop and switchgrass production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of annual grain crop systems to biofuel production systems can restore soil hydrologic function; however, information on these effects is limited. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and swi...

  4. Aerosol optical thickness retrieval over land and water using SCIAMACHY/GOME data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Leeuw, G. de

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm for the retrieval of the aerosol optical thickness over land and over water from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) is presented. Because calibrated data are not yet available for the SCIAMACHY channels used by the algorithm, the concepts

  5. Aerosol optical thickness retrieval over land and water using Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Leeuw, G. de

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm for the retrieval of the aerosol optical thickness over land and over water from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) data is presented. The cloud fraction in the GOME pixels is determined using the Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds From the Oxygen A Band (FRESCO) algorithm. Surface

  6. Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived

  7. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.

    2017-08-01

    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.

  8. Thickness control in electrophoretic deposition of WO3 nanofiber thin films for solar water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yuanxing; Lee, Wei Cheat; Canciani, Giacomo E.; Draper, Thomas C.; Al-Bawi, Zainab F.; Bedi, Jasbir S.; Perry, Christopher C.; Chen, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method combining electrospinning and electrophoretic deposition was established for the creation of nanostructured semiconductor thin films. • The created thin films displayed a high chemical stability with a controllable thickness. • The PEC water splitting performance of the thin films was optimized by fine-tuning the thickness of the films. • A maximum photoconversion efficiency was achieved by 18 μm nanofibrous thin films. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of ground electrospun WO 3 nanofibers was applied to create photoanodes with controlled morphology for the application of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The correlations between deposition parameters and film thicknesses were investigated with theoretical models to precisely control the morphology of the nanostructured porous thin film. The photoconversion efficiency was further optimized as a function of film thickness. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 0.924% from electrospun WO 3 nanofibers that EPD deposited on a substrate was achieved at a film thickness of 18 μm.

  9. Developing a Water Quality Index (WQI) for an Irrigation Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mora-Orozco, Celia; Flores-Lopez, Hugo; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Chavez-Duran, Alvaro; Ochoa-Rivero, Jesus

    2017-04-29

    Pollution levels have been increasing in water ecosystems worldwide. A water quality index (WQI) is an available tool to approximate the quality of water and facilitate the work of decision-makers by grouping and analyzing numerous parameters with a single numerical classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a WQI for a dam used for irrigation of about 5000 ha of agricultural land. The dam, La Vega, is located in Teuchitlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Seven sites were selected for water sampling and samples were collected in March, June, July, September, and December 2014 in an initial effort to develop a WQI for the dam. The WQI methodology, which was recommended by the Mexican National Water Commission (CNA), was used. The parameters employed to calculate the WQI were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), alkalinity (Alk), total phosphorous (TP), Cl - , NO₃, SO₄, Ca, Mg, K, B, As, Cu, and Zn. No significant differences in WQI values were found among the seven sampling sites along the dam. However, seasonal differences in WQI were noted. In March and June, water quality was categorized as poor. By July and September, water quality was classified as medium to good. Quality then decreased, and by December water quality was classified as medium to poor. In conclusion, water treatment must be applied before waters from La Vega dam reservoir can be used for irrigation or other purposes. It is recommended that the water quality at La Vega dam is continually monitored for several years in order to confirm the findings of this short-term study.

  10. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  11. Relationship between Pipeline Wall Thickness (Gr. X60) and Water Depth towards Avoiding Failure during Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, K. Abdul; Othman, M. I. H.; Mat Yusuf, S.; Fuad, M. F. I. Ahmad; yahaya, Effah

    2018-05-01

    Oil and gas today being developed at different water depth characterized as shallow, deep and ultra-deep waters. Among the major components involved during the offshore installation is pipelines. Pipelines are a transportation method of material through a pipe. In oil and gas industry, pipeline come from a bunch of line pipe that welded together to become a long pipeline and can be divided into two which is gas pipeline and oil pipeline. In order to perform pipeline installation, we need pipe laying barge or pipe laying vessel. However, pipe laying vessel can be divided into two types: S-lay vessel and J-lay vessel. The function of pipe lay vessel is not only to perform pipeline installation. It also performed installation of umbilical or electrical cables. In the simple words, pipe lay vessel is performing the installation of subsea in all the connecting infrastructures. Besides that, the installation processes of pipelines require special focus to make the installation succeed. For instance, the heavy pipelines may exceed the lay vessel’s tension capacities in certain kind of water depth. Pipeline have their own characteristic and we can group it or differentiate it by certain parameters such as grade of material, type of material, size of diameter, size of wall thickness and the strength. For instances, wall thickness parameter studies indicate that if use the higher steel grade of the pipelines will have a significant contribution in pipeline wall thickness reduction. When running the process of pipe lay, water depth is the most critical thing that we need to monitor and concern about because of course we cannot control the water depth but we can control the characteristic of the pipe like apply line pipe that have wall thickness suitable with current water depth in order to avoid failure during the installation. This research will analyse whether the pipeline parameter meet the requirements limit and minimum yield stress. It will overlook to simulate pipe

  12. Developing an operational rangeland water requirement satisfaction index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James

    2011-01-01

    Developing an operational water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) for rangeland monitoring is an important goal of the famine early warning systems network. An operational WRSI has been developed for crop monitoring, but until recently a comparable WRSI for rangeland was not successful because of the extremely poor performance of the index when based on published crop coefficients (K c) for rangelands. To improve the rangeland WRSI, we developed a simple calibration technique that adjusts the K c values for rangeland monitoring using long-term rainfall distribution and reference evapotranspiration data. The premise for adjusting the K c values is based on the assumption that a viable rangeland should exhibit above-average WRSI (values >80%) during a normal year. The normal year was represented by a median dekadal rainfall distribution (satellite rainfall estimate from 1996 to 2006). Similarly, a long-term average for potential evapotranspiration was used as input to the famine early warning systems network WRSI model in combination with soil-water-holding capacity data. A dekadal rangeland WRSI has been operational for east and west Africa since 2005. User feedback has been encouraging, especially with regard to the end-of-season WRSI anomaly products that compare the index's performance to ‘normal’ years. Currently, rangeland WRSI products are generated on a dekadal basis and posted for free distribution on the US Geological Survey early warning website at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov/adds/

  13. Neonatal body water turnover: a putative index of perinatal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLennan, A.H.; Millington, G.; Grieve, A.; McIntosh, J.E.; Seamark, R.F.; Cox, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The water metabolism of 46 newborn babies was determined during a 10 day period by means of an isotope dilution technique, and correlations were sought with the clinical assessment of the babies by multiple obstetric and pediatric clinical criteria. The babies, 48 to 72 hours of age, were given a single oral dose (2 ml/kg) of deuterated water (D 2 O), a nonradioactive tracer, and the urinary excretion rate was followed by means of infrared spectrophotometry. After a period of equilibration of the D 2 O with body water (20 hours), the rate of D2O clearance was found to be a single exponential decay process, thus allowing the fraction of total body water lost each hour (the rate constant) to be calculated for each baby. The median values of the rate constants X 10(4)(h-1) for 14 growth-retarded babies ws 104 (98% confidence limits, 97.8 to 122) compared with 76.3 (67.0 to 80.2) for 16 normal mature babies and 82.1 (73.4 to 90.6) for 16 normal premature babies. These data indicate that, compared with normal mature or normal premature babies, growth-retarded infants have a significantly (P less than 0.05) faster turnover of water during the first 10 days of postnatal life. Since there was little overlap in results between the normally grown and the retarded infants, the measurement of water turnover may provide a useful index of perinatal morbidity

  14. A Three-Dimensional Index for Characterizing Crop Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Torrion

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of remotely sensed estimates of canopy minus air temperature (Tc-Ta for detecting crop water stress can be limited in semi-arid regions, because of the lack of full ground cover (GC at water-critical crop stages. Thus, soil background may restrict water stress interpretation by thermal remote sensing. For partial GC, the combination of plant canopy temperature and surrounding soil temperature in an image pixel is expressed as surface temperature (Ts. Soil brightness (SB for an image scene varies with surface soil moisture. This study evaluates SB, GC and Ts-Ta and determines a fusion approach to assess crop water stress. The study was conducted (2007 and 2008 on a commercial scale, center pivot irrigated research site in the Texas High Plains. High-resolution aircraft-based imagery (red, near-infrared and thermal was acquired on clear days. The GC and SB were derived using the Perpendicular Vegetation Index approach. The Ts-Ta was derived using an array of ground Ts sensors, thermal imagery and weather station air temperature. The Ts-Ta, GC and SB were fused using the hue, saturation, intensity method, respectively. Results showed that this method can be used to assess water stress in reference to the differential irrigation plots and corresponding yield without the use of additional energy balance calculation for water stress in partial GC conditions.

  15. Retrieval of the thickness and refractive index dispersion of parallel plate from a single interferogram recorded in both spectral and angular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-01

    The principle of retrieving the thickness and refractive index dispersion of a parallel glass plate is reported based on single interferogram recording and phase analysis. With the parallel plate illuminated by a convergent light sheet, the transmitted light interfering in both spectral and angular domains is recorded. The phase recovered from the single interferogram by Fourier analysis is used to retrieve the thickness and refractive index dispersion without periodic ambiguity. Experimental results of an optical substrate standard show that the accuracy of refractive index dispersion is less than 2.5 × 10-5 and the relative uncertainty of thickness is 6 × 10-5 (3σ). This method is confirmed to be robust against the intensity noises, indicating the capability of stable and accurate measurement.

  16. Confined methane-water interfacial layers and thickness measurements using in situ Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Bruno; Liu, Yukun; Rizkin, Benjamin; Hartman, Ryan L

    2017-11-07

    Gas-liquid interfaces broadly impact our planet, yet confined interfaces behave differently than unconfined ones. We report the role of tangential fluid motion in confined methane-water interfaces. The interfaces are created using microfluidics and investigated by in situ 1D, 2D and 3D Raman spectroscopy. The apparent CH 4 and H 2 O concentrations are reported for Reynolds numbers (Re), ranging from 0.17 to 8.55. Remarkably, the interfaces are comprised of distinct layers of thicknesses varying from 23 to 57 μm. We found that rarefaction, mixture, thin film, and shockwave layers together form the interfaces. The results indicate that the mixture layer thickness (δ) increases with Re (δ ∝ Re), and traditional transport theory for unconfined interfaces does not explain the confined interfaces. A comparison of our results with thin film theory of air-water interfaces (from mass transfer experiments in capillary microfluidics) supports that the hydrophobicity of CH 4 could decrease the strength of water-water interactions, resulting in larger interfacial thicknesses. Our findings help explain molecular transport in confined gas-liquid interfaces, which are common in a broad range of societal applications.

  17. Effect of Insulation Thickness on Thermal Stratification in Hot Water Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak KURŞUN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors to be considered in increasing the efficiency of hot water storage tanks used for thermal energy storage is thermal stratification. Reducing the temperature of the water at the base of the tank provides more utilization of the energy of the heat source during the heating of the water and improves the efficiency of the system. In this study, the effect of the insulation thickness on the outer surface of the tank and the ratio of the tank diameter to the height (D/H on the thermal stratification was investigated numerically. Numerical analyzes were carried out for the condition that the insulation thickness was constant and variable in the range of D/H=0,3-1. Water was used as the heat storage fluid and the analysis results were obtained for eight hours cooling period. Numerical results showed that the temperature difference between the bottom and top surfaces of the tank increased between 7-9 ° C for the range of D / H = 0,3-1 with changing the insulation thickness.

  18. Determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness of thin films by the method of waveguide mode excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Panchenko, V Ya; Savelyev, A G; Seminogov, V N; Khaydukov, E V [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    We propose a method for measuring simultaneously the refractive index n{sub f}, extinction coefficient m{sub f} and thickness H{sub f} of thin films. The method is based on the resonant excitation of waveguide modes in the film by a TE- or a TM-polarised laser beam in the geometry of frustrated total internal reflection. The values of n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} are found by minimising the functional φ = [N{sup -1}Σ{sup N}{sub i=1}(R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) – R{sub thr}(θ{sub i})){sup 2}]{sup 1/2}, where R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) and R{sub thr}(θ{sub i}) are the experimental and theoretical coefficients of reflection of the light beam from the interface between the measuring prism and the film at an angle of incidence θ{sub i}. The errors in determining n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} by this method are ±2 × 10{sup -4}, ±1 × 10{sup -3} and ±0.5%, respectively. (fiber and integrated optics)

  19. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Zaiha Arman; Mohd Ismid Mohd Said; Shamila Azman; Muhammad Hazim Mat Hussin

    2013-01-01

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  20. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  1. The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemer, N.G.M.; Dubbelman, M.; Kostense, P.J.; Ringens, P.J.; Polak, B.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) types 1 and 2 on the thickness, radius of curvature, equivalent refractive index, and power of the lens. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Participants and Controls: One hundred fourteen patients with DM type 1, 112 patients with

  2. Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Taliantzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergios Taliantzis, Dimitris Papaconstantinou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michalis Moschos, Michalis Apostolopoulos, Gerasimos GeorgopoulosAthens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: To compare the functional changes in visual fields with optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and suspected glaucoma. In addition, our purpose is to evaluate the correlation of global indices with the structural glaucomatous defect, to assess their statistical importance in all the groups of our study, and to estimate their validity to the clinical practice.Methods: One hundred sixty nine eyes (140 patients were enrolled. The patients were classified in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 54 eyes with ocular hypertension, group 2 of 42 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, and group 3 of 73 eyes with chronic open angle glaucoma. All of them underwent ophthalmic examination according to a prefixed protocol, OCT exam (Stratus 3000 for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurement with fast RNFL thickness protocol and visual fields (VF examination with Octopus perimeter (G2 program, central 30–2 threshold strategy. Pearson correlation was calculated between RNFL thickness and global index of VF.Results: A moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and indices mean sensitivity (MS, mean defect (MD and loss variance (LV of VF (0.547, -0.582, -0.527, respectively; P < 0.001 was observed for all patients. Correlations of the ocular hypertension and preperimetric groups are weak. Correlation of RNFL thickness with global indices becomes stronger as the structural alterations become deeper in OCT exam. Correlation of RNFL thickness with the global index of VF, in respective segments around optic disk was also calculated and was found significant in the nasal, inferior, superior, and temporal segments.Conclusion: RNFL average thickness is not a reliable index for early

  3. Comparison of maternal abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and body mass index as markers for pregnancy outcomes: A stratified cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Ashwin; Liu, Anthony; Poulton, Alison; Quinton, Ann; Amer, Zara; Mongelli, Max; Martin, Andrew; Benzie, Ronald; Peek, Michael; Nanan, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is associated with a number of adverse outcomes. The effects of central versus general obesity in pregnancy have not been well established. To compare subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) with body mass index (BMI) as a marker for pregnancy outcomes. A stratified retrospective cohort study was performed on 1200 pregnancies, selected from a total of 4862 nulliparous, nonsmoking women between 2006 and 2010. SFT was measured on routine ultrasound at 18-22 weeks gestation. BMI and SFT measurements were compared for estimating risks for obesity-related pregnancy outcomes using logistic regression adjusted for maternal age. The median SFT was 18.2 mm (range 6.3-50.9 mm), the median BMI was 23.8 kg/m(2) (range 15.2-52.5), and the correlation between SFT and BMI was 0.53. For every 5 mm increase in SFT and every 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI, the odds ratios for developing gestational diabetes mellitus were 1.40 (CI 1.22-1.61, P gestational age 1.28 (CI 1.16-1.47, P = 0.001) and 1.10 (CI 0.95-1.28, P = 0.16) and cumulative adverse obesity-related pregnancy outcomes 1.16 (CI 1.10-1.28, P = 0.002) and 1.05 (CI 0.95-1.16, P = 0.45), respectively. SFT at 18-22 weeks gestation is better than BMI as a marker for obesity-related pregnancy outcomes. As SFT is considered a surrogate measure for visceral fat, these results suggest that central obesity is a stronger risk factor than general adiposity in pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Estimating MCC System Dryness Index using the Vineyard Water Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dryness Index (DI is one of the three Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (MCC System indices and its calculation is based on a soil water balance approach. However, other climatic indices can be used for the same purpose. One of them is the Vineyard Water Indicator (VWI that represents the ratio between the total rainfall and the vineyard water requirement during the productive period of the culture. When compared to DI, the VWI presents a simpler calculation methodology. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish a model to estimate DI based on VWI values. Climate data of 80 winegrowing regions in 18 countries were used. Four regression models were evaluated: linear, quadratic, logarithmic and the Mitscherlich model. Real and simulated data were compared using the confidence coefficient (c that corresponds to the product of the correlation coefficient (r by the exactness coefficient (d. The best fit was obtained employing the quadratic model and DI can be calculated using the following equation: DI = −363.84 VWI2+ 834.47 VWI – 257.17 (R2 = 0.93, for VHI <0.905. For VHI values equal to or greater than 0.905, DI is constant and equal to 200.

  5. A water stress index based on water balance modelling for discrimination of grapevine quality and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Gaudin

    2014-01-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This water stress index is a valuable tool for explaining the variations in grape yield and quality among various locations and years because it reflects the vineyard water stress history in relation to rainfall regime and soil conditions. Improvement would come from the simulation of FTSW during winter, notably for soils of high Total Transpirable Soil Water. One potential application is the quantification of water stress change brought by irrigation in Mediterranean vineyards, and its relation to grapevine production.

  6. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  7. Effects of magnetic treated water on serum concentration parameters and fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of magnetic water on blood cells counts, biochemical profile, blood gas level and subcutaneous fat thickness of Jersey cows. This research was carried out at Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios - APTA, SP. Twenty six Jersey cows from the APTA were allotted into two groups: control (n=13, drinking regular water and the group consuming magnetic water (n=13. The animals were lactating around 150 days and pregnant around 60 days. Blood samples were collected from caudal auricular artery and jugular vein. The water treatment had no effect on hemogram (p>0.05. Higher pH (7.448 vs 7.407 mmHg, p<0.05 and lower PaCO2 (37.97 vs 42.47 mmHg, p<0.05 levels were detected in arterial blood of the group drinking magnetic water. The concentration of Na ion (138.8 vs 145.5 mmol/l, p<0.05 and serum triglycerides (10.4 vs 22.6 mg/dL, p<0.05 were significantly lower, resulting in smaller osmolality (273.30 vs 280.99 mOsm/kg, p<0.05 and subcutaneous fat thickness (0.2 vs 1.3 mm, p<0.05. In summary, the water treatment, evaluated in this study, may have decreased the risk of some metabolic disorders, such as acidosis and high serum concentration of Na and carbon dioxide.

  8. Calibration of System Input Volume and Non-Revenue Water Index in Edo North, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Philipa O. Idogho; Olotu Yahaya

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious problem in developing world. It could be physical scarcity or economic water shortage. The output of physicsbased study conducted in Edo North, Nigeria revealed that physical water losses in the water distribution network have compounded the accessibility and affordability of safe drinking water. Water supply and loss variables such as Water Supply (WS) Physical Water Loss (WLρ) Apparent Water Loss (WLE) Water Loss Reduction Index (WLRI) and Av...

  9. Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of the Karoon River of Iran. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Determination of the status of water quality of a river or any other water source is highly ...

  10. Nanometer-resolution electron microscopy through micrometers-thick water layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, Niels de, E-mail: niels.de.jonge@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Nashville, TN 37232-0615 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6064 (United States); Poirier-Demers, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix [Universite de Sherbrooke, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Peckys, Diana B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6064 (United States); University of Tennessee, Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Knoxville, TN 37996-1605 (United States); Drouin, Dominique [Universite de Sherbrooke, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to image gold nanoparticles on top of and below saline water layers of several micrometers thickness. The smallest gold nanoparticles studied had diameters of 1.4 nm and were visible for a liquid thickness of up to 3.3 {mu}m. The imaging of gold nanoparticles below several micrometers of liquid was limited by broadening of the electron probe caused by scattering of the electron beam in the liquid. The experimental data corresponded to analytical models of the resolution and of the electron probe broadening as function of the liquid thickness. The results were also compared with Monte Carlo simulations of the STEM imaging on modeled specimens of similar geometry and composition as used for the experiments. Applications of STEM imaging in liquid can be found in cell biology, e.g., to study tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells in liquid and in materials science to study the interaction of solid:liquid interfaces at the nanoscale.

  11. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI,

  12. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and

  13. XRD measurement of mean crystallite thickness of illite and illite/smectite: Reappraisal of the Kubler index and the Scherrer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits, Victor A.; Środoń, Jan; Eberl, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    The standard form of the Scherrer equation, which has been used to calculate the mean thickness of the coherent scattering domain (CSD) of illite crystals from X-ray diffraction (XRD) full width data at half maximum (FWHM) intensity, employs a constant, Ksh, of 0.89. Use of this constant is unjustified, even if swelling has no effect on peak broadening, because this constant is valid only if all CSDs have a single thickness. For different thickness distributions, the Scherrer “constant” has very different values.Analysis of fundamental particle thickness data (transmission electron microscopy, TEM) for samples of authigenic illite and illite/smectite from diagenetically altered pyroclastics and filamentous illites from sandstones reveals a unique family of lognormal thickness distributions for these clays. Experimental relations between the distributions' lognormal parameters and mean thicknesses are established. These relations then are used to calculate the mean thickness of CSDs for illitic samples from XRD FWHM, or from integral XRD peak widths (integrated intensity/maximum intensity).For mixed-layer illite/smectite, the measured thickness of the CSD corresponds to the mean thickness of the mixed-layer crystal. Using this measurement, the mean thickness of the fundamental particles that compose the mixed-layer crystals can be calculated after XRD determination of percent smectitic interlayers. The effect of mixed layering (swelling) on XRD peak width for these samples is eliminated by using the 003 reflection for glycolated samples, and the 001, 002 or 003 reflection for dehydrated, K-saturated samples. If this technique is applied to the 001 reflection of air-dried samples (Kubler index measurement), mean CSD thicknesses are underestimated due to the mixed-layering effect.The technique was calibrated using NEW MOD©-simulated XRD profiles of illite, and then tested on well-characterized illite and illite/smectite samples. The XRD measurements are in good

  14. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  15. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  16. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chhipa, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality in north-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluoride and potassium, p H, turbidity, temperature) were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70), Lalawas (362.74,396.67), Jaisinghpura area (286.00, 273.78) were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium. Saipura (122.52, 131.00), Naila (120.25, 239.86), Galta (160.9, 204.1) were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  17. Water droplet spreading and recoiling upon contact with thick-compact maltodextrin agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz-Torres, Lesvia Sofía; Quintanilla-Carvajal, María Ximena; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Alamilla-Beltrán, Liliana; Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F

    2011-11-01

    The food and pharmaceutical industries handle a number of compounds in the form of agglomerates which must be put into contact with water for rehydration purposes. In this work, liquid-solid interaction between water and maltodextrin thick-compact agglomerates was studied at different constituent particle sizes for two compression forces (75 and 225 MPa). Rapid droplet spreading was observed which was similar in radius to the expected one for ideal, flat surfaces. Contact angle determinations reported oscillations of this parameter throughout the experiments, being indicative of droplet recoiling on top of the agglomerate. Recoiling was more frequent in samples obtained at 225 MPa for agglomerate formation. Agglomerates obtained at 75 MPa exhibited more penetration of the water. Competition between dissolution of maltodextrin and penetration of the water was, probably, the main mechanism involved in droplet recoiling. Micrographs of the wetting marks were characterized by means of image analysis and the measurements suggested more symmetry of the wetting mark at higher compression force. Differences found in the evaluated parameters for agglomerates were mainly due to compaction force used. No significant effect of particle size in recoiling, penetration of water into the agglomerate, surface texture and symmetry was observed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and Oswestry disability index in subjects with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise.

  19. Use of crop water stress index for monitoring water stress in some sinanthropic plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Roxana ROŞESCU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The water stress indicator (crop water stress index, CWSI is a measure of the transpiration rate of a plant, influenced by the leaf and air temperature difference from the plant’s vicinity and the air pressure deficit of the water vapors from the atmosphere. The experiments were realized in July-August 2008 and 2009 for six species in the cities Pitesti, Mioveni and Maracineni: Cichorium intybus L., Conyza canadensis (L. Cronq., Erigeron annuus L. (Pers., Lactuca serriola Torn., Polygonum aviculare L. and Echinochloa crus-galli (L. Beauv. For those species we calculated the CWSI to estimate the water stress on the selected plants in the urban environment conditions. The analyzed species were exposed to a less accentuated water stress while vegetating in the soil and to a more intense one they were grown in the asphalt cracks. Cichorium intybus had the smallest CWSI value (0.26 while Lactuca serriola the highest one (0.44.

  20. Palatal bone thickness measured by palatal index method using cone-beam computed tomography in nonorthodontic patients for placement of mini-implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W S Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the bone thickness of the palatal areas in different palatal index (PI groups. Materials and Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography scans of 10 subjects were selected with a mean age group of 18 years. The measurements of palatal bone thickness were made at 36 sites using CareStream 3D Imaging software. The PI was measured using Korkhaus ratio (palatal height/palatal width. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze intergroup differences, as well as the PI difference. Results: Bone thickness was higher in the anterior region than in the middle and posterior regions P<0.001. Furthermore, significant differences were found among the midline, medial, and lateral areas of the palate. Conclusions: These findings might be helpful for clinicians to enhance the successful use of temporary anchorage devices in the palate.

  1. Use of well points to determine the thickness and extent of floating product atop the water table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, T.L.; Lewis, R.; Gilmore, T.; Hoffmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The release of petroleum products to the ground water is a widespread problem. Conventional plume tracking techniques are to drill wells and measure product thickness and extent. In this study, well points were installed to rapidly and inexpensively determine the thickness and extent of floating product atop the water table. Spills and leaks of JP-4 have produced a discrete full layer atop the water table at one site at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska. The 0.2- to 1.3-foot-thick layer was identified in two ground water monitoring wells at a depth of approximately 10 feet. The layer is contained within unconsolidated glaciofluvial sands and gravels. A comprehensive assessment of the product thickness and extent was necessary for the site remedial investigation/feasibility study. The emplacement of additional monitoring wells was discouraged because of time and budget constraints. The fuel layer was delineated with 18 screened well points. The points consist of 2-inch-diameter galvanized steel pipe. The points were driven into the floating products with a hollow-stem auger rig sampling hammer. The product thickness was measured with an interface probe. The presence of floating product could be measured immediately after emplacement; the product thickness measurements typically stabilized within three days. The product thickness compared favorably with those measured in adjacent monitoring wells

  2. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  3. Retrieval of canopy water content of different crop types with two new hyperspectral indices: Water Absorption Area Index and Depth Water Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Nieves; Delegido, Jesús; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Moreno, José

    2018-05-01

    Crop canopy water content (CWC) is an essential indicator of the crop's physiological state. While a diverse range of vegetation indices have earlier been developed for the remote estimation of CWC, most of them are defined for specific crop types and areas, making them less universally applicable. We propose two new water content indices applicable to a wide variety of crop types, allowing to derive CWC maps at a large spatial scale. These indices were developed based on PROSAIL simulations and then optimized with an experimental dataset (SPARC03; Barrax, Spain). This dataset consists of water content and other biophysical variables for five common crop types (lucerne, corn, potato, sugar beet and onion) and corresponding top-of-canopy (TOC) reflectance spectra acquired by the hyperspectral HyMap airborne sensor. First, commonly used water content index formulations were analysed and validated for the variety of crops, overall resulting in a R2 lower than 0.6. In an attempt to move towards more generically applicable indices, the two new CWC indices exploit the principal water absorption features in the near-infrared by using multiple bands sensitive to water content. We propose the Water Absorption Area Index (WAAI) as the difference between the area under the null water content of TOC reflectance (reference line) simulated with PROSAIL and the area under measured TOC reflectance between 911 and 1271 nm. We also propose the Depth Water Index (DWI), a simplified four-band index based on the spectral depths produced by the water absorption at 970 and 1200 nm and two reference bands. Both the WAAI and DWI outperform established indices in predicting CWC when applied to heterogeneous croplands, with a R2 of 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, using an exponential fit. However, these indices did not perform well for species with a low fractional vegetation cover (<30%). HyMap CWC maps calculated with both indices are shown for the Barrax region. The results confirmed the

  4. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values of heavy metals (especially iron and manganese which are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily because of mining, but also increased values of organic pollution indicators (Biological Oxygen Demand-BOD5, ammonium, coliform germs, as the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.

  5. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  6. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  7. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Valadi Amin, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yousefzadeh, Samira

    2013-04-26

    Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to facilitate calculation of a water quality index based on dynamic weight factors, which will help users to compute the water quality index in cases where some parameters are missing from the datasets. A dataset containing 735 water samples of drinking water quality in different parts of the country was used to show the performance of this software using different criteria parameters. The software proved to be an efficient tool to facilitate the setup of water quality indices based on flexible use of variables and water quality databases.

  8. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  9. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  10. On the influence of debris in glacier melt modelling: a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, Marco; Mabillard, Johan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Reid, Tim; Brock, Ben; Burlando, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The increase of rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and of englacial melt-out material has led to an increase of the debris cover extent on Alpine glaciers. In recent years, distributed debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancing/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya. Some of the input data such as wind or temperature are also of difficult extrapolation from station measurements. Due to their lower data requirement, empirical models have been used in glacier melt modelling. However, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of debris thickness on melt. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The empirical parameters (temperature factor, shortwave radiation factor, and lag factor accounting for the energy transfer through the debris layer) are optimized at the point scale for several debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter has been validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. The new model is developed on Miage Glacier, Italy, a debris cover glacier in which the ablation area is mantled in near-continuous layer of rock. Subsequently, its transferability is tested on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, where debris is thinner and its extension has been seen to expand in the last decades. The results show that the performance of the new debris temperature-index model (DETI) in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale

  11. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  12. The relationship between skinfold thickness and body mass index in North European Caucasian and East Asian women with anorexia nervosa: implications for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa L; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Ung, Ken E K; Walter, Garry

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) in North European Caucasian and East Asian young women with and without anorexia nervosa (AN) in two countries. Height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 137 young women with and without AN, in Australia and Singapore. The relationship between BMI and the sum of triceps, biceps, subscapular and iliac crest skinfolds was analysed with clinical status, ethnicity, age and country of residence as covariates. For the same BMI, women with AN had significantly smaller sums of skinfolds than women without AN. East Asian women both with and without AN had significantly greater skinfold sums than their North European Caucasian counterparts after adjusting for BMI. Lower BMI goals may be appropriate when managing AN patients of East Asian ancestry and the weight for height diagnostic criterion should be reconsidered for this group.

  13. Glophymed: an index to establish the ecological status for the Water Framework Directive based on phytoplankton in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; Pachés, M; Martínez-Guijarro, R; Ferrer, J

    2013-10-15

    Phytoplankton and its attributes (biomass, abundance, composition, and frequency and intensity of phytoplankton blooms) are essential to establish the ecological status in the Water Frame Directive. The aim of this study is to develop an index "Glophymed" based on all phytoplankton attributes for coastal water bodies according to the directive requirements. It is also developed an anthropogenic pressure index that takes into account population density, tourism, urbanization, industry, agriculture, fisheries and maritime transport for Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Both indexes (Glophymed and human pressure index) based on a multisampling dataset collected monthly during several years, show a significant statistical correlation (r2 0.75 α<0.01) for typology IIA and (r2 0.93 α<0.01) for typology III-W. The relation between these indexes provides suitable information about the integrated management plans and protection measures of water resources since the Glophymed index is very sensitive to human pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the AlN seeding layer thickness on GaN orientation on high index Si-substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Veit, Peter; Hempel, Thomas; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany). FNW/IEP/AHE

    2010-07-01

    Silicon is considered to be a reasonable alternative to substrates such as sapphire and SiC, because of its low price and availability in large diameters. Because of spontaneous and strain induced piezoelectric polarization field along the c-axis, leading to the separation of electrons and holes in quantum wells reducing the recombination efficiency, c-axis oriented GaN-based light emitters have a low efficiency, especially in the longer wavelength region. In order to reduce or eliminate these polarization effects, semi-polar or non-polar GaN-heterostructure is favored. In this work we investigated the growth of GaN applying a low temperature AlN seeding layer with various thicknesses. The impact of the AlN seeding layer on GaN orientation using different Si substrate orientations (e. g. (211), (711), (410), (100)+4.5 off) were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg-Brentano geometry and X-ray pole figure measurements. We found that the thickness of the AlN seeding layer plays a significant role in obtaining different GaN textures. Applying a about 4 nm AlN seeding layer we achieved a single crystalline GaN epilayer on Si (211) with a 18 tilted c-axis orientation. Some of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  16. Correlation between coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness, assessed by radio-frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone Marco M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT is a validated marker of systemic atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary artery disease (CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and CCA-IMT, assessed by Radio Frequency-Quality Intima Media Thickness (RFQIMT method, the next generation of IMT real-time measurement, based on the direct analysis of the radiofrequency signal and endowed with high accuracy and reproducibility in early detection of arterial wall thickness. Methods 115 patients (76 men, mean age: 65.1 ± 12 years referred to our department and shown significant (≥ 70% luminal obstruction stenosis at least in one major epicardial coronary artery were studied. Coronary angiograms were divided for severity and extent of the disease: 79 patients (69% had one, 24 patients (21% two, 12 patients (10% three major epicardial coronary arteries with ≥ 70% stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound examination, assessed by RF. Results Dividing RFQIMT data in tertiles, dyslipidaemia (31 patients with IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 16 with IMT = 0.91-1.19 vs 25 with IMT ≤ 0.9, p = 0.004, LVMI (153.5 ± 20.6 g/m2 in IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 131.2 ± 8.4 g/m2 in IMT = 0.91-1.19 mm vs 114.3 ± 11.1 g/m2 in IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, P 2 = 0.88, RFQIMT remained significantly associated with the dyslipidemia (regression coefficient ± standard error [SE]: 0.057 ± 0.023; p = 0.017, LVMI (regression coefficient ± SE: 0.01 ± 0.001; P Conclusions RFQIMT is a sophisticated method for carotid ultrasound evaluation. Its evaluation in patients with at least one important major epicardial coronary vessel stenosis would help the accuracy in the general assessment of the number of coronary lesions in these patients.

  17. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 3. Program listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This is the third of 3 volumes of the description of the VTT (Variable Thickness Transient) Groundwater Hydrologic Model - second level (intermediate complexity) two-dimensional saturated groundwater flow

  18. Nanometre-thick single-crystalline nanosheets grown at the water-air interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Seo, Jung-Hun; Luo, Guangfu; Starr, Matthew B.; Li, Zhaodong; Geng, Dalong; Yin, Xin; Wang, Shaoyang; Fraser, Douglas G.; Morgan, Dane; Ma, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    To date, the preparation of free-standing 2D nanomaterials has been largely limited to the exfoliation of van der Waals solids. The lack of a robust mechanism for the bottom-up synthesis of 2D nanomaterials from non-layered materials has become an obstacle to further explore the physical properties and advanced applications of 2D nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate that surfactant monolayers can serve as soft templates guiding the nucleation and growth of 2D nanomaterials in large area beyond the limitation of van der Waals solids. One- to 2-nm-thick, single-crystalline free-standing ZnO nanosheets with sizes up to tens of micrometres are synthesized at the water-air interface. In this process, the packing density of surfactant monolayers adapts to the sub-phase metal ions and guides the epitaxial growth of nanosheets. It is thus named adaptive ionic layer epitaxy (AILE). The electronic properties of ZnO nanosheets and AILE of other materials are also investigated.

  19. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Taddei, Phillip J; Fitzek, Markus M; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-05-07

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient's body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several simple analytical formulas previously developed for proton beams for their ability to calculate WET values for materials exposed to beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions. Experimentally measured heavy charged particle beam ranges and WET values from an iterative numerical method were compared with the WET values calculated by the analytical formulas. In most cases, the deviations were within 1 mm. We conclude that the analytical formulas originally developed for proton beams can also be used to calculate WET values for helium, carbon and iron ion beams with good accuracy.

  20. Carotid artery intima-media thickness measurement in children with normal and increased body mass index: a comparison of three techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jalbout, Ramy; Cloutier, Guy; Cardinal, Marie-Hélène Roy; Henderson, Mélanie; Lapierre, Chantale; Soulez, Gilles; Dubois, Josée

    2018-05-09

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In children, increased intima-media thickness is associated with obesity and the risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. To compare intima-media thickness measurements using B-mode ultrasound, radiofrequency (RF) echo tracking, and RF speckle probability distribution in children with normal and increased body mass index (BMI). We prospectively measured intima-media thickness in 120 children randomly selected from two groups of a longitudinal cohort: normal BMI and increased BMI, defined by BMI ≥85th percentile for age and gender. We followed Mannheim recommendations. We used M'Ath-Std for automated B-mode imaging, M-line processing of RF signal amplitude for RF echo tracking, and RF signal segmentation and averaging using probability distributions defining image speckle. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Children were 10-13 years old (mean: 11.7 years); 61% were boys. The mean age was 11.4 years (range: 10.0-13.1 years) for the normal BMI group and 12.0 years (range: 10.1-13.5 years) for the increased BMI group. The normal BMI group included 58% boys and the increased BMI group 63% boys. RF echo tracking method was successful in 79 children as opposed to 114 for the B-mode method and all 120 for the probability distribution method. Techniques were weakly correlated: ICC=0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.39). Intima-media thickness was significantly higher in the increased BMI than normal BMI group using the RF techniques and borderline for the B-mode technique. Mean differences between weight groups were: B-mode, 0.02 mm (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04), P=0.05; RF echo tracking, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.01; and RF speckle probability distribution, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.002. Though techniques are not interchangeable, all showed

  1. Sedimentological analysis and bed thickness statistics from a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex: Myall Trough, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozzi, Jason; Pantopoulos, George; Maravelis, Angelos G.; Nordsvan, Adam; Zelilidis, Avraam

    2018-02-01

    This investigation presents an outcrop-based integrated study of internal division analysis and statistical treatment of turbidite bed thickness applied to a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex in the Myall Trough, southeast Australia. Turbidite beds of the studied succession are characterized by a range of sedimentary structures grouped into two main associations, a thick-bedded and a thin-bedded one, that reflect channel-fill and overbank/levee deposits, respectively. Three vertically stacked channel-levee cycles have been identified. Results of statistical analysis of bed thickness, grain-size and internal division patterns applied on the studied channel-levee succession, indicate that turbidite bed thickness data seem to be well characterized by a bimodal lognormal distribution, which is possibly reflecting the difference between deposition from lower-density flows (in a levee/overbank setting) and very high-density flows (in a channel fill setting). Power law and exponential distributions were observed to hold only for the thick-bedded parts of the succession and cannot characterize the whole bed thickness range of the studied sediments. The succession also exhibits non-random clustering of bed thickness and grain-size measurements. The studied sediments are also characterized by the presence of statistically detected fining-upward sandstone packets. A novel quantitative approach (change-point analysis) is proposed for the detection of those packets. Markov permutation statistics also revealed the existence of order in the alternation of internal divisions in the succession expressed by an optimal internal division cycle reflecting two main types of gravity flow events deposited within both thick-bedded conglomeratic and thin-bedded sandstone associations. The analytical methods presented in this study can be used as additional tools for quantitative analysis and recognition of depositional environments in hydrocarbon-bearing research of ancient

  2. In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by neutron imaging. Focused on characteristics of water distribution in gas diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kobo, Norio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Boillat, Pierre; Kramer, Denis; Scherer, Gunther G.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    2008-01-01

    The mass transfer characteristics of gas diffusion layer (GDL) are closely related to cell performance in PEFC. In this study, In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by Neutron Imaging has been carried out for three MEAs with different GDLs on cathode side as well as I-V characteristics. It was confirmed that this method is useful for analyzing water distribution in thickness direction of MEA. The relationship between I-V characteristics and liquid water distribution has been studied. (author)

  3. Simultaneous determination of aerosol optical thickness and water-leaving radiance from multispectral measurements in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chong; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2018-03-01

    Retrieval of aerosol optical properties and water-leaving radiance over ocean is challenging since the latter mostly accounts for ˜ 10 % of the satellite-observed signal and can be easily influenced by the atmospheric scattering. Such an effort would be more difficult in turbid coastal waters due to the existence of optically complex oceanic substances or high aerosol loading. In an effort to solve such problems, we present an optimization approach for the simultaneous determination of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) from multispectral satellite measurements. In this algorithm, a coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model combined with a comprehensive bio-optical oceanic module is used to jointly simulate the satellite-observed reflectance at the top of atmosphere and water-leaving radiance just above the ocean surface. Then, an optimal estimation method is adopted to retrieve AOT and nLw iteratively. The algorithm is validated using Aerosol Robotic Network - Ocean Color (AERONET-OC) products selected from eight OC sites distributed over different waters, consisting of observations that covered glint and non-glint conditions from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. Results show a good consistency between retrieved and in situ measurements at each site. It is demonstrated that more accurate AOTs are determined based on the simultaneous retrieval method, particularly in shorter wavelengths and sunglint conditions, where the averaged percentage difference (APD) of retrieved AOT is generally reduced by approximate 10 % in visible bands compared with those derived from the standard atmospheric correction (AC) scheme, since all the spectral measurements can be used jointly to increase the information content in the inversion of AOT, and the wind speed is also simultaneously retrieved to compensate the specular reflectance error estimated from the rough ocean surface model. For the

  4. Fuel film thickness measurements using refractive index matching in a stratified-charge SI engine operated on E30 and alkylate fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Carl-Philipp; Sjöberg, Magnus; Vuilleumier, David; Reuss, David L.; He, Xu; Böhm, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    This study shows fuel film measurements in a spark-ignited direct injection engine using refractive index matching (RIM). The RIM technique is applied to measure the fuel impingement of a high research octane number gasoline fuel with 30 vol% ethanol content at two intake pressures and coolant temperatures. Measurements are conducted for an alkylate fuel at one operating case, as well. It is shown that the fuel volume on the piston surface increases for lower intake pressure and lower coolant temperature and that the alkylate fuel shows very little spray impingement. The fuel films can be linked to increased soot emissions. A detailed description of the calibration technique is provided and measurement uncertainties are discussed. The dependency of the RIM signal on refractive index changes is measured. The RIM technique provides quantitative film thickness measurements up to 0.9 µm in this engine. For thicker films, semi-quantitative results of film thickness can be utilized to study the distribution of impinged fuel.

  5. Water quality - Measurement of gross alpha activity in non-saline water - Thick source method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 degree Centigrade. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters. The range of application depends on the amount of suspended matter in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. Gross alpha radioactivity is determined by using proportional counting or solid scintillation counting on water residue deposited on a planchet. Due to the strong absorption of the residue deposit, it is considered that the alpha emission from the surface is proportional to the alpha activity of the deposit. Gross alpha determination is not an absolute determination of the sample alpha radioactive content, but a relative determination referring to a specific alpha emitter which constitutes the standard calibration source. This type of determination is also known as alpha index. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 degree Centigrade. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchet and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard and the alpha activity concentration calculated. The paper provides information about scope, normative references, symbols, definitions and units, principle, reagents and equipment, procedure, contamination check, expression of results and test report

  6. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  7. The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi-arid region of Turkey. ... Four irrigation treatments designated as full (I100) with no water stress and slight (DI70), moderate (DI50) and strong water ... from 32 Countries:.

  8. use of geographic information system and water quality index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Key words: spatial distribution, GIS, WQI, groundwater quality, Hewane, Tigray, Ethiopia. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.2 2013 ..... insignificant role in the water quality assessment.

  9. Reduction of Langelier index of cooling water by electrolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LSI) of the cooling water from a cooling tower of a textile industry was investigated. Sacrificial anodes were employed which prevent obnoxious chlorine generation. A series of batch experiments using stainless steel electrodes were conducted ...

  10. Managing hydroclimatological risk to water supply with option contracts and reservoir index insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey; Carriquiry, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores the performance of a system of economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on stakeholders of shared water supply. The system is composed of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows. The insurance is designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Insurance provides the irregularly needed funds for exercising the water options. The combined option contract - reservoir index insurance system creates risk sharing between sectors that is currently lacking in many shared water situations. Contracts are designed for a shared agriculture - urban water system in Metro Manila, Philippines, using optimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Observed reservoir inflows are used to simulate contract performance. Results indicate the option - insurance design effectively smooths water supply costs of hydrologic variability for both agriculture and urban water.

  11. Thickness control in electrophoretic deposition of WO{sub 3} nanofiber thin films for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yuanxing; Lee, Wei Cheat; Canciani, Giacomo E.; Draper, Thomas C.; Al-Bawi, Zainab F. [Department of Chemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Bedi, Jasbir S. [School of Public Health & Zoonoses, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004 Punjab (India); Perry, Christopher C. [Division of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350 (United States); Chen, Qiao, E-mail: qiao.chen@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method combining electrospinning and electrophoretic deposition was established for the creation of nanostructured semiconductor thin films. • The created thin films displayed a high chemical stability with a controllable thickness. • The PEC water splitting performance of the thin films was optimized by fine-tuning the thickness of the films. • A maximum photoconversion efficiency was achieved by 18 μm nanofibrous thin films. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of ground electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers was applied to create photoanodes with controlled morphology for the application of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The correlations between deposition parameters and film thicknesses were investigated with theoretical models to precisely control the morphology of the nanostructured porous thin film. The photoconversion efficiency was further optimized as a function of film thickness. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 0.924% from electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers that EPD deposited on a substrate was achieved at a film thickness of 18 μm.

  12. Influence of leaf vein density and thickness on hydraulic conductance and photosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Adnan; Zhu, Guanglong; Hafeez, Abdul; Wahid, Muhammad Atif; Shaban, Muhammad; Li, Yong

    2016-11-16

    The leaf venation architecture is an ideal, highly structured and efficient irrigation system in plant leaves. Leaf vein density (LVD) and vein thickness are the two major properties of this system. Leaf laminae carry out photosynthesis to harvest the maximum biological yield. It is still unknown whether the LVD and/or leaf vein thickness determines the plant hydraulic conductance (K plant ) and leaf photosynthetic rate (A). To investigate this topic, the current study was conducted with two varieties under three PEG-induced water deficit stress (PEG-IWDS) levels. The results showed that PEG-IWDS significantly decreased A, stomatal conductance (g s ), and K plant in both cultivars, though the IR-64 strain showed more severe decreases than the Hanyou-3 strain. PEG-IWDS significantly decreased the major vein thickness, while it had no significant effect on LVD. A, g s and K plant were positively correlated with each other, and they were negatively correlated with LVD. A, g s and K plant were positively correlated with the inter-vein distance and major vein thickness. Therefore, the decreased photosynthesis and hydraulic conductance in rice plants under water deficit conditions are related to the decrease in the major vein thickness.

  13. Skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and body mass index in obese and non-obese Indian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity is presently increasing worldwide and has created enormous concern for researchers working in the field of obesity related diseases with special interest in child health and development. Selected anthropometric measurements including stature, body mass, and skinfolds are globally accepted sensitive indicators of growth patterns and health status of a child. The present study was therefore aimed not only at evaluating the body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, body fat percentage (%fat) in obese school going boys of West Bengal, India, but also aimed to compare these data with their non-obese counterparts. Ten to sixteen year old obese boys (N = 158) were separated from their non-obese counterparts using the age-wise international cut-off points of BMI. Skinfolds were measured using skinfold calipers, BMI and %fat were calculated from standard equations. Body mass, BMI, skinfolds and %fat were significantly (Pimportance in order to identify or categorize obese boys, and to take preventative steps to minimise serious health problems that appear during the later part of life.

  14. Four contamination indexes for continental waters characterization. Formulation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A; Restrepo, R; Vina, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper four indices of contamination, which qualify different water aspects are presents. Such indices allow for an overall assessment of the environmental status of the water bodies. These indices have been derived from accumulative experiences in hydro biological monitoring in the Colombian Petroleum industry for six years. Multivariable statistics was used. The indices were developed based on legislation from several countries, in accordance with the concentration of the different parameters and water usages. This indices of contamination (ICO) are: ICOMI (mineralization), ICOMO (organics contamination), ICOSUS (suspended solids) and ICOTRO (trophic system). The indices are easy to estimate (mathematically and/or graphically) and allow the identification the type of environmental problem, existing as demonstrated with examples and the near to zero correlations found. Thanks to the minimum number of variables, the application of these indices also diminishes monitoring and evaluation costs. In view of the advantages above mentioned is worth considering integrating the indices in to the national legislation

  15. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  16. Application of a sustainability index for integrated urban water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guide appropriate action and policy-making towards better service delivery and improved resource management. ... surface water, groundwater and rainwater, as well as methods of ... systems in order to define how the objective of sustainability can ..... the relevant decision-makers towards more sustainable prac- tices.

  17. Design of negative refractive index metamaterial with water droplets using 3D-printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhaoyang; Yang, Helin; Huang, Xiaojun; Yu, Zetai

    2017-11-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a negative refractive index (NRI) behavior in combined water droplets and photosensitive resin materials operating in the microwave regime. The NRI is achieved over a very wide frequency range in 10.27-15 GHz with bandwidth of 4.63 GHz. The simulated results approximately agree with the experimental results. The negative index band can be controlled by water droplet radius. The proposed metamaterial production process is simple and may have potential applications in broadband tunable devices.

  18. Identification of Phytoplankton Blooms under the Index of Inherent Optical Properties (IOP Index in Optically Complex Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Aguilar-Maldonado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are sporadic events in time and are isolated in space. This complex phenomenon is produced by a variety of both natural and anthropogenic causes. Early detection of this phenomenon, as well as the classification of a water body under conditions of bloom or non-bloom, remains an unresolved problem. This research proposes the use of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs in optically complex waters to detect the bloom or non-bloom state of the phytoplankton community. An IOP index is calculated from the absorption coefficients of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, the phytoplankton (phy and the detritus (d, using the wavelength (λ 443 nm. The effectiveness of this index is tested in five bloom events in different places and with different characteristics from Mexican seas: 1. Dzilam (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, a diatom bloom (Rhizosolenia hebetata; 2. Holbox (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, a mixed bloom of dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella sp. and diatoms (Chaetoceros sp.; 3. Campeche Bay in the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantic Ocean, a bloom of dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis; 4. Upper Gulf of California (UGC (Pacific Ocean, a diatom bloom (Coscinodiscus and Pseudo-nitzschia and 5. Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada (Pacific Ocean, a dinoflagellate bloom (Lingulodinium polyedrum. The diversity of sites show that the IOP index is a suitable method to determine the phytoplankton bloom conditions.

  19. Application of the Water Needs Index: Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Magnus; Neumann, Luis E.; Alexander, Kim S.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sharma, Ashok K.; Cook, Stephen; Trung, Nguyen H.; Tuan, Dinh D. A.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryProvision of urban water supplies to rapidly growing cities of South East Asia is difficult because of increasing demand for limited water supplies, periodic droughts, and depletion and contamination of surface and groundwater. In such adverse environments, effective policy and planning processes are required to secure adequate water supplies. Developing a Water Needs Index reveals key elements of the complex urban water supply by means of a participatory approach for rapid and interdisciplinary assessment. The index uses deliberative interactions with stakeholders to create opportunities for mutual understanding, confirmation of constructs and capacity building of all involved. In Can Tho City, located at the heart of the Mekong delta in Vietnam, a Water Needs Index has been developed with local stakeholders. The functional attributes of the Water Needs Index at this urban scale have been critically appraised. Systemic water issues, supply problems, health issues and inadequate, poorly functioning infrastructure requiring attention from local authorities have been identified. Entrenched social and economic inequities in access to water and sanitation, as well as polluting environmental management practices has caused widespread problems for urban populations. The framework provides a common language based on systems thinking, increased cross-sectoral communication, as well as increased recognition of problem issues; this ought to lead to improved urban water management. Importantly, the case study shows that the approach can help to overcome biases of local planners based on their limited experience (information black spots), to allow them to address problems experienced in all areas of the city.

  20. Comparison of index systems for rating water quality in intermittent rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Raïs, Naoual; Chahinian, Nanée; Dowse, Lauryan; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2018-01-08

    Water quality indexes (WQI) are a practical way to evaluate and compare the level of chemical contamination of different water bodies and to spatially and temporally compare levels of pollution. The purpose of this study was to check if these indexes are appropriate for intermittent rivers under arid and semi-arid climates. A literature review enabled the comparison of 25 water quality indexes to discern their capability to evaluate spatial (inter and intra catchment) and temporal (high and low water flow conditions) variations in water quality in three Mediterranean intermittent rivers: the River Vène (France) and the Oued Fez and the River Sebou (Morocco). Hierarchical cluster analysis identified groups of WQI with similar behavior and brought to light the 6 most distinguishing indexes. Whatever the hydrological conditions at the two sites, both the ME-MCATUHE and NCS indexes, which were developed for Morocco and Greece, and the CCMEWQI and BCWQI indexes, which were developed for non-arid or semi-arid zones, gave appropriate water quality evaluations.

  1. Indexes of contamination for characterization of continental waters and discharges. Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Restrepo R; Cardenosa, M

    1999-01-01

    Contamination indexes (ICO) for characterization of natural water bodies and industrial discharges have been formulated in previous works by Ramirez, et al, 1997 in this work, complementary indexes not correlated with other ICOS previously developed are established thus resulting in a complementary tool to be applied in the interpretation and characterization on continental surface water bodies. First, a pH index (ICOpH) is obtained to determine ph incidence on water quality interpretation. A temperature index (ICOTEM) is also obtained to evaluate effluent incidence on receiving water bodies. ICOTEM is based on temperature difference of the wastewater discharge and the water body. Finally, indexes for the evaluation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are also developed based on data collected on sediments and fish tissue samples. These hydrocarbon compounds are highly viable to accumulate and produce long-term detrimental effects on living organisms. These latter indexes have been developed based on data of nearly 130 samples collected during monitoring campaigns in streams and water bodies affected by discharges of the petroleum industry or by accidental spills of crude oil or hydrocarbon by-products in Colombian streams; its also possible that anthropic influence other than petroleum discharges might be affecting the streams included in the monitoring campaigns

  2. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  3. Survey of water quality in Moradbeik river basis on WQI index by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survey of pollution and evaluation of water quality in rivers with Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI and GIS are effective tools for management of the impact of environmental water resources. The information in calculating the WQI of Moradbeikriver allowed us to take our tests results and make a scientific conclusion about the quality of water. GIS can be a powerful tool for developing solutions for water resources problems for assessing water quality, determining water availability, preventing flooding, understanding the natural environment, and managing water resources on a local or regional scale. Methods: The WQI of Moradbeikriver consists of nine tests: Fecal Coliform (FC, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Nitrates (NO3, Total Phosphate (PO4, pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, turbidity, and Total Solid (TS. Water quality of Moradbeikriver was investigated for 12 months. Concentrations of these nine variables were normalized on a scale from 0 to 100 and translated into statements of water quality (excellent, good, regular, fair, and poor. Also this data were analyzed with WQI index, and then river basis on water quality was zoning by GIS. Results: The average of WQI was 61.62, which corresponded to ‘‘medium’’ quality water at the sampling point 1 (best station and decreased to around 26.41 (bad quality at sampling point 6. The association between sampling points and water quality indexes was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Based on physical, chemical and biological agent monitoring and also with control of water quality indexes of these points, we observed wastewater and other river pollutants.

  4. Indexes for water management and planning on the Paraopeba River Basin, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marcel Barros da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the true amount of officially granted use of water and the spatial distribution of water usage in a watershed has become indispensable for the appropriate management of water resources. In this process, the use of indexes allows for the identification of possible water use conflicts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the indexes of conflict regarding water use in the management (icg and planning (icp of water resources in the Paraopeba River Basin, focusing on identifying possible water resource conflicts and on providing supportive information for the water management agency in Minas Gerais State. Besides the Digital Elevation Model (DEM for hydrological analyses to calculate the drainage area for every river segment, the official amount of granted water use and estimated river flows at watershed confluences was also needed. The results of the icg calculation demonstrated that in 22.7% of the analyzed river segments the use of water was higher than what is legally granted, and this indicates a potential conflict regarding water use. The icp analyses showed that in three river segments the use of water was higher than the long-term mean flow. The combined icg and icp analyses led us to conclude that in the water use conflict scenario the solution could be establishing an infrastructure that would allow a year-round increase in the availability of water to be granted.

  5. Hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) thick-walled component for a pressurised water reactor (PWR) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hookham, I.; Burdett, B.; Bridger, K.; Sulley, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the work conducted to justify and provide a quality assured HIPed thick-walled component for a PWR application; the component being designed and manufactured by Rolls-Royce. Rolls-Royce has previously published (ICAPP 08) its overall, staged approach to the introduction of powder HIPed components; starting with thin-walled, leak limited pressure boundaries, and culminating in the use of the powder HIPed process for thick walled components. This paper presents details specific to a thick walled pressure vessel component. Results are presented of non-destructive and destructive examinations of one of a batch of components. Mechanical testing and metallurgical examination results of sample material taken from different sections of the component are presented. A full range of test results is provided covering, as examples: tensile, Charpy impact and sensitization susceptibility. Differences in weldability between the HIPed and the previous forged form are also documented. (author)

  6. Comparison of tomographic coronary artery calcification index (calcium score) and ultrasonographic measurement of intima-media complex thickness in diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Cyprian; Rotkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Grzelak, Piotr; Elgalal, Marcin; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2011-01-01

    At present, there is a number of diagnostic imaging procedures allowing for the evaluation of atherosclerosis. The earliest, subclinical stage of atherosclerosis can be visualized with the development of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) techniques. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the degree of coronary artery calcification and carotid intima-media thickness in diabetic subjects divided into different age groups. Fifty-six men, aged from 18 to 72 were included in the study. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to age (18–30, 31–45, 46–60 and more than 60 years). Two tests were performed: coronary calcium score (CS) determination and intima-media thickness (IMT) in ultrasound. CS was performed using a multi-slice scanner. Images were analyzed using the Agatson method. Ultrasound examinations were performed using a 9–12-MHz linear transducer. The correlation coefficient between calcium score index (CSI) and age of patients was 0.52 (p<0.001). The correlation between duration of diabetes and CSI was significantly lower (r=0.3; p<0.05). The increase of IMT is associated with age to a much greater extent and the correlation coefficient was 0.63 (p<0.001). IMT depended on the duration of diabetes, but the correlation was also weak (r=0.35; p<0.01). Comparison of the findings obtained in the presented study and in the group of healthy subjects proves that influence of diabetes on vascular deterioration may be observed, even among young individuals. Obtained results allow to make the following conclusions: 1. Calcium score index remains low in the group of male patients with diabetes before the age of 45. 2. Intima-media thickness correlates well with age (r=0.6; p<0.05) and weaker with the duration of diabetes (r=0.35; p<0.05). 3. IMT assessment may be a useful tool to identify the increased predisposition to atherosclerosis, also before the age of 30

  7. Water Quality Assessment for Deep-water Channel area of Guangzhou Port based on the Comprehensive Water Quality Identification Index Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi

    2018-03-01

    The comprehensive water quality identification index method is able to assess the general water quality situation comprehensively and represent the water quality classification; water environment functional zone achieves pollution level and standard objectively and systematically. This paper selects 3 representative zones along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port and applies comprehensive water quality identification index method to calculate sea water quality monitoring data for different selected zones from year 2006 to 2014, in order to investigate the temporal variation of water quality along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port. The comprehensive water quality level from north to south presents an increased trend, and the water quality of the three zones in 2014 is much better than in 2006. This paper puts forward environmental protection measurements and suggestions for Pearl River Estuary, provides data support and theoretical basis for studied sea area pollution prevention and control.

  8. [Effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on soil water and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Wei; Li, Sheng-Yu; Xu, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Ying

    2009-08-01

    By using mcirolysimeter, a laboratory simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on the soil water evaporation and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. Under the same initial soil water content and deposition thickness condition, finer-textured (grain size of dust deposits on soil water evaporation had an inflection point at the grain size 0.20 mm, i. e., increased with increasing grain size when the grain size was 0.063-0.20 mm but decreased with increasing grain size when the grain size was > 0.20 mm. With the increasing thickness of dust deposits, its inhibition effect on soil water evaporation increased, and there existed a logarithmic relationship between the dust deposits thickness and water evaporation. Surface soil salt accumulation had a negative correlation with dust deposits thickness. In sum, the dust deposits in study area could affect the stability of arid desert ecosystem.

  9. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    Mathematical formulation for the variable thickness transient (VTT) model of an aquifer system is presented. The basic assumptions are described. Specific data requirements for the physical parameters are discussed. The boundary definitions and solution techniques of the numerical formulation of the system of equations are presented

  10. Modified Optimization Water Index (mowi) for LANDSAT-8 Oli/tirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Sahebi, M.; Shokri, M.

    2017-09-01

    Water is one of the most important resources that essential need for human life. Due to population growth and increasing need of human to water, proper management of water resources will be one of the serious challenges of next decades. Remote sensing data is the best way to the management of water resources due time and cost effectiveness over a greater range of temporal and spatial scales. Between many kinds of satellite data, from SAR to optic or from high resolution to low resolution, Landsat imagery is more interesting data for water detection and management of earth surface water. Landsat8 OLI/TIRS is the newest version of Landsat satellite series. In this paper, we investigated the full spectral potential of Landsat8 for water detection. It is developed many kinds of methods for this purpose that index based methods have some advantages than other methods. Pervious indices just use a limited number of spectral band. In this paper, Modified Optimization Water Index (MOWI) defined by consideration of a linear combination of bands that each coefficient of bands calculated by particle swarm algorithm. The result shows that modified optimization water index (MOWI) has a proper performance on different condition like cloud, cloud shadow and mountain shadow.

  11. A robust Multi-Band Water Index (MBWI) for automated extraction of surface water from Landsat 8 OLI imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobiao; Xie, Shunping; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Cheng; Guo, Hao; Du, Jinkang; Duan, Zheng

    2018-06-01

    Surface water is vital resources for terrestrial life, while the rapid development of urbanization results in diverse changes in sizes, amounts, and quality of surface water. To accurately extract surface water from remote sensing imagery is very important for water environment conservations and water resource management. In this study, a new Multi-Band Water Index (MBWI) for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images is proposed by maximizing the spectral difference between water and non-water surfaces using pure pixels. Based on the MBWI map, the K-means cluster method is applied to automatically extract surface water. The performance of MBWI is validated and compared with six widely used water indices in 29 sites of China. Results show that our proposed MBWI performs best with the highest accuracy in 26 out of the 29 test sites. Compared with other water indices, the MBWI results in lower mean water total errors by a range of 9.31%-25.99%, and higher mean overall accuracies and kappa coefficients by 0.87%-3.73% and 0.06-0.18, respectively. It is also demonstrated for MBWI in terms of robustly discriminating surface water from confused backgrounds that are usually sources of surface water extraction errors, e.g., mountainous shadows and dark built-up areas. In addition, the new index is validated to be able to mitigate the seasonal and daily influences resulting from the variations of the solar condition. MBWI holds the potential to be a useful surface water extraction technology for water resource studies and applications.

  12. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  13. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  14. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Stevens, D.; Sehlke, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  15. Equity in water and sanitation: developing an index to measure progressive realization of the human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Baum, Rachel; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-11-01

    We developed an index to measure progressive realization for the human right to water and sanitation. While in this study we demonstrate its application to the non-discrimination and equality component for water, the conceptual approach of the index can be used for all the different components of the human right. The index was composed of one structural, one process, and two outcome indicators and is bound between -1 and 1, where negative values indicate regression and positive values indicate progressive realization. For individual structural and process indicators, only discrete values such as -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 1 were allowed. For the outcome indicators, any value between -1 and 1 was possible, and a State's progress was evaluated using rates of change. To create an index that would allow for fair comparisons between States and across time, these rates of change were compared to benchmarked rates, which reflect the maximum rates a State can achieve. Using this approach, we calculated the index score for 56 States in 2010 for which adequate data were available and demonstrated that these index scores were not dependent on factors such as achieved level of coverage or gross national income. The proposed index differs from existing measures of inequality as it measures rate of change and not level of achievement, and thus addresses the principle of progressive realization that is fundamental to human rights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Analysis of Cortical Thickness and Fractional Anisotropy of Water Diffusion in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKochunov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesThe thickness of the brain’s cortical gray matter (GM and the fractional anisotropy (FA of the cerebral white matter (WM each follow an inverted U-shape trajectory with age. Both measures are positively correlated, suggesting a common biological mechanism. We employed bivariate genetic analyses to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs and individual genes acting pleiotropically upon these phenotypes.MethodsWhole-brain and regional GM thickness and FA values were measured from high-resolution anatomical (0.8mm isotropic and diffusion tensor MR images (1.7x1.7x3.0mm, 55 directions collected for 712 active participants (274/438 male/females, age=47.9±13.2years in the Genetics of Brain Structure study.ResultsBivariate, whole-genome quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses of the whole brain measures localized significant (LOD≥3.0 QTLs within chromosome region 15q22-23. More detailed localization was achieved using single nuclear polymorphism (SNP association and gene expression analyses. No significant association (p<510-5 was observed for 1565 SNPs located within the QTLs. However, post-hoc analysis indicated that 40% of the potentially significant (p≤10-3 polymorphisms were localized to the RORA and NARG2 genes. A potentially significant association (p=310-4 was also observed for the rs2456930 polymorphism that was previously reported as a significant GWAS finding in ADNI subjects. Lymphocyte expression measurements for two genes, located under QTL, RORA and ADAM10 were significantly (p<0.05 correlated with both FA and GM thickness values. Expression measurements for NARG2 was significantly correlated with GM thickness (p<0.05 but failed to show a significant correlation (p=0.09 with FA.Discussion This study identified a novel, significant QTL at 15q22-23. SNP association and correlation with gene-expression analyses indicated that RORA, NARG2 and ADAM10 jointly influence GM thickness and cerebral WM integrity.

  17. EPA Office of Water (OW): 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters program system provides impaired water data and impaired water features reflecting river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated...

  18. A direct current potential drop method for evaluating oxide film thickness formed in high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Hideya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Saka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    To establish an evaluation technique for oxide film thickness in-situ, the applicability of a four-point-probe direct current potential drop method is discussed in this study. Several samples of JIS SUS316L stainless steel with different oxide film thickness were prepared after immersing them in oxygenated pure water at 288°C for different periods. The oxide film thickness was measured by cross sectional observation using a transmission electron microscope. Potential drop on the oxide surface was measured every second during an acquisition period of about 20 s while a constant current was being injected into the sample simultaneously. This kind of measurement was repeatedly carried out at several arbitrary contact positions on the surface of the same sample. The measurement results showed that the potential drop slightly changed during the acquisition period and the tendency varied at the different contact positions. Multiple measurements at different contact positions revealed that the tendency could be categorized into two general types: the decreasing potential drop and the increasing potential drop, defined by the overall trend of the potential drop during the acquisition time. It was found that the ratio of contact positions with a decreasing potential drop tendency to all the contact positions of measurement tended to increase as applied current increased. This tendency depended on the oxide film thickness. The threshold value of applied current was found to correlate well with the oxide film thickness when the occurrence rate of decreasing potential drop ranged from 70 to 90% showing the best correlation at 70%. (author)

  19. Creating a spatially-explicit index: a method for assessing the global wildfire-water risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinne, François-Nicolas; Parisien, Marc-André; Flannigan, Mike; Miller, Carol; Bladon, Kevin D.

    2017-04-01

    The wildfire-water risk (WWR) has been defined as the potential for wildfires to adversely affect water resources that are important for downstream ecosystems and human water needs for adequate water quantity and quality, therefore compromising the security of their water supply. While tools and methods are numerous for watershed-scale risk analysis, the development of a toolbox for the large-scale evaluation of the wildfire risk to water security has only started recently. In order to provide managers and policy-makers with an adequate tool, we implemented a method for the spatial analysis of the global WWR based on the Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This framework relies on the cause-and-effect relationships existing between the five categories of the DPSIR chain. As this approach heavily relies on data, we gathered an extensive set of spatial indicators relevant to fire-induced hydrological hazards and water consumption patterns by human and natural communities. When appropriate, we applied a hydrological routing function to our indicators in order to simulate downstream accumulation of potentially harmful material. Each indicator was then assigned a DPSIR category. We collapsed the information in each category using a principal component analysis in order to extract the most relevant pixel-based information provided by each spatial indicator. Finally, we compiled our five categories using an additive indexation process to produce a spatially-explicit index of the WWR. A thorough sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to understand the relationship between the final risk values and the spatial pattern of each category used during the indexation. For comparison purposes, we aggregated index scores by global hydrological regions, or hydrobelts, to get a sense of regional DPSIR specificities. This rather simple method does not necessitate the use of complex physical models and provides a scalable and efficient tool

  20. Automatic design of basin-specific drought indexes for highly regulated water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniolo, Marta; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea Francesco; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    Socio-economic costs of drought are progressively increasing worldwide due to undergoing alterations of hydro-meteorological regimes induced by climate change. Although drought management is largely studied in the literature, traditional drought indexes often fail at detecting critical events in highly regulated systems, where natural water availability is conditioned by the operation of water infrastructures such as dams, diversions, and pumping wells. Here, ad hoc index formulations are usually adopted based on empirical combinations of several, supposed-to-be significant, hydro-meteorological variables. These customized formulations, however, while effective in the design basin, can hardly be generalized and transferred to different contexts. In this study, we contribute FRIDA (FRamework for Index-based Drought Analysis), a novel framework for the automatic design of basin-customized drought indexes. In contrast to ad hoc empirical approaches, FRIDA is fully automated, generalizable, and portable across different basins. FRIDA builds an index representing a surrogate of the drought conditions of the basin, computed by combining all the relevant available information about the water circulating in the system identified by means of a feature extraction algorithm. We used the Wrapper for Quasi-Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS), which features a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find Pareto-efficient subsets of variables by maximizing the wrapper accuracy, minimizing the number of selected variables, and optimizing relevance and redundancy of the subset. The preferred variable subset is selected among the efficient solutions and used to formulate the final index according to alternative model structures. We apply FRIDA to the case study of the Jucar river basin (Spain), a drought-prone and highly regulated Mediterranean water resource system, where an advanced drought management plan relying on the formulation of an ad hoc state index is used

  1. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water Quality Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Olatunji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in Nigeria. Therefore, the need to ascertain the continuing potability of the sources cannot be over emphasised. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of selected groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water quality index (WQI method. Twenty two water samples were collected, 10 samples from boreholes and 12 samples from hand dug wells. All these were analysed for their physico – chemical properties. The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, fluoride, iron, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and carbonate. The water quality index for the twenty two samples ranged from 0.66 to 756.02 with an average of 80.77. Two of the samples exceeded 100, which is the upper limit for safe drinking water. The high values of WQI from the sampling locations are observed to be due to higher values of iron and fluoride. This study reveals that the investigated groundwaters are mostly potable and can be consumed without treatment. Nonetheless, the sources identified to be unsafe should be treated before consumption.

  2. Environmental Controls on Snow Cover Thickness and Water Equivalent in Two Sub-Arctic Mountain Catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of snow cover characteristics (depth, density, and snow water equivalent [SWE]) has paramount importance for the management of water resources in mountain environments. Passive microwave (PM) inference of SWE from space-borne instrumentation is increasingly used but the reliability of this technique remains limited in mountainous areas. Complex topography and the transition between forest and alpine tundra vegetation zones create large spatial heterogeneities in the sn...

  3. Indexes of the common reed's seed vitality from water-bodies of the Chernobyl exclusive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavnuk, A.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Gudkov, D.I.; Levchenko, Ya.I.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the common reed's seed vitality (vegetation of 2009) from flood-plain water-bodies with different level of radionuclide contamination was carried out. Decrease in indexes of seed's vitality and abnormalities in seed dynamic sprouting was noticed. Dose-response relationship of germination, germinating force, survival rate of seeds of plants was determined. (authors)

  4. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  5. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  7. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Assessed Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  8. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Waters as Assessed NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  9. EPA Office of Water (OW): Impaired Waters with TMDLs NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Tracking System contains information on waters that are Not Supporting their designated uses. These waters are listed by the...

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): TMDLs on Impaired Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Tracking System contains information on waters that are Not Supporting their designated uses. These waters are listed by the...

  11. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPoonoosamy

    water, and expressing them to non-technical people may not always be easy. ... parameters for a case study; dissolved oxygen, pH, total coliforms, ... Several national agencies responsible for water supply and water pollution, have strongly .... good quality and required proper treatment if it were to be consumed as potable.

  12. An evaluation index system of water security in China based on macroeconomic data from 2000 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. S.; Peng, Z. Y.; Li, T. T.

    2016-08-01

    This paper establishes an evaluation index system of water security. The index system employs 5 subsystems (water circulation security, water environment security, water ecology security, water society security and water economy security) and has 39 indicators. Using the AHP method, each indicator is given a relative weight to integrate within the whole system. With macroeconomic data from 2000 to 2012, a model of water security evaluation is applied to assess the state of water security in China. The results show an improving trend in the overall state of China's water security. In particular, the cycle of water security is at a high and low fluctuation. Water environment security presents an upward trend on the whole; however, this trend is unsteady and has shown a descending tendency in some years. Yet, water ecology security, water society security, and water economy security are basically on the rise. However, the degree of coordination of China's water security system remains in need of consolidation.

  13. Health evaluation of drinking water regarding to scaling and corrosion potential using corrosion indexes in Noorabad city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Result obtained from studied indexes showed that the drinking water in Noorabad is corrosive and so the water quality in water supply system should be monitored continuously. The best applicable practices for decreasing water corrosion in water supply system are including continuous control of pH, chlorination mechanism and the use of corrosion resistant pipelines and facilities.

  14. Permeability of skin and oral mucosa to water and horseradish peroxidase as related to the thickness of the permeability barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The permeability of porcine skin and keratinized and nonkeratinized oral mucosa to tritium-labeled water and horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) was determined using perfusion chambers. Small blocks from each tissue were also incubated with HRPO and the extent of penetration visualized microscopically; this enabled measurements to be made of the thickness of the permeability barrier to this water-soluble tracer. Results obtained after inverting the oral mucosa in the chambers or adding metabolic inhibitors indicated that both compounds diffuse across the tissue. The permeability constants derived directly in the study showed that skin was less permeable than oral mucosa and that the floor of the mouth was significantly more permeable than all other regions. When these constants were normalized in terms of a standard permeability barrier thickness and the different tissues compared, the values obtained for skin were again less than those of the oral regions but, of these, the buccal mucosa was significantly higher. The difference in permeability between epidermis and keratinized oral epithelium may be due to differences in the volume density of membrane-coating granules known to exist between the tissues; differences between the oral mucosal regions may reflect differences in the nature of the intercellular barrier material

  15. Aerosol optical thickness and spatial variability along coastal and offshore waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, H.B.; Sangekar, N.; Lotliker, A.; Moorthy, K.K.; Vethamony, P.

    for water-leaving radiance and sun glint to the NIR bands. The aerosol size distribution parameter (alpha) was derived from a relationship between two NIR bands. The Angstrom turbidity parameter (beta) was obtained using an algorithm relating in situ hand...

  16. Relation of body mass index with carotid intima-media thickness and diameter is independent of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Mediterranean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Marco; Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Covetti, Giuseppe; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; De Michele, Mario; Rubba, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether overweight and obesity are associated with arterial abnormalities in postmenopausal women and the contribution of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 390 postmenopausal women (mean age, 63.1 ± 7.7 y) living in the metropolitan area of Naples, Southern Italy, and participating in a population-based cohort study (Progetto Atena) were offered an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries; 370 women accepted. Blood pressure, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in all participants. Women in the second and third tertiles of body mass index showed a greater common carotid intima-media thickness compared with those in the first tertile (tertile II vs I, odds ratio, 2.15; P = 0.013; tertile III vs I, odds ratio, 2.24; P = 0.018), adjusted for age and metabolic syndrome. Obese and overweight postmenopausal women showed greater common carotid lumen diameters as compared with lean postmenopausal women (mean ± SD, 6.36 ± 0.86, 6.16 ± 0.65, and 5.96 ± 0.59 mm, respectively; P women. The statistical significance between obese and lean postmenopausal women was retained even after adding the components of the metabolic syndrome as covariates. These findings indicate an association between overweight, obesity, and preclinical carotid artery abnormalities, independently of the metabolic syndrome, in a population of postmenopausal women.

  17. Associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Diez Roux, Ana V; Macdonald, Leslie; Foy, Capri G; Andrew, Michael E; Stukovsky, Karen H; Baron, Sherry

    2012-10-01

    Long working hours may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective was to investigate cross-sectional associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants were 1694 women and 1868 men from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. CIMT and ABI were measured using standard protocols. Information on work hours was obtained from questionnaires. Mean values of CIMT and ABI were examined across five categories of hours worked per week (≤20, 21-39, 40, 41-50 and >50) using analysis of variance/analysis of covariance. p Values for trend were obtained from linear regression models. Mean age of participants was 56.9±8.4 years; 52.4% were men. Distinct patterns of association between work hours and the subclinical CVD biomarkers were found for women and men, although this heterogeneity by gender was not statistically significant. Among women only, work hours were positively associated with common (but not internal) CIMT (p=0.073) after full risk factor adjustment. Compared with women working 40 h, those working >50 h were more likely to have an ABI work hours and ABI were inversely associated (p=0.046). There was some evidence that the association between work hours and ABI was modified by occupational category (interaction p=0.061). Among persons classified as management/professionals, longer work hours was associated with lower ABI (p=0.015). No significant associations were observed among other occupational groups. Working longer hours may be associated with subclinical CVD. These associations should be investigated using longitudinal studies.

  18. Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Restoration of body composition indicates successful management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Bioimpedance (BI) index (height(2)/resistance) is used to predict total body water (TBW) but its performance in SAM, especially with oedema, requires further investigation....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference ...Hzs. Pre- and post-deuterium dose saliva samples were analysed using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. TBW was regressed on H(2)/Z. Xc and R were height (H)-indexed, and Xc/H plotted against R/H. RESULTS: Thirty five children (16 non-oedematous and 19 oedematous) with median (interquartile range) age of 42...

  19. A novel infrastructure modularity index for the segmentation of water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolisi, O.; Ridolfi, L.

    2014-10-01

    The search for suitable segmentations is a challenging and urgent issue for the analysis, planning and management of complex water distribution networks (WDNs). In fact, complex and large size hydraulic systems require the division into modules in order to simplify the analysis and the management tasks. In the complex network theory, modularity index has been proposed as a measure of the strength of the network division into modules and its maximization is used in order to identify community of nodes (i.e., modules) which are characterized by strong interconnections. Nevertheless, modularity index needs to be revised considering the specificity of the hydraulic systems as infrastructure systems. To this aim, the classic modularity index has been recently modified and tailored for WDNs. Nevertheless, the WDN-oriented modularity is affected by the resolution limit stemming from classic modularity index. Such a limit hampers the identification/design of small modules and this is a major drawback for technical tasks requiring a detailed resolution of the network segmentation. In order to get over this problem, we propose a novel infrastructure modularity index that is not affected by the resolution limit of the classic one. The rationale and good features of the proposed index are theoretically demonstrated and discussed using two real hydraulic networks.

  20. Data on water quality index for the groundwater in rural area Neyshabur County, Razavi province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yousefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health is at risk from physical and chemical contaminants in the drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. The data from the current study was evaluated for groundwater quality in the rural villages of Neyshabur County in Iran. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, water samples were collected from 30 randomly-selected water wells during 2013 and 2014. The samples were tested in situ to measure physical parameters of pH and electrical conductivity and chemical parameters of total dissolved solids, total hardness and levels of calcium, magnesium, carbonates, bicarbonates, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfates. The APHA method was applied to determine the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. Keywords: Ground water quality index, Rural area, Neyshabur, Iran

  1. Calibration of System Input Volume and Non-Revenue Water Index in Edo North, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a serious problem in developing world. It could be physical scarcity or economic water shortage. The output of physicsbased study conducted in Edo North, Nigeria revealed that physical water losses in the water distribution network have compounded the accessibility and affordability of safe drinking water. Water supply and loss variables such as Water Supply (WS Physical Water Loss (WLρ Apparent Water Loss (WLE Water Loss Reduction Index (WLRI and Available Water (AW were mathematically modeled to produce realistic and efficient water loss management and improve water revenue. The result of the modeling iterations show that the average physical and apparent losses of 4,000m 3 and 2,700m 3 of (WLρ and (WLE correspond to 13,200m 3 , 6,400m 3 and 0.5 of WS/SIV, AW and WLRI in 2007. Strong indication exists between the WLRI for both physical and apparent losses with the coefficient of determination R 2=0.83 and 0.99 respectively. This relationship shows that more water is being lost through real loss with average total of 59.2% and 40.8% of apparent losses. However, a reduction of Total Non-Revenue Water (TNRW from 50.7% to 10.6% was recorded between 2007 to 2011. This reduction led to a total increase of 4,400m 3 of Revenue Water, decrease in Non-Revenue Water reduction cost from 36% in 2007 to 7% in 2011 and saving of US$17,400 which could be used to provide health facility for malaria treatment for 14,500 people on daily basis. Water efficiency, and particularly drinking water loss, is a serious issue which has significant financial and economic depression; awareness in this respect is totally unrecognized by both individual and governmental sector. Generally, long-term strategies towards the reduction of water losses should continue to be sustained by Edo State government, donor agencies and some private sectors in the area of water supply in order to support the fulfillment of the Millennium Development Goals, control of

  2. A Survey of Fluoride Dosage in Driniking Water and DMF Index in Damghan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Nasehi nia

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is one of the important elements. There are so many controversial scientific points of view regarding fluoride and its presence in food chain. Water fluoridation is the best and most reliable method for the control of dental caries. In this research, the presence and concentration of fluoride in drinking water resources in the city of Damghan and DMF index (decayed, missed, filled between 560 school students (12-15 was investigated. The mean concentration of fluoride in water supplies of Damaghan city was measured in low rain seasons 0.37 mg/l and high rain seasons 0.6 mg/l the DMF index for 12 year sold student was equal 2.00 that comparing these data with the WHO classify cation for DMF index, showed them to be considered in the second surface (low classificatino. For conclusion, based on the mentioned data, a significant correlation may be found between the two parameters in different communities, and the most logic solution for the control of dental cavities in these communities, is the adjusment of fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  3. The impact of Land use Change on Water Pollution Index of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranatasari Dyah Susanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use change is one of the effects of population growth and increased human activities. Land use change that overlooked the rule of ecosystem sustainability has a propensity to adversely affect the environment, including the decline of water quality. Kali Madiun is a sub-watershed of Bengawan Solo Watershed that allegedly endured the impacts of land use change. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of land use change on the water quality index of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed. Land use change analysis was done by overlay analysis of spatial data including the maps of land use in 2010 and 2015. Samples were the surface water in the upper, middle and lower part of Kali Madiun Sub-Watershed. Water quality analysis was carried out by comparing the results of water quality parameter assessment based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001, while water quality index was figured out by an assessment based on the Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 115 of 2003. The results indicated that during the five years observation, there were land use changes in the upper, middle and lower part of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed. Several parameters increased in 2010 to 2015, namely: TDS, BOD, COD, nitrate, detergents, oils and greases. Pollution index shifted from slightly polluted in 2010 into moderately polluted in 2015. We propose a strategy to solve these problems by the involvement of stakeholders and the participation of local community in managing both domestic and industrial wastes. Also, it should be supported by palpable regulations related to land conversion. Furthermore, it is expected that the effort will reduce the potential of pollution and improve the water quality.

  4. Water Quality Index in the Vicinity of Pelepah Kanan Mine, Kota Tinggi, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Mohd Talib Latif; Zulfahmi Ali Rahman; Tukimat Lihan; Chong, L.Y.; Azman Hashim; Shahrinizam Mohd Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the water quality index at the Pelepah Kanan River, Kota Tinggi, Johor. Six stations were chosen from different part of the river from upstream to downstream to represent the water quality index along this river. Three replicates of samples were taken from each station. Samples were collected in two different seasons namely dry season (July) and rainy season (December) 2007. In-situ physico-chemical measurements included temperature, ph, dissolved oxygen and conductivity. Physico-chemical parameters determined in the laboratory were turbidity, total suspended solid (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). According to the Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS), results showed that all sampling stations along the Pelepah Kanan River in July fall in Class I-II for physical and chemical parameters except for dissolved oxygen and pH which was in Class I-II. The results obtained in December also showed that all sampling stations fall in Class I for physical and chemical parameters except for pH which was in Class III. Correlation test showed that some physico- chemical parameters have significant correlation with each other. Water Quality Index (WQI) analysis showed that the mean WQI value for the month of July is 96.88 (Class I) while for December, the WQI value deteriorated to 84.03 (Class II). According to the calculated values of WQI and comparison with INWQS, the index of water quality in Pelepah Kanan River is in the clean category and is not affected by pollution neither anthropogenic activities nor natural pollution. (author)

  5. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  6. A NEW MULTI-SPECTRAL THRESHOLD NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE WATER INDEX (MST-NDWI WATER EXTRACTION METHOD – A CASE STUDY IN YANHE WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate remote sensing water extraction is one of the primary tasks of watershed ecological environment study. Since the Yanhe water system has typical characteristics of a small water volume and narrow river channel, which leads to the difficulty for conventional water extraction methods such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. A new Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation of the NDWI (MST-NDWI water extraction method is proposed to achieve the accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed. In the MST-NDWI method, the spectral characteristics of water bodies and typical backgrounds on the Landsat/TM images have been evaluated in Yanhe watershed. The multi-spectral thresholds (TM1, TM4, TM5 based on maximum-likelihood have been utilized before NDWI water extraction to realize segmentation for a division of built-up lands and small linear rivers. With the proposed method, a water map is extracted from the Landsat/TM images in 2010 in China. An accuracy assessment is conducted to compare the proposed method with the conventional water indexes such as NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Enhanced Water Index (EWI, and Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI. The result shows that the MST-NDWI method generates better water extraction accuracy in Yanhe watershed and can effectively diminish the confusing background objects compared to the conventional water indexes. The MST-NDWI method integrates NDWI and Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation algorithms, with richer valuable information and remarkable results in accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed.

  7. An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Contreras-Caraveo, Manuel; Quintana, Rey Manuel; Saucedo-Teran, Ruben Alfonso; Pinales-Munguia, Adan

    2012-01-01

    A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a WQI for the water of the Luis L. Leon dam located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Monthly water samples were obtained in 2009; January 10, February 12, March 8, May 20, June 10, July 9, August 12, September 10, October 11, November 15 and December 13. Ten sampling sites were randomly selected after dividing the study area using a geographic package. In each site, two samples at the top depth of 0.20 m and 1.0 m were obtained to quantify physical-chemical parameters. The following 11 parameters were considered to calculate the WQI; pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), color, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, Total Solids (TS) and phosphorous (P). The data analysis involved two steps; a single analysis for each parameter and the WQI calculation. The resulted WQI value classified the water quality according to the following ranges: water; from 2.3 to 2.8 good water; and >2.8 excellent water. The results showed that the WQI values changed from low levels (WQI 2.8) most of the year and the variation was due to time of sampling generally rainy season. PMID:22754466

  8. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. I. History, theory, and baselines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Development of portable infrared thermometers and the definition of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) have led to widespread interest in infrared thermometry to monitor water stress and schedule irrigations. But the CWSI concept is still new and poorly understood by many. The purpose of this paper is to review the definition of CWSI, and the determination and interpretation of the non-water-stressed baselines used to compute CWSI. The non-water-stressed baseline equation normalizes the canopy minus air temperature differential for variations in vapor pressure deficit. Non-water-stressed baselines can be determined empirically from measurements of canopy and air temperatures and vapor pressure deficit, made diurnally on a single day, or at a single time of day over many days, on well-watered plants. The value of the maximum canopy minus air temperature differential under maximum water stress should also be determined empirically. Causes for CWSI values falling outside of the defined 0 to 10 unit range are reviewed. Non-water-stressed baselines may shift with plant growth stage. Effective use of CWSI is dependent on understanding the definition of CWSI, and the proper determination and use of non-water-stressed baselines. (author)

  9. water quality index estimate for isiodu river water during dredging in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    BOD5), dissolved oxygen (DO) ... quality index are fecal coliform count (6.96, 7.57mg/L), BOD5 (3.21, 3.17mg/L) DO (5.47, 5.36mg/L), pH (6.87, 6.86), temperature (13.20 ... Stations A and B are found upstream relative to the dredger position C,.

  10. Design and Application of Drought Indexes in Highly Regulated Mediterranean Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Zaniolo, M.; Giuliani, M.

    2017-12-01

    Costs of drought are progressively increasing due to the undergoing alteration of hydro-meteorological regimes induced by climate change. Although drought management is largely studied in the literature, most of the traditional drought indexes fail in detecting critical events in highly regulated systems, which generally rely on ad-hoc formulations and cannot be generalized to different context. In this study, we contribute a novel framework for the design of a basin-customized drought index. This index represents a surrogate of the state of the basin and is computed by combining the available information about the water available in the system to reproduce a representative target variable for the drought condition of the basin (e.g., water deficit). To select the relevant variables and combinatione thereof, we use an advanced feature extraction algorithm called Wrapper for Quasi Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS). W-QEISS relies on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find Pareto-efficient subsets of variables by maximizing the wrapper accuracy, minimizing the number of selected variables, and optimizing relevance and redundancy of the subset. The accuracy objective is evaluated trough the calibration of an extreme learning machine of the water deficit for each candidate subset of variables, with the index selected from the resulting solutions identifying a suitable compromise between accuracy, cardinality, relevance, and redundancy. The approach is tested on Lake Como, Italy, a regulated lake mainly operated for irrigation supply. In the absence of an institutional drought monitoring system, we constructed the combined index using all the hydrological variables from the existing monitoring system as well as common drought indicators at multiple time aggregations. The soil moisture deficit in the root zone computed by a distributed-parameter water balance model of the agricultural districts is used as target variable. Numerical results show that

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): 2002 Impaired Waters Baseline NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of geospatial and attribute data identifying the spatial extent of state-reported impaired waters (EPA's Integrated Reporting categories 4a,...

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): Facilities that Discharge to Water NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States is regulated under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), a mandated provision of the...

  13. Can a canopy temperature-based stress index enhance water use efficiency in irrigated wine grape under arid conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of irrigation water use efficiency and water productivity in arid wine grape production regions is hindered by a lack of automated, real-time methods for monitoring and interpreting vine water status. A normalized, water stress index calculated from real-time vine canopy temperature meas...

  14. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry; Ho, Cheng

    2002-09-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data on various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  15. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry L.; Ho, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  16. An integrated approach to aquatic health assessment: water quality index and multibiomarker response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedeno-Diaz, J. E.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; Jimenez-Trujillo, P.; Tejeda-Vera, R.; Espainal Carrion, T.

    2009-01-01

    The pollution of water bodies reduces their quality and is stressful to their biota. In a river, water usually is of the high-est quality in its headwaters reaches, becoming dirtier along its length as it passes through different land uses. Therefore, the aquatic environment should be assessed using physicochemical and biological features in order to provide a full spectrum of aquatic ecosystem health. Water Quality Indexes can be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters and to translate this information into a single value. The use of bio markers as indicators of toxicity delineates the effects of xenobiotics before the appearance of diseases in aquatic organism. The use of a battery bio markers may be useful to evaluate the various response to mixtures of pollutants. (Author)

  17. Relevance of water quality index for groundwater quality evaluation: Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaraja, C.

    2017-09-01

    The present hydrogeochemical study was confined to the Thoothukudi District in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 100 representative water samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and analyzed for the major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and anions (chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, fluoride and nitrate) along with various physical and chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved salts and electrical conductivity). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify the overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to dilution of ions and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC corresponds to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. Sodium (Na %), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), residual sodium bicarbonate, permeability index (PI), magnesium hazards (MH), Kelly's ratio (KR), potential salinity (PS) and Puri's salt index (PSI) and domestic quality parameters such as total hardness (TH), temporary, permanent hardness and corrosivity ratio (CR) were calculated. The majority of the samples were not suitable for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes in the study area. In this study, the analysis of salinization/freshening processes was carried out through binary diagrams such as of mole ratios of {SO}_{ 4}^{ 2- } /Cl- and Cl-/EC that clearly classify the sources of seawater intrusion and saltpan contamination. Spatial diagram BEX was used to find whether the aquifer was in the salinization region or in the freshening encroachment region.

  18. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carvalho

    Full Text Available The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  19. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  20. Spatial Variation in Seasonal Water Poverty Index for Laos: An Application of Geographically Weighted Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Marko; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Virrantaus, Kirsi-Kanerva

    2017-01-01

    Water poverty, defined as insufficient water of adequate quality to cover basic needs, is an issue that may manifest itself in multiple ways. Extreme seasonal variation in water availability, such as in Laos, located in Monsoon Asia, results in large differences in water poverty conditions between dry and wet seasons. In this study, seasonal Water Poverty Indices (WPI) are developed for 8215 villages in Laos. WPI is a multidimensional composite index integrating five dimensions of water: reso...

  1. An improved water budget for the El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico, as determined by the Water Supply Stress Index Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen; Steven McNulty; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger; Jason Christian; Decheng Zhou; Kai Duan; Keren J. Cepero-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the forest water budget is fundamental to making science-based forest management decisions. This study aimed at developing an improved water budget for the El Yunque National Forest (ENF) in Puerto Rico, one of the wettest forests in the United States. We modified an existing monthly scale water balance model, Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI), to reflect...

  2. Easy prediction of the refractive index for binary mixtures of ionic liquids with water or ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rilo, E.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Vila, J.; Segade, L.; García, M.; Varela, L.M.; Cabeza, O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measure refractive index, n, in seven systems formed by IL + water or ethanol. ► Independently, theoretical estimations of the refractive index values were performed. ► To do that we use Gladstone–Dale and Newton models, relating n and density. ► We calculate density of each system from the value of the pure components. ► The agreement between experimental and calculated n values is about 99.8%. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to know the refractive index, n D , of every given mixture of 1-alkyl-3methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate with water and ethanol just from the knowledge of the refractive index and density of pure components. To do that, we measured n D for seven different mixtures in all range of existing concentrations and, independently, we deduce n D theoretically. Both sets of values differ less than a 0.2% on average. The theoretical deduction takes into account that these mixtures are quasi-ideal from the molar volume point of view, as recently published, and so density for any composition of the mixture can be obtained with a precision better than 0.5% from the pure compounds value. Now we simply apply Newton or Gladstone–Dale models, which relate the refractive index of a binary mixture with its density from the value of both pure components, without any fitting parameter. Both models are very similar in form and in the values they deduce (less than a 0.2% of difference), but while that of Newton performs slightly better for ethanol mixtures, the model of Gladstone–Dale gives some better results for aqueous mixtures. We think that these results can be extended to the majority of ionic liquid plus solvent systems.

  3. Long-term water absorption and thickness swelling and determine their characteristics in wood flour/polypropylene/Nano SiO2 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ismaeilimoghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nano SiO2 on long-term water absorption and thickness swelling, humidity coefficient diffusion and thickness swelling rate of wood plastic composite. For this purpose, 60% wood flour, 40% polypropylene, 2 per hundred compound (phc MAPP in internal mixer (HAAKE were mixed. Nano SiO2 with 0, 1, 3 and 5 (phc ratios as a reinforcing was used too. Finally test samples were fabricated by using the injection molding machine. Then long-term water absorption and thickness swelling for 1848 hours according to the ASTM standard on the samples were measured. Humidity coefficient diffusion and thickness swelling rate for closer look long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behavior in wood plastic nanocomposite were calculated too. For ensure to the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl grope of SiO2 nanoparticles with hydroxyl grope of wood flour form Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy tests was used. The results showed that water absorption behavior of nanocomposite is according to Fick's law, in addition with increasing to SiO2 nanoparticles, long-term water absorption and thickness swelling and humidity coefficient diffusion in wood plastic nanocomposite decreased. The results of infrared spectroscopy showed that hydrogen bond between the nano SiO2 and wood flour confirmed. Statistical analysis showed that after 1848 hours of immersion, nano SiO2 showed a significant effect at a confidence level of 99% on water absorption and thickness swelling, so the sample with 5% silica nanoparticles was chosen as the best treatment.

  4. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B. R. [BP Research, Cleveland, OH (United States); Nielsen, D. C.; Shock, C. C.

    1992-10-15

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  5. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  6. An overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a man-made aquatic reservoir in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Contreras-Caraveo, Manuel; Quintana, Rey Manuel; Saucedo-Teran, Ruben Alfonso; Pinales-Munguia, Adan

    2012-05-01

    A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a WQI for the water of the Luis L. Leon dam located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Monthly water samples were obtained in 2009; January 10, February 12, March 8, May 20, June 10, July 9, August 12, September 10, October 11, November 15 and December 13. Ten sampling sites were randomly selected after dividing the study area using a geographic package. In each site, two samples at the top depth of 0.20 m and 1.0 m were obtained to quantify physical-chemical parameters. The following 11 parameters were considered to calculate the WQI; pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), color, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, Total Solids (TS) and phosphorous (P). The data analysis involved two steps; a single analysis for each parameter and the WQI calculation. The resulted WQI value classified the water quality according to the following ranges: 2.8 excellent water. The results showed that the WQI values changed from low levels (WQI 2.8) most of the year and the variation was due to time of sampling generally rainy season.

  7. An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A Water Quality Index (WQI is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a WQI for the water of the Luis L. Leon dam located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Monthly water samples were obtained in 2009; January 10, February 12, March 8, May 20, June 10, July 9, August 12, September 10, October 11, November 15 and December 13. Ten sampling sites were randomly selected after dividing the study area using a geographic package. In each site, two samples at the top depth of 0.20 m and 1.0 m were obtained to quantify physical-chemical parameters. The following 11 parameters were considered to calculate the WQI; pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, color, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, Total Solids (TS and phosphorous (P. The data analysis involved two steps; a single analysis for each parameter and the WQI calculation. The resulted WQI value classified the water quality according to the following ranges: 2.8 excellent water. The results showed that the WQI values changed from low levels (WQI < 2.3 in some points during autumn time to high levels (WQI > 2.8 most of the year and the variation was due to time of sampling generally rainy season.

  8. Study on the Influence of the Cold-End Cooling Water Thickness on the Generative Performance of TEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Guo, Xuexun; Tan, Gangfeng; Ji, Kangping; Xiao, Longjie

    2017-05-01

    At present, about 40% of the fuel energy is discharged into air with the exhaust gas when an automobile is working, which is a big waste of energy. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the ability to harvest the waste heat energy in the exhaust gas. The traditional TEG cold-end is cooled by the engine cooling system, and although its structure is compact, the TEG weight and the space occupied are important factors restricting its application. In this paper, under the premise of ensuring the TEG maximum net output power and reducing the TEG water consumption as much as possible, the optimization of the TEG water thickness in the normal direction of the cold-end surface (WTNCS) is studied, which results in lighter weight, less space occupied and better automobile fuel economy. First, the thermal characteristics of the target diesel vehicle exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data. Then, according to the thermoelectric generation model and the cold-end heat transfer model, the effect of the WTNCS on the cold-end temperature control stability and the system flow resistance are studied. The results show that the WTNCS influences the TEG cold-end temperature. When the engine works in a stable condition, the cold-end temperature decreases with the decrease of the WTNCS. The optimal value of the WTNCS is 0.02 m and the TEG water consumption is 8.8 L. Comparin it with the traditional vehicle exhaust TEG structure, the power generation increased slightly, but the water consumption decreased by about 39.5%, which can save fuel at0.18 L/h when the vehicle works at the speed of 60 km/h.

  9. Optimising the weighting of the water retention index using sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William; Vandecasteele, Ine

    2015-04-01

    A robust composite indicator was developed to assess the capacity of the landscape to regulate and retain water passing through it at Pan-European scale. The "Water Retention Index" (WRI) takes into account the role of interception by vegetation, the water-holding capacity of the soil, and the relative capacity of the bedrock to allow percolation of water, as well as the influence of soil sealing and slope gradient. A delicate issue in composite indicators is however the relative weighting of each variable used in the indicator - strong correlations and skewness are known to cause unequal influence of the input variables, even though the weighting coefficients are equal (Paruolo et al, 2013). To understand the effects of the weightings in the WRI, penalised splines were used to calculate the first order sensitivity index of each variable used in the construction of the WRI, allowing the true influence of each input to be determined. Furthermore, the weighting coefficients were optimised using an iterative nonlinear algorithm to find the coefficients which resulted in the most equal influence of each input to the indicator. In principle, this approach can be used to improve the weighting of many different kinds of composite indicator, the results of which are often used as the basis for important policy decisions at the European level. Paruolo, Paolo, Michaela Saisana, and Andrea Saltelli. "Ratings and rankings: voodoo or science?." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 176.3 (2013): 609-634.

  10. Applying a water quality index model to assess the water quality of the major rivers in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Ram Krishna; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Masago, Yoshifumi; Luo, Pingping; Toyozumi-Kojima, Asako; Jalilov, Shokhrukh-Mirzo

    2017-08-01

    Human activities during recent decades have led to increased degradation of the river water environment in South Asia. This degradation has led to concerns for the populations of the major cities of Nepal, including those of the Kathmandu Valley. The deterioration of the rivers in the valley is directly linked to the prevalence of poor sanitary conditions, as well as the presence of industries that discharge their effluents into the river. This study aims to investigate the water quality aspect for the aquatic ecosystems and recreation of the major rivers in the Kathmandu Valley using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment water quality index (CCME WQI). Ten physicochemical parameters were used to determine the CCME WQI at 20 different sampling locations. Analysis of the data indicated that the water quality in rural areas ranges from excellent to good, whereas in denser settlements and core urban areas, the water quality is poor. The study results are expected to provide policy-makers with valuable information related to the use of river water by local people in the study area.

  11. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii a handheld scale; and (iii a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  12. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Friedrichs, Anna; Voß, Daniela; Zielinski, Oliver

    2015-12-18

    Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI) scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i) ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii) a handheld scale; and (iii) a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  13. Determination of the refractive index of glucose-ethanol-water mixtures using spectroscopic refractometry near the critical angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, H; Peña-Gomar, M

    2015-10-01

    A spectroscopic refractometer was used to investigate the dispersion curves of ethanol and D-glucose solutions in water near the critical angle; here, the reflectivity was measured using a white source. Dispersion curves were obtained in the 320-1000 nm wavelength range with a resolution better than 10(-4) for the refractive index, n. The differential refractive index is measured as a function of wavelength, and a simple expression is proposed to obtain the refractive index of the glucose-ethanol-water ternary system. Using this expression, combined with the experimental differential refractive index values, the concentrations of individual components can be calculated.

  14. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, W. M. G. M.; Boon, A. R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D. J. J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Verschoor, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI, as in the multivariate m-AMBI. The latter MMI has been adopted by several European countries in the context of WFD implementation. In contrast to m-AMBI, the BEQI2 calculation procedure has been strongly simplified and consists of two steps, i.e. the separate indicator values are normalized using their long-term reference values resulting in three Ecological Quality Ratios (EQRs), which are subsequently averaged to give one BEQI2 value. Using this method only small numbers of samples need to be analysed by Dutch benthos laboratories annually, without the necessity to co-analyse a larger historical dataset. BEQI2 EQR values appeared to correlate quantitatively very well with m-AMBI EQR values. In addition, a data pooling procedure has been added to the BEQI2 tool which enables the pooling of small core samples (0.01-0.025 m2) into larger standardized data pools of 0.1 m2 in order to meet the data requirements of the AMBI indicator and to obtain comparable reference values. Furthermore, the BEQI2 tool automatically and efficiently converts species synonym names into standardized species names. The BEQI2 tool has been applied to all Dutch benthos data monitored by Rijkswaterstaat in the period of 1991-2010 in the transitional and coastal waters and salt lakes and these results are reported here for the first time. Reference values for species richness and Shannon index (99 percentile values) and AMBI reference values (1 percentile values) were estimated for all water body-ecotopes and are discussed. BEQI2 results for all these water bodies are discussed in view of natural and human pressures. The pressure sensitivity of the BEQI2 for sewage and dredging/dumping, via the

  15. Experimental study on immiscible jet breakup using refractive index matched oil-water pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A subsea oil well blowout creates an immiscible crude oil jet. This jet fragments shortly after injection, resulting in generation of a droplet cloud. Detailed understanding of the processes involved is crucial for modeling the fragmentation and for predicting the droplet size distribution. High density of opaque droplets near nozzle limits our ability to visualize and quantify the breakup process. To overcome this challenge, two immiscible fluids: silicone oil and sugar water with the same index of refraction (1.4015) are used as surrogates for crude oil and seawater, respectively. Their ratios of kinematic viscosity (5.64), density (0.83) and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Distribution of the oil phase is visualized by fluorescent tagging. Both phases are also seeded with particles for simultaneous PIV measurements. The measurements are performed within atomization range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. Index matching facilitates undistorted view of the phase distribution in illuminated section. Ongoing tests show that the jet surface initially rolls up into Kelvin-Helmholtz rings, followed by development of dispersed phase ligaments further downstream, which then break into droplets. Some of these droplets are re-entrained into the high momentum core, resulting in secondary breakup. As the oil layer and ligaments evolve, they often entrain water, resulting in generation of multiple secondary water droplets encapsulated within the oil droplets. This research is made possible by a Grant from Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  16. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using water quality index and fractal dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kishan Singh; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Jacintha, T. German Amali; Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    A review has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical behaviour of groundwater through statistical analysis of long term water quality data (year 2005-2013). Water Quality Index ( WQI), descriptive statistics, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension and predictability index were estimated for each water parameter. WQI results showed that majority of samples fall in moderate category during 2005-2013, but monitoring site four falls under severe category (water unfit for domestic use). Brownian time series behaviour (a true random walk nature) exists between calcium (Ca^{2+}) and electric conductivity (EC); magnesium (Mg^{2+}) with EC; sodium (Na+) with EC; sulphate (SO4^{2-}) with EC; total dissolved solids (TDS) with chloride (Cl-) during pre- (2005-2013) and post- (2006-2013) monsoon season. These parameters have a closer value of Hurst exponent ( H) with Brownian time series behaviour condition (H=0.5). The result of times series analysis of water quality data shows a persistent behaviour (a positive autocorrelation) that has played a role between Cl- and Mg^{2+}, Cl- and Ca^{2+}, TDS and Na+, TDS and SO4^{2-}, TDS and Ca^{2+} in pre- and post-monsoon time series because of the higher value of H (>1). Whereas an anti-persistent behaviour (or negative autocorrelation) was found between Cl- and EC, TDS and EC during pre- and post-monsoon due to low value of H. The work outline shows that the groundwater of few areas needs treatment before direct consumption, and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  17. Bulk density, cone index and water content relations for some Ghanian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agodzo, S.K.; Adama, I.

    2004-01-01

    Correlations were established between water content θ, bulk density ρ and cone index Δ for 4 Ghanaian soils, namely, Kumasi, Akroso, Nta and Offin series. The relationship between Δ and θ is in the form Δ = a θ 2 + b θ + c, where the correlation coefficients r 2 for the various soils were found to be very high. Similarly, Δ - ρ relationships were linear but the correlations got weaker with increasing sand content of the soil, as expected. Soil sample sizes and compaction procedures did not conform to standard procedures, yet the results did not deviate from what pertains when standard procedures are used. (author)

  18. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2013-08-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  19. Preliminary analysis on the water quality index (WQI) of irradiated basic filter elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Abu Bakar, Asyraf; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas; Aziz Mohamed, Abdul; Syima Sharifuddin, Syazrin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah

    2018-01-01

    Simple water filtration system is needed in times of extreme floods. Clean water for sanitation at evacuation centres is essential and its production is possible by using the famous simple filtration system consisting of empty bottle and filter elements (sands, gravels, cotton/coffee filter). This research intends to study the effects of irradiated filter elements on the filtration effectiveness through experiments. The filter elements will be irradiated with gamma and neutron radiation using the facilities available at Malaysia Nuclear Agency. The filtration effectiveness is measured using the water quality index (WQI) that is developed in this study to reflect the quality of filtered water. The WQI of the filtered water using the system with irradiated filter elements is then compared with that of the system with non-irradiated filter elements. This preliminary analysis only focus on filtration element of silica sand. Results shows very nominal variation in in WQI after filtered by non-irradiated, gamma and neutron filter element (silica sand), where the hypothesis could not be affirmed.

  20. Monitoring 2015 drought in West Java using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrina Amalo, Luisa; Ma’rufah, Ummu; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2018-05-01

    Drought is a slow developing phenomenon that accumulates over period and affecting various sectors. It is one of natural hazards that occurs each year, particularly in Indonesia over Australian Monsoon period. During drought event, vegetation’s cover can be affected by water stress. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is a method for water resource assessment and known to be strongly related to the plant water content. NDWI is produced from MODIS bands Near-infrared (NIR) and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR). This research aims to monitor drought using NDWI in West Java during El Niño 2015 and its impact on rainfall variability. The result showed rainfall was decreased significantly starting from May-June, then increased in November. According to NDWI, it also showed that mostly West Java Region affected by drought during May-November. Very strong drought occurred on September-November. On December, areal extent of drought was decreasing significantly because rainfall had increased during November. Generally, areal extent of drought in West Java was dominated by strong and moderate drought. It implied that El Niño 2015, give great impact on increasing drought and decreasing rainfall in West Java. NDWI can be detected drought occurrence as it have good correlation with rainfall spatially.

  1. A Preliminary Study of Water Quality Index in Terengganu River Basin, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman, S.; Mohd, S.M.I.; Hee, Y.Y.; Bedurus, E.A.; Latif, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The Malaysian Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) was determined for the Terengganu River basin which is located at the coastal water of the southern South China Sea between July and October 2008. Monthly samplings were carried out at ten sampling stations within the basin. Six parameters listed in DOE-WQI were measured based on standard methods: pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonical nitrogen (AN). The results indicated the impact of various anthropogenic activities which contribute to high values of BOD, COD, TSS and AN at middle and downstream stations, as compared with the upstream of the basin. The reverses were true for the pH and DO values. The DOE-WQI ranged from 71.5-94.6 % (mean 86.9 %), which corresponded to a classification status range from slightly polluted to clean. With respect to the Malaysia National Water Quality Standards (NWQS), the level of most of the parameters measured remained at Class I which is suitable for the sustainable conservation of the natural environment, for water supply without treatment and as well as for very sensitive aquatic species. It is suggested that monitoring should be carried out continuously for proper management of this river basin. (author)

  2. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  3. Absolute Measurement of the Refractive Index of Water by a Mode-Locked Laser at 518 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaopeng Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a method using a frequency comb, which can precisely measure the refractive index of water. We have developed a simple system, in which a Michelson interferometer is placed into a quartz-glass container with a low expansion coefficient, and for which compensation of the thermal expansion of the water container is not required. By scanning a mirror on a moving stage, a pair of cross-correlation patterns can be generated. We can obtain the length information via these cross-correlation patterns, with or without water in the container. The refractive index of water can be measured by the resulting lengths. Long-term experimental results show that our method can measure the refractive index of water with a high degree of accuracy—measurement uncertainty at 10−5 level has been achieved, compared with the values calculated by the empirical formula.

  4. [HYGIENIC JUSTIFICATION OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER ACCORDING TO THE WATER QUALITY INDEX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovskiy, G N; Rakhmanin, Yu; Egorova, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study is devoted to theoretical questions of optimization of integrated assessment of the composition and properties of drinking water with the use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and considering in it all 4 criteria for its hygienic quality-sanitary-toxicological, microbiological, radiation and organoleptic. There is presented a sequence of the analysis of benchmark data of the laboratory study of drinking water, including the selection of priority indices, their distribution into 4 groups according to hygienic criteria, calculations the ratios of real values (C) of indices to their hygiene MPC and the final calculation of the WQI. There is emphasized the importance of classes of hazard of substances, and the need for the special attention to the substances-carcinogens in the integrated assessment of water quality. To overcome the non-equivalence of contributions to the assessment of water quality factors, measured in different units, often disparated in their effect on human health, there are used the principles of combined action at levels below the MCL:C/MPC indices of performance of the unidirectional action are summed (e.g. carcinogenic substances), from indices of the independent action there are selected the most significant ones with the highest values of C/MPC, besides that there are also used counterbalancing factors K determined accordingly to Delphi method, with a maximum values of 5 for carcinogens and the minimum value of 1 for the substances affecting the organoleptic properties ofwater. There is presented the scheme of the final calculation of the value of WQI.

  5. Water use benefit index as a tool for community-based monitoring of water related trends in the Great Barrier Reef region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, A.; Larson, S.; Hug, B.; De Freitas, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents a tool for documenting and monitoring water use benefits in the Great Barrier Reef catchments that allows temporal and spatial comparison along the region. Water, water use benefits and water allocations are currently receiving much attention from Australian policy makers and conservation practitioners. Because of the inherent complexity and variability in water quality, it is essential that scientific information is presented in a meaningful way to policy makers, managers and ultimately, to the general public who have to live with the consequences of the decisions. We developed an inexpensively populated and easily understandable water use benefit index as a tool for community-based monitoring of water related trends in the Great Barrier Reef region. The index is developed based on a comparative list of selected water-related indices integrating attributes across physico-chemical, economic, social, and ecological domains currently used in the assessment of water quality, water quantity and water use benefits in Australia. Our findings indicate that the proposed index allows the identification of water performance indicators by temporal and spatial comparisons. Benefits for decision makers and conservation practitioners include a flexible way of prioritization towards the domain with highest concern. The broader community benefits from a comprehensive and user-friendly tool, communicating changes in water quality trends more effectively.

  6. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  7. The Assessment of Sustainability Indexes and Climate Change Impacts on Integrated Water Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Hernández-Bedolla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated water resource management (IWRM is facing great challenges due to growing uncertainties caused by climate change (CC, rapid socio-economic and technological changes, and population growth. In the present study, we have developed different indices to assess the availability of water using an IWRM approach. These indices evaluate supply to demands, surface availability, groundwater availability, reservoirs, and environmental flow. Moreover, reliability, resilience, and vulnerability were determined. Sustainability index (SI and sustainability index by groups (SG were determined based on the five indices (all indices vary from 0 to 1. The impacts of climate change affect surface and groundwater availability, as do the agricultural, urban, and industrial requirements on the different supplies. We used the generalized AQUATOOL Decision Support System Shell (DSSS to evaluate the IWRM in the Rio Grande Basin (Morelia, México. Various emission scenarios from representative concentration pathways (RCPs were applied to the basin for the years 2015–2039 and 2075–2099. The results indicate increases in agricultural and urban demand, and decreases in surface runoff, as well as groundwater recharge. The proposed indices are useful for different approaches (decision-makers, water policy, and drought risks, among others. CC significantly affects the different proposed indices and indicates a decrease of the SI, SG1, and SG2 (i.e., less availability. For example, we found that SG2 decreased from 0.812 to 0.195 under the RCP 8.5 2075–2099 scenario, and SG2 equal to 0.252 and 0.326 for the RCP 6.0 2075–2099 and RCP 4.5 2070–2099 scenarios, respectively (values close to 0 indicate worst drought conditions.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pei-Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including chloride, sulphate, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solid (TDS, total hardness (TH, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, fluoride, total iron (Tfe, arsenic, iodine, aluminum, nitrite, metasilicic acid and free carbon dioxide. At last a zoning map of different water quality was drawn. Information entropy weight makes WQI perfect and makes the assessment results more reasonable. The WQI for 74 samples ranges from 12.40 to 205.24 and over 90% of the samples are below 100. The excellent quality water area covers nearly 90% of the whole region. The high value of WQI has been found to be closely related with the high values of TDS, fluoride, sulphate, nitrite and TH. In the medium quality water area and poor quality water area, groundwater needs some degree of pretreated before consumption. From the groundwater conservation view of point, the groundwater still need protection and long term monitoring in case of future rapid industrial development. At the same time, preventive actions on the agricultural non point pollution sources in the plain area are also need to be in consideration.

  9. Geographic information system datasets of regolith-thickness data, regolith-thickness contours, raster-based regolith thickness, and aquifer-test and specific-capacity data for the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Rick

    2010-01-01

    These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082-Hydrogeology and Steady-State Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. The datasets were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Geological Survey. The four datasets are described as follows and methods used to develop the datasets are further described in Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082: (1) ds507_regolith_data: This point dataset contains geologic information concerning regolith (unconsolidated sediment) thickness and top-of-bedrock altitude at selected well and test-hole locations in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Data were compiled from published reports, consultant reports, and from lithologic logs of wells and test holes on file with the U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center and the Colorado Division of Water Resources. (2) ds507_regthick_contours: This dataset consists of contours showing generalized lines of equal regolith thickness overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness was contoured manually on the basis of information provided in the dataset ds507_regolith_data. (3) ds507_regthick_grid: This dataset consists of raster-based generalized thickness of regolith overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness in this dataset was derived from contours presented in the dataset ds507_regthick_contours. (4) ds507_welltest_data: This point dataset contains estimates of aquifer transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity at selected well locations in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and

  10. Relation between Raman backscattering from droplets and bulk water: Effect of refractive index dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Taras; Reichardt, Jens

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical framework is presented that permits investigations of the relation between inelastic backscattering from microparticles and bulk samples of Raman-active materials. It is based on the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and no fundamental restrictions concerning the microparticle shape apply. The approach provides a simple and intuitive explanation for the enhancement of the differential backscattering cross-section in particles in comparison to bulk. The enhancement factor for scattering of water droplets in the diameter range from 0 to 60 μm (vitally important for the a priori measurement of liquid water content of warm clouds with spectroscopic Raman lidars) is about a factor of 1.2-1.6 larger (depending on the size of the sphere) than an earlier study has shown. The numerical calculations are extended to 1000 μm and demonstrate that dispersion of the refractive index of water becomes an important factor for spheres larger than 100 μm. The physics of the oscillatory phenomena predicted by the simulations is explained.

  11. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-24

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improved face validity and higher values are associated with mortality, it is infeasible to mandate on the basis of availability and the fact that it does not distinguish between hydrostatic and inflammatory pulmonary edema. However, the results of a multi-institutional study that appeared in the previous issue of Critical Care show that this latter reservation may not necessarily be true. By using extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index, both of which are derived from transpulmonary thermodilution, the authors could successfully differentiate between patients with ARDS and other patients in respiratory failure due to either cardiogenic edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis. This commentary discusses the merits and limitations of this study in view of the potential improvement that transpulmonary thermodilution may bring to the definition of ARDS.

  12. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  13. The water reactor safety research project index: a description of the computerized system for its databank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Loggia, E.; Primavera, R.

    1993-01-01

    The water reactor nuclear safety research project index has been published by the CEC for many years as a compilation of information on research projects relating to LWR nuclear safety. Since 1981, it has been published, alternatively with NEA (OECD), every second year. The number of contributions from research organizations in Community member countries has steadily increased and reached the level of 1 700 pages, in which more than 600 project descriptions have been collected. In 1988, for the first time, the document was produced using a computerized system developed with the assistance of the ISEI (Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics) of JRC Ispra. The data have been stored in a computer based in Ispra. The system allows searching a preselected set of subjects through the information stored in the computer: it makes the updating of the projects description much easier and makes the retrieval of the data possible. This report presents a short description of the computerized system developed for the databank of the index. The computerized system presented in this report is structured in a quite general way and for that reason can be adapted very easily to every field where a databank needs to be constituted in order to collect extended information on several projects. (authors). 6 figs., 5 tabs., 5 refs

  14. Development of a water quality index (WQI) for the Loktak Lake in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Kangabam, Rajiv; Bhoominathan, Sarojini Devi; Kanagaraj, Suganthi; Govindaraju, Munisamy

    2017-10-01

    The present work was carried out to assess a water quality index (WQI) of the Loktak Lake, an important wetland which has been under pressure due to the increasing anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters like temperature (Tem), potential hydrogen (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), fluoride (F), sulphate ({SO}4^{2-}), magnesium (Mg), phosphate ({PO}4^{3-}), sodium (Na), potassium (K), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), total dissolved solids (TDS), total carbon (TC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard procedures. The values obtained were compared with the guidelines for drinking purpose suggested by the World Health Organization and Bureau of Indian Standard. The result shows the higher concentration of nitrite in all the location which is beyond the permissible limit. Eleven parameters were selected to derive the WQI for the estimation of water potential for five sampling sites. A relative weight was assigned to each parameter range from 1.46 to 4.09 based on its importance. The WQI values range from 64 to 77 indicating that the Loktak Lake water is not fit for drinking, including both human and animals, even though the people living inside the Lake are using it for drinking purposes. The implementation of WQI is necessary for proper management of the Loktak Lake and it will be a very helpful tool for the public and decision makers to evaluate the water quality of the Loktak Lake for sustainable management.

  15. Technique of experimental measurements of the optical thickness of a pulse discharge plasma channel in water on a contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Hα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Fedorovich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of development and application of the technique of experimental definition of optical thickness (τ of the pulse discharge plasma channel in water which are based on the distribution of radiation intensities on contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha (656.3 nm are given. Optical thickness of continues spectrum was defined by extrapolation of intensities in far wing of contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha, where t value did not vary any more, and the line smoothly transferred in continuous spectrum. The atomic concentration Na, received on a method of definition of t on a contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha., agreed with calculation obtained from the equation of the plasma state. The recommendations on the correct definition of optical thickness of plasma of pulse discharge in liquids are given.

  16. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  17. Study on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of γ-Al2O3/water through circular tube with twisted tape inserts with different thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, E.; Almohammadi, H.; Nokhosteen, A.; Motezaker, A.; Omrani, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of γ-Al 2 O 3 /water nano-fluid through circular tube with twisted tape inserts with various thicknesses at constant heat flux. In this work, γ-Al 2 O 3 /water nano-fluids with two volume concentrations of 0.5% and 1% were used as the working fluid. The twist ratio of twisted tape remained constant at 3.21, while the thicknesses were changed through three values of 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm. The experiments were performed in laminar flow regime from 150 to 1600 Reynolds numbers. Results indicated that twisted tape inserts enhanced the average convective heat transfer coefficient, and also more the thickness of twisted tape is more the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient is. Also, the highest enhancement was achieved at maximum volume concentration. Results showed that nano-fluids have better heat transfer performance when utilized with thicker twisted tapes. At the same time, the increase in twisted tape thickness leads to an increase in friction factor. In the end, the combined results of these two phenomena result in enhanced convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal performance. Finally, two new correlations were offered for Nusselt number and thermal performance based on our experimental observation. (authors)

  18. Development of a soil water dispersion index (SOWADIN) for testing the effectiveness of a soil-wetting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Y.; Aylmore, L.A.G.; Hainsworth, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Computer-assisted tomography (CAT) applied to gamma-ray attenuation measurement has been used to develop an index termed the soil water dispersion index (SOWADIN), which describes quantitatively the amount and distribution of water in soil columns. The index, which is determined by classifying pixels in a scanned slice into three categories according to their attenuation coefficients, contains two numerical values. The first value corresponds to the water content of the scanned slice and the second value is a measure of the dispersion of the water throughout the slice. Artificially wetted zones were created in soil columns to give one-third of the scanned layer wetted with various patterns of wetted-area distribution. The SOWADIN values obtained accurately reflected the differences in water distribution associated with the different patterns. Application of SOWADIN to columns of a water-repellent sand before and after treatment with a soil-wetting agent clearly illustrates both the increase in water content and improvement in water distribution in the soil column following treatment. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Morphometric measurement of submucosal thickness in areas of fat deposition in the terminal ileum and colonic sections, with correlation with body mass index, weight and age: a male autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Hector; Drawz, Sarah; Dykoski, Richard; Manivel, Juan Carlos

    2015-10-01

    An increased amount of submucosal (SM) fat in the colon on imaging is considered to be characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, a recent study in patients without IBD reported a correlation between colonic SM fat deposition and body weight (BW). The aim of this study was to perform a morphometric investigation of SM thickness in areas of fat deposition in the terminal ileum (TI), ileocaecal valve (ICV), and colonic sections, to determine whether there are variations by site, and whether it shows a correlation with BW, body mass index (BMI), or age. Representative samples of TI, ICV and colonic sections were collected prospectively from 115 autopsy cases without IBD. All of the study subjects were male (Veterans Hospital). SM thickness was measured in areas of fat deposition. Correlation analysis was performed between SM thickness and BW, BMI, and age. Fat deposition was common; however, with the exception of the ICV, it was neither consistent nor prominent, and it did not show a statistical correlation with BW, BMI, or age. SM fat deposition is common but not uniform or conspicuous in the TI or colon. In contrast to extravisceral intra-abdominal fat, it does not show a correlation with BW or BMI, and is not associated with ageing. As all study subjects were male, gender-dependent variability cannot be excluded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Application of water quality index for the assessment of suitability of natural sources of water for drinking in rural areas of east Sikkim, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubra Poonia; T Shantikumar Singh; Dechen C Tsering

    2015-01-01

    In Sikkim, especially in the rural areas where there is no supply of treated water for drinking and other domestic uses, natural surface water is the only source. The objective was to assess the water quality of natural sources of water in the rural areas of East Sikkim using a water quality index (WQI) for different seasons. A total of 225 samples, that is, 75 in winter, 75 in summer, and 75 in monsoon were collected from different sources for physicochemical analysis, and a WQI was calculat...

  1. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  2. Zoning of Water Quality of Hamadan Darreh-Morad Beyg River Based on NSFWQI Index Using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rahmani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rivers are one of the main water supply resources for various uses such as agricultural, industrial and drinking purposes. As population and consumption increase, monitoring of rivers water quality becomes an important function of environmental management field. Because Darreh-Morad Beyg river of Hamadan is a water supply for different purposes and many pollutants are discharged in it, its water quality assessment seems necessary. Zoning of pollution and depicting a detailed image of surface water resources quality using geographic information system (GIS are the key factors for the better management of these resources.Materials & Methods: This research is a cross sectional- descriptive study and river water samples were taken for 7 months from 6 sampling stations on the length of the river. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (D.O., pH, fecal coli form, nitrate, temperature, phosphate and total solids were determined in the samples. Obtained data were analyzed by national sanitation foundation water quality index (NSFWQI and the river was zoned using GIS software.Results: Results of the analyses by NSFWQI showed the best water quality for station 1 and the worst water quality for station 6 with scores of 62.78 and 27.49, respectively.Conclusion: The NSFWQI is a suitable index for zoning of Darreh-Morad Beyg river. Monitoring of physical, chemical, bacteriological quality parameters and using water quality index in various sampling stations are used in the assessment of water pollution. It also helps the officials to correctly decide about the water uses for different purposes.

  3. Technique of experimental definition of optical thickness of the plasma channel by the method of lightening and possibilities of its application for pulsing discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of development and application of a technique of experimental definition of optical thickness τ of the plasma channel in water by the method of lightening are given. Plasma of the discharge in water managed to be lighten through on a stage of relaxation and the logarithm of coefficient of passage of radiation from an extraneous radiation source have been determined. The basic contribution to size of optical thickness gives absorption of radiation, instead of dispersion. But this value is not real optical thickness. Calculation of atoms N a concentration in the channel on values τ, received by the lightening through method, at 4 - 15 times is overestimated in comparison to the values of concentration, received by other independent method. Results of direct measurements of τ by illumination of the plasma channel by reference source EhV-45 are overestimated because of features of passage of appearing through radiation through the channel of the discharge in water of the cylindrical form as it represents a disseminating lens. The reasons of this distinguish of the received by lightening through method values of τ in cylindrical plasma channel in liquids are given. The technique of definition of time of a delay of the beginning of expansion of the channel concerning the moment of submission of a voltage on a digit interval is developed

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Conditions on Residual Wall Thickness and Cooling and Surface Characteristics of Water-Assisted Injection Molded Hollow Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungpil Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, water-assisted injection molding was employed in the automobile industry to manufacture three-dimensional hollow tube-type products with functionalities. However, process optimization is difficult in the case of water-assisted injection molding because of the various rheological interactions between the injected water and the polymer. In this study, the boiling phenomenon that occurs because of the high melt temperature when injecting water and the molding characteristics of the hollow section during the water-assisted injection process were analyzed by a water-assisted injection molding analysis. In addition, the changes in the residual wall thickness accompanying changes in the process conditions were compared with the analysis results by considering water-assisted injection molding based on gas-assisted injection molding. Furthermore, by comparing the cooling characteristics and inner wall surface qualities corresponding to the formation of the hollow section by gas and water injections, a water-assisted injection molding technique was proposed for manufacturing hollow products with functionality.

  5. Water stress index for alkaline fen habitat based on UAV and continuous tower measurements of canopy infrared temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciężkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on developing water stress index for alkaline fen, to evaluate water stress impact on habitat protected within Natura 2000 network: alkaline fens (habitat code:7230). It is calculated based on continuous measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and canopy temperature from meteorological tower and several UAV flights for canopy temperature registration. Measurements were taken during the growing season in 2016 in the Upper Biebrza Basin in north-east Poland. Firstly methodology of the crop water stress index (CWSI) determination was used to obtained non-water stress base line based on continuous measurements (NWSBtower). Parameters of NWSBtower were directly used to calculate spatial variability of CWSI for UAV thermal infrared (TIR) images. Then for each UAV flight day at least 3 acquisition were performed to define NWSBUAV. NWSBUAV was used to calculate canopy waters stress for whole image relative to the less stressed areas. The spatial distribution of developed index was verified using remotely sensed indices of vegetation health. Results showed that in analysed area covered by sedge-moss vegetation NWSB cannot be used directly. The proposed modification of CWSI allows identifying water stress in alkaline fen habitats and was called as Sedge-Moss Water Stress Index (SMWSI). The study shows possibility of usage remotely sensed canopy temperature data to detect areas exposed to the water stress on wetlands. This research has been carried out under the Biostrateg Programme of the Polish National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR), project No.: DZP/BIOSTRATEG-II/390/2015: The innovative approach supporting monitoring of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, using remote sensing methods (HabitARS).

  6. Water erosion in surface soil conditions: runoff velocity, concentration and D50 index of sediments in runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Júlio César; Bertol,Ildegardis; Barbosa,Fabrício Tondello; Bertól,Camilo; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Miquelluti,David José; Mecabô Júnior,José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water erosion and contamination of water resources are influenced by concentration and diameter of sediments in runoff. This study aimed to quantify runoff velocity and concentration and the D50 index of sediments in runoff under different soil surface managements, in the following treatments: i) cropped systems: no-tilled soil covered by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCR); no tilled soil covered by vetch (Vicia sativa L.) res...

  7. Estimating the risk of cyanobacterial occurrence using an index integrating meteorological factors: application to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen-Quang, Tri; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Lemaire, Bruno J; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    The sudden appearance of toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms is still largely unpredictable in waters worldwide. Many post-hoc explanations for CB bloom occurrence relating to physical and biochemical conditions in lakes have been developed. As potentially toxic CB can accumulate in drinking water treatment plants and disrupt water treatment, there is a need for water treatment operators to determine whether conditions are favourable for the proliferation and accumulation of CB in source waters in order to adjust drinking water treatment accordingly. Thus, a new methodology with locally adaptable variables is proposed in order to have a single index, f(p), related to various environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed and direction. The index is used in conjunction with real time monitoring data to determine the probability of CB occurrence in relation to meteorological factors, and was tested at a drinking water intake in Missisquoi Bay, a shallow transboundary bay in Lake Champlain, Québec, Canada. These environmental factors alone were able to explain a maximum probability of 68% that a CB bloom would occur at the drinking water treatment plant. Nutrient limitation also influences CB blooms and intense blooms only occurred when the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total phosphorus (TP) mass ratio was below 3. Additional monitoring of DIN and TP could be considered for these source waters prone to cyanobacterial blooms to determine periods of favourable growth. Real time monitoring and the use of the index could permit an adequate and timely response to CB blooms in drinking water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Construction of an evaluation index system of water resources bearing capacity: An empirical study in Xi’an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, X. E.; Zhang, L. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation of the water resources bearing capacity of Xi’an is performed. By constructing a comprehensive evaluation index system of the water resources bearing capacity that included water resources, economy, society, and ecological environment, we empirically studied the dynamic change and regional differences of the water resources bearing capacities of Xi’an districts through the TOPSIS method (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution). Results show that the water resources bearing capacity of Xi’an significantly increased over time, and the contributions of the subsystems from high to low are as follows: water resources subsystem, social subsystem, ecological subsystem, and economic subsystem. Furthermore, there are large differences between the water resources bearing capacities of the different districts in Xi’an. The water resources bearing capacities from high to low are urban areas, Huxian, Zhouzhi, Gaoling, and Lantian. Overall, the water resources bearing capacity of Xi’an is still at a the lower level, which is highly related to the scarcity of water resources, population pressure, insufficient water saving consciousness, irrational industrial structure, low water-use efficiency, and so on.

  9. Evaluation and Assessment of Fluoride in Drinking Water Wells Damavand Villages Zoning in GIS According to DMF Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kave Kheirkhah Rahimabad; Amir Hessam Hasani; Reza Saeedi; Mir Masoud Kheirkhah Zarkesh; Mojtaba Sayadi

    2016-01-01

    Background:Fluoride is one the vital anions and the drinking water is the main source of preparing it for the human body. Nonetheless, the aim of this paper is to investigate the Fluoride rate in water supplying wells by using GIS environment according to decay, missing or filled (DMF) index.  Methods: This research is an analytic and cross-sectional descriptive study with sampling approach of 12 water supplying wells of Damavand villages in summer and autumn the year 2013. The Fluor...

  10. Performance of biotic indices in comparison to chemical-based Water Quality Index (WQI) in evaluating the water quality of urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Abdul Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul; Abas Kutty, Ahmad; Mahazar, Mohd Akmal; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Ab Hamid, Suhaila

    2018-04-19

    In order to evaluate the water quality of one of the most polluted urban river in Malaysia, the Penchala River, performance of eight biotic indices, Biomonitoring Working Party (BMWP), BMWP Thai , BMWP Viet , Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT), ASPT Thai , BMWP Viet , Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Singapore Biotic Index (SingScore), was compared. The water quality categorization based on these biotic indices was then compared with the categorization of Malaysian Water Quality Index (WQI) derived from measurements of six water physicochemical parameters (pH, BOD, COD, NH 3 -N, DO, and TSS). The river was divided into four sections: upstream section (recreational area), middle stream 1 (residential area), middle stream 2 (commercial area), and downstream. Abundance and diversity of the macroinvertebrates were the highest in the upstream section (407 individual and H' = 1.56, respectively), followed by the middle stream 1 (356 individual and H' = 0.82). The least abundance was recorded in the downstream section (214 individual). Among all biotic indices, BMWP was the most reliable in evaluating the water quality of this urban river as their classifications were comparable to the WQI. BMWPs in this study have strong relationships with dissolved oxygen (DO) content. Our results demonstrated that the biotic indices were more sensitive towards organic pollution than the WQI. BMWP indices especially BMWP Viet were the most reliable and could be adopted along with the WQI for assessment of water quality in urban rivers.

  11. What happens to patients when we do not repair their cuff tears? Five-year rotator cuff quality-of-life index outcomes following nonoperative treatment of patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Richard S; More, Kristie D; Hollinshead, Robert M; Wiley, James P; Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Lo, Ian K Y; Brett, Kelly R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 5-year outcomes in a prospective cohort of patients previously enrolled in a nonoperative rotator cuff tear treatment program. Patients with chronic (>3 months), full-thickness rotator cuff tears (demonstrated on imaging) who were referred to 1 of 2 senior shoulder surgeons were enrolled in the study between October 2008 and September 2010. They participated in a comprehensive, nonoperative, home-based treatment program. After 3 months, the outcome in these patients was defined as "successful" or "failed." Patients in the successful group were essentially asymptomatic and did not require surgery. Patients in the failed group were symptomatic and consented to undergo surgical repair. All patients were followed up at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 or more years. At 5 or more years, all patients were contacted for follow-up; the response rate was 84%. Approximately 75% of patients remained successfully treated with nonoperative treatment at 5 years and reported a mean rotator cuff quality-of-life index score of 83 of 100 (SD, 16). Furthermore, between 2 and 5 years, only 3 patients who had previously been defined as having a successful outcome became more symptomatic and underwent surgical rotator cuff repair. Those in whom nonoperative treatment had failed and who underwent surgical repair had a mean rotator cuff quality-of-life index score of 89 (SD, 11) at 5-year follow-up. The operative and nonoperative groups at 5-year follow-up were not significantly different (P = .11). Nonoperative treatment is an effective and lasting option for many patients with a chronic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear. While some clinicians may argue that nonoperative treatment delays inevitable surgical repair, our study shows that patients can do very well over time. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What is the Optimal Water Productivity Index for Irrigated Grapevines? Case of 'Godello' and 'Albariño' cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Martínez, Emma M.; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2015-04-01

    Different studies have tackled the conceptual and terminological study of crop water use indicators, mainly water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity (WP) (Pereira et al., 2012; Scheierling et al., 2014). The high number of stakeholders, working about agricultural water use (hydrology and hydrogeology, civil and irrigation engineering, agronomy and crop physiology, economics), has hindered the real improvement thereof, from a multidisciplinary perspective. For example, Flexas et al. (2010) reviewed the future improvements in water use efficiency in grapevines, from a physiological approach. In this study, two grapevine cultivars, priority in Galicia (Spain): 'Godello' (DO Valdeorras) and 'Albariño' (DO Rías Baixas, two locations), was assessed in relation to four water productivity index, focus on irrigation systems, agronomy and crop physiology aspects, during a wet year (2012). All WP index was referred to farm yield level (kg ha-1); where the denominator applied to WPTWU, include all components of soil water balance; to WPTWUfarm, introduced rainfall and irrigation depth; to WPIrrig, only irrigation depth applied; and to WPT, crop transpiration was used. In the last index, SIMDualKc model was used to partitioning crop evapotranspiration and cover crop transpiration. Different ranges of values was obtained for both cultivars, WPTWUfarm was higher in cv 'Godello' than in cv 'Albariño', 3.8 and 0.9 kg m-3 respectively. Average value to WPIrrig has showed: 17.6 kg m-3 for cv 'Albariño' and 15.5 kg m-3 for cv 'Godello', due to a reduction of 60% of irrigation depth in DO Rías Baixas. However, for both locations, higher WPIrrig was obtained to drip irrigation system versus subsurface drip irrigation. WPT showed a different tendency, rain-fed 'Godello' and surface drip irrigation 'Albariño' treatments obtained higher values (6.8 and 3.6 kg m-3), with higher WPT to cv 'Godello' for all treatments versus 'Albariño'. Results had showed that water

  13. The water quality and Cultivant enrichment potency of pond based on saprobic index at north coastal waters of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Jafron W.

    2018-05-01

    Central Java is one of many areas which has long coastline, especially in the Northern Coast of Java Island. Intertidal activities occurred at this area may affect the transport of material and energy from surroundings. Cultivation activity supplies many inputs, i.e. feeds, chemicals (vitamin and mineral), including pollutants from feces and unconsumed feeds that affects the environment. One of water management is done through bioremediation by using vegetative agents (soft rehabilitation), such as seaweed and mangrove stands. The implementation of soft rehabilitation is highly depend on the existing environmental conditions of the ponds and surrounding waters. Therefore, it is very important to identify the condition of those waters first. The purpose of this study is to identify the quality of waters in the north coast of Central Java. Besides, it is also to analyze the potency of enriching cultivated commodity (cultivant), as well as a soft remediation mechanism using seaweed. The study was conducted in the coastal areas of Central Java, mainly to the locations commonly practicing cultivation in the pond waters; namely Brebes, Pemalang, Semarang, Demak, Pati and Jepara. Data were taken by sampling at least at 3 different sites as repetition, included ponds, public irrigations and coastline waters. The water sample was taken as much as 30 lt and filtered using plankton net no 25. Biodiversity of Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), evenness index (e) and Saprobic Index were used to analyze the plankton data. Result showed that plankton diversity in Central Java coasts were varied generally between 10 – 28 species. The most widely found species were Oscillatoria sp, Rhizosolenia styliformes, Surirella sp and Lyngbia conferoides. The diversity index varied from 1.83 to 2.9 with the stability status were between small to medium. The saprobic index showed a value between 0.33 up to 2.27; which indicated very small up to lightly contaminated status. The biggest stability

  14. Assessing the usefulness of the water poverty index by applying it to a special case: Can one be water poor with high levels of access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnenic, V.; Ahlers, R.; Zaag, P. van der

    Using indices and indicators in assessment of progress of a developing country has two sides. Such indicators offer an easy-to-understand shorthand/synopsis of issues vital for a country’s development. The other side of the coin, however, is that this synopsis may be distorted due to incorrect data or inapplicability of an index or an indicator to a specific case. This paper assesses the applicability of Water Poverty Index for the countries riparian to the Sava sub-basin, a tributary to the Danube river basin and presents the results of its application. At the same time, the paper discusses the concept of water poverty and the appropriateness of its use in the case of Sava River Basin countries by differentiating the economic poverty in some of those countries from sufficient access to and use of water resources in all of them.

  15. Evaluation and Assessment of Fluoride in Drinking Water Wells Damavand Villages Zoning in GIS According to DMF Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kave Kheirkhah Rahimabad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Fluoride is one the vital anions and the drinking water is the main source of preparing it for the human body. Nonetheless, the aim of this paper is to investigate the Fluoride rate in water supplying wells by using GIS environment according to decay, missing or filled (DMF index.  Methods: This research is an analytic and cross-sectional descriptive study with sampling approach of 12 water supplying wells of Damavand villages in summer and autumn the year 2013. The Fluoride concentration was measured by standard method SPADNS using MN-Nano color 400 Photometer in laboratory of Rural Water and Wastewater Company of Tehran. Then DMF was investigated for local students and finally the obtained data were modeled in GIS. Results: The average of Fluoride concentration was 0.094 to 0.212 mg/L in summer and 0.137 to 3.48 mg/L in autumn. The DMF index was estimated around 5.46 for all evaluated students that the mentioned index was 7.635 and 3.29 for male and female pupils respectively which are statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The amounts of fluorine in drinking water supplies in rural Damavand villages are lower than the international water standards. According to the results of experiments and lack of fluorine ion in the villages of this town, required fluorine should be done by drinkable water fluoridation and continuities of implementation plan for fluoride ion among the schools until reaching the fluoride concentration to the standard threshold, Supplying required fluorine of body by mouth-wash materials for people of this region

  16. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  17. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs

  18. Study of first electronic transition and hydrogen bonding state of ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness on an α-alumina surface by far-ultraviolet spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takeyoshi; Kinugasa, Tomoya

    2018-05-01

    The first electronic transition (A˜ ← X˜) and the hydrogen bonding state of an ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness between two α-alumina surfaces (0.5-20 nm) were studied using far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy in the wavelength range 140-180 nm. The ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness was prepared by squeezing a water droplet ( 1 μL) between a highly polished α-alumina prism and an α-alumina plate using a high pressure clamp ( 4.7 MPa), and the FUV spectra of the water layer at different thicknesses were measured using the attenuated total reflection method. As the water layer became thinner, the A˜ ← X˜ bands were gradually shifted to higher or lower energy relative to that of bulk water; at thicknesses smaller than 4 nm, these shifts were substantial (0.1-0.2 eV) in either case. The FUV spectra of the water layer with thickness lost at thicknesses below 4 nm, because of steric hydration forces between the α-alumina surfaces.

  19. Water Bodies’ Mapping from Sentinel-2 Imagery with Modified Normalized Difference Water Index at 10-m Spatial Resolution Produced by Sharpening the SWIR Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring open water bodies accurately is an important and basic application in remote sensing. Various water body mapping approaches have been developed to extract water bodies from multispectral images. The method based on the spectral water index, especially the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MDNWI calculated from the green and Shortwave-Infrared (SWIR bands, is one of the most popular methods. The recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite can provide fine spatial resolution multispectral images. This new dataset is potentially of important significance for regional water bodies’ mapping, due to its free access and frequent revisit capabilities. It is noted that the green and SWIR bands of Sentinel-2 have different spatial resolutions of 10 m and 20 m, respectively. Straightforwardly, MNDWI can be produced from Sentinel-2 at the spatial resolution of 20 m, by upscaling the 10-m green band to 20 m correspondingly. This scheme, however, wastes the detailed information available at the 10-m resolution. In this paper, to take full advantage of the 10-m information provided by Sentinel-2 images, a novel 10-m spatial resolution MNDWI is produced from Sentinel-2 images by downscaling the 20-m resolution SWIR band to 10 m based on pan-sharpening. Four popular pan-sharpening algorithms, including Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Intensity Hue Saturation (IHS, High Pass Filter (HPF and À Trous Wavelet Transform (ATWT, were applied in this study. The performance of the proposed method was assessed experimentally using a Sentinel-2 image located at the Venice coastland. In the experiment, six water indexes, including 10-m NDWI, 20-m MNDWI and 10-m MNDWI, produced by four pan-sharpening algorithms, were compared. Three levels of results, including the sharpened images, the produced MNDWI images and the finally mapped water bodies, were analysed quantitatively. The results showed that MNDWI can enhance water bodies and suppressbuilt

  20. Quality index of the surface water of Amazonian rivers in industrial areas in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adaelson Campelo; Faial, Kleber Raimundo Freitas; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; da Silva Lopes, Iris Danielly; de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mendonça, Neyson Martins

    2017-10-15

    In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river. Due to its less inhabited environment and further away from the area urban and industrial, the Arapiranga River was more preserved. Waters pollution of around these area is increasingly intense, and restricted its uses for various purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. EPA Office of Water (OW): Clean Watersheds Needs Survey NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Watersheds Needs Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive assessment of the capital needs to the water quality goals set in the Clean Water Act. Every four years,...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Water Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents all surface water features in the United States. This grid was created by combining water features identified in two sources, the Cropland...

  3. Similarity index between irrigation water and soil saturation extract in the experimental field of Yachay University, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Villacrés, D. V.; Sánchez-Gómez, V. P.; Portilla-Bravo, O. A.; Bolaños-Guerrón, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    Soil monitoring is a job that demands a lot of time and money. therefore, measuring the same parameters in the water becomes simple because it can be done in situ. The objective of this work was to find a similarity index for the validation of mathematical correlation models based on physicochemical parameters to verify if there is a balance between irrigation water and soil saturation extract in the experimental field Yachay that is known as the city of knowledge that is located in Imbabura province, Ecuador, for which, the sampling of water was carried out in two representative periods (dry and rainy). Sampling of 10 soil profiles was also performed, covering the total area; these samples were obtained results of Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS). With correlation models between soils and water, it is possible to predict concentrations of elements in the irrigation water. It was concluded that there is a balance between soil and water, so that the salts present in the soil are highly soluble, in addition, there is a high probability that the elements in the irrigation water are in the soil. In sample water, the same concentrations were found in the soil, at their saturation point, and very close to the field capacity.

  4. Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contamination in Active and Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Sites in Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzin Zafira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of heavy metals in water and surface soils of iron ore mining sites were investigated to evaluate on the potential occurrence of heavy metal contamination. Physico-chemical characteristics of the waters were also investigated to determine the current status of water quality index (WQI of the sites. Samples of water and surface soils of active mine (Kuala Lipis and abandoned mine (Bukit Ibam in Pahang were collected at four locations, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters measured for WQI were pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and ammoniacal nitrogen (AN. The water quality parameters were classified according to the Department of Environment (DOE water quality classification. The study revealed that most of the sites in Bukit Ibam and Kuala Lipis were categorized as clean to slightly polluted. On the other hand, heavy metal analysis in water showed that aluminium and manganese level in both sites have exceeded the allowable limits for raw and treated water standards by the Ministry of Health. For heavy metal compositions in soils showed most of the heavy metal concentrations were below the recommended guideline values except for lead, arsenic, zinc and copper.

  5. Effect of topsoil thickness on soil water infiltration in corn-soybean rotation and switchgrass production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass and corn are sometimes used as a resource for biofuel production. The effect of production management systems on water infiltration is very critical in claypan landscape to increase production as well as minimize economic and environmental risks. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  7. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  8. A Sustainability Index of potential co-location of offshore wind farms and open water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennassai, G.; Mariani, Patrizio; Stenberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of a Sustainability Index for the co-location in marine areas of offshore wind farms and aquaculture plans. The development of the index is focused on the application of MCE technique based on physical constraints and biological parameters that are directly linked...... to the primary production. The relevant physical factors considered are wind velocity and depth range (which directly governs the choice of the site for energy production and for offshore technology), the relevant biological parameters are SST, SST anomaly and CHL-a concentration (as a measurement...... the computation of the Sustainability Index (SI) was identified in the Danish portion of the Baltic Sea and in the western part of the Danish North Sea. Results on the spatial distribution of the SI underline different responses as a function of the physical and biological main influencing parameters...

  9. Development and optimization of water treatment reactors using TiO2-modified polymer beads with a refractive index identical to that of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoga, Arata; Iwashita, Ryutaro; Unno, Noriyuki; Satake, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Jun; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Seki, Yohji

    2018-06-01

    Various water purification reactors were constructed using beads of TiO2-coated MEXFLON, which is a fluoropolymer exhibiting a refractive index identical to that of water. The performance of these reactors was evaluated in a recirculation experiment utilizing an aqueous solution of methylene blue. Reactor pipes (length = 150 mm, internal diameter = 10 mm) were made of a fluorinated ethylene polymer with a refractive index of 1.338 and contained 206-bead clusters. A UV lamp was used to irradiate eight reactor pipes surrounding it. The above-mentioned eight bead-packed pipes were connected both in series and in parallel, and the performances of these two reactor types were compared. A pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.70 h- 1 was obtained for the series connection, whereas the corresponding value for the parallel connection was 1.5 times smaller, confirming the effectiveness of increasing the reaction surface by employing a larger number of beads.

  10. Development and optimization of water treatment reactors using TiO2-modified polymer beads with a refractive index identical to that of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoga, Arata; Iwashita, Ryutaro; Unno, Noriyuki; Satake, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Jun; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Seki, Yohji

    2018-03-01

    Various water purification reactors were constructed using beads of TiO2-coated MEXFLON, which is a fluoropolymer exhibiting a refractive index identical to that of water. The performance of these reactors was evaluated in a recirculation experiment utilizing an aqueous solution of methylene blue. Reactor pipes (length = 150 mm, internal diameter = 10 mm) were made of a fluorinated ethylene polymer with a refractive index of 1.338 and contained 206-bead clusters. A UV lamp was used to irradiate eight reactor pipes surrounding it. The above-mentioned eight bead-packed pipes were connected both in series and in parallel, and the performances of these two reactor types were compared. A pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.70 h- 1 was obtained for the series connection, whereas the corresponding value for the parallel connection was 1.5 times smaller, confirming the effectiveness of increasing the reaction surface by employing a larger number of beads.

  11. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; PTotal water intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Ptotal water intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of Floor Water Inrush: The Application of GIS-Based AHP Vulnerable Index Method to Donghuantuo Coal Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Liu, Yuanzhang; Liu, Donghai; Zhou, Wanfang

    2011-09-01

    Floor water inrush represents a geohazard that can pose significant threat to safe operations for instance in coal mines in China and elsewhere. Its occurrence is controlled by many factors, and the processes are often not amenable to mathematical expressions. To evaluate the water inrush risk, the paper proposes the vulnerability index approach by coupling the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and geographic information system (GIS). The detailed procedures of using this innovative approach are shown in a case study in China (Donghuantuo Coal Mine). The powerful spatial data analysis functions of GIS was used to establish the thematic layer of each of the six factors that control the water inrush, and the contribution weights of each factor was determined with the AHP method. The established AHP evaluation model was used to determine the threshold value for each risk level with a histogram of the water inrush vulnerability index. As a result, the mine area was divided into five regions with different vulnerability levels which served as general guidelines for the mine operations. The prediction results were further corroborated with the actual mining data, and the evaluation result is satisfactory.

  13. The arctic water resource vulnerability index: An integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A.; Lammers, R.; Arp, C.; White, D.; Hinzman, L.; Busey, R.

    2008-01-01

    People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.

    2013-01-01

    The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)

  15. Water-food-energy nexus index: analysis of water-energy-food nexus of crop's production system applying the indicators approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Inas

    2017-10-01

    Analysis the water-food-energy nexus is the first step to assess the decision maker in developing and evaluating national strategies that take into account the nexus. The main objective of the current research is providing a method for the decision makers to analysis the water-food-energy nexus of the crop production system at the national level and carrying out a quantitative assessment of it. Through the proposed method, indicators considering the water and energy consumption, mass productivity, and economic productivity were suggested. Based on these indicators a water-food-energy nexus index (WFENI) was performed. The study showed that the calculated WFENI of the Egyptian summer crops have scores that range from 0.21 to 0.79. Comparing to onion (the highest scoring WFENI,i.e., the best score), rice has the lowest WFENI among the summer food crops. Analysis of the water-food-energy nexus of forty-two Egyptian crops in year 2010 was caried out (energy consumed for irrigation represent 7.4% of the total energy footprint). WFENI can be applied to developed strategies for the optimal cropping pattern that minimizing the water and energy consumption and maximizing their productivity. It can be applied as a holistic tool to evaluate the progress in the water and agricultural national strategies. Moreover, WFENI could be applied yearly to evaluate the performance of the water-food-energy nexus managmant.

  16. Refractive index calculation for analysis of aqueous solutions of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuaga, N.S.; Marques, A.R.; Djega-Mariadassou, G.

    1978-01-01

    Refractive index measurements are used for analysis of aqueous solutions of D 2 O, particularly in the intermediate concentration range. The accuracy of titration is around 0.4% of atomic deuterium. Assuming that nsub(HDO)=(nsub(H 2 O)+nsub(D 2 O))/2, and that the refractive index of an initial mixture H 2 O-D 2 O is, in this case, an additive property of the molecular species, the refractive index n(t) of the ternary mixture (H 2 O-D 2 O-HDO) can be expressed by a relation. Using these two equations, it becomes possible to calculate the various types of calibration curves versus n, in the whole range of concentrations. To build these composition - n(t) curves, the only necessary data are the refractive index measurements of pure H 2 O and D 2 O and the value of equilibrium constant of the reaction H 2 O+D 2 O reversible 2HDO at the proper temperature [fr

  17. Leaf temperature of maize and crop water stress index with variable irrigation and nitrogen supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water scarcity due to changing climate, population growth, and economic development is a major threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the Western United States and other regions around the world. Water stress indices based on crop canopy temperature can be useful for assessing plan...

  18. Class frequency distribution for a surface raw water quality index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... Vaal Water Management Areas, in the Vaal basin of South Africa. The study area ... tion sources for individual parameters that are assessed can be done to provide a ...... case for systems thinking approach to integrated water resources management ... implementation of user support for the Vaal system.

  19. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  20. Paradoxical Long-Timespan Opening of the Hole in Self-Supported Water Films of Nanometer Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkay, Z; Bormashenko, E

    2017-05-16

    The opening of holes in self-supported thin (nanoscaled) water films has been investigated in situ with the environmental scanning electron microscope. The opening of a hole occurs within a two-stage process. In the first stage, the rim surrounding a hole is formed, resembling the process that is observed under the puncturing of soap bubbles. In the second stage, the exponential growth of the hole is observed, with a characteristic time of a dozen seconds. We explain the exponential kinetics of hole growth by the balance between inertia (gravity) and viscous dissipation. The kinetics of opening a microscaled hole is governed by the processes taking place in the nanothick bulk of the self-supported liquid film. Nanoparticles provide markers for the visualization of the processes occurring in self-supported thin nanoscale liquid films.

  1. Optimization of Counting Times, Figure of Merit and Mass Thickness for Low-background Alpha/beta Proportional Counter in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakkong, Pannee; Wongsanit, Sarinya; Tumnoi, Yutthana; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2011-06-01

    Full text: The determination of gross alpha and beta activity in environmental aqueous samples can be done by using a low-background alpha/beta proportional counter with multiple detector type (Bert hold LB770). The co precipitate sea water samples were considered for optimal regime of counting time, the minimum detectable activity (MDA), mass thickness of samples (mg/cm-2) and figure of merit (FOM). The result showed that the MDA of the measurements were estimated to be 0.07 Bq/l for gross alpha and 0.05 Bq/l for gross beta at counting time of 100 and 200 minute, respectively. The thickness of samples prepared by coprecipitation technique indicated more parochial range when compared to evaporation to dryness method. In addition, the samples were in the suitable range that can be corrected by the previous self-absorption correction factor (F a ) as 0.0003w 2 -0.0414 w+1.692; where F a is the self-absorption correction factor and w is the weight of the final precipitate in milligrams

  2. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  3. Developing a chloramine decay index to understand nitrification: A case study of two chloraminated drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sina; Liu, Sanly; Chow, Christopher W K; van Leeuwen, John; Cook, David; Drikas, Mary; Amal, Rose

    2017-07-01

    The management of chloramine decay and the prevention of nitrification are some of the critical issues faced by water utilities that use chloramine as a disinfectant. In this study, potential association between high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) data obtained with multiple wavelength Ultraviolet (UV) detection from two drinking water distribution systems in Australia and nitrification occurrence was investigated. An increase in the absorbance signal of HPSEC profiles with UV detection at λ=230nm between apparent molecular weights of 200 to 1000Da was observed at sampling sites that experienced rapid chloramine decay and nitrification while its absorbance signal at λ=254nm decreased. A chloramine decay index (C.D.I) defined as the ratio of area beneath the HPSEC spectra at two different wavelengths of 230 and 254nm, was used in assessing chloramine decay occurrences. The C.D.Is of waters at locations that experienced nitrification were consistently higher than locations not experiencing nitrification. A simulated laboratory study showed that the formation of nitrite/nitrate and/or soluble microbial products and/or the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) during nitrification may contribute to the C.D.I. increase. These findings suggest that C.D.I derived from HPSEC with multiple wavelength UV detection could be an informative index to track the occurrence of rapid chloramine decay and nitrification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-01

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improve...

  5. A water risk index for portfolio exposure to climatic extremes: conceptualization and an application to the mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafous, Luc; Lall, Upmanu; Siegel, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Corporations, industries and non-governmental organizations have become increasingly concerned with growing water risks in many parts of the world. Most of the focus has been on water scarcity and competition for the resource between agriculture, urban users, ecology and industry. However, water risks are multi-dimensional. Water-related hazards include flooding due to extreme rainfall, persistent drought and pollution, either due to industrial operations themselves, or to the failure of infrastructure. Most companies have risk management plans at each operational location to address these risks to a certain design level. The residual risk may or may not be managed, and is typically not quantified at a portfolio scale, i.e. across many sites. Given that climate is the driver of many of these extreme events, and there is evidence of quasi-periodic climate regimes at inter-annual and decadal timescales, it is possible that a portfolio is subject to persistent, multi-year exceedances of the design level. In other words, for a multi-national corporation, it is possible that there is correlation in the climate-induced portfolio water risk across its operational sites as multiple sites may experience a hazard beyond the design level in a given year. Therefore, from an investor's perspective, a need exists for a water risk index that allows for an exploration of the possible space and/or time clustering in exposure across many sites contained in a portfolio. This paper represents a first attempt to develop an index for financial exposure of a geographically diversified, global portfolio to the time-varying risk of climatic extremes using long daily global rainfall datasets derived from climate re-analysis models. Focusing on extreme daily rainfall amounts and using examples from major mining companies, we illustrate how the index can be developed. We discuss how companies can use it to explore their corporate exposure, and what they may need to disclose to investors and

  6. Assessment of water quality of the Tisa River (Vojvodina, North Serbia for ten year period using Serbian water quality index (SWQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leščešen Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The WQI method is most frequently used in expert and scientific research and basically it provides a mechanism for cumulative representation, numeric expression and defining a certain level of water quality. This paper aims to assess water quality of the Tisa River in Vojvodina (North Serbia for the 2003 - 2012 period. Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI was used for assessment of the river water quality. WQI is expressed as a single value ranging from 0 to 100 (best quality derived from numerous physical, chemical, biological and microbiological parameters. The results of SWQI for the Tisa River were mainly rated as good. Also, in this study it is noticed a clear decrease in water quality during warmer period of the year. Also, this study shows that water quality along the Tisa River decreases slightly but steadily down- stream, from Martonoš to Titel station and all along the length of the river provides values that according to SWQI descriptive quality indicator has been defined as good (72-83. The main problem of SWQI used in this paper is that it does not involve parameters of heavy metals concentration.

  7. An index approach to performance-based payments for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maille, Peter; Collins, Alan R

    2012-05-30

    In this paper we describe elements of a field research project that presented farmers with economic incentives to control nitrate runoff. The approach used is novel in that payments are based on ambient water quality and water quantity produced by a watershed rather than proxies for water quality conservation. Also, payments are made based on water quality relative to a control watershed, and therefore, account for stochastic fluctuations in background nitrate levels. Finally, the program pays farmers as a group to elicit team behavior. We present our approach to modeling that allowed us to estimate prices for water and resulting payment levels. We then compare these preliminary estimates to the actual values recorded over 33 months of fieldwork. We find that our actual payments were 29% less than our preliminary estimates, due in part to the failure of our ecological model to estimate discharge accurately. Despite this shortfall, the program attracted the participation of 53% of the farmers in the watershed, and resulted in substantial nitrate abatement activity. Given this favorable response, we propose that research efforts focus on implementing field trials of group-level performance-based payments. Ideally these programs would be low risk and control for naturally occurring contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Produced Water Treatment Using Geothermal Energy from Oil and Gas Wells: An Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaghadi, A.; Rifai, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of harnessing geothermal energy from retrofitted oil and gas decommissioned wells to power desalination units and overcome the produced water treatment energy barrier. Previous studies using heat transfer models have indicated that well depth, geothermal gradient, formation heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels were the most important constraints that affect the achievable volume of treated water. Thus, the challenge of identifying which wells would be best suited for retrofit as geothermal wells was addressed by defining an Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) using a 25 km x 25 km grid over Texas. Heat transfer modeling combined with fuzzy logic methodology were used to estimate the ADWI at each grid cell using the scale of Very Poor, Poor, Average, Good and Excellent. Values for each of the four constraints were extracted from existing databases and were used to select 20 representative values that covered the full range of the data. A heat transfer model was run for all the 160,000 possible combination scenarios and the results were regressed to estimate weighting coefficients that indicate the relative effect of well depth, geothermal gradient, heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels on the volume of treated water in Texas. The results indicated that wells located in cells with ADWI of "Average", "Good" or "Excellent" can potentially deliver 35,000, 106,000, or 240,000 L/day of treated water, respectively. Almost 98% of the cells in the Granite Wash, 97% in Eagle Ford Shale, 90% in Haynesville Shale, 79% in Permian Basin, and 78% in Barnett Shale were identified as better than "Average" locations; whereas, south of the Eagle Ford, southwestern Permian Basin, and the center of Granite Wash were "Excellent". Importantly, most of the locations with better than "Average" ADWI are within drought prone agricultural regions that would benefit from this resilient source of clean water.

  9. Long-term application of the Crop Water Stress Index in Midwest agro-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural land in the Midwestern US is largely used for rainfed corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production. The native ecosystems in this region predominantly consist of tallgrass prairie. Water stress can occur in summer which can affect carbon assimilation of those agro-...

  10. Use of index analysis to evaluate the water quality of a stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the water quality of a stream that receives industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices. Data (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, turbidity, colour, temperature and thermotolerant coliforms) were collected from five stations in the Mussuré Stream, located in João Pessoa ...

  11. PREDICTION OF WATER QUALITY INDEX USING BACK PROPAGATION NETWORK ALGORITHM. CASE STUDY: GOMBAK RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARIS GORASHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to enable prediction of water quality parameters with conjunction to land use attributes and to find a low-end alternative for water quality monitoring techniques, which are typically expensive and tedious. It also aims to ensure sustainable development, which is essentially has effects on water quality. The research approach followed in this study is via using artificial neural networks, and geographical information system to provide a reliable prediction model. Back propagation network algorithm was used for the purpose of this study. The proposed approach minimized most of anomalies associated with prediction methods and provided water quality prediction with precision. The study used 5 hidden nodes in this network. The network was optimized to complete 23145 cycles before it reaches the best error of 0.65. Stations 18 had shown the greatest fluctuation among the three stations as it reflects an area of on-going rapid development of Gombak river watershed. The results had shown a very close prediction with best error of 0.67 in a sensitivity test that was carried afterwards.

  12. Fostering cooperation in power asymmetrical water systems by the use of direct release rules and index-based insurance schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Castelletti, Andrea; Giuliani, Matteo; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2018-05-01

    In river basin systems, power asymmetry is often responsible of inefficient and unbalanced water allocations. Climate change and anthropogenic pressure will possibly exacerbate such disparities as the dominant party controls an increasingly limited shared resource. In this context, the deployment of cooperation mechanisms giving greater consideration to a balanced distribution of the benefits, while improving system-wide efficiency, may be desirable. This often implies the intervention of a third party (e.g., the river basin water authority) imposing normative constraints (e.g., a minimum release) on the party in the dominant position. However, this imposition will be more acceptable to the dominant party if coupled with some form of compensation. For a public agency, compensation may be burdensome, especially when the allowance is triggered by natural events whose timing and magnitude are highly uncertain. In this context, index-based insurance contracts may represent a viable alternative and reduce the cost of achieving socially desirable outcomes. In this paper, we develop a hybrid cooperation mechanism composed of i) a direct normative constraint imposed by a regulator, and ii) an indirect financial tool, an index-based insurance contract, to be used as a compensation measure. The approach is developed for the Lake Como multi-purpose water system, Italy: a complex Alpine river basin, supporting several hydropower reservoirs and finally flowing into a regulated lake which supplies water to several downstream uses, mostly irrigated agriculture. The system is characterized by a manifest geographic power asymmetry: the upstream hydropower companies are free to release their stored water in time irrespective of the timing of the downstream demands. This situation can lead to financial losses by the downstream users and undesirable social outcomes. Results suggest that financial instruments may offer a reliable and relatively inexpensive alternative to other forms of

  13. Diagnosis of GLDAS LSM based aridity index and dryland identification for socioeconomic aspect of water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, S.; Pande, S.; Hashemy, M.; Naseri M., M.

    2012-04-01

    Water resources scarcity plays an important role in socioeconomic aspect of livelihood pattern in dryland areas. Hydrological perspective of aridity is required for social and economic coping Strategies. Identification of dryland areas is crucial to guide policy aimed at intervening in water stressed areas and addressing its perennial livelihood or food insecurity. Yet, prevailing aridity indices are beset with methodological limitations that restrict their use in delineating drylands and, might be insuffient for decision making frameworks. Palmer's Drought Severity index (PDSI) reports relative soil moisture deviations from long term means, which does not allow cross comparisons, while UNEP's aridity index, the ratio of annual evaporative demand to rainfall supply, ignores site specific soil and vegetation characteristics that are needed for appropriate water balance assessment. We propose to refine UNEP's aridity index by accounting for site specific soil and vegetation to partition precipitation into competing demands of evaporation and runoff. We create three aridity indices at a 1 x 1 degree spatial resolution based on 3 decades of soil moisture time series from three GLDAS Land Surface Models (LSM's): VIC, MOSAIC and NOAH. We compare each LSM model aridity map with the UNEP aridity map which was created based on LSM data forcing. Our approach is to extract the first Eigen function from Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis that represents the dominant spatial template of soil moisture conditions of the three LSM's. Frequency of non-exceedence of this dominant soil moisture mode for a location by all other locations is used as our proposed aridity index. The EOF analysis reveals that the first Eigen function explains, respectively, 33%, 43% and 47% of the VIC, NOAH and MOSAIC models. The temporal coefficients associated with the first OF (Orthogonal Function) for all three LSMS clearly show seasonality with a discrete jump in trend around the year 1999

  14. Lung recruitment maneuver effects on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Fen; Zeng, Zhen-Guo; Qian, Ke-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments showed that recruitment maneuver (RM) and protective ventilation strategy of the lung could improve oxygenation and reduce extravascular lung water. This study was to investigate the effects of RM on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty patients with ARDS were randomized into a RM group and a non-RM group. In the RM group, after basic mechanical ventilation stabilized for 30 minutes, RM was performed and repeated once every 12 hours for 3 days. In the non-RM group, lung protective strategy was conducted without RM. Oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), Plateau pressure (Pplat), static pulmonary compliance (Cst) and EVLWI of patients before treatment and at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after the treatment were measured and compared between the groups. Hemodynamic changes were observed before and after RM. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test and Fisher's exact test were used to process the data. The levels of PaO2/FiO2 and Cst increased after treatment in the two groups, but they were higher in the RM group than in the non-RM group (P0.05). RM could reduce EVLWI, increase oxygenation and lung compliance. The effect of RM on hemodynamics was transient.

  15. Assessment of Mine Water Quality Using Heavy Metal Pollution Index in a Coal Mining Area of Damodar River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Gurdeep; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar

    2017-07-01

    A total no. of 16 mine water (underground and opencast coal mine pump discharges) samples were collected from East Bokaro coalfield during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cd and Cr were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the assessment of spatio-temporal variations, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution indexing. The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the pre-monsoon season. The principle component analysis for ionic source identification was synthesized into three factors with eigen values cut off at greater than unity and explained about 64.8% of the total variance. The extracted factors seemed to be associated to the geogenic, extensive mining and allied transportation sources of the elements. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) of the mine water calculated for the individual locations varied from 7.1 to 49.5. Most of the locations fall under low to medium classes of HPI except few locations which are under the influence of surface mining and associated transportation.

  16. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  17. Turbidity of mouthrinsed water as a screening index for oral malodor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Morishima, Seiji; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the relationship between turbidity of mouthrinsed water and oral malodor, and to evaluate whether the turbidity could be used to screen oral malodor. The subjects were 165 oral malodor patients. Gas chromatography and organoleptic test (OT) were used for oral malodor measurement. Oral examination along with collection of saliva and quantification of bacteria was conducted. Turbidity of mouthrinsed water was measured with turbidimeter. Logistic regression with oral malodor status by OT as the dependent variable and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed. Turbidity had a significant association with oral malodor status. In addition, ROC analysis showed that the turbidity had an ability to screen for presence or absence of oral malodor. Turbidity could reflect or represent other influential variables of oral malodor and may be useful as a screening method for oral malodor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Water equivalent thickness of immobilization devices in proton therapy planning - Modelling at treatment planning and validation by measurements with a multi-layer ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellin, Francesco; Righetto, Roberto; Fava, Giovanni; Trevisan, Diego; Amelio, Dante; Farace, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the range errors made in treatment planning due to the presence of the immobilization devices along the proton beam path. The measured water equivalent thickness (WET) of selected devices was measured by a high-energy spot and a multi-layer ionization chamber and compared with that predicted by treatment planning system (TPS). Two treatment couches, two thermoplastic masks (both un-stretched and stretched) and one headrest were selected. At TPS, every immobilization device was modelled as being part of the patient. The following parameters were assessed: CT acquisition protocol, dose-calculation grid-sizes (1.5 and 3.0mm) and beam-entrance with respect to the devices (coplanar and non-coplanar). Finally, the potential errors produced by a wrong manual separation between treatment couch and the CT table (not present during treatment) were investigated. In the thermoplastic mask, there was a clear effect due to beam entrance, a moderate effect due to the CT protocols and almost no effect due to TPS grid-size, with 1mm errors observed only when thick un-stretched portions were crossed by non-coplanar beams. In the treatment couches the WET errors were negligible (0.5mm with a 3.0mm grid-size. In the headrest, WET errors were negligible (0.2mm). With only one exception (un-stretched mask, non-coplanar beams), the WET of all the immobilization devices was properly modelled by the TPS. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4

  20. Wine grape cultivar influence on the performance of models that predict the lower threshold canopy temperature of a water stress index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The calculation of a thermal based Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) requires an estimate of canopy temperature under non-water stressed conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different wine grape cultivars on the performance of models that predict canopy temperature non...

  1. Auto-assembly of nanometer thick, water soluble layers of plasmid DNA complexed with diamines and basic amino acids on graphite: Greatest DNA protection is obtained with arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, T.T.; Boulanouar, O. [Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Heintz, O. [Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR CNRS 6303Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, DTAI/Centre de micro/nano caractérisation, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 DIJON Cedex (France); Fromm, M., E-mail: michel.fromm@univ-fcomte.fr [Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France)

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the ability of diamines as well as basic amino acids to condense DNA onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite with minimum damage after re-dissolution in water. Based on a bibliographic survey we briefly summarize DNA binding properties with diamines as compared to basic amino acids. Thus, solutions of DNA complexed with these linkers were drop-cast in order to deposit ultra-thin layers on the surface of HOPG in the absence or presence of Tris buffer. Atomic Force Microscopy analyses showed that, at a fixed ligand-DNA mixing ratio of 16, the mean thickness of the layers can be statistically predicted to lie in the range 0–50 nm with a maximum standard deviation ± 6 nm, using a simple linear law depending on the DNA concentration. The morphology of the layers appears to be ligand-dependent. While the layers containing diamines present holes, those formed in the presence of basic amino acids, except for lysine, are much more compact and dense. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements provide compositional information indicating that, compared to the maximum number of DNA sites to which the ligands may bind, the basic amino acids Arg and His are present in large excess. Conservation of the supercoiled topology of the DNA plasmids was studied after recovery of the complex layers in water. Remarkably, arginine has the best protection capabilities whether Tris was present or not in the initial solution. - Highlights: • Characterization of nanometer scaled layers composed of pUC21 plasmid DNA • Relation between nature of the ligand and structure of the layers • Capacities of the ligands to protect plasmids from strand break depending on their nature.

  2. Some New Lidar Equations for Laser Pulses Scattered Back from Optically Thick Media Such as Clouds, Dense Aerosol Plumes, Sea Ice, Snow, and Turbid Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2013-01-01

    I survey the theoretical foundations of the slowly-but-surely emerging field of multiple scattering lidar, which has already found applications in atmospheric and cryospheric optics that I also discuss. In multiple scattering lidar, returned pulses are stretched far beyond recognition, and there is no longer a one-to-one connection between range and return-trip timing. Moreover, one can exploit the radial profile of the diffuse radiance field excited by the laser source that, by its very nature, is highly concentrated in space and collimated in direction. One needs, however, a new class of lidar equations to explore this new phenomenology. A very useful set is derived from radiative diffusion theory, which is found at the opposite asymptotic limit of radiative transfer theory than the conventional (single-scattering) limit used to derive the standard lidar equation. In particular, one can use it to show that, even if the simple time-of-flight-to-range connection is irretrievably lost, multiply-scattered lidar light can be used to restore a unique profiling capability with coarser resolution but much deeper penetration into a wide variety of optical thick media in nature. Several new applications are proposed, including a laser bathymetry technique that should work for highly turbid coastal waters.

  3. ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index for water vapor transport: A forecast tool for atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, David A.; Pappenberger, Florian; Richardson, David S.; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-11-01

    In winter, heavy precipitation and floods along the west coasts of midlatitude continents are largely caused by intense water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) within the atmospheric river of extratropical cyclones. This study builds on previous findings that showed that forecasts of IVT have higher predictability than precipitation, by applying and evaluating the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) for IVT in ensemble forecasts during three winters across Europe. We show that the IVT EFI is more able (than the precipitation EFI) to capture extreme precipitation in forecast week 2 during forecasts initialized in a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase; conversely, the precipitation EFI is better during the negative NAO phase and at shorter leads. An IVT EFI example for storm Desmond in December 2015 highlights its potential to identify upcoming hydrometeorological extremes, which may prove useful to the user and forecasting communities.

  4. Remote detection of water stress conditions via a diurnal photochemical reflectance index (PRI) improves yield prediction in rainfed wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Employing remotely sensed techniques to quantify the existence and magnitude of midday photosynthetic downregulation using the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) may reveal new information about plant responses to abiotic stressors in space and time. However, the interpretation and application of the PRI can be confounded because of its sensitivity to several variables changing at the diurnal (e.g., irradiation, shadow fraction) and seasonal (e.g., leaf area, chlorophyll and carotene pigment concentrations, irradiation) time scales. We explored different techniques to correct the PRI for variations in canopy structure and relative chlorophyll content (ChlR) using highly temporally resolved (frequency = five minutes) in-situ radiometric measurements of PRI and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over eight soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)field plots under varying nitrogen and soil water conditions over two seasons. Our results suggest that the influence of seasonal variation in canopy ChlR and LAI on the diurnally measured PRI (PRIdiurnal) can be minimized using simple correction techniques, therefore improving the strength of PRI as a tool to quantify abiotic stressors such as daily changes in soil volumetric water content (SVWC), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). PRIdiurnal responded strongly to available nitrogen, and linearly tracked seasonal changes in SVWC, VPD, and stomatal conductance (gc). Utilizing the PRI as an indicator of stress, yield predictions significantly over greenness indices such as the NDVI. This study provides insight towards the future interpretation and scaling of PRI to quantify rapid changes in photosynthesis, and as an indicator of plant stress.

  5. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  6. Tritiated-water heat-tolerance index to predict the growth rate in calves in hot deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    It was the intention of this study to develop a heat-tolerance index that predicts at an early age the growth rate of calves in a hot desert area (Inshas). Twelve female Friesian calves aged 13-15 months were maintained in climatic chambers for 2 weeks at a mild climate (control), followed by 2 weeks at a hot climate (experimental). Determinations of body water content, body solids, body weight and final rectal temperature were undertaken during the second week of the control and experimental periods. Afterwards the animals were transferred to the farm and maintained outdoors; they were weighed at the end of the 4 summer months. Body water content and rectal temperature were 9.47 and 2.42%, respectively, higher in the hot climate than in the control at P 1 ) or body solids content (X 2 ) that had occurred previously during the 2-weeks heat stress in the climatic chamber by using the equation Y = 39.44 - 1.65X 1 or Y = 45.02 - 1.27X 2 . The standard errors of the regression coefficients for the two equations were 0.094 and 0.132, respectively. The standard errors of the predicted Y for the two equations were 0.207 and 0.218, respectively

  7. Estimating the octanol/water partition coefficient for aliphatic organic compounds using semi-empirical electrotopological index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Erica Silva; Zaramello, Laize; Kuhnen, Carlos Alberto; Junkes, Berenice da Silva; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Heinzen, Vilma Edite Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    A new possibility for estimating the octanol/water coefficient (log P) was investigated using only one descriptor, the semi-empirical electrotopological index (I(SET)). The predictability of four octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) calculation models was compared using a set of 131 aliphatic organic compounds from five different classes. Log P values were calculated employing atomic-contribution methods, as in the Ghose/Crippen approach and its later refinement, AlogP; using fragmental methods through the ClogP method; and employing an approach considering the whole molecule using topological indices with the MlogP method. The efficiency and the applicability of the I(SET) in terms of calculating log P were demonstrated through good statistical quality (r > 0.99; s < 0.18), high internal stability and good predictive ability for an external group of compounds in the same order as the widely used models based on the fragmental method, ClogP, and the atomic contribution method, AlogP, which are among the most used methods of predicting log P.

  8. DFT simulations of water adsorption and activation on low-index α-Ga2O3 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Hensen, Emiel J M; van Santen, Rutger A; Li, Can

    2014-06-02

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to explore water adsorption and activation on different α-Ga2O3 surfaces, namely (001), (100), (110), and (012). The geometries and binding energies of molecular and dissociative adsorption are studied as a function of coverage. The simulations reveal that dissociative water adsorption on all the studied low-index surfaces are thermodynamically favorable. Analysis of surface energies suggests that the most preferentially exposed surface is (012). The contribution of surface relaxation to the respective surface energies is significant. Calculations of electron local density of states indicate that the electron-energy band gaps for the four investigated surfaces appears to be less related to the difference in coordinative unsaturation of the surface atoms, but rather to changes in the ionicity of the surface chemical bonds. The electrochemical computation is used to investigate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on α-Ga2O3 surfaces. Our results indicate that the (100) and (110) surfaces, which have low stability, are the most favorable ones for HER and OER, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  10. Methodological Adjust the Water Scarcity Index, Proposed by the IDEAM in the Plan of Arrangement and Management of the Basin of Pamplonita River - Norte de Santander, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infante Romero, Hebert Augusto; Ortiz, Luis Fernando

    2008-01-01

    A methodological adjustment was made to shortage index calculation taking the Pamplonita river case, which is incorporated as a management tool in watershed management plans using the guide published by the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies -IDEAM. The objective was to improve the standard resolution of the information to make it more reliable in water supply and water demand for various uses, which in combination related to shortage index will become a technical-scientific decision-making element on water management within the framework of watershed management. The result gave the highest reliability on estimated municipal shortage index and demonstrated the urgent need to plan the supply of various demands, because more than 80% of the population of the basin is in a shortage of high rank in a typical year.

  11. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  12. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  13. Time Course of Changes in Extravascular Lung Water Index, Intracranial and Cerebral Perfusion Pressures in Acute Cerebral Circulatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the time course of changes in extravascular lung water index (ELWI and intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures (ICP and CPP and to determine their possible relationships in acute cerebral circulatory disorders (ACCD. Subject and methods. ELWI, pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI, ICP, CPP, and central hemodynamics were studied by transpulmonary thermodilution and current X-ray studies were conducted in 18 patients on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of ACCD. Results. Examinations revealed a supratentorial dislocation of the brain in 6 persons; its subtento-rial dislocation was found in 1 case; supra- and subtentorial dislocations were seen in 6. In patients, ELWI and PVPI increased from days 1 and 5, respectively. The high baseline ICP increased over time. CPP remained unchanged. Preserved left ventricular contractility, enhanced myocardial one, a significant direct correlation between ELWI and PVPI, as well as their increase confirmed that the noncardiogenic genesis was responsible for increased ELWI. A direct significant correlation was found between ICP and ELWI, ICP and PVPI. Against this background, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 14 patients with pneumonia evolving in its presence in 7 patients. Conclusion. In ACCD, ELWI increases in the first 24 hours of the acute period. One of its causes is, along with others, primary and/or secondary damage to the brainstem structures with elevated ICP and progressive brain dislocation. The determination of ICP, unlike CPP, is crucial in the diagnosis and treatment of primary/secondary brain injuries and in prognosis. Key words: acute cerebral circulatory disorder, extravascular lung fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  14. Correlations between the cross-sectional area and moment arm length of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle as measured by MRI and the body mass index in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Ho

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flatback syndrome, which is a condition caused by spinal degeneration. LDK is reported to be the most frequent cause of lumbar spine deformity in the farming districts of the 'oriental' countries. We investigated the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the moment arm length (MAL) of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle (PT) and the body mass index (BMI) by performing statistical analysis, and we tried to show the crucial role of these variables for diagnosing LDK. From July 2004 to April 2005, we retrospectively reviewed 17 LDK patients who had undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with posterior stabilization. We measured both the CSA and MAL on the transverse cross-sectional MR image of the trunk at the fourth to fifth vertebrae (L4/5). The MAL was defined as the anterior-posterior distance between the center of the erector spinae muscle and that of the vertebral body. A comparative study was undertaken between the LDK group and the matched (according to age and gender) control group with regard to the CSA, MAL, PT and BMI. The 17 LDK patients were all females [age: 62.5 ± 4.93 years, height: 157 ± 6.19 cm, weight: 55.59 ± 4.7 kg, and BMI: 22.58 ± 2.08 kg/m 2 ]. The control group patients were all female [age: 63.6 ± 2.27 years, height: 156 ± 5.05 cm, weight: 59.65 ± 7.39 kg and BMI: 24.38 ± 2.94 kg/m 2 ]. Spearman's rho indicated a positive association between the CSA and BMI (rho = 0.49, ρ = 0.046), between the MAL and BMI (rho = 0.808, ρ = 0.000) and between the CSA and PT (rho = 0.566, ρ = 0.018) in the LDK patients. In terms of the CSA versus MAL, there was a positive association in both groups (rho = 0.67, ρ = 0.000, MAL = 0.023CSA + 5.454 in the LDK group; rho = 0.564, ρ 0.018, MAL = 0.02CSA + 5.832 in the control group with using linear regression analysis). Independent t-tests revealed that both groups had statistically

  15. Abstracts and parameter index database for reports pertaining to the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomsburg, G.; Finnie, J.; Horn, D.; King, B.; Liou, J.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a product generated by faculty at the University of Idaho in support of research and development projects on Unsaturated Zone Contamination and Transport Processes, and on Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions and Regional Groundwater Flow at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These projects are managed by the State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program under a grant from the US Department of Energy. In particular, this report meets project objectives to produce a site-wide summary of hydrological information based on a literature search and review of field, laboratory and modeling studies at INEL, including a cross-referenced index to site-specific physical, chemical, mineralogic, geologic and hydrologic parameters determined from these studies. This report includes abstracts of 149 reports with hydrological information. For reports which focus on hydrological issues, the abstracts are taken directly from those reports; for reports dealing with a variety of issues beside hydrology, the abstracts were generated by the University of Idaho authors concentrating on hydrology-related issues. Each abstract is followed by a ''Data'' section which identifies types of technical information included in a given report, such as information on parameters or chemistry, mineralogy, stream flows, water levels. The ''Data'' section does not include actual values or data

  16. The development of a non-linear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) to model climate-water clarity relationships: reconstructing a historical water clarity index for the coastal waters of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron C.; Sheridan, Scott C.; Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin; Pirhalla, Douglas E.; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Shein, Karsten

    2017-10-01

    The coastal waters of the southeastern USA contain important protected habitats and natural resources that are vulnerable to climate variability and singular weather events. Water clarity, strongly affected by atmospheric events, is linked to substantial environmental impacts throughout the region. To assess this relationship over the long-term, this study uses an artificial neural network-based time series modeling technique known as non-linear autoregressive models with exogenous input (NARX models) to explore the relationship between climate and a water clarity index (KDI) in this area and to reconstruct this index over a 66-year period. Results show that synoptic-scale circulation patterns, weather types, and precipitation all play roles in impacting water clarity to varying degrees in each region of the larger domain. In particular, turbid water is associated with transitional weather and cyclonic circulation in much of the study region. Overall, NARX model performance also varies—regionally, seasonally and interannually—with wintertime estimates of KDI along the West Florida Shelf correlating to the actual KDI at r > 0.70. Periods of extreme (high) KDI in this area coincide with notable El Niño events. An upward trend in extreme KDI events from 1948 to 2013 is also present across much of the Florida Gulf coast.

  17. Equivalences between refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses from automated and manual refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José M; López-Alemany, Antonio; Lira, Madalena; Almeida, José B; Oliveira, M Elisabete C D Real; Parafita, Manuel A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop mathematical relationships that allow obtaining equilibrium water content and refractive index of conventional and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses from refractive index measures obtained with automated refractometry or equilibrium water content measures derived from manual refractometry, respectively. Twelve HEMA-based hydrogels of different hydration and four siloxane-based polymers were assayed. A manual refractometer and a digital refractometer were used. Polynomial models obtained from the sucrose curves of equilibrium water content against refractive index and vice-versa were used either considering the whole range of sucrose concentrations (16-100% equilibrium water content) or a range confined to the equilibrium water content of current soft contact lenses (approximately 20-80% equilibrium water content). Values of equilibrium water content measured with the Atago N-2E and those derived from the refractive index measurement with CLR 12-70 by the applications of sucrose-based models displayed a strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.978). The same correlations were obtained when the models are applied to obtain refractive index values from the Atago N-2E and compared with those (values) given by the CLR 12-70 (r2 = 0.978). No significantly different results are obtained between models derived from the whole range of the sucrose solution or the model limited to the normal range of soft contact lens hydration. Present results will have implications for future experimental and clinical research regarding normal hydration and dehydration experiments with hydrogel polymers, and particularly in the field of contact lenses. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of Surface Water Quality by Using GIS and a Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) Model in a Coal Mining Area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Twenty eight surface water samples were collected from fourteen sites of the West Bokaro coalfield, India. The concentration of Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cr, Ba, and Fe were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of seasonal fluctuations and a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. Metal concentrations were higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. The Zn, Ni, Mn, As, Se, Al, Ba, Cu, and Cr concentrations did not exceed the desirable limits for drinking water in either season. However, at many sites, concentrations of Fe were above the desirable limit of the WHO (2006) and Indian drinking water standard (BIS 2003) in both seasons. The water that contained higher concentrations of Fe would require treatment before domestic use.

  19. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers; Vision general del indice de actividad beta total y beta resto en las aguas superficiales de los rios espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  20. A one-layer satellite surface energy balance for estimating evapotranspiration rates and crop water stress indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Salvatore; Consoli, Simona; Russo, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Daily evapotranspiration fluxes over the semi-arid Catania Plain area (Eastern Sicily, Italy) were evaluated using remotely sensed data from Landsat Thematic Mapper TM5 images. A one-source parameterization of the surface sensible heat flux exchange using satellite surface temperature has been used. The transfer of sensible and latent heat is described by aerodynamic resistance and surface resistance. Required model inputs are brightness, temperature, fractional vegetation cover or leaf area index, albedo, crop height, roughness lengths, net radiation, air temperature, air humidity and wind speed. The aerodynamic resistance (r(ah)) is formulated on the basis of the Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory and the surface resistance (r(s)) is evaluated from the energy balance equation. The instantaneous surface flux values were converted into evaporative fraction (EF) over the heterogeneous land surface to derive daily evapotranspiration values. Remote sensing-based assessments of crop water stress (CWSI) were also made in order to identify local irrigation requirements. Evapotranspiration data and crop coefficient values obtained from the approach were compared with: (i) data from the semi-empirical approach "K(c) reflectance-based", which integrates satellite data in the visible and NIR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with ground-based measurements and (ii) surface energy flux measurements collected from a micrometeorological tower located in the experiment area. The expected variability associated with ET flux measurements suggests that the approach-derived surface fluxes were in acceptable agreement with the observations.

  1. Application of water quality index to evaluate groundwater quality (temporal and spatial variation) of an intensively exploited aquifer (Puebla valley, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sánchez, Edith R; Garrido Hoyos, Sofía E; Esteller Alberich, Ma Vicenta; Martínez Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer was evaluated using historical and present data obtained during this investigation. The current study assessed water quality based on the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME-WQI), which provides a mathematical framework to evaluate the quality of water in combination with a set of conditions representing quality criteria, or limits. This index is flexible regarding the type and number of variables used by the evaluation given that the variables of interest are selected according to the characteristics and objectives of development, conservation and compliance with regulations. The CCME-WQI was calculated using several variables that assess the main use of the wells in the urban area that is public supply, according to criteria for human use and consumption established by Mexican law and international standards proposed by the World Health Organization. The assessment of the index shows a gradual deterioration in the quality of the aquifer over time, as the amount of wells with excellent quality have decreased and those with lower index values (poor quality) have increased throughout the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer. The parameters affecting groundwater quality are: total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium and total hardness.

  2. Concentration levels of alpha emitting radionuclides in natural waters. Implications in the use of various radionuclides of reference for the determination of total alpha activity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)

  3. Index of sustainability of the water resource for the definition of technological sustainable and competitives strategies in the Microbasin la Centella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha Constanza Daza; Aldemar Reyes Trujillo; Wilmar Loaiza Ceron; Martha Patricia Fajardo Vasquez

    2012-01-01

    The Index of Sustainable Water Resource Management in Agriculture (ISRHA) implemented in the watershed Centella (Dagua, Cauca Valley) assesses the sustainability of water resource management in agriculture, using pressure gauges, for State and Response factor analysis: biophysical, technological, socioeconomic and political-institutional. Each factor is composed of indicators which are evaluated based on parameters established by of ISRHA. The results of applying sustainability index shows a half the three study areas (watersheds La Virgen, Centella and Aguas Calientes), which were rated average to good in the proposed scale (1 to 5), identifying weaknesses and strengths in relation to the factors considered, which allows us to suggest some strategies for sustainability of and competitive for water resources in agricultural production systems in the watershed.

  4. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  5. Use of biological indexes of the common reed (Phragmites australis) seed progeny in the environmental safety of radioactive contaminated water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavnyuk, A. [National Aviation University, Kiev (Ukraine); Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental protection requires effective monitoring system of radionuclide contamination and radiobiological effects as well as development of their prevention and minimizing measures for humans and biota. There is a majority of conventional techniques for living organisms' habitat quality assessment. One of the most widespread, convenient and accessible ones, is the seed progeny analysis, for example of conifers, cereals and wild herbaceous plants. Availability of vitality, growth, mutability indexes and abnormalities of vascular plant germs for environment quality express assessment was discussed in numerous publications. However, this point is studied insufficiently concerning aquatic vascular plants, forming communities playing significant role in radionuclides distribution in contaminated water bodies. Common reed (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud) is a widespread species mostly dominating in air-aquatic vascular plant communities of freshwater bodies; it is a first-order {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr accumulating species. To assess the common reed germs growth indexes availability, seeds were sampled in polygon water bodies of different radionuclide contamination levels and 0.7-22 mcGy h{sup -1} total absorbed dose range, within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In water bodies with background level of radionuclide contamination, for comparison, total absorbed dose varied in range of 0.03-0.3 mcGy h{sup -1}. Series of seeds germination experiments was carried out in laboratory conditions. Complex of germs indexes was investigated, conditionally divided into three groups: (1) Vitality indexes. In course of experiment series, vitality was assessed via germinating energy, germinating ability indexes, germination period (first and last germ appearance) and survivability study; (2) Growth indexes. Root and leaf length, occurrence of plant groups with different vegetative organs length were determined for germs growth speed assessment; (3) Teratological

  6. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Chepfer , H.; Minnis , P.; Dubuisson , P.; Chiriaco , Marjolaine; Sun-Mack , S.; Rivière , E.D.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx...

  7. Prediction of Ryznar Stability Index for Treated Water of WTPs Located on Al-Karakh Side of Baghdad City using Artificial Neural Network (ANN Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatif Soaded Alsaqqar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research an Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique was applied for the prediction of Ryznar Index (RI of the flowing water from WTPs in Al-Karakh side (left side in Baghdad city for year 2013. Three models (ANN1, ANN2 and ANN3 have been developed and tested using data from Baghdad Mayoralty (Amanat Baghdad including drinking water quality for the period 2004 to 2013. The results indicate that it is quite possible to use an artificial neural networks in predicting the stability index (RI with a good degree of accuracy. Where ANN 2 model could be used to predict RI for the effluents from Al-Karakh, Al-Qadisiya and Al-Karama WTPs as the highest correlation coefficient were obtained 92.4, 82.9 and 79.1% respectively. For Al-Dora WTP, ANN 3 model could be used as R was 92.8%.

  8. Geospatial distribution modeling and determining suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation purpose using geospatial methods and water quality index (WQI) in Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidey, Amanuel

    2018-06-01

    Determining suitability and vulnerability of groundwater quality for irrigation use is a key alarm and first aid for careful management of groundwater resources to diminish the impacts on irrigation. This study was conducted to determine the overall suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation use and to generate their spatial distribution maps in Elala catchment, Northern Ethiopia. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected to analyze and map the water quality variables. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, titration and calculation methods were used for laboratory groundwater quality analysis. Arc GIS, geospatial analysis tools, semivariogram model types and interpolation methods were used to generate geospatial distribution maps. Twelve and eight water quality variables were used to produce weighted overlay and irrigation water quality index models, respectively. Root-mean-square error, mean square error, absolute square error, mean error, root-mean-square standardized error, measured values versus predicted values were used for cross-validation. The overall weighted overlay model result showed that 146 km2 areas are highly suitable, 135 km2 moderately suitable and 60 km2 area unsuitable for irrigation use. The result of irrigation water quality index confirms 10.26% with no restriction, 23.08% with low restriction, 20.51% with moderate restriction, 15.38% with high restriction and 30.76% with the severe restriction for irrigation use. GIS and irrigation water quality index are better methods for irrigation water resources management to achieve a full yield irrigation production to improve food security and to sustain it for a long period, to avoid the possibility of increasing environmental problems for the future generation.

  9. A benthic macroinvertebrate size spectra index for implementing the Water Framework Directive in coastal lagoons in Mediterranean and Black Sea ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Basset, A.; Barbone, E.; Borja, A.; Brucet, S.; Pinna, M.; Quintana, X. D.; Reizopoulou, S.; Rosati, I.; Simboura, N.

    2012-01-01

    Size spectra show common patterns of variation among ecosystem types, functional guilds and taxonomic groups, as well as predictable responses to pressures. Here, we extend the size spectra approach to macroinvertebrate ecological status assessment in transitional waters, by developing, testing and validating a multi-metric index of size spectra sensitivity (ISS), which integrates size structure metrics with metrics describing the sensitivity of size classes to anthropogenic distu...

  10. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

    OpenAIRE

    E. Khaleghi; K. Arzani; N. Moallemi; M. Barzegar

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatmen...

  11. Evolution of the thickness of the aluminum oxide film due to the pH of the cooling water and surface temperature of the fuel elements clad of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiche, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of growth of a film of aluminum oxide on an alloy of the same material, which serves as a protective surface being the constituent material of the RP-10 nuclear reactor fuel elements clads. The most influential parameters on the growth of this film are: the pH of the cooling water and the clad surface temperature of the fuel element. For this study, a mathematical model relating the evolution of the aluminum oxide layer thickness over the time, according to the same oxide film using a power law is used. It is concluded that the time of irradiation, the heat flux at the surface of the aluminum material, the speed of the coolant, the thermal conductivity of the oxide, the initial thickness of the oxide layer and the solubility of the protective oxide are parameters affecting in the rate and film formation. (author).

  12. Assessment of national sanitation foundation water quality index and other quality characterization of Mamloo dam and supporting streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Parastar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, the water of sampling points is unsuitable for direct human consumption. However, for the S1, S2 and S3 as drinking water, advanced treatment may be needed. For S4 as a drinking water source, conventional treatment may be necessary. All the sampling points are suitable for irrigation purposes under normal conditions.

  13. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  14. Study on Effect of Number of Transparent Covers and Refractive Index on Performance of Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kalidasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid flat plate collector (solar flat plate collector is one of the important applications in solar thermal system. The development in solar photovoltaic is an emerging challenge for the solar thermal system. In the current work an attempt has been made to optimize the number of transparent covers and refractive index to improve the optical efficiency and thermal efficiency for the collector. Performance of the liquid flat plate collector at VIT University Vellore has been simulated numerically for January 21st at an interval of half an hour with different numbers of transparent covers (0–3 and different refractive index values ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. The formulation and solutions are developed with simple software Microsoft Office Excel to result the performance characteristics. The result shows that the efficiency of the flat plate collector increases with an increase in number of covers and decreases after an optimum number of covers. It also decreases with an increase in refractive index. The combination of optimum number (two and lower refractive index (1.1 results improved useful heat.

  15. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs.

  16. Substrate effects on terahertz metamaterial resonances for various metal thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Ahn, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate dielectric substrate effects on the resonance shift of terahertz metamaterials with various metal thicknesses by using finite-difference time-domain simulations. We found a small red shift in the metamaterial resonance with increasing metal thickness for the free-standing case. Conversely, when the metamaterial pattern was supported by a substrate with a high dielectric constant, the resonant frequency exhibited a large blue shift because the relative contribution of the substrate's refractive index to the resonant frequency decreased drastically as we increased the metal thickness. We determined the substrate's refractive index, 1.26, at which the metamaterial resonance was independent of the metal thickness. We extracted the effective refractive index as a function of the substrate's refractive index explicitly, which was noticeably different for different film thicknesses.

  17. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepfer, H.; Minnis, P.; Dubuisson, P.; Chiriaco, M.; Sun-Mack, S.; RivièRe, E. D.

    2007-03-01

    Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx, which forms NAP in cold clouds over continents. Qualitative comparisons of NAP with upper tropospheric humidity distributions suggest that NAP may play a role in the dehydration of the upper troposphere when the tropopause is colder than 195 K.

  18. A coupled melt-freeze temperature index approach in a one-layer model to predict bulk volumetric liquid water content dynamics in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water in snow rules runoff dynamics and wet snow avalanches release. Moreover, it affects snow viscosity and snow albedo. As a result, measuring and modeling liquid water dynamics in snow have important implications for many scientific applications. However, measurements are usually challenging, while modeling is difficult due to an overlap of mechanical, thermal and hydraulic processes. Here, we evaluate the use of a simple one-layer one-dimensional model to predict hourly time-series of bulk volumetric liquid water content in seasonal snow. The model considers both a simple temperature-index approach (melt only) and a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach that is able to reconstruct melt-freeze dynamics. Performance of this approach is evaluated at three sites in Japan. These sites (Nagaoka, Shinjo and Sapporo) present multi-year time-series of snow and meteorological data, vertical profiles of snow physical properties and snow melt lysimeters data. These data-sets are an interesting opportunity to test this application in different climatic conditions, as sites span a wide latitudinal range and are subjected to different snow conditions during the season. When melt-freeze dynamics are included in the model, results show that median absolute differences between observations and predictions of bulk volumetric liquid water content are consistently lower than 1 vol%. Moreover, the model is able to predict an observed dry condition of the snowpack in 80% of observed cases at a non-calibration site, where parameters from calibration sites are transferred. Overall, the analysis show that a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach may be a valid solution to predict average wetness conditions of a snow cover at local scale.

  19. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  20. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  1. Effect of drought stress on leaf soluble sugar content, leaf rolling index and relative water content of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to water shortage in arid and semi- arid regions, the study about drought stress effects on crop plants and selection of resistance cultivars, are among the most important goals in the agricultural researches. In order to examine drought stress effects on millet, an experiment was conducted in Birjand and Sarbisheh, simultaneously. In this experiment, five irrigation treatments (well-watered, drought stress in vegetative stage, in ear emergence stage, in seed filling stage and in vegetative and seed filling stage and five proso millet genotypes (Native, K-C-M.2, K-C-M.4, K-C-M.6 and K-C-M.9 were compared in a split plot design along with three replications. Drought stress increased grain protein content, leaf rolling index and soluble sugars concentration and decreased seed germination and leaf RWC. Although seed protein content and germination percentage of genotypes were not significantly different, there were some differences among leaf rolling index, RWC and soluble sugar content of these genotypes. The results of this study indicated that leaf sugar content, RWC and leaf rolling index can not be considered as the only parameters for selection of high yield genotypes. Therefore, it is recommended that some other factors should also be used apart from the above mentioned ones.

  2. Better almond water stress monitoring using fractional-order moments of non-normalized difference vegetation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem water potential (SWP) has become a very popular tool for farmers to monitor the water status of almond trees. However, it is labor intensive and time consuming to scale up the measurements in the large field. With the development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and sensing payload, it become...

  3. Characterizing ecosystem response to water supply changes inferred from GRACE drought severity index and surface soil moisture anomalies from ESA CCI and SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change such as more frequent heatwaves and drought is threatening our food security and ecosystem by reducing water supply to vegetation. Characterizing vegetation response to water supply changes is not only important for evaluating and mitigating climatic change impacts on ecosystem functions and services, but also to determine the feedback mechanisms that ecosystem response may generate on the climate itself. However, such characterization is not well-known at the global scale partly because large scale observations of underground water supply changes are limited. Satellite observations of soil moisture (SM) datasets such as from Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) do not penetrate more than a few centimeters and do not capture the entire root-zone. Here we employ a newly developed Drought Severity Index from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE-DSI) to complement SM observations by informing total water supply changes in the entire terrestrial hydrological cycle. We use MODIS vegetation indices as proxies for vegetation growth and investigate their seasonal and interannual variability in relation to GRACE-DSI. We find that total water supply constrains vegetation growth across the entire continental US. Water constraint begins at an earlier date of year and lasts for a longer period in the lower latitude than in the higher latitude. We also find that water constraint occurs at different phenological stages depending on vegetation type. For instance, water constrain forest growth during reproductive period in eastern US but constrain shrub land growth during green-up in Arizona (Fig. 1). In western United States, eastern Australia and the horn of Africa, we find that vegetation growth changes closely follows GRACE-DSI but can have 16-day to one-month delay with respect to SM anomalies from SMAP and ESA CCI. This suggests that in these regions, vegetation is sensitive to water

  4. A simulation study of the recession coefficient for antecedent precipitation index. [soil moisture and water runoff estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.

  5. [Influence of elevated homocystein level and selected lipid parameters in kidney transplant patients on the progression of atherosclerotic changes assessed by intima-media thickness index (CCA-IMT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Aksamit, Dariusz; Drozdz, Maciej; Krzanowski, Marcin; Ignacak, Ewa; Kowalczyk-Michałek, Martyna; Tabor-Ciepiela, Barbara; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of elevated homocystein (Hcy) level and selected lipid parameters on the progression of atherosclerotic changes in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx). The study included 51 pts (17 F, 34 M) aged 15-62 years (median 38.1) after cadaver KTx. The mean observation period equaled 21.2 months (6-24 months); while total observation period was 90 patients/ years. Hcy levels was measured using HPLC, Lp(a) and Apo-B levels using the nephelometric method and total cholesterol with its' HDL and LDL fractions, triglycerides and creatinine based on the Hitachi 917 analyzer. Patients' blood was drawn before renal transplantation and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months after KTx. Common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) was evaluated by ultrasound on 14 days, 12 and 24 months after KTx. CCA-IMT correlated significantly with Hcy levels after 12 months (R=0.53; p=0.0009) and 24 months (R=0.38; p=0.0356) after KTx. Significant differences were found 12 and 24 months after KTx in CCA-IMT between patients with normal (15 micromol/ l) mean Hcy concentrations: p=0.0035 and p= 0.015, respectively. Analyzing changes in CCA-IMT, significant differences were noted when comparing the CCA-IMT increment after 12 and 24 months post KTx in patients with normal (15 micromol/l) homocystein concentrations: p=0.049 and p=0.0039, respectively. Increment of CCA-IMT 12 months after KTx, significantly correlated with mean total cholesterol level (R=0.35; p=0.0333), whereas 24 months after procedure correlated significantly with 0.0315). Hcy level is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis development in patients after KTx. Elevated Hcy level as well as increased cholesterol and Lp(a) levels enhance the progression of atherosclerotic changes evaluated by CCA-IMT in KTx patients.

  6. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 985 ... Vol 17 (2010), Flood Frequency Analysis of Ikpoba River ... and the corresponding Refractive Index in Uniaxial Crystals, Abstract ... Vol 8 (2004), Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves, Abstract.

  8. Water quality assessment of river Rimac in Lima, Peru using the Water Quality Index (WQI); Evaluacion de las aguas del rio Rimac en Lima, Peru, utilizando el Indice de Calidad de Agua (ICA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedregal, Patricia; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillus, Marco; Montoya, Eduardo; Airas, Rosa [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru). Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo; Baca, Luz; Fajardo, Walter [Direccion General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), Area de Proteccion de los Recursos Hidricos, Calle Las Amapolas 350, Lima (Peru)

    2011-10-15

    The Water Quality Index (WQI) are presented and discussed. They has been obtained using the results of the physical-chemical parameters: pH, oxygen (dissolved), conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, nitrate, ammonia; the microbiological parameter: fecal coliforms and the metal analysis of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb in 09 monitoring sites of the river Rimac High Basin (August-December, 2009), characterized by mining industry exploitation. (orig.)

  9. Selection of metrics based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and development of a biotic index (CYMOX) for assessing ecological status of coastal and transitional waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Silvia; Mascaró, Oriol; Llagostera, Izaskun; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Bioindicators, based on a large variety of organisms, have been increasingly used in the assessment of the status of aquatic systems. In marine coastal waters, seagrasses have shown a great potential as bioindicator organisms, probably due to both their environmental sensitivity and the large amount of knowledge available. However, and as far as we are aware, only little attention has been paid to euryhaline species suitable for biomonitoring both transitional and marine waters. With the aim to contribute to this expanding field, and provide new and useful tools for managers, we develop here a multi-bioindicator index based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. We first compiled from the literature a suite of 54 candidate metrics, i. e. measurable attribute of the concerned organism or community that adequately reflects properties of the environment, obtained from C. nodosa and its associated ecosystem, putatively responding to environmental deterioration. We then evaluated them empirically, obtaining a complete dataset on these metrics along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Using this dataset, we selected the metrics to construct the index, using, successively: (i) ANOVA, to assess their capacity to discriminate among sites of different environmental conditions; (ii) PCA, to check the existence of a common pattern among the metrics reflecting the environmental gradient; and (iii) feasibility and cost-effectiveness criteria. Finally, 10 metrics (out of the 54 tested) encompassing from the physiological (δ15N, δ34S, % N, % P content of rhizomes), through the individual (shoot size) and the population (root weight ratio), to the community (epiphytes load) organisation levels, and some metallic pollution descriptors (Cd, Cu and Zn content of rhizomes) were retained and integrated into a single index (CYMOX) using the scores of the sites on the first axis of a PCA. These scores were reduced to a 0-1 (Ecological Quality Ratio) scale by referring the values to the

  10. The environmental vegetation index: A tool potentially useful for arid land management. [Texas and Mexico, plant growth stress due to water deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, T. I., Jr.; Mccrary, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The NOAA-6 AVHRR data sets acquired over South Texas and Mexico during the spring of 1980 and after Hurricane Allen passed inland are analyzed. These data were processed to produce the Gray-McCrary Index (GMI's) for each pixel location over the selected area, which area contained rangeland and cropland, both irrigated and nonirrigated. The variations in the GMI's appear to reflect well the availability of water for vegetation. The GMI area maps are shown to delineate and to aid in defining the duration of drought; suggesting the possibility that time changes over a selected area could be useful for irrigation management.

  11. Dissolved oxygen content as an index of water quality in San Vicente Bay, Chile (36 degrees 45'S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anny; Ahumada, Ramón; Pérez, Claudio

    2002-08-01

    The present report describes some effects of industrial and municipal effluents on the waters of San Vicente Bay. Analyses of the main substances contained in the fishing industry effluent suggest rating criteria based on the oxygen saturation of the water as an assessment of organic pollution. Six cruises were carried out throughout the Bay, from June to December 1996. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved oxygen, oil and grease content, and sediment samples for organic matter content. Water parameters (salinity, temperature) were used to characterize the Bay's hydrography, and to calculate values for oxygen saturation. The measurements demonstrated a local broad range of oxygen deficit, with a maximum of 45% in the winter to 95% in the spring. In November more than 65% of the Bay's area showed oxygen deficits greater than 40%. Organic matter was unusually high in sediments along the northern sector of the Bay. The results suggest that the oxygen depletion was a representative parameter for establishing a relative scale of water quality in this Bay.

  12. Mapping Satellite Inherent Optical Properties Index in Coastal Waters of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Aguilar-Maldonado

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yucatán Peninsula hosts worldwide-known tourism destinations that concentrate most of the Mexico tourism activity. In this region, tourism has exponentially increased over the last years, including wildlife oriented tourism. Rapid tourism development, involving the consequent construction of hotels and tourist commodities, is associated with domestic sewage discharges from septic tanks. In this karstic environment, submarine groundwater discharges are very important and highly vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. Nutrient loadings are linked to harmful algal blooms, which are an issue of concern to local and federal authorities due to their recurrence and socioeconomic and human health costs. In this study, we used satellite products from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer to calculate and map the satellite Inherent Optical Properties (IOP Index. We worked with different scenarios considering both holiday and hydrological seasons. Our results showed that the satellite IOP Index allows one to build baseline information in a sustainable mid-term or long-term basis which is key for ecosystem-based management.

  13. Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future.

  14. A water quality index model using stepwise regression and neural networks models for the Piabanha River basin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, M. D.; Olivera, F.; Azevedo, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of water quality through 'indexes' is widely used in environmental sciences. There are a number of methods available for calculating water quality indexes (WQI), usually based on site-specific parameters. In Brazil, WQI were initially used in the 1970s and were adapted from the methodology developed in association with the National Science Foundation (Brown et al, 1970). Specifically, the WQI 'IQA/SCQA', developed by the Institute of Water Management of Minas Gerais (IGAM), is estimated based on nine parameters: Temperature Range, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliforms, Nitrate, Phosphate, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The goal of this study was to develop a model for calculating the IQA/SCQA, for the Piabanha River basin in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), using only the parameters measurable by a Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde (MWQS) available in the study area. These parameters are: Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The use of this model will allow to further the water quality monitoring network in the basin, without requiring significant increases of resources. The water quality measurement with MWQS is less expensive than the laboratory analysis required for the other parameters. The water quality data used in the study were obtained by the Geological Survey of Brazil in partnership with other public institutions (i.e. universities and environmental institutes) as part of the project "Integrated Studies in Experimental and Representative Watersheds". Two models were developed to correlate the values of the three measured parameters and the IQA/SCQA values calculated based on all nine parameters. The results were evaluated according to the following validation statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). The first model was a linear stepwise regression between three independent variables

  15. Accuracy of the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index using MODIS under water-limited vs. energy-limited evapotranspiration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Monica; Fernández, N.; Villagarcía, L.

    2014-01-01

    surface fluxes using MODIS data; and (ii) provide insights about the factors most affecting the accuracy of results. Factors considered included the type of climatic control on evapotranspiration, λE, (i.e. water-limited vs. energy-limited), the quality of Tair estimates, the heterogeneity of land cover...

  16. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  17. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI, Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season. Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  18. Modeling Cl- concentration and δ37Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel; Matray, Jean-Michel; Bensenouci, Fethic; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles; Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ 37 Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ 37 Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ 37 Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  19. Modeling Cl{sup -} concentration and δ{sup 37}Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel [Universite de Nimes / Site GIS - 30035 Nimes cedex 01 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, CEREGE UMR7330, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Matray, Jean-Michel [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bensenouci, Fethic [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Michelot, Jean-Luc [IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue. West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ{sup 37}Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ{sup 37}Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ{sup 37}Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  20. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  1. Daytime changes of skin biophysical characteristics: A study of hydration, transepidermal water loss, ph, sebum, elasticity, erythema, and color index on middle eastern skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m. on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92 and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025, between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001 and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001. Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  2. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurement of a near field turbulent immiscible buoyant oil jet fragmentation in water using liquid-liquid refractive index matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Very little experimental data exits on the flow structure in the near field of a crude oil jet fragmenting in water because of inability to probe dense droplet cloud. Refractive index-matching is applied to overcome this challenge by using silicone oil and sugar water as a surrogate liquid pair. Their density ratio, viscosity ratio, and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurements are conducted by fluorescently tagging the oil and seeding both phases with particles. With increasing jet Reynolds and Weber numbers, the oil plume breakup occurs closer to the nozzle, the spreading angle of the jet increases, and the droplet sizes decrease. The varying spread rate is attributed to differences in droplet size distributions. The location of primary oil breakup is consistent with the region of high strain rate fluctuations. What one may perceive as oil droplets in opaque fluids actually consists of multi-layers containing water droplets, which sometimes encapsulate smaller oil droplets, creating a ``Russian Doll'' like phenomenon. This system forms as ligaments of oil and water wrap around each other during entrainment. Results include profiles of mean velocity and turbulence parameters along with energy spectra. Gulf of Mexico Research Inititave.

  3. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  4. Crack growth rates in thick materials of alloy 600 and weld metals of alloy 182 in laboratory primary water comparison with field Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillant, F.; Moulart, P.; Boursier, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Region d' Equipement; Amzallag, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), DIS/SEPTEN, 75 - Paris (France); Daret, J. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie DPC/SCCME, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2002-07-01

    Since 1991, when a first leakage occurred on the vessel head of Bugey 3 RPV, an important investigation program was undertaken in laboratory in order to assess crack growth rates (CGRs) of vessel head penetrations (VHPs) in alloy 600 and weld metal in alloy 182 in primary environments. SCC (stress corrosion cracking) tests were performed between 290 C and 360 C on pre-cracked specimens under static loading. Alloy 600: On VHPs with YS{sub 20} ranging from 300 MPa to 468 MPa, it was found that the upper bound for CGRs were dependant on (K(T initial)-K(iscc)){sup 0.3}, in accordance with field experience. In laboratory condition, the activation energy was 130 {+-} 20 kJ/mol, the yield stress increased significantly CGRs but some coupling effects were noted with the microstructure. Cold work increased slightly CGRs on a VHP with initial YS = 468 MPa. Additional tests were performed at 290 C and 325 C on rolled bars, rolled plates and forged plates representative of the other components in alloy 600 of the primary circuit: products with low YS and high GBC had low sensitivity to SCC but it could be significantly increased with cold work raising at the level of 468 MPa, the highest YS investigated on VHPs. Stress relief treatment did not significantly modify SCC resistance. On ten products from the various components, the measured CGRs were strongly correlated to the material susceptibility index for SCC initiation. Alloy 182: Some comparisons were performed in laboratory, with different orientations. Similar trends to alloy 600 were found for the influences of K and temperature on CGRs. 10% cold work increased and stress relief treatment decreased CGRs by a factor 2. CGRs of cracks propagating in the direction of dendrites were 2 to 5 times higher than for cracks propagating in the perpendicular direction. For both alloys 600 and 182, a model is proposed to account for the effects of the main parameters on CGRs and the relevance to field experience is discussed

  5. Crack growth rates in thick materials of alloy 600 and weld metals of alloy 182 in laboratory primary water comparison with field Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, F.; Moulart, P.; Boursier, J.M.; Daret, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1991, when a first leakage occurred on the vessel head of Bugey 3 RPV, an important investigation program was undertaken in laboratory in order to assess crack growth rates (CGRs) of vessel head penetrations (VHPs) in alloy 600 and weld metal in alloy 182 in primary environments. SCC (stress corrosion cracking) tests were performed between 290 C and 360 C on pre-cracked specimens under static loading. Alloy 600: On VHPs with YS 20 ranging from 300 MPa to 468 MPa, it was found that the upper bound for CGRs were dependant on (K(T initial)-K(iscc)) 0.3 , in accordance with field experience. In laboratory condition, the activation energy was 130 ± 20 kJ/mol, the yield stress increased significantly CGRs but some coupling effects were noted with the microstructure. Cold work increased slightly CGRs on a VHP with initial YS = 468 MPa. Additional tests were performed at 290 C and 325 C on rolled bars, rolled plates and forged plates representative of the other components in alloy 600 of the primary circuit: products with low YS and high GBC had low sensitivity to SCC but it could be significantly increased with cold work raising at the level of 468 MPa, the highest YS investigated on VHPs. Stress relief treatment did not significantly modify SCC resistance. On ten products from the various components, the measured CGRs were strongly correlated to the material susceptibility index for SCC initiation. Alloy 182: Some comparisons were performed in laboratory, with different orientations. Similar trends to alloy 600 were found for the influences of K and temperature on CGRs. 10% cold work increased and stress relief treatment decreased CGRs by a factor 2. CGRs of cracks propagating in the direction of dendrites were 2 to 5 times higher than for cracks propagating in the perpendicular direction. For both alloys 600 and 182, a model is proposed to account for the effects of the main parameters on CGRs and the relevance to field experience is discussed. (authors)

  6. On the revision of control index levels on the ingestion of food and water in the guidelines for radiological emergency preparedness and countermeasures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Shinichi; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the revised index levels of the control of food and water in the Nuclear Safety Commission guidelines, 'Off-Site Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Power Plants, etc'. Food and water are divided into five categories, and the consumption of each has been conjectured. For this purpose, a nationwide survey for nutrition in Japan by the Welfare Ministry and a survey on the food of infants and children in the coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences are considered. These categories are drinking water, milk and dairy products, vegetables, grain, and meats, egg, fish, shellfish, and others. The radionuclides groups are then chosen in consideration of their potential importance in regard to food and water contamination. Those chosen were, radio-iodine, radioactive cesium and strontium, uranium, and plutonium and alpha-ray-emitting transuranic radionuclides. The intervention dose levels of 5 mSv of effective dose and 50 mSv of committed equivalent dose to the thyroid for radio-iodine for a period of one year were adopted. The radioactivities of 131 I, 132 I, 133 I, 134 I, 135 I and 132 Te are assumed to be proportional to the contents in nuclear fuel after a cooling time of 0.5 day, and the radioactivity of 131 I is taken as a scale that represents the level of control on the ingestion of food and water. Based on doses to infants, whose exposure is highest, the levels of control are recommended to be 300 Bq/kg or more for drinking water and milk and other dairy products, and 2,000 Bq/kg or more for vegetables, except edible roots and potatoes. It is assumed that radio-cesium released in the environment is accompanied by strontium radio-nuclides with a 90 Sr/ 137 Cs radioactivity ratio of 0.1, taking into account the past measurements of fallout. Radio-nuclides are assumed to contain 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, and 89 Sr with the same mixing ratio as that of the fuel in a nuclear reactor. The sum of

  7. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  8. Impact of polyethylene glycol on proline and membrane stability index for water stress regime in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.; Jatoi, S.A.; Siddiqui, S.U.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important constraints worldwide for crop growth including tomato. It adversely affects germination and seedling that ultimately reduces crop development and economic yield. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) gives an indication to abiotic stresses and has been used throughout world in various crops for successful screening and breeding against stresses. Contrarily proline protects plant tissues against stress through preventing molecular denaturation, scavenges reactive oxygen species and interacts with phospholipids. Present paper presents the results on PEG and proline estimation in tomato. The PEG screening reduced the experimental material and finally 20 genotypes (6232, 6233, 6234, 10584, 10587, 17889, 17902, 17904, 19288, 19289, 19290, 19291, 19893, Avinash-2, Feston, Nagina, Punjab Chohara, Ratan and T-4) from diverse origin were investigated for proline estimation, chlorophyll contents and membrane stability index that gave a clear reference for drought tolerance in tomato. All the techniques (PEG, Proline, MSI) related to drought screening were employed and their interactive interpretation will enable us to design future breeding strategies for tomato development under drought that is still a dream for man. Among 20 genotypes, 19291 possessed the highest proline contents hence was tolerant to drought conditions, although needs verification under actual drought for adaptability and yield potential. High MSI under stress was observed for Punjab Chuhara, Chuhara, Avinash-2, Ratan, 19893, 19291 and 6233. (author)

  9. Arsenic and other elements in drinking water and dietary components from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India: Health risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ramanathan, A L; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the level of contamination and health risk assessment for arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water, vegetables and other food components in two blocks (Mohiuddinagar and Mohanpur) from the Samastipur district, Bihar, India. Groundwater (80%) samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value (10μg/L) of As while Mn exceeded the previous WHO limit of 400μg/L in 28% samples. The estimated daily intake of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from drinking water and food components were 169, 19, 26, 882, 4645, 14582, 474, 1449 and 12,955μg, respectively (estimated exposure 3.70, 0.41, 0.57, 19.61, 103.22, 324.05, 10.53, 32.21 and 287.90μg per kg bw, respectively). Twelve of 15 cooked rice contained high As concentration compared to uncooked rice. Water contributes (67%) considerable As to daily exposure followed by rice and vegetables. Whereas food is the major contributor of other elements to the dietary exposure. Correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated natural source for As but for other elements, presence of diffused anthropogenic activities were responsible. The chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were also estimated from the generated data. The HRI were >1 for As in drinking water, vegetables and rice, for Mn in drinking water, vegetables, rice and wheat, for Pb in rice and wheat indicated the potential health risk to the local population. An assessment of As and other elements of other food components should be conducted to understand the actual health hazards caused by ingestion of food in people residing in the middle Gangetic plain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pollution potential leaching index as a tool to assess water leaching risk of arsenic in excavated urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jining; Kosugi, Tomoya; Riya, Shohei; Hashimoto, Yohey; Hou, Hong; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    Leaching of hazardous trace elements from excavated urban soils during construction of cities has received considerable attention in recent years in Japan. A new concept, the pollution potential leaching index (PPLI), was applied to assess the risk of arsenic (As) leaching from excavated soils. Sequential leaching tests (SLT) with two liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios (10 and 20Lkg -1 ) were conducted to determine the PPLI values, which represent the critical cumulative L/S ratios at which the average As concentrations in the cumulative leachates are reduced to critical values (10 or 5µgL -1 ). Two models (a logarithmic function model and an empirical two-site first-order leaching model) were compared to estimate the PPLI values. The fractionations of As before and after SLT were extracted according to a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Ten alkaline excavated soils were obtained from different construction projects in Japan. Although their total As contents were low (from 6.75 to 79.4mgkg -1 ), the As leaching was not negligible. Different L/S ratios at each step of the SLT had little influence on the cumulative As release or PPLI values. Experimentally determined PPLI values were in agreement with those from model estimations. A five-step SLT with an L/S of 10Lkg -1 at each step, combined with a logarithmic function fitting was suggested for the easy estimation of PPLI. Results of the sequential extraction procedure showed that large portions of more labile As fractions (non-specifically and specifically sorbed fractions) were removed during long-term leaching and so were small, but non-negligible, portions of strongly bound As fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, J., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Stich, D., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Heidemeyer, P., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Hochrein, T., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de [SKZ - German Plastics Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  12. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  13. Atmospheric effects on the NDVI - Strategies for its removal. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Markham, B.; Gitelson, A.

    1992-01-01

    The compositing technique used to derive global vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA AVHRR radiances reduces the residual effect of water vapor and aerosol on the NDVI. The reduction in the atmospheric effect is shown using a comprehensive measured data set for desert conditions, and a simulation for grass with continental aerosol. A statistical analaysis of the probability of occurrence of aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor measured in different climatic regimes is used for this simulation. It is concluded that for a long compositing period (e.g., 27 days), the residual aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor are usually too small to be corrected. For a 9-day compositing, the residual average aerosol effect may be about twice the correction uncertainty. For Landsat TM or Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (EOS-MODIS) data, the newly defined atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) is more promising than possible direct atmospheric correction schemes, except for heavy desert dust conditions.

  14. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  15. Effects of leaf area index on the coupling between water table, land surface energy fluxes, and planetary boundary layer at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Rihani, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Simmer, C.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in the exchange of moisture and energy at the land surface. Previous studies indicate that vegetation increases the complexity of the feedbacks between the atmosphere and subsurface through processes such as interception, root water uptake, leaf surface evaporation, and transpiration. Vegetation cover can affect not only the interaction between water table depth and energy fluxes, but also the development of the planetary boundary layer. Leaf Area Index (LAI) is shown to be a major factor influencing these interactions. In this work, we investigate the sensitivity of water table, surface energy fluxes, and atmospheric boundary layer interactions to LAI as a model input. We particularly focus on the role LAI plays on the location and extent of transition zones of strongest coupling and how this role changes over seasonal timescales for a real catchment. The Terrestrial System Modelling Platform (TerrSysMP), developed within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32 (TR32), is used in this study. TerrSysMP consists of the variably saturated groundwater model ParFlow, the land surface model Community Land Model (CLM), and the regional climate and weather forecast model COSMO (COnsortium for Small-scale Modeling). The sensitivity analysis is performed over a range of LAI values for different vegetation types as extracted from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset for the Rur catchment in Germany. In the first part of this work, effects of vegetation structure on land surface energy fluxes and their connection to water table dynamics are studied using the stand-alone CLM and the coupled subsurface-surface components of TerrSysMP (ParFlow-CLM), respectively. The interconnection between LAI and transition zones of strongest coupling are investigated and analyzed through a subsequent set of subsurface-surface-atmosphere coupled simulations implementing the full TerrSysMP model system.

  16. Dynamic monitoring of blood-brain barrier integrity using water exchange index (WEI) during mannitol and CO2 challenges in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuning; Farrar, Christian T; Dai, Guangping; Kwon, Seon Joo; Bogdanov, Alexei A; Rosen, Bruce R; Kim, Young R

    2013-04-01

    The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to normal brain function. Traditional techniques for the assessment of BBB disruption rely heavily on the spatiotemporal analysis of extravasating contrast agents. However, such methods based on the leakage of relatively large molecules are not suitable for the detection of subtle BBB impairment or for the performance of repeated measurements in a short time frame. Quantification of the water exchange rate constant (WER) across the BBB using strictly intravascular contrast agents could provide a much more sensitive method for the quantification of the BBB integrity. To estimate WER, we have recently devised a powerful new method using a water exchange index (WEI) biomarker and demonstrated BBB disruption in an acute stroke model. Here, we confirm that WEI is sensitive to even very subtle changes in the integrity of the BBB caused by: (i) systemic hypercapnia and (ii) low doses of a hyperosmolar solution. In addition, we have examined the sensitivity and accuracy of WEI as a biomarker of WER using computer simulation. In particular, the dependence of the WEI-WER relation on changes in vascular blood volume, T1 relaxation of cellular magnetization and transcytolemmal water exchange was explored. Simulated WEI was found to vary linearly with WER for typically encountered exchange rate constants (1-4 Hz), regardless of the blood volume. However, for very high WER (>5 Hz), WEI became progressively more insensitive to increasing WER. The incorporation of transcytolemmal water exchange, using a three-compartment tissue model, helped to extend the linear WEI regime to slightly higher WER, but had no significant effect for most physiologically important WERs (WER < 4 Hz). Variation in cellular T1 had no effect on WEI. Using both theoretical and experimental approaches, our study validates the utility of the WEI biomarker for the monitoring of BBB integrity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  18. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  19. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  20. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  1. Loess Thickness Variations Across the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan

    2018-01-01

    The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.

  2. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  3. Interferometric measurement of film thickness during bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mandracchia, B.; Ferraro, V.; Tammaro, D.; Di Maio, E.; Maffettone, P. L.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose digital holography in transmission configuration as an effective method to measure the time-dependent thickness of polymeric films during bubble blowing. We designed a complete set of experiments to measure bubble thickness, including the evaluation of the refractive index of the polymer solution. We report the measurement of thickness distribution along the film during the bubble formation process until the bubble`s rupture. Based on those data, the variation range and variation trend of bubble film thickness are clearly measured during the process of expansion to fracture is indicated.

  4. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  5. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-08-21

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  6. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  7. Estimating the relative water content of leaves in a cotton canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Kupinski, Meredith; Bradley, Christine; French, Andrew; Bronson, Kevin; Chipman, Russell; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Remotely sensing plant canopy water status remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches to estimating canopy water status — the Crop Water Stress Index, the Water Deficit Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness — involve measurements in the thermal or reflective infrared. Here we report plant water status estimates based upon analysis of polarized visible imagery of a cotton canopy measured by ground Multi-Spectral Polarization Imager (MSPI). Such estimators potentially provide access to the plant hydrological photochemistry that manifests scattering and absorption effects in the visible spectral region.

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  9. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In vivo applications of X-ray fluorescence in human subjects. 249 ... varying oxide thickness. 165 ... liquid crystal at 9 GHz under the influence of external ... and CO by positron impact: Theoretical ... X-ray microanalysis for single-particle analy-.

  10. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  11. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  12. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  13. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  14. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  15. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  16. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Use of water vapor for suppressing the growth of unstable low-{kappa} interlayer in HfTiO gate-dielectric Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with sub-nanometer capacitance equivalent thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.P. [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zou, X. [School of Electromachine and Architecture Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056 (China); Lai, P.T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)], E-mail: laip@eee.hku.hk; Li, C.X.; Chan, C.L. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2009-03-02

    Annealing of high-permittivity HfTiO gate dielectric on Ge substrate in different gases (N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, NO and N{sub 2}O) with or without water vapor is investigated. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy indicates that the four wet anneals can greatly suppress the growth of a GeO{sub x} interlayer at the dielectric/Ge interface, and thus decrease interface states, oxide charges and gate leakage current. Moreover, compared with the wet N{sub 2} anneal, the wet NH{sub 3}, NO and N{sub 2}O anneals decrease the equivalent permittivity of the gate dielectric due to the growth of a GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interlayer. Among the eight anneals, the wet N{sub 2} anneal produces the best dielectric performance with an equivalent relative permittivity of 35, capacitance equivalent thickness of 0.81 nm, interface-state density of 6.4 x 10{sup 11} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and gate leakage current of 2.7 x 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2} at V{sub g} = 1 V.

  18. Use of water vapor for suppressing the growth of unstable low-κ interlayer in HfTiO gate-dielectric Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with sub-nanometer capacitance equivalent thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.P.; Zou, X.; Lai, P.T.; Li, C.X.; Chan, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Annealing of high-permittivity HfTiO gate dielectric on Ge substrate in different gases (N 2 , NH 3 , NO and N 2 O) with or without water vapor is investigated. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy indicates that the four wet anneals can greatly suppress the growth of a GeO x interlayer at the dielectric/Ge interface, and thus decrease interface states, oxide charges and gate leakage current. Moreover, compared with the wet N 2 anneal, the wet NH 3 , NO and N 2 O anneals decrease the equivalent permittivity of the gate dielectric due to the growth of a GeO x N y interlayer. Among the eight anneals, the wet N 2 anneal produces the best dielectric performance with an equivalent relative permittivity of 35, capacitance equivalent thickness of 0.81 nm, interface-state density of 6.4 x 10 11 eV -1 cm -2 and gate leakage current of 2.7 x 10 -4 A/cm 2 at V g = 1 V

  19. New Aerosol Models for the Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness and Normalized Water-Leaving Radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS Sensors Over Coastal Regions and Open Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A.; McClain, Charles R.; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P.; Holben, Brent N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFs and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (tau), angstrom coefficient (alpha), and water-leaving radiance (L(sub w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity, These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity, From those findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%. and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all. 80 distributions (8Rh x 10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We. also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data,

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang, Abstract PDF. N Yaakub, M.N.A. Raoff, M.N. Haris, A.A.A. Halim, M.K.A. Kamarudin. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang, Abstract ...

  1. Applicability of spectral indices on thickness identification of oil slick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanfei; Shen, Yonglin; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played a vital role in the identification and monitoring of oil spill events, and amount of spectral indices have been developed. In this paper, the applicability of six frequently-used indices is analyzed, and a combination of spectral indices in aids of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to identify the oil slicks and corresponding thickness. The six spectral indices are spectral rotation (SR), spectral absorption depth (HI), band ratio of blue and green (BG), band ratio of BG and shortwave infrared index (BGN), 555nm and 645nm normalized by the blue band index (NB) and spectral slope (ND). The experimental study is conducted in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill zone, with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery captured in May 17, 2010. The results show that SR index is the best in all six indices, which can effectively distinguish the thickness of the oil slick and identify it from seawater; HI index and ND index can obviously distinguish oil slick thickness; BG, BGN and NB are more suitable to identify oil slick from seawater. With the comparison among different kernel functions of SVM, the classify accuracy show that the polynomial and RBF kernel functions have the best effect on the separation of oil slick thickness and the relatively pure seawater. The applicability of spectral indices of oil slick and the method of oil film thickness identification will in aids of oil/gas exploration and oil spill monitoring.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighted Index of Biotic Integrity (SIBI) for use in the assessment of biotic integrity in the Klip River, Gauteng, South Africa, Abstract. P J Kotze, G J Steyn, H H du Preez, C J Kleynhans. Vol 40, No 4 (2015), Diatoms as water ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 286 of 286 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced ... the Hire Purchase and credit sale Act - An unnecessary duplication ? ... Vol 21 (2015), The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour, Abstract PDF ... quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 823 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2016), Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ... and Practices About Tsetse Fly in Muri District, Taraba State, Nigeria ... Vol 10, No 1 (2017): Special Conference Edition, Evaluation of heavy metals' health risk index in ... of phytoplankton as bioindicators of water quality in Jakara dam, ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 985 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 17 (2010), Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic Wave Algorithm, Abstract. E Ikata .... Vol 17 (2010), Analytic derivation of the wave profile and phase speed of sixth order Stokes waves in deep water, Abstract.

  6. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  7. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  8. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  9. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  10. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  11. Caracterização da água da microbacia do córrego rico avaliada pelo índice de qualidade de água e de estado trófico Water quality of rico stream micro-basin evalueted by water quality index and trophic state index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. H. T. Zanini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do índice de qualidade da água (IQA e do índice de estado trófico médio (IETm pode subsidiar a formulação de planos de manejo e gestão de sistemas aquáticos. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a qualidade da água da microbacia do Córrego Rico, que abastece a cidade de Jaboticabal (SP, utilizando o IQA e IETm. As amostragens de água foram realizadas entre setembro-2007 e agosto-2008, em três pontos: a em uma das nascentes; b após a Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto de Monte Alto, e c na captação de água para abastecimento público de Jaboticabal. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos parâmetros físicos, químicos e microbiológicos: temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, DBO5, nitrogênio total, fósforo total, turbidez, resíduo total, ortofosfato, clorofila-a e Escherichia coli. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: a as atividades antrópicas às margens do Córrego Rico reduzem a qualidade de sua água, durante os diferentes períodos do ano; b os valores médios de IQA nos três pontos analisados apresentaram relação direta com os valores médios de IETm, porém ocorreu maior discriminação da qualidade da água pelo IETm, identificando diferentes graus de trofia para os pontos e períodos de amostragens; c o IQA apresentou melhor diferenciação da qualidade da água entre pontos no período seco e o IETm diferenciou melhor no período chuvoso; d o processo de autodepuração e/ou a confluência do Córrego Tijuco com o Córrego Rico contribuem para melhor qualidade da água, tornando-a adequada ao abastecimento urbano após tratamento convencional.The evaluation of water quality index (WQI and mean trophic state index (mTSI may be useful for management and administration projects of water systems. Quality of water from the stream Rico micro-basin that supplies the town of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil, with fresh water has been evaluated, using WQI and mTSI. Collects were undertaken between

  12. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  13. Accuracy assessment of a net radiation and temperature index snowmelt model using ground observations of snow water equivalent in an alpine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Bales, R. C.; Dozier, J.

    2003-04-01

    In this study, an accumulated net radiation / accumulated degree-day index snowmelt model was coupled with remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA) data to simulate snow cover depletion and reconstruct maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) in the 19.1-km2 Tokopah Basin of the Sierra Nevada, California. Simple net radiation snowmelt models are attractive for operational snowmelt runoff forecasts as they are computationally inexpensive and have low input requirements relative to physically based energy balance models. The objective of this research was to assess the accuracy of a simple net radiation snowmelt model in a topographically heterogeneous alpine environment. Previous applications of net radiation / temperature index snowmelt models have not been evaluated in alpine terrain with intensive field observations of SWE. Solar radiation data from two meteorological stations were distributed using the topographic radiation model TOPORAD. Relative humidity and temperature data were distributed based on the lapse rate calculated between three meteorological stations within the basin. Fractional SCA data from the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (5 acquisitions) and the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) (2 acquisitions) were used to derive daily SCA using a linear regression between acquisition dates. Grain size data from AVIRIS (4 acquisitions) were used to infer snow surface albedo and interpolated linearly with time to derive daily albedo values. Modeled daily snowmelt rates for each 30-m pixel were scaled by the SCA and integrated over the snowmelt season to obtain estimates of maximum SWE accumulation. Snow surveys consisting of an average of 335 depth measurements and 53 density measurements during April, May and June, 1997 were interpolated using a regression tree / co-krig model, with independent variables of average incoming solar radiation, elevation, slope and maximum upwind slope. The basin was clustered into 7 elevation / average

  14. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  15. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  16. Changes of freshwater-lens thickness in basaltic island aquifers overlain by thick coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Oki, Delwyn S.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater-lens thickness and long-term changes in freshwater volume in coastal aquifers are commonly assessed through repeated measurement of salinity profiles from monitor wells that penetrate into underlying salt water. In Hawaii, the thickest measured freshwater lens is currently 262 m in dike-free, volcanic-rock aquifers that are overlain by thick coastal sediments. The midpoint depth (depth where salinity is 50% salt water) between freshwater and salt water can serve as an indicator for freshwater thickness. Most measured midpoints have risen over the past 40 years, indicating a shrinking lens. The mean rate of rise of the midpoint from 1999–2009 varied locally, with faster rates in highly developed areas (1.0 m/year) and slower rates in less developed areas (0.5 m/year). The thinning of the freshwater lenses is the result of long-term groundwater withdrawal and reduced recharge. Freshwater/salt-water interface locations predicted from measured water levels and the Ghyben-Herzberg principle may be deeper than measured midpoints during some periods and shallower during other periods, although depths may differ up to 100 m in some cases. Moreover, changes in the midpoint are slower than changes in water level. Thus, water levels may not be a reliable indicator of the amount of freshwater in a coastal aquifer.

  17. DOMPAC dosimetry experiment. Neutronic simulation of the thickness of a PWR pressure vessel. Irradiation damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberman, A.; Faure, M.; Thierry, M.; Hoclet, O.; Le Dieu de Ville, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Soulat, P.

    1979-01-01

    For suitable extrapolation of irradiated PWR ferritic steel results, proper irradiation of the pressure vessel has been 'simulated' in test reactor. For this purpose, a huge steel block (20 cm in depth) was loaded with Saclay's graphite (GAMIN) and tungsten damage detectors. Core-block water gap was optimized through spectrum indexes method, by ANISN and SABINE codes so that spectrum in 1/4 thickness matches with ANISN computations for PWR Fessenheim 1. A good experimental agreement is found with calculated dpa damage gradient. 3D Monte Carlo computation (TRIPOLI), was performed on the DOMPAC device, and spectrum indexes evolution was found consistent with experimental results. Surveillance rigs behind a 'thermal shield' were also simulated, including damage and activation monitors. Dosimetry results give an order of magnitude of accuracies involved in projecting steel sample embrittlement to the pressure vessel [fr

  18. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Northern Central Indian Ridge and their geodynamic implications. 659 ... during winter over a tropical inland station –. Kharagpur .... potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Water- shed, Mahi .... late organic carbon (POC) in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. 1 ... Quasi-periodic VLF emissions observed during daytime at a ...

  19. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  20. Overweight is not associated with cortical thickness alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jane Sharkey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSeveral studies report an association between body mass index (BMI and cortical thickness in adults. Some studies demonstrate diffuse cortical thinning in obesity, while others report effects in areas that are associated with self-regulation, such as lateral prefrontal cortex. MethodsThis study used multilevel modelling of data from the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository, a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional database, to examine the relationship between cortical thickness and body weight in children. Cortical thickness was computed at 81,942 vertices of 716 MRI scans from 378 children aged between 4 and 18 years. Body mass index Z score for age was computed for each participant. We preformed vertex-wise statistical analysis of the relationship between cortical thickness and BMI, accounting for age and gender. In addition, cortical thickness was extracted from regions of interest in prefrontal cortex and insula.ResultsNo significant association between cortical thickness and BMI was found, either by statistical parametric mapping or by region of interest analysis. Results remained negative when the analysis was restricted to children aged 12-18.ConclusionsThe correlation between BMI and cortical thickness was not found in this large pediatric sample. The association between BMI and cortical thinning develops after adolescence. This has implications for the nature of the relationship between brain anatomy and weight gain.

  1. Identification of Water Usage Efficiency for Corn(Zea mays L.Lines Irrigated with Drip Irrigation Under Green House Conditions asPer Plant Water Stress Index Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Beyhan UÇAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted as a greenhouse study under Çukurova conditions during the years2011-2012. Two different dent corn lines (5A2-B and 22K were used as the plant material of the experiments. Crop water stress index (CWSI values determined through leaf canopy temperature measurements performed ahead of irrigations were used to find outwater use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted in randomized blocks-split plots experimental design with three replications. Drip irrigation was used for irrigations and two different irrigation programs were created as of I100(supplying 100% of depleted water in every seven days and I75(applying 75% of depleted water. The amount of irrigation water applied for in the interaction of I100irrigation and corn lines (5A2-B and22K in the first and second year were respectively varied between 253.0-274.0and between 238.0-261.0mm, seasonal plant water consumptions varied between 294.0-305.0and between 284.6-302.6 mm, kernel yields varied between 2950.0-2990.0 and between 3130.0-3186.0kgha-1. With regard to (in the interaction irrigation treatments xcorn lines, the lowest and the highest CWSI values were observed in the interaction full irrigation (I100 and of the line 22K as 0.22 and in deficit irrigation treatment (I75 of the line 5A2-B as 0.41in the first year; in full irrigation treatment (I100 of the line 22K as 0.20 and in deficit irrigation treatment (I75 of the line 5A2-B as 0.36. The greatest and the lowest chlorophyll contents (in the interaction irrigation treatments x corn lines were respectively observed in I100treatment of the line 22K as 58.3 spad and in I75treatment of the line 5A2-Bas 50.9 spad in the first year; in I100treatment of the line 22K as 59.1 SPAD and in I75treatment of the line 5A2-B as 55.1 spad. While the effects of irrigation treatments on average dry matter contents of the lines were not found to be significant, significant differences were observed in water use efficiency

  2. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon. The influence of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on biogeochemistry of carbon in the Arabian Sea during. 1997–1998. 433 ... Coupled equations for transient water flow, heat flow, ... Penang Island, Malaysia. 661 .... Methane emission.

  3. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SMART-1 after lunar capture: First results and perspectives. 687 ... Depositional setting and vertebrate biostratigraphy ... River water quality in weathered limestone: A case study in ... Ocean Basin: Paleoceanography during the past. ~ 1 Ma.

  4. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline ... Behaviour of REEs in a tropical estuary and adjacent continental shelf ... Bengal: Implication for petrogenetic process and tectonic setting. 793 ..... information based approach. 1011.

  5. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal-catalysed organic transformations in water: From bromination to polymerisation ... Sulphur-bridged ruthenium–molybdenum complexes: ..... to ethylene in the presence of CO2 with or without limited O2 ..... Red light laser. Photocleavage ...

  6. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Afyon-Sandıklı) geothermal systems, SW Turkey 1081. Microtremor measurements ... Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian ... Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Paleo- proterozoic ultramafic ...

  7. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  8. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  9. Infrared sensing and the measurement of oil slick thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Goodman, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether infrared images can be used to detect the thickness of a marine oil spill was discussed. Infrared images of oil spills on water show density variations because of variations in oil temperature and emissivity. These observations have been used to determine thickness variations in the oil. Experiments were conducted in a large wave basin using two typical crude oils in the thickness range of 1 mm to 10 mm. Infrared images of oil spills were recorded and simultaneous thickness measurements were made using an acoustic thickness gauge. The study showed that there is no relationship between infrared image pixel greyness and the thickness measured with an acoustic probe. It was not possible to determine the volume of a spill using infrared images. 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  11. Land use change and conversion effects on ground water quality trends: An integration of land change modeler in GIS and a new Ground Water Quality Index developed by fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtarian, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Margherita, Ferrante; Gea, Oliveri Conti; Mortezazadeh, Shima

    2018-04-01

    This study aggregated Land Change Modeller (LCM) as a useful model in GIS with an extended Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) developed by fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models to investigate the effect of land use change and conversion on groundwater quality being supplied for drinking. The model's performance was examined through an applied study in Shiraz, Iran, in a five year period (2011 to 2015). Four land use maps including urban, industrial, garden, and bare were employed in LCM model and the impact of change in area and their conversion to each other on GWQI changes was analysed. The correlation analysis indicated that increase in the urban land use area and conversion of bare to the residential/industrial land uses, had a relation with water quality decrease. Integration of LCM and GWQI can accurately and logically provide a numerical analysis of the possible impact of land use change and conversion, as one of the influencing factors, on the groundwater quality. Hence, the methodology could be used in urban development planning and management in macro level. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ages: Lower Narmada basin, western India. 413. Advective heat transfer. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal intrusive granite – the case of Pro- terozoic Vellaturu granite, south India. 433. Andaman Islands. Improved bathymetric datasets for the shallow water regions in the Indian Ocean. 261.

  13. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selective adsorbent for the extraction and detection of gold(III) 327. Austenitic steel .... Ru3+): catalytic effects for the reduction of 2- or 4-nitroanilines in water. 1651 ...... Leakage current transport mechanisms of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/.

  14. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Self-assembly of a Co(II) dimer through H-bonding of water molecules to a 3D ... A density functional theory-based chemical potential equalisation approach to .... Electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide using o-dianisidine as ...

  15. The effect of unilateral partial edentulism to muscle thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca-Ceylan, Golzem; Guler, Ahmet U.; Taskay-Yelmir, Nergiz; Lutfi, Incesu; Aksoz, Tolga

    2003-01-01

    Teeth and muscle play a very important role for occlusal equilibrium and function.when tooth loss begins ,it may also effect the function of muscle tissues. The thickness of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were measured bilaterally in 30 healthy fully dentate adults and in 30 unilateral edentulous patients by using ultrasonographic imaging. All scans were carried out by the same radiologist to eliminate the inter-observer difference, using a real time scanner (Toshiba SSA -270A,Japan). A 7.5 MHz linear transducer was used. The effect of age, sex, duration of partial edentulism, unilateral chewing habits of the individuals to the muscle thickness were also evaluated. In all subjects,facial proportion index was also determined. Main purpose of this study was to compare and establish the differences of muscle thickness between dentate and edentulous side in unilateral partial edentulous patients with ultrasonography and to test whether the variation in the thickness of the muscle is related to the variation in the facial and morphology. Ultrasonography revealed a large variation in the thickness of the masseter and temporolis muscles in experimental and controlled groups ,both relaxed and contracted conditions.The thickness of muscles in females was less in both conditions.In experimental group, a high negative correlation was found between the thickness of the masseter muscle and Facial Proportion Index ( FPI) in the females ,however, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the males. Also a high negative correlation was found in female control group. There was no statistically significant relationship between unilateral chewing habits and muscle thickness .In this study the duration of partial edentulism did not affect the thickness of the muscle.Further research is required to study muscular atrophy for comparison with total edentulism. (author)

  16. Development of Forest Drought Index and Forest Water Use Prediction in Gyeonggi Province, Korea Using High-Resolution Weather Research and Forecast Data and Localized JULES Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Park, J.; Cho, S.; Lee, S. J.; Kim, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Forest determines the amount of water available to low land ecosystems, which use the rest of water after evapotranspiration by forests. Substantial increase of drought, especially for seasonal drought, has occurred in Korea due to climate change, recently. To cope with this increasing crisis, it is necessary to predict the water use of forest. In our study, forest water use in the Gyeonggi Province in Korea was estimated using high-resolution (spatial and temporal) meteorological forecast data and localized Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) which is one of the widely used land surface models. The modeled estimation was used for developing forest drought index. The localization of the model was conducted by 1) refining the existing two tree plant functional types (coniferous and deciduous trees) into five (Quercus spp., other deciduous tree spp., Pinus spp., Larix spp., and other coniferous spp.), 2) correcting moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) through data assimilation with in situ measured LAI, and 3) optimizing the unmeasured plant physiological parameters (e.g. leaf nitrogen contents, nitrogen distribution within canopy, light use efficiency) based on sensitivity analysis of model output values. The high-resolution (hourly and 810 × 810 m) National Center for AgroMeteorology-Land-Atmosphere Modeling Package (NCAM-LAMP) data were employed as meteorological input data in JULES. The plant functional types and soil texture of each grid cell in the same resolution with that of NCAM-LAMP was also used. The performance of the localized model in estimating forest water use was verified by comparison with the multi-year sapflow measurements and Eddy covariance data of Taehwa Mountain site. Our result can be used as referential information to estimate the forest water use change by the climate change. Moreover, the drought index can be used to foresee the drought condition and prepare to it.

  17. Neotendon infilling of a full thickness rotator cuff foot print tear following ultrasound guided liquid platelet rich plasma injection and percutaneous tenotomy: favourable outcome up to one year [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/xz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockia Doss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report on excellent clinical outcome and neotendon infilling at one year follow up in a degenerative rotator cuff full thickness tear following percutaneous tenotomy and platelet rich plasma injection.

  18. 3-D mapping with ellipsometrically determined physical thickness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values at different points (121 nos.) with 1 mm gap between two points. Those data were utilized in the Auto- lisp programme for 3-D mapping. Radial distribution of the evaluated values was also displayed. Keywords. Sol–gel silica layer; ellipsometric studies; refractive index; physical thickness; 3D-mapping. 1. Introduction.

  19. Ultrabroadband THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of a Free-Flowing Water Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2014-01-01

    of liquid water using two different THz-TDS setups. The extracted absorption coefficient and refractive index of water are in agreement with previous results reported in the literature. With this we show that the thin free-flowing liquid film is a versatile tool for windowless, ultrabroadband THz......We demonstrate quantitative ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) of water by application of a 17-$\\mu$m thick gravity-driven wire-guided flow jet of water. The thickness and stability of the water film is accurately measured by an optical intensity crosscorrelator, and the standard...... deviation of the film thickness is less than 500 nm. The cross section of the water film is found to have a biconcave cylindrical lens shape. By transmitting through such a thin film, we perform the first ultrabroadband (0.2–30 THz) THz-TDS across the strongest absorbing part of the infrared spectrum...

  20. Investigation of the Influence of Leaf Thickness on Canopy Reflectance and Physiological Traits in Upland and Pima Cotton Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Pauli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many systems for field-based, high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP quantify and characterize the reflected radiation from the crop canopy to derive phenotypes, as well as infer plant function and health status. However, given the technology's nascent status, it remains unknown how biophysical and physiological properties of the plant canopy impact downstream interpretation and application of canopy reflectance data. In that light, we assessed relationships between leaf thickness and several canopy-associated traits, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, which was collected via active reflectance sensors carried on a mobile FB-HTP system, carbon isotope discrimination (CID, and chlorophyll content. To investigate the relationships among traits, two distinct cotton populations, an upland (Gossypium hirsutum L. recombinant inbred line (RIL population of 95 lines and a Pima (G. barbadense L. population composed of 25 diverse cultivars, were evaluated under contrasting irrigation regimes, water-limited (WL and well-watered (WW conditions, across 3 years. We detected four quantitative trait loci (QTL and significant variation in both populations for leaf thickness among genotypes as well as high estimates of broad-sense heritability (on average, above 0.7 for both populations, indicating a strong genetic basis for leaf thickness. Strong phenotypic correlations (maximum r = −0.73 were observed between leaf thickness and NDVI in the Pima population, but not the RIL population. Additionally, estimated genotypic correlations within the RIL population for leaf thickness with CID, chlorophyll content, and nitrogen discrimination (r^gij = −0.32, 0.48, and 0.40, respectively were all significant under WW but not WL conditions. Economically important fiber quality traits did not exhibit significant phenotypic or genotypic correlations with canopy traits. Overall, our results support considering variation in leaf thickness as a potential

  1. Correlation analysis of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for the water debit and level of the Cisadane River during El Niño and La Niña years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoir, A. N.; Rohmah, M.; Nuryadi

    2018-03-01

    Hydrometeorological factor causes most disaster in Indonesia, and two of them are drought and flood. This study aims to correlate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) 3-monthly to water debit and water level in the Cisadane River. The monthly rainfall data from Serpong and Pasar Baru rain station from 2009 to 2011 when moderate El Niño and moderate La Niña happened. The correlation analysis between debit and water level to SPI 3-monthly used rain post of Serpong to represent the condition of the upstream area and rain post of Pasar Baru to represent the condition of the downstream area. The results showed that during La Niña year, the rainfall on the upstream area of the Cisadane River influenced the increase and the decrease in water debit and water level. Meanwhile, the rainfall on the downstream area of the river has an opposite effect on the increase and the decrease of debit and water level of the Pasar Baru. On the upstream area, the correlation between rainfall and water debit is 0.8, and the correlation between rainfall and water level is also 0.8. During El Niño year, the correlation was less than 0.5.

  2. Use of the Nitrogen Index to assess nitrate leaching and water drainage from plastic-mulched horticultural cropping systems of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality in Florida is significantly impacted by nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in a large part of the state, where there is a close interaction between surface water and groundwater that has a high water table. Horticultural crops are planted across large areas of Florida, including area...

  3. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  4. Hydrogeologic data and water-quality data from a thick unsaturated zone at a proposed wastewater-treatment facility site, Yucca Valley, San Bernardino County, California, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David; Clark, Dennis A.; Izbicki, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hi-Desert Water District, in the community of Yucca Valley, California, is considering constructing a wastewater-treatment facility and using the reclaimed water to recharge the aquifer system through surface spreading. The Hi-Desert Water District is concerned with possible effects of this recharge on water quality in the underlying groundwater system; therefore, an unsaturated-zone monitoring site was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to characterize the unsaturated zone, monitor a pilot-scale recharge test, and, ultimately, to monitor the flow of reclaimed water to the water table once the treatment facility is constructed.

  5. Corneal thickness: measurement and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2004-03-01

    The thickness of the cornea was reported in more than 100-year-old textbooks on physiological optics (Helmholtz, Gullstrand). Physiological interest was revived in the 1950s by David Maurice, and over the next 50 years, this 'simple' biological parameter has been studied extensively. Several techniques for its measurement have been described and physiological and clinical significance have been studied. In this review, the different methods and techniques of measurement are briefly presented (optical, ultrasound). While the corneal thickness of many animals are the same over a considerable part of the surface, in the human cornea anterior and posterior curvature are not concentric giving rise to a problem of definition. Based on this the precision and accuracy of determining the central corneal thickness are discussed. Changes in corneal thickness reflects changes in function of the boundary layers, in particular the endothelial barrier. The absolute value of thickness is of importance for the estimation of IOP but also in diagnosis of corneal and systemic disorders. Finally it is discussed to what extent the thickness is a biometric parameter of significance, e.g. in the progression of myopia or in the development of retinal detachment.

  6. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  7. Portable abdomen radiography. Moving to thickness-based protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Reiser, Ingrid; Baxter, Tina; Zhang, Yue; Finkle, Joshua H.; Lu, Zheng Feng; Feinstein, Kate A.

    2018-01-01

    Default pediatric protocols on many digital radiography systems are configured based on patient age. However, age does not adequately characterize patient size, which is the principal determinant of proper imaging technique. Use of default pediatric protocols by inexperienced technologists can result in patient overexposure, inadequate image quality, or repeated examinations. To ensure diagnostic image quality at a well-managed patient radiation exposure by transitioning to thickness-based protocols for pediatric portable abdomen radiography. We aggregated patient thickness data, milliamperes (mAs), kilovoltage peak (kVp), exposure index (EI), source-to-detector distance, and grid use for all portable abdomen radiographs performed in our pediatric hospital in a database with a combination of automated and manual data collection techniques. We then analyzed the database and used it as the basis to construct thickness-based protocols with consistent image quality across varying patient thicknesses, as determined by the EI. Retrospective analysis of pediatric portable exams performed at our adult-focused hospitals demonstrated substantial variability in EI relative to our pediatric hospital. Data collection at our pediatric hospital over 4 months accumulated roughly 800 portable abdomen exams, which we used to develop a thickness-based technique chart. Through automated retrieval of data in our systems' digital radiography exposure logs and recording of patient abdomen thickness, we successfully developed thickness-based techniques for portable abdomen radiography. (orig.)

  8. Portable abdomen radiography. Moving to thickness-based protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Reiser, Ingrid; Baxter, Tina; Zhang, Yue; Finkle, Joshua H.; Lu, Zheng Feng; Feinstein, Kate A. [University of Chicago Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Default pediatric protocols on many digital radiography systems are configured based on patient age. However, age does not adequately characterize patient size, which is the principal determinant of proper imaging technique. Use of default pediatric protocols by inexperienced technologists can result in patient overexposure, inadequate image quality, or repeated examinations. To ensure diagnostic image quality at a well-managed patient radiation exposure by transitioning to thickness-based protocols for pediatric portable abdomen radiography. We aggregated patient thickness data, milliamperes (mAs), kilovoltage peak (kVp), exposure index (EI), source-to-detector distance, and grid use for all portable abdomen radiographs performed in our pediatric hospital in a database with a combination of automated and manual data collection techniques. We then analyzed the database and used it as the basis to construct thickness-based protocols with consistent image quality across varying patient thicknesses, as determined by the EI. Retrospective analysis of pediatric portable exams performed at our adult-focused hospitals demonstrated substantial variability in EI relative to our pediatric hospital. Data collection at our pediatric hospital over 4 months accumulated roughly 800 portable abdomen exams, which we used to develop a thickness-based technique chart. Through automated retrieval of data in our systems' digital radiography exposure logs and recording of patient abdomen thickness, we successfully developed thickness-based techniques for portable abdomen radiography. (orig.)

  9. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  10. A code for leakage neutron spectra through thick shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, P.S.; Sethulakshmi, P.; Raghavendran, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    An exponential transform Monte Carlo code has been developed for deep penetration of neutrons and the results of leakage neutron spectra of this code have been compared with those of a basic Monte Carlo code for small thickness. The development of the code and optimisation of certain transform parameters are discussed and results are presented for a few thick shields of concrete and water in the context of neutron monitoring in the environs of accelerator and reactor shields. (author)

  11. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European

  12. An index-based approach for the sustainability assessment of irrigation practice based on the water-energy-food nexus framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, Rossella; Portoghese, Ivan; Pagano, Alessandro; Fratino, Umberto; Vurro, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Increasing pressure affects water resources, especially in the agricultural sector, with cascading impacts on energy consumption. This is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean area, showing significant water scarcity problems, further exacerbated by the crucial economic role of agricultural production. Assessing the sustainability of water resource use is thus essential to preserving ecosystems and maintaining high levels of agricultural productivity. This paper proposes an integrated methodology based on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to evaluate the multi-dimensional implications of irrigation practices. Three different indices are introduced, based on an analysis of the most influential factors. The methodology is then implemented in a catchment located in Puglia (Italy) and a comparative analysis of the three indices is presented. The results mainly highlight that economic land productivity is a key driver of irrigated agriculture, and that groundwater is highly affordable compared to surface water, thus being often dangerously perceived as freely available.

  13. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  14. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2018-01-30

    Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm) obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R²) increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE) decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  15. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Poblete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP and thermal infrared (TIR imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R2 increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE and standard error (SE decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  16. Multimetric index for assessing ecological condition of running waters in the upper reaches of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilio F. Baptista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a rapid multimetric index using benthic macrofauna as bioindicators of ecological conditions for the upper reaches of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Basin located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 33698 macroinvertebrates were collected in 27 sites. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method that consists in sampling 20 m² of substrate collected in approximate proportion to the representation of all major habitat types in the reach. A subsampling procedure was used. The main steps followed to develop and test the index were: exclusion of unsuitable metrics using box-whisker plots, considering the degree of overlapping among interquartile limits (1º-3º and confirmed by Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05 using six reference rivers and six impaired rivers. From all the candidate potential metrics, 36 were considered suitable. After identifying redundant metrics, through Spearman correlation analysis, and considering practical application criteria, six core metrics were selected to compose the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Multimetric Index (PPPMI using the continuous method: Family richness, Shannon-Wiener family diversity, EPT family richness, %Diptera, %MOLD (Mollusca + Diptera and %Collectors. The sensitivity of the index was tested in 15 rivers using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA of the six environmental variables. The first axis of the PCA was highly correlated to the PPPMI scores (r = 0.703, p < 0.001. The PPPMI responded to a set of environmental variables associated to a gradient of human disturbance affecting the ecological condition of the waterbodies. This indicates that the PPPMI is an effective tool for biological monitoring and decision making in the hydrographic region of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto rivers.

  17. Emittance of a finite scattering medium with refractive index greater than unity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Refractive index and scattering can significantly influence the transfer of radiation in a semitransparent medium such as water, glass, plastics, or ceramics. In a recent article (1979), the author presented exact numerical results for the emittance of a semiinfinite scattering medium with a refractive index greater than unity. The present investigation extends the analysis to a finite medium. The physical situation consists of a finite planar layer. The isothermal layer emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters thermal radiation. It is characterized by single scattering albedo, optical thickness, refractive index, and temperature. A formula for the directional emittance is derived, the directional emittance being the emittance of the medium multiplied by the interface transmittance. The ratio of hemispherical to normal emittance is tabulated and discussed

  18. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap, P; Revathi, N; Subbaiah, Y P Venkata; Reddy, K T Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity

  19. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  20. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  1. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  2. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  3. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  4. Four contamination indexes for continental waters characterization. Formulation and application; Cuatro indices de contaminacion para caracterizacion de aguas continentales. Formulaciones y aplicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Restrepo, R; Vina, G

    1997-12-01

    In this paper four indices of contamination, which qualify different water aspects are presents. Such indices allow for an overall assessment of the environmental status of the water bodies. These indices have been derived from accumulative experiences in hydro biological monitoring in the Colombian Petroleum industry for six years. Multivariable statistics was used. The indices were developed based on legislation from several countries, in accordance with the concentration of the different parameters and water usages. This indices of contamination (ICO) are: ICOMI (mineralization), ICOMO (organics contamination), ICOSUS (suspended solids) and ICOTRO (trophic system). The indices are easy to estimate (mathematically and/or graphically) and allow the identification the type of environmental problem, existing as demonstrated with examples and the near to zero correlations found. Thanks to the minimum number of variables, the application of these indices also diminishes monitoring and evaluation costs. In view of the advantages above mentioned is worth considering integrating the indices in to the national legislation.

  5. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  6. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  7. Association of Hypertension, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference with Fluoride Intake; Water Drinking in Residents of Fluoride Endemic Areas, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahmood; Yaseri, Mehdi; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hooshmand, Elham; Jalilzadeh, Mohsen; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2018-03-14

    Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic for both rural and urban populations; it is a major public health challenge in Iran. Fluoride can be a risk factor for hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in two study areas to assess the relation of fluoride with blood pressure prevalence, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among different age groups in both sexes. The mean value of fluoride concentration in the drinking water from the four study villages varied from 0.68 to 10.30 mg/L. The overall prevalence of HTN and prehypertension in all subjects was 40.7%. The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension, isolated diastolic hypertension, systolic-diastolic hypertension, and prehypertension in the total sample population was 1.15, 0.28, 9.53, and 29.76%, respectively. The odd ratio of hypertension in residents who drank water with high fluoride levels was higher than that in residents who drank water with lower level of fluoride (OR 2.3, 1.03-5.14). Logistic regression results showed that age (P water (P = 0.041) had a significant relationship with increased blood pressure. There were no statistically significant correlations between fluoride and BMI, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio (WHR). The findings of this study are important for health care personnel and policymakers.

  8. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  9. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 970-974, 2003

  10. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  11. Soliton models for thick branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z 2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w 2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ 4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ 6 branes. (orig.)

  12. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  13. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  14. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  15. Measurement and analysis of breeding index in the first mock-up core (XXII-1(65V)) for water-cooled breeder reactor at FCA. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masahiro; Okajima, Shigeaki; Andoh, Masaki; Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Masaharu

    2005-03-01

    Measurements and analyses of breeding index were performed in the FCA-XXII-1(65V) core simulating reduced-moderation lightwater reactor (RMWR) with void fraction 65% of moderator at Fast Critical Assembly (FCA). The measurement of the reaction rate ratio of 238 U capture to 235 U fission (C8/F5) was made by a foil activation technique using depleted and enriched uranium foils, and the reaction rate ratios of 239 Pu fission to 235 U fission (F9/F5) and 238 U fission to 235 U fission (F8/F5) were measured using absolutely calibrated fission chambers. Cell averaged reaction correction factors were derived by the Monte Carlo code (MVP) calculations with modeling the forms and positions of fission chambers and foils. Consequently, cell averaged reaction rate ratios were determined to be C8/F5 of 0.0916±1.4%, F9/F5 of 0.759±1.2% and F8/F5 of 0.0201±0.9%. Therefore, breeding index of C8/F9 was determined to be 0.121 ± 1.8%. The analyses were made by using the JFS-3-J3.2R group constant set which is generated from the JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. The effective cross sections were calculated by the standard cell calculation code for fast reactor, SLAROM. Three-dimensional diffusion calculations by the CITATION code with 70-group structure have been performed to estimate the reaction rate ratios in the core center. Here, effective cross sections of fuel cells in the core center were obtained using the PEACO-X code with an ultra-fine group structure to consider self-shielding effect in the resonance energy range. Calculation to experiment ratios (C/E) of F9/F5 and F8/F5 were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. These calculated values slightly overestimate the experimental one. The calculated value of C8/F5 overestimates the experimental one by about 6%. Consequently, the C/E value of C8/F9 was 1.03. The calculated value slightly overestimates the experimental one. The calculation code system developed for the thermal reactor, SRAC code system, was also used to analyze the

  16. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  17. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  18. Factors influencing endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-07-01

    Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of

  19. The effects of ex-situ oil shale mining on groundwater resources in Siwaqa area, southern Jordan, using DRASTIC index and hydrochemical water assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy resources in addition to water resources are the most limited resources in Jordan, being one of the fourth poorest countries in water resources, and limitation of surface water resources put huge pressure on groundwater which is the main resource there. High expenses and the increasing prices of oil over all worlds increase the feasibility to mining the oil shale that exists in southern Jordan area, Siwaqa. This study took place to clarify the possible effects of mining and energy production activities on the water resources in that area. Groundwater vulnerability mapping was done for many areas all over the country, including this part. The initiative of this work is to determine the vulnerability under the conditions of removing the bedrock of the oil shale which is described as a con ning layer. Results that are obtained by this work conclude that the oil shale area becomes highly vulnerable to the human activities because of the existing geological structures while it is small and medium vulnerable in the elds in which there are no geological structures. In addition to the structural features and adding the possibility of the oil shale mining from the outcropped areas which will decrease the depth to water table and hence will affect the vulnerability values.  Efectos en las fuentes de agua subterránea de la minería ex situ de esquistos bituminosos, en el área de Siwaqa, al sur de Jordania, a través del índice DRASTIC y la evaluación hidroquímica del agua  Resumen Las fuentes de energía y agua son las más limitadas en Jordania, uno de los cuatro países más pobres en recursos hídricos; además, las limitadas fuentes super ciales hacen de las aguas subterráneas las más importantes. Las ganancias y el precio del petróleo, por su parte, incrementan la viabilidad de la minería de esquistos bituminosos en el sur de Jordania, en la región de Siwaqa. Este estudio se realiza con el  n de establecer los

  20. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of thin versus thick melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Małgorzata; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Walecka, Irena; Pellacani, Giovanni; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2018-01-24

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) plays an increasingly important role in differential diagnosis of melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess typical confocal features of thin (≤1mm according to Breslow index) versus thick (>1mm) melanomas. 30 patients with histopathologically confirmed cutaneous melanoma were included in the study. Reflectance confocal microscopy was performed with Vivascope equipment prior to excision. Fifteen melanomas were thin (Breslow thickness ≤ 1mm) and 15 were thick melanomas (Breslow thickness >1mm). In the RCM examination, the following features were more frequently observed in thin compared to thick melanomas: edged papillae (26.7% vs 0%, p=0.032) and areas with honeycomb or cobblestone pattern (33.3% vs 6.7%, p=0.068). Both features are present in benign melanocytic lesions, so in melanoma are good prognostic factors. The group of thick melanomas compared to the group of thin melanomas in the RCM images presented with greater frequency of roundish cells (100% vs 40%, p=0.001), non-edged papillae (100% vs 60%, p=0.006), numerous pagetoid cells (73.3% vs 33.3%, p=0.028), numerous atypical cells at dermal-epidermal junction (53.3% vs 20%, p=0.058) and epidermal disarray (93.3% vs 66.7%, p=0.068). Non-invasive imaging methods helps in deepening of knowledge about the evolution and biology of melanoma. The most characteristic features for thin melanomas in confocal examination are: fragments of cobblestone or honeycomb pattern and edged papillae (as good prognostic factors). The features of thick melanomas in RCM examination are: roundish cells, non-edged papillae, numerous pagetoid cells at dermal-epidermal junction and epidermal disarray.

  1. Comparative assessment of gingival thickness in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Bharamappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is a known fact that clinical appearance of gingiva directly correlates with the inflammatory status of the periodontium. It has been observed that the gingival thickness (GT appears to differ in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. Thickness of gingiva seems to be of significance and an issue of concern in aesthetic and functional outcome of the periodontal, restorative and orthodontic therapy. So far in the periodontal literature, the gingival width has been discussed to a great extent. GT also plays an equally important role, but it has been given limited importance when compared to gingival width. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess the GT in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva by transgingival probing. Materials and Methods: The study included 240 sites in 10 patients each of pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. The GT was assessed mid-buccally in the attached gingiva, half way between mucogingival junction and free gingival groove and at the base of the interdental papilla. The gingival bleeding index and plaque index were also recorded. The data were statistically analysed using paired t-test and Z-test. Results and Conclusion: Gingival bleeding index and plaque index were similar between both the groups. Both midbuccal and interdental areas were thicker in pigmented gingiva when compared to nonpigmented gingiva.

  2. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, Benjamin; Schmitt, Klemens M.; Neu, Jens; Wollrab, Viktoria; Beigang, Rene; Rahm, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We present a metamaterial-based terahertz (THz) sensor for thickness measurements of subwavelength-thin materials and refractometry of liquids and liquid mixtures. The sensor operates in reflection geometry and exploits the frequency shift of a sharp Fano resonance minimum in the presence of dielectric materials. We obtained a minimum thickness resolution of 12.5 nm (1/16 000 times the wavelength of the THz radiation) and a refractive index sensitivity of 0.43 THz per refractive index unit. We support the experimental results by an analytical model that describes the dependence of the resonance frequency on the sample material thickness and the refractive index.

  4. Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, Benjamin; Schmitt, Klemens M.; Neu, Jens [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Wollrab, Viktoria; Beigang, Rene; Rahm, Marco [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-28

    We present a metamaterial-based terahertz (THz) sensor for thickness measurements of subwavelength-thin materials and refractometry of liquids and liquid mixtures. The sensor operates in reflection geometry and exploits the frequency shift of a sharp Fano resonance minimum in the presence of dielectric materials. We obtained a minimum thickness resolution of 12.5 nm (1/16 000 times the wavelength of the THz radiation) and a refractive index sensitivity of 0.43 THz per refractive index unit. We support the experimental results by an analytical model that describes the dependence of the resonance frequency on the sample material thickness and the refractive index.

  5. 18 CFR 3a.91 - Data index system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data index system. 3a..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Data Index System § 3a.91 Data index system. A data index system shall be established for Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential information in...

  6. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  7. Ultrasonographic evaluation of myometrial thickness and prediction of a successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S; Buhimschi, Irina A; Wehrum, Mark J; Molaskey-Jones, Sherry; Sfakianaki, Anna K; Pettker, Christian M; Thung, Stephen; Campbell, Katherine H; Dulay, Antonette T; Funai, Edmund F; Bahtiyar, Mert O

    2011-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that myometrial thickness predicts the success of external cephalic version. Abdominal ultrasonographic scans were performed in 114 consecutive pregnant women with breech singletons before an external cephalic version maneuver. Myometrial thickness was measured by a standardized protocol at three sites: the lower segment, midanterior wall, and the fundal uterine wall. Independent variables analyzed in conjunction with myometrial thickness were: maternal age, parity, body mass index, abdominal wall thickness, estimated fetal weight, amniotic fluid index, placental thickness and location, fetal spine position, breech type, and delivery outcomes such as final mode of delivery and birth weight. Successful version was associated with a thicker ultrasonographic fundal myometrium (unsuccessful: 6.7 [5.5-8.4] compared with successful: 7.4 [6.6-9.7] mm, P=.037). Multivariate regression analysis showed that increased fundal myometrial thickness, high amniotic fluid index, and nonfrank breech presentation were the strongest independent predictors of external cephalic version success (Pexternal cephalic versions (fundal myometrial thickness: odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.2, P=.029; amniotic fluid index: OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.0, P=.008). Combining the two variables resulted in an absolute risk reduction for a failed version of 27.6% (95% CI 7.1-48.1) and a number needed to treat of four (95% CI 2.1-14.2). Fundal myometrial thickness and amniotic fluid index contribute to success of external cephalic version and their evaluation can be easily incorporated in algorithms before the procedure. III.

  8. A novel zebrafish mutant with wavy-notochord: an effective biological index for monitoring the copper pollution of water from natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Lin, Ji-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    We identified a novel zebrafish mutant that has wavy-notochord phenotypes, such as severely twisted notochord and posterior malformations, but has normal melanocytes. Histological evidences showed that proliferating vacuolar cells extended their growth to the muscle region, and consequently caused the wavy-notochord phenotypes. Interestingly, those malformations can be greatly reversed by exposure with copper, suggesting that copper plays an important role on wavy-notochord phenotypes. In addition, after long-term copper exposure, the surviving larvae derived from wavy-notochord mutants displayed bone malformations, such as twisted axial skeleton and osteophyte. These phenotypic changes and molecular evidences of wavy-notochord mutants are highly similar to those embryos whose lysyl oxidases activities have been inactivated. Taken together, we propose that (i) the putative mutated genes of this wavy-notochord mutant might be highly associated with the lysyl oxidase genes in zebrafish; and (ii) this fish model is an effective tool for monitoring copper pollution of water from natural resources. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  10. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  11. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  12. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  13. Sources of variation in estimates of lean body mass by creatinine kinetics and by methods based on body water or body mass index in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Murata, Glen H; Piraino, Beth; Raj, Dominic S C; VanderJagt, Dorothy J; Bernardini, Judith; Servilla, Karen S; Sun, Yijuan; Glew, Robert H; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2010-03-01

    We identified factors that account for differences between lean body mass computed from creatinine kinetics (LBM(cr)) and from either body water (LBM(V)) or body mass index (LBM(BMI)) in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD). We compared the LBM(cr) and LBM(V) or LBM(BMI) in hypothetical subjects and actual CPD patients. We studied 439 CPD patients in Albuquerque, Pittsburgh, and Toronto, with 925 clearance studies. Creatinine production was estimated using formulas derived in CPD patients. Body water (V) was estimated from anthropometric formulas. We calculated LBM(BMI) from a formula that estimates body composition based on body mass index. In hypothetical subjects, LBM values were calculated by varying the determinants of body composition (gender, diabetic status, age, weight, and height) one at a time, while the other determinants were kept constant. In actual CPD patients, multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with differences in the estimates of LBM (LBM(cr)LBM(V), or LBM(cr)LBM(BMI)). We sought predictors of the differences LBM(V) - LBM(cr) and LBM(BMI) - LBM(cr). Both LBM(V) (regardless of formula used to estimate V) and LBM(BMI) exceeded LBM(cr) in hypothetical subjects with average body compositions. The sources of differences between LBM estimates in this group involved differences in the coefficients assigned to gender, age, height, weight, presence or absence of diabetes, and serum creatinine concentration. In CPD patients, mean LBM(V) or LBM(BMI) exceeded mean LBM(cr) by 6.2 to 6.9 kg. For example, the LBM(V) obtained from one anthropometric formula was 50.4+/-10.4 kg and the LBM(cr) was 44.1+/-13.6 kg (P LBM(cr)>LBM(V). The differences in determinants of body composition between groups with high versus low LBM(cr) were similar in hypothetical and actual CPD patients. Multivariate analysis in actual CPD patients identified serum creatinine, height, age, gender, weight, and body mass

  14. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  15. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  16. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  17. The relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness by using panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Suk; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine the relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness on panoramic radiograph. Panoramic radiographs of 360 patients (180 men and 180 women) over 20 years old, who visited the Chonbuk National University Hospital from January to December in 2007, were assessed. The subjects were divided into 5 age groups. Five indices such as cortical bone thickness at the gonion (GI), antegonion (AI), and below the mental foramen (MI), the panoramic mandibular index (PMI), the mandibular cortical index (MCI) were measured on panoramic radiographs. All five indices including GI, AI, MI, PMI, and MCI showed significant differences between third decade and over 8 decade groups (p,0.05). PMI, MI and GI showed significant differences with gender statistically (p<0.05). The mandibular cortical bone thickness showed negative correlation with age, and the value of the thickness (PMI, MI, and GI) was greater in men than in women.

  18. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  19. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  20. Rapid optical determination of topological insulator nanoplate thickness and oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of 2D antimony telluride (Sb2Te3 nanoplates in ambient conditions is elucidated. These materials exhibit an anisotropic oxidation mode, and CVD synthesized samples oxidize at a much faster rate than exfoliated samples investigated in previous studies. Optical measurement techniques are introduced to rapidly measure the oxidation modes and thickness of 2D materials. Auger characterization were conducted to confirm that oxygen replaces tellurium as opposed to antimony under ambient conditions. No surface morphology evolution was detected in AFM before and after exposure to air. These techniques were employed to determine the origin of the thickness dependent color change effect in Sb2Te3. It is concluded that this effect is a combination of refractive index change due to oxidation and Fresnel effects.

  1. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  2. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  3. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  4. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    as double-layer thickness. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, which divides the body into fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass, both for the total body and regional body compartments. An abdominal region was inserted manually. Statistics were Pearson correlations and analysis...... of variance. RESULTS: Endometrial thickness and total body bone mass were correlated, respectively, to body mass index (r = 0.14, P ... correlate with increased endometrial thickness and bone mass....

  5. Thickness of residual wetting film in liquid-liquid displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor; Gaul, William; Vigil, R. Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a nonwetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. Here we develop a hydrodynamic, testable theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob of one fluid moving in another, with neither phase being gas. In its relationship to the capillary number Ca, the thickness of the film is predicted to be proportional to Ca2 at lower Ca and to level off at a constant value of ˜20% the channel radius at higher Ca. The thickness of the film is deduced to be approximately unaffected by the viscosity ratio of the fluids. We have conducted our own laboratory experiments and compiled experimental data from other studies, all of which are mutually consistent and confirm the salient features of the theory. At the same time, the classic law, originally deduced for films surrounding moving gas bubbles but often believed to hold for liquids as well, fails to explain the observations.

  6. Modeling the Thickness of Perennial Ice Covers on Stratified Lakes of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obryk, M. K.; Doran, P. T.; Hicks, J. A.; McKay, C. P.; Priscu, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional ice cover model was developed to predict and constrain drivers of long term ice thickness trends in chemically stratified lakes of Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The model is driven by surface radiative heat fluxes and heat fluxes from the underlying water column. The model successfully reproduced 16 years (between 1996 and 2012) of ice thickness changes for west lobe of Lake Bonney (average ice thickness = 3.53 m; RMSE = 0.09 m, n = 118) and Lake Fryxell (average ice thickness = 4.22 m; RMSE = 0.21 m, n = 128). Long-term ice thickness trends require coupling with the thermal structure of the water column. The heat stored within the temperature maximum of lakes exceeding a liquid water column depth of 20 m can either impede or facilitate ice thickness change depending on the predominant climatic trend (temperature cooling or warming). As such, shallow (< 20 m deep water columns) perennially ice-covered lakes without deep temperature maxima are more sensitive indicators of climate change. The long-term ice thickness trends are a result of surface energy flux and heat flux from the deep temperature maximum in the water column, the latter of which results from absorbed solar radiation.

  7. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  8. The clinical usefulness of extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index to diagnose and characterize pulmonary edema: a prospective multicenter study on the quantitative differential diagnostic definition for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by features other than increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Pulmonary vascular permeability combined with increased extravascular lung water content has been considered a quantitative diagnostic criterion of ALI/ARDS. This prospective, multi-institutional, observational study aimed to clarify the clinical pathophysiological features of ALI/ARDS and establish its quantitative diagnostic criteria. Methods The extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured using the transpulmonary thermodilution method in 266 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg and bilateral infiltration on chest radiography, in 23 ICUs of academic tertiary referral hospitals. Pulmonary edema was defined as EVLWI ≥ 10 ml/kg. Three experts retrospectively determined the pathophysiological features of respiratory insufficiency by considering the patients' history, clinical presentation, chest computed tomography and radiography, echocardiography, EVLWI and brain natriuretic peptide level, and the time course of all preceding findings under systemic and respiratory therapy. Results Patients were divided into the following three categories on the basis of the pathophysiological diagnostic differentiation of respiratory insufficiency: ALI/ARDS, cardiogenic edema, and pleural effusion with atelectasis, which were noted in 207 patients, 26 patients, and 33 patients, respectively. EVLWI was greater in ALI/ARDS and cardiogenic edema patients than in patients with pleural effusion with atelectasis (18.5 ± 6.8, 14.4 ± 4.0, and 8.3 ± 2.1, respectively; P edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis patients (3.2 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 0.8, and 1.6 ± 0.5; P edema patients. A PVPI value of 2.6 to 2.85 provided a definitive diagnosis of ALI/ARDS (specificity, 0.90 to 0.95), and a value < 1.7 ruled out an ALI/ARDS diagnosis (specificity, 0.95). Conclusion

  9. Mathematic model analysis of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuzhen; Guo, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng

    2011-09-12

    In order to research the statistical properties of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen for adaptive optics and laser communication application in the laboratory, we establish mathematic models of statistical quantities, which are based on the Rytov method and the thin phase screen model, involved in the propagation process. And the analytic results are developed for an arbitrary thickness phase screen based on the Kolmogorov power spectrum. The comparison between the arbitrary thickness phase screen and the thin phase screen shows that it is more suitable for our results to describe the generalized case, especially the scintillation index.

  10. Thickness profile measuring device for rolling metal bands or sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campas, J.J.; Terreaux, S.

    1995-01-01

    Previous radiometric thickness gages were affected by insufficient water proofing and limited cooling performances for the detection subsystem (in general specially designed photodiodes). This resulted in poor reliability and life expectancy, in particular when heavy humidity and constant radiative heat are present as for hot rolling in the metal industry. This new gage design brings enhanced performances for these two factors. (D.L.). 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Gastric wall thickness and stapling in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Krzysztof; Binda, Artur; Kudlicka, Emilia; Jaworski, Paweł; Tarnowski, Wiesław

    2018-03-01

    Despite the growing experience of bariatric surgeons in performing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the number of complications involving staple line leaks remains constant. Hence a solution to avoid such complications is still sought. A defect of the staple line may be the consequence of an inappropriate choice of staple size in relation to gastric wall thickness. Due to the variable nature of gastric wall thickness, the choice of proper staple height is not obvious. In the few studies in which gastric wall thickness was measured, it was observed to decrease gradually from the antrum to the fundus. However, the authors are divided on the issue of whether gender and body mass index influence gastric wall thickness. The question whether there are other perioperative factors that would allow gastric wall thickness to be predicted remains unanswered.

  12. Characterization of the flooding in vertical tubes by means of the film thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandrone, M.; Mioliggi, L.; Panella, B.; Scorta, G.

    1992-01-01

    The air-water countercurrent flow up to the flooding transition in a vertical tube has been experimentally investigated by liquid film thickness measurement performed by means of an electrical two-wires conductance probe. The liquid film mean thickness, the probability density function, the spectral power density and the power of the signal have been derived for a wide range of air and water flow rate, and related to the flow pattern with particular attention to the flooding phenomena. (6 figures) (Author)

  13. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  14. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

  15. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-01-01

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z 2 symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS 5 spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes

  16. Does cement mantle thickness really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thickness of the cement mantle around the femoral component of total hip replacements is a contributing factor to aseptic loosening and revision. Nevertheless, various designs of stems and surgical tooling lead to cement mantles of differing thicknesses. This thesis is concerned with variability in cement thickness around the Stanmore Hip, due to surgical approach, broach size and stem orientation, and its effects on stress and cracking in the cement. The extent to which cement mantle thi...

  17. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  18. The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Mara Therese Padilla; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Lopez-Villafuerte, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by defects in the epidermal barrier function and cutaneous inflammation, in which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased and the ability of the stratum corneum to hold water is impaired, causing decreased skin capacitance and hydration. This study investigated the effects of topical virgin coconut oil (VCO) and mineral oil, respectively, on SCORAD (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis) index values, TEWL, and skin capacitance in pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, using a randomized controlled trial design in which participants and investigators were blinded to the treatments allocated. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A total of 117 patients were included in the analysis. Mean SCORAD indices decreased from baseline by 68.23% in the VCO group and by 38.13% in the mineral oil group (P group, 47% (28/59) of patients achieved moderate improvement and 46% (27/59) showed an excellent response. In the mineral oil group, 34% (20/58) of patients showed moderate improvement and 19% (11/58) achieved excellent improvement. The VCO group achieved a post-treatment mean TEWL of 7.09 from a baseline mean of 26.68, whereas the mineral oil group demonstrated baseline and post-treatment TEWL values of 24.12 and 13.55, respectively. In the VCO group, post-treatment skin capacitance rose to 42.3 from a baseline mean of 32.0, whereas that in the mineral oil group increased to 37.49 from a baseline mean of 31.31. Thus, among pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical application of VCO for eight weeks was superior to that of mineral oil based on clinical (SCORAD) and instrumental (TEWL, skin capacitance) assessments. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  20. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness