WorldWideScience

Sample records for water test experience

  1. Freeze-bond strength experiments,: radially confined compression tests on saline and fresh water samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Bueide, Ida Mari

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents and analyses the method and results from strength experiments on freeze- bonds conducted on radially confined cylindrical samples (tri-axial tests). In total sixty samples were tested successfully, divided on twenty configurations. The variables consisted of confinement, submersion time, initial temperature and salinity (8 configurations with fresh water ice and 12 with 2-3ppt saline ice). The test set-up was similar to that of Møllegaard [2012] and Shafrova and Høyland [...

  2. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  3. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  4. Oscillating Hydrofoils for Tidal Energy Extraction: Experiments, Simulations and Salt Water Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandre, S.; Franck, J.; Breuer, K.; Fawzi, A.; Cardona, J.; Miller, M. J.; Su, Y.; Medina, A.; Loera Loera, C.; Junquera, E.; Simeski, F.; Volkmann, K.; Lorick, R.; Cowles, S.; Luiz Rocha Ribeiro, B.; Winckler, S.; Derecktor, T.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the development of a new oscillating hydrofoil technology for tidal flow energy harvesting. A series of flume experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed over a wide range of frequencies, f, heave amplitudes, h, and pitch angles, θ. The flume model has chord, c, of 10 cm and aspect ratio of 4.5. Mechanical power extracted is estimated from the foil trajectory, force and moment data. A robust real-time algorithm has been developed to identify the kinematics that optimizes either the total power or the Betz efficiency. Optimal efficiency is found when the pitch and heave cycles are 90 degrees out of phase, oscillating at a reduced frequency, fc/U, of approximately 0.15, with a heave amplitude of approximately 1c, and a pitch amplitude of θ=75 degrees. The high pitch amplitude and sharp leading edge of the foil generates a transient leading edge vortex on the suction side of the foil, significantly enhancing the vertical force and power. The optimal frequency ensures that the vortex generation and ultimate shedding maximize these unsteady hydrodynamic effects. The flume results, including power and efficiency, as well as flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) exhibit excellent agreement with the CFD. Furthermore, extensive CFD and physical experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of operating in confined or shallow channels. It is found that the efficiency and power generation can significantly increase in confined areas due to the acceleration of the freestream flow around the device. Finally, the Leading Edge team has designed, built, and as of this date, is currently field-testing a 1kW prototype device consisting of two foils operating in parallel. The prototype is attached to the underside of a pontoon boat, and testing is currently underway in the Narragansett Bay near Providence RI. On completion of the field tests, in October 2015, data from the prototype will be analyzed

  5. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  6. Round Robin Experiments on the Explosive Components Water Gap Test (ECWGT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    de Jong. E.G. de Jong (Project manager/Author) 7 REFERENCES I Fuzing qytems. Manual of Development Characterization and Safety Test Methods for Lead...R~h 26 BICT -Lab 330 Dr. Scheunemann 27 ES-Abteilung Zundmittel Dynamit Nobel AG Dr. H. Zoliner 28 Laboratorio Quimico Central de Arrnamento A

  7. Water Flow Experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a simple exercise in elementary fluid dynamics for the undergraduate and the secondary school level. Here, we explore the flow of water through an orifice at the bottom of a cylindri- cal bottle/tank, first through a tube attached to the bottom of the bottle/tank and then without the tube. The experiment is easy to perform.

  8. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.

    2012-01-01

    The subject presentation, entitled, Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment, was presented at the International Space Station (ISS) Increment 33/34 Science Symposium. This presentation provides an overview of an international collaboration between NASA and CNES to study the behavior of a dilute aqueous solution of Na2SO4 (5% w) at near-critical conditions. The Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) investigation, serves as important precursor work for subsequent Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) experiments. The SCWM investigation will be performed in DECLICs High Temperature Insert (HTI) for the purpose of studying critical fluid phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. The HTI includes a completely sealed and integrated test cell (i.e., Sample Cell Unit SCU) that will contain approximately 0.3 ml of the aqueous test solution. During the sequence of tests, scheduled to be performed in FY13, temperatures and pressures will be elevated to critical conditions (i.e., Tc = 374C and Pc = 22 MPa) in order to observe salt precipitation, precipitate agglomeration and precipitate transport in the presence of a temperature gradient without the influences of gravitational forces. This presentation provides an overview of the motivation for this work, a description of the DECLIC HTI hardware, the proposed test sequences, and a brief discussion of the scientific research objectives.

  9. Post-test analysis of the experiment 5.2C - total loss of feed water at the BETHSY test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F.

    1998-10-01

    The BETHSY-test facility is a 1:100 scaled thermohydraulic model of a 900 MW(el) pressurized water reactor (FRAMATOME). The test facility is mainly designed to investigate various accident scenarios and to provide an experimental data base for code validation and for the verification of accident management measures. (orig.)

  10. Two-phase flow experiments on Counter-Current Flow Limitation in a model of the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor (2015 test series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Pietruske, Heiko; Szalinski, Lutz

    2016-12-15

    Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) is of importance for PWR safety analyses in several accident scenarios connected with loss of coolant. Basing on the experiences obtained during a first series of hot leg tests now new experiments on counter-current flow limitation were conducted in the TOPFLOW pressure vessel. The test series comprises air-water tests at 1 and 2 bar as well as steam-water tests at 10, 25 and 50 bar. During the experiments the flow structure was observed along the hot leg model using a high-speed camera and web-cams. In addition pressure was measured at several positions along the horizontal part and the water levels in the reactor-simulator and steam-generator-simulator tanks were determined. This report documents the experimental setup including the description of operational and special measuring techniques, the experimental procedure and the data obtained. From these data flooding curves were obtained basing on the Wallis parameter. The results show a slight shift of the curves in dependency of the pressure. In addition a slight decrease of the slope was found with increasing pressure. Additional investigations concern the effects of hysteresis and the frequencies of liquid slugs. The latter ones show a dependency on pressure and the mass flow rate of the injected water. The data are available for CFD-model development and validation.

  11. Results of an experiment in a Zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of water on the containment basement floor on direct containment heating (DCH) in the Surtsey Test Facility: The IET-4 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This document discusses the fourth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-4) series which was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models (1:10) of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and subcompartment structures were constructed in the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The RPV was modeled with a melt generator that consisted of a steel pressure barrier, a cast MgO crucible, and a thin steel inner liner. The melt generator/crucible had a hemispherical bottom head containing a graphite limitor plate with a 3.5-cm exit hole to simulate the ablated hole in the RPV bottom head that would be tonned by tube ejection in a severe nuclear power plant accident. The reactor cavity model contained 3.48 kg of water with a depth of 0.9 cm that corresponded to condensate levels in the Zion plant. A 43-kg initial charge of iron oxide/aluminum/chromium thermite was used to simulate corium debris on the bottom head of the RPV. Molten thermite was ejected into the scaled reactor cavity by 6.7 MPa steam. IET-4 replicated the third experiment in the IET series (IET-3), except the Surtsey vessel contained slightly more preexisting oxygen (9.6 mol.% vs. 9.0 mol.%), and water was placed on the basement floor inside the crane wall. The cavity pressure measurements showed that a small steam explosion occurred in the cavity at about the same time as the steam explosion in IET-1. The oxygen in the Surtsey vessel in IET-4 resulted in a vigorous hydrogen bum, which caused a significant increase in the peak pressure, 262 kPa compared to 98 kPa in the IET-1 test. EET-3, with similar pre-existing oxygen concentrations, also had a large peak pressure of 246 kPa.

  12. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  13. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  14. Water depth penetration film test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  15. Test facility for rewetting experiments at CDTN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Hugo C.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Ladeira, Luiz C.D.; Santos, Andre A.C., E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SETRE/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important subjects in nuclear reactor safety analysis is the reactor core rewetting after a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a Light Water Reactor LWR. Several codes for the prediction of the rewetting evolution are under development based on experimental results. In a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the reflooding phase of a LOCA is when the fuel rods are rewetted from the bottom of the core to its top after having been totally uncovered and dried out. Out-of-pile reflooding experiments performed with electrical heated fuel rod simulators show different quench behavior depending the rods geometry. A test facility for rewetting experiments (ITR - Instalacao de Testes de Remolhamento) has been constructed at the Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), with the objective of performing investigations on basic phenomena that occur during the reflood phase of a LOCA in a PWR, using tubular and annular test sections. This paper presents the design aspects of the facility, and the current stage of the works. The mechanical aspects of the installation as its instrumentation are described. Two typical tests are presented and results compered with theoretical calculations using computer code. (author)

  16. Water Channel Facility for Fluid Dynamics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam-Panah, Azar; Sabatino, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    This study presents the design, assembly, and verification process of the circulating water channel constructed by undergraduate students at the Penn State University at Berks. This work was significantly inspired from the closed-loop free-surface water channel at Lafayette College (Sabatino and Maharjan, 2015) and employed for experiments in fluid dynamics. The channel has a 11 ft length, 2.5 ft width, and 2 ft height glass test section with a maximum velocity of 3.3 ft/s. First, the investigation justifies the needs of a water channel in an undergraduate institute and its potential applications in the whole field of engineering. Then, the design procedures applied to find the geometry and material of some elements of the channel, especially the contraction, the test section, the inlet and end tanks, and the pump system are described. The optimization of the contraction design, including the maintenance of uniform exit flow and avoidance of flow separation, is also included. Finally, the discussion concludes by identifying the problems with the undergraduate education through this capstone project and suggesting some new investigations to improve flow quality.

  17. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  18. Experience of water chemistry in HWR

    OpenAIRE

    桜井 直行; 北端 琢也

    1983-01-01

    Experience of the heavy water and primary coolantchemistry of the Fugen is described. Deterioration has beenobserved in the weak basic ion exchange resins used in theheavy water purification system. Extensive studies to pro-long the life of resins are now going on. Amount of iron inthe feed water has been reduced by means of oxygen injection,operational improvement of condensate demineralizers,hotdrain-off of the feed water circuit,and sufficient flushingprior to operations.

  19. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  20. LHCb : Full Experiment System Test

    CERN Multimedia

    Cattaneo, M

    2009-01-01

    LHCb had been planning to commission its High Level Trigger software and Data Quality monitoring procedures using real collisions data from the LHC pilot run. Following the LHC incident on 19th September 2008, it was decided to commission the system using simulated data. This “Full Experiment System Test” consists of: - Injection of simulated minimum bias events into the full HLT farm, after selection by a simulated Level 0 trigger. - Processing in the HLT farm to achieve the output rate expected for nominal LHC luminosity running, sustained over the typical duration of an LHC fill. - Real time Data Quality validation of the HLT output, validation of calibration and alignment parameters for use in the reconstruction. - Transmission of the event data, calibration data and book-keeping information to Tier1 sites and full reconstruction of the event data. - Data Quality validation of the reconstruction output. We will report on the preparations and results of FEST09, and on the status of commissioning for no...

  1. Water purification in low background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarchi, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Water purification is an important technique in high-mass low radioactivity experiments in modern physics. Water is frequently used both as a shielding and as the sensitive part of a particle detector in underground arrangements, especially in the frame of Astroparticle Physics studies. In this paper, I will describe the main purification techniques and discuss some of its performances.

  2. Test Management Framework for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, Andrei; The ATLAS collaboration; Avolio, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Test Management Framework for the Data Acquisition of the ATLAS Experiment Data Acquisition (DAQ) of the ATLAS experiment is a large distributed and inhomogeneous system: it consists of thousands of interconnected computers and electronics devices that operate coherently to read out and select relevant physics data. Advanced diagnostics capabilities of the TDAQ control system are a crucial feature which contributes significantly to smooth operation and fast recovery in case of the problems and, finally, to the high efficiency of the whole experiment. The base layer of the verification and diagnostic functionality is a test management framework. We have developed a flexible test management system that allows the experts to define and configure tests for different components, indicate follow-up actions to test failures and describe inter-dependencies between DAQ or detector elements. This development is based on the experience gained with the previous test system that was used during the first three years of th...

  3. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield {open_quotes}no toxicity{close_quotes} outcomes even if pollutants are present. We conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods would reveal evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from 7-day tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added, prior to testing. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but these two parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related factors. Regression analyses showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction by C. dubia from the results of 7-day tests was very low (R{sup 2}< 0.35) in five of the six experiments. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests, and among treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of these tests to longer time scales.

  4. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  5. Carers' experience of memory screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintomide, Gbolagade S; Fazil, Qulsom

    2017-04-01

    Current evidence suggests that patients with dementia find memory tests humiliating and embarrassing. However, the knowledge concerning carers' experience of witnessing patients with dementia undergo memory screening has not been fully explored. This study was to explore the experiences of relatives of patients with dementia witnessing memory-screening tests. Eleven relatives of patients with dementia were recruited from three memory clinics using a purposive sampling method. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. The relatives appreciated the memory-screening tests as a diagnostic tool but the majority did not understand the questioning in the tests. Witnessing memory-screening tests generated anxiety in the relatives and they felt that memory screening tests were humiliating for patients. A collaborative approach where the clinician, the patient and the relative(s) participate in the memory-screening tests is advised. Some relatives may benefit from counselling.

  6. FLOW TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF THE FSP-1 EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Jones, Warren F.; Marcum, Wade; Weiss, Aaron; Howard, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversions fuel development team is focused on developing and qualifying the uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy monolithic fuel to support conversion of domestic research reactors to low enriched uranium. Several previous irradiations have demonstrated the favorable behavior of the monolithic fuel. The Full Scale Plate 1 (FSP-1) fuel plate experiment will be irradiated in the northeast (NE) flux trap of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This fueled experiment contains six aluminum-clad fuel plates consisting of monolithic U-Mo fuel meat. Flow testing experimentation and hydraulic analysis have been performed on the FSP-1 experiment to be irradiated in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A flow test experiment mockup of the FSP-1 experiment was completed at Oregon State University. Results of several flow test experiments are compared with analyses. This paper reports and shows hydraulic analyses are nearly identical to the flow test results. A water velocity of 14.0 meters per second is targeted between the fuel plates. Comparisons between FSP-1 measurements and this target will be discussed. This flow rate dominates the flow characteristics of the experiment and model. Separate branch flows have minimal effect on the overall experiment. A square flow orifice was placed to control the flowrate through the experiment. Four different orifices were tested. A flow versus delta P curve for each orifice is reported herein. Fuel plates with depleted uranium in the fuel meat zone were used in one of the flow tests. This test was performed to evaluate flow test vibration with actual fuel meat densities and reported herein. Fuel plate deformation tests were also performed and reported.

  7. In situ Tuff water migration/heater experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, J. K.; Hadley, G. R.; Waymire, D. R.

    1985-03-01

    The results of the In Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment operated in the welded portion of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff in U12g-tunnel (G-Tunnel) on the Nevada Test Site are summarized. The experiment was located approximately 400 m below the surface and 200 m above the water table in nearly saturated rock. The experiment was designed to provide an initial assessment of the thermally induced behavior of the potentially large volumes of water (approx. 25 vol % in this case) available in saturated or nearly saturated tuffaceous rocks. Instruments in the water collection cavities, including water depth gages, pH probes, humidity gages, and pressure transducers measured some properties of the collected water. Other holes in the array were instrumented to measure temperature profiles, thermally induced stress, and one provided a test bed for a continuously operating laser interferometer for measuring thermally induced rock displacements. Initial analysis of the water generation rate data in the heater hole, assuming a one-dimensional evaporation front/vapor diffusion model, provided good qualitative agreement.

  8. Icelandic experience with water safety plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, M J; Gardarsson, S M; Bartram, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate accumulated experience with water safety plans in one of the first countries to adopt systematic preventive management for drinking-water safety. Water utilities in Iceland have had a legal obligation since 1995 to implement a systematic preventive approach to secure safety of drinking water and protect public health. The water utilities responded by implementing either an adapted HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) model for larger water utilities or a simpler five step model for smaller water utilities. The research was carried out at 16 water utilities that serve about two-thirds of the population of Iceland. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used with the aim of analysing if and what benefits water safety plans bring for water utilities and what is needed for successful implementation and operation of such systems. The results of the study show that numerous benefits and even the process of going through the implementing process were considered to be of advantage and change the attitude of the staff and the utility culture. Some obstacles and shortcomings came to light, such as lack of documentation and lack of regular internal and external audit. There was little communication with the public, although some mentioned that good public relations are important to succeed with water safety plans. Many important elements of success were revealed of which intensive training of staff and participation of staff in the whole process are deemed the most important. It is also important to have simple and well-structured guidelines, and good cooperation with the health authorities.

  9. Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test /SMEAT/ facility design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinners, A. H., Jr.; Correale, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the design approaches and test facility operation methods used to successfully accomplish a 56-day test for Skylab to permit evaluation of selected Skylab medical experiments in a ground test simulation of the Skylab environment with an astronaut crew. The systems designed for this test include the two-gas environmental control system, the fire suppression and detection system, equipment transfer lock, ground support equipment, safety systems, potable water system, waste management system, lighting and power system, television monitoring, communications and recreation systems, and food freezer.

  10. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  11. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  12. CLSM bleed water reduction test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Rajendran, N. [Bechtel Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-04-21

    Previous testing by BSRI/SRTC/Raytheon indicated that the CLSM specified for the Tank 20 closure generates about 6 gallons (23 liters) of bleed water per cubic yard of material (0.76 m3).1 This amount to about 10 percent of the total mixing water. HLWE requested that the CLSM mix be optimized to reduce bleed water while maintaining flow. Elimination of bleed water from the CLSM mix specified for High-Level Waste Tank Closure will result in waste minimization, time savings and cost savings. Over thirty mixes were formulated and evaluated at the on-site Raytheon Test Laboratory. Improved low bleed water CLSM mixes were identified. Results are documented in this report.

  13. Testing large volume water treatment and crude oil ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) partnered with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to build the Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) at the INL test site outside of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The WSTB was built using an 8-inch (20 cm) diameter cement-mortar lined drinking water pipe that was previously taken out of service. The pipe was exhumed from the INL grounds and oriented in the shape of a small drinking water distribution system. Effluent from the pipe is captured in a lagoon. The WSTB can support drinking water distribution system research on a variety of drinking water treatment topics including biofilms, water quality, sensors, and homeland security related contaminants. Because the WSTB is constructed of real drinking water distribution system pipes, research can be conducted under conditions similar to those in a real drinking water system. In 2014, WSTB pipe was experimentally contaminated with Bacillus globigii spores, a non-pathogenic surrogate for the pathogenic B. anthracis, and then decontaminated using chlorine dioxide. In 2015, the WSTB was used to perform the following experiments: • Four mobile disinfection technologies were tested for their ability to disinfect large volumes of biologically contaminated “dirty” water from the WSTB. B. globigii spores acted as the biological contaminant. The four technologies evaluated included: (1) Hayward Saline C™ 6.0 Chlorination System, (2) Advanced Oxidation Process (A

  14. Characterizing experiments of the PPOOLEX test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    This report summarizes the results of the characterizing test series in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Air and steam/air mixture was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool (wet well). Altogether eight air and four steam/air mixture experiments, each consisting of several blows (tests), were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the general behavior of the facility and the performance of basic instrumentation. Proper operation of automation, control and safety systems was also tested. The test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. The facility is equipped with high frequency measurements for capturing different aspects of the investigated phenomena. The general behavior of the PPOOLEX facility differs significantly from that of the previous POOLEX facility because of the closed two-compartment structure of the test vessel. Heat-up by several tens of degrees due to compression in both compartments was the most obvious evidence of this. Temperatures also stratified. Condensation oscillations and chugging phenomenon were encountered in those tests where the fraction of non-condensables had time to decrease significantly. A radical change from smooth condensation behavior to oscillating one occurred quite abruptly when the air fraction of the blowdown pipe flow dropped close to zero. The experiments again demonstrated the strong diminishing effect that noncondensable gases have on dynamic unsteady loadings experienced by submerged pool structures. BWR containment like behavior related to the beginning of a postulated steam line break accident was observed in the PPOOLEX test facility during the steam/air mixture experiments. The most important task of the research project, to produce experimental data for code simulation purposes, can be

  15. Shutdown heat removal: safety water tests. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-08

    This specification establishes the requirements to design the SAFETY WATER TESTS to be constructed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the GE San Jose site. The test is an 1/8th scale model of a large loop type breeder reactor or a 1/14th scale model of a large pool type breeder reactor and uses water as the test fluid. It simulates a breeder reactor system with a 0.5 MW heated core with an upper and a lower plenum, a primary loop with 300 gpm flow rate and four auxiliary cooling systems (DRACS) that are to be immersed in the upper plenum and connected to the inlet plenum through a check valve.

  16. Water NSTF Design, Instrumentation, and Test Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Gerardi, Craig D.; Hu, Rui; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Bremer, Nathan C.; Lomperski, Stephen W.; Kraus, Adam R.; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Lv, Qiuping; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2017-08-01

    The following report serves as a formal introduction to the water-based Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) program at Argonne. Since 2005, this US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored program has conducted large scale experimental testing to generate high-quality and traceable validation data for guiding design decisions of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concept for advanced reactor designs. The most recent facility iteration, and focus of this report, is the operation of a 1/2 scale model of a water-RCCS concept. Several features of the NSTF prototype align with the conceptual design that has been publicly released for the AREVA 625 MWt SC-HTGR. The design of the NSTF also retains all aspects common to a fundamental boiling water thermosiphon, and thus is well poised to provide necessary experimental data to advance basic understanding of natural circulation phenomena and contribute to computer code validation. Overall, the NSTF program operates to support the DOE vision of aiding US vendors in design choices of future reactor concepts, advancing the maturity of codes for licensing, and ultimately developing safe and reliable reactor technologies. In this report, the top-level program objectives, testing requirements, and unique considerations for the water cooled test assembly are discussed, and presented in sufficient depth to support defining the program’s overall scope and purpose. A discussion of the proposed 6-year testing program is then introduced, which outlines the specific strategy and testing plan for facility operations. The proposed testing plan has been developed to meet the toplevel objective of conducting high-quality test operations that span across a broad range of single- and two-phase operating conditions. Details of characterization, baseline test cases, accident scenario, and parametric variations are provided, including discussions of later-stage test cases that examine the influence of geometric

  17. Systems integration test laboratory application & experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Melvyn; Falco, Michael; Solan, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to safely control highly dynamic systems is of prime importance to designers. Whether the system is an aircraft, spacecraft, or propulsion system, control system designers must turn to test laboratories not only to verify and validate the control systems, but also to actually use the laboratory as a design and development tool. The use of the laboratory early in the development phase of a system—prior to committing to actual hardware/software (HW/SW)—permits early detection of system anomalies, thereby minimizing program development costs while enhancing safety. Later the laboratory can be used to train system operators (for example, pilots, ground crew) in preparation for flight/ground test. In the case of the statically unstable X-29 forward swept wing aircraft, a comprehensive real-time, hardware-in-the-loop test facility was critical in the development of the aircraft's digital fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system. The X-29 laboratory initially was used to introduce control laws to a simulated real-time environment to verify control system characteristics. Later, actual flight hardware was introduced to the laboratory, at which point the formal system verification/validation test program began. The test program utilized detailed test plans and procedures derived from system requirements and specifications to map out all tests required. This assured that the maximum number of components of the system were exercised in the laboratory, and all components tested had traceability throughout the test program. The end-to-end hardware-in-the loop simulation provided the environment to perform critical failure modes testing, parameter sensitivity evaluation and ultimately pilot/ground crew training during normal and degraded flight control system operation. The X-29 test experience, applicable to the laboratory testing of all critical control systems, has ingrained the philosophy that successful development of complex systems requires an orderly build

  18. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  19. Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. M. Garcia

    1996-08-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is a high pressure oxidation process that blends air, water, and organic waste material in an oxidizer in which where the temperature and pressure in the oxidizer are maintained above the critical point of water. Supercritical water mixed with hydrocarbons, which would be insoluble at subcritical conditions, forms a homogeneous phase which possesses properties associated with both a gas and a liquid. Hydrocarbons in contact with oxygen and SCW are readily oxidized. These properties of SCW make it an attractive means for the destruction of waste streams containing organic materials. SCWO technology holds great promise for treating mixed wastes in an environmentally safe and efficient manner. In the spring of 1994 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing (SCWODAT) program. The SCWODAT program provided further information and operational data on the effectiveness of treating both simulated mixed waste and typical Navy hazardous waste using the SCWO technology. The program concentrated on the acquisition of data through pilot plant testing. The Phase I DOE testing used a simulated waste stream that contained a complex machine cutting oil and metals, that acted as surrogates for radionuclides. The Phase II Navy testing included pilot testing using hazardous waste materials to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SCWO technology. The SCWODAT program demonstrated that the SCWO process oxidized the simulated waste stream containing complex machine cutting oil, selected by DOE as representative of one of the most difficult of the organic waste streams for which SCWO had been applied. The simulated waste stream with surrogate metals in solution was oxidized, with a high destruction efficiency, on the order of 99.97%, in both the neutralized and unneutralized modes of operation.

  20. The LHC test string first operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Casas-Cubillos, J; Coull, L; Cruikshank, P; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Faugeras, Paul E; Flemsæter, B; Guinaudeau, H; Hagedorn, Dietrich; Hilbert, B; Krainz, G; Kos, N; Lavielle, D; Lebrun, P; Leo, G; Mathewson, A G; Missiaen, D; Momal, F; Parma, Vittorio; Quesnel, Jean Pierre; Richter, D; Riddone, G; Rijllart, A; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Rohmig, P; Saban, R I; Schmidt, R; Serio, L; Skiadelli, M; Suraci, A; Tavian, L; Walckiers, L; Wallén, E; Van Weelderen, R; Williams, L; McInturff, A

    1996-01-01

    CERN operates the first version of the LHC Test String which consists of one quadrupole and three 10-m twin aperture dipole magnets. An experimental programme aiming at the validation of the LHC systems started in February 1995. During this programme the string has been powered 100 times 35 of which at 12.4 kA or above. The experiments have yielded a number of results some of which, like quench recovery for cryogenics, have modified the design of subsystems of LHC. Others, like controlled helium leaks in the cold bore and quench propagation bewteen magnets, have given a better understanding on the evolution of the phenomena inside a string of superconducting magnets cooled at superfluid helium temperatures. Following the experimental programme, the string will be powered up and powered down in one hour cycles as a fatigue test of the structure thus simulating 20 years of operation of LHC.

  1. Water Intake by Soil, Experiments for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969

    Presented are a variety of surface run-off experiments for high school students. The experiments are analogies to basic concepts about water intake, as related to water delivery, soil properties and management, floods, and conservation measures. The materials needed to perform the experiments are easily obtainable. The experiments are followed by…

  2. Critical heat flux experiments in a circular tube with heavy water and light water. (AWBA Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.L.; Beus, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were performed to establish the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristics of heavy water and light water. Testing was performed with the up-flow of heavy and of light water within a 0.3744 inch inside diameter circular tube with 72.3 inches of heated length. Comparisons were made between heavy water and light water critical heat flux levels for the same local equilibrium quality at CHF, operating pressure, and nominal mass velocity. Results showed that heavy water CHF values were, on the average, 8 percent below the light water CHF values.

  3. Further testing of solar water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Watson, M.

    2002-07-01

    In a study for the DTI, the Energy Monitoring Company compared the amount of energy which eight solar water heaters could generate. The systems were operated side by side over about six months. In one series of tests the systems were operated entirely as solar systems, and in another, auxiliary top-up heating was applied. The two systems were evaluated and the relative advantages/disadvantages discussed.

  4. Optimum coagulant forecasting by modeling jar test experiments using ANNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haghiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the proper utilization of water treatment plants and optimizing their use is of particular importance. Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment are the common ways through which the use of coagulants leads to instability of particles and the formation of larger and heavier particles, resulting in improvement of sedimentation and filtration processes. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the reducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Although jar tests are used for testing coagulants, such experiments face many constraints with respect to evaluating the results produced by sudden changes in input water because of their significant costs, long time requirements, and complex relationships among the many factors (turbidity, temperature, pH, alkalinity, etc. that can influence the efficiency of coagulant and test results. Modeling can be used to overcome these limitations; in this research study, an artificial neural network (ANN multi-layer perceptron (MLP with one hidden layer has been used for modeling the jar test to determine the dosage level of used coagulant in water treatment processes. The data contained in this research have been obtained from the drinking water treatment plant located in Ardabil province in Iran. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean squared error (MSE and correlation coefficient (R2 parameters have been used. The obtained values are within an acceptable range that demonstrates the high accuracy of the models with respect to the estimation of water-quality characteristics and the optimal dosages of coagulants; so using these models will allow operators to not only reduce costs and time taken to perform

  5. Economic accounting of water: The Botswana experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlhogile, T.; Arntzen, J.; Pule, O. B.

    2017-08-01

    Water accounts aim to capture the value of water resources and their use within the economy. The accounts complement the National Accounts as the latter's main indicator (GDP) does not reflect changes in natural capital. Botswana developed water accounts for the period 2010/11-2014/15 using the UN's standard System of Environmental Economic Accounting for water (SEEA-water). The article focuses both on the construction of physical flow accounts as well as on the policy implications for development planning and water resource management through the use of policy indicators. It also shows long-term trends in water abstraction and water use efficiency linking the SEEA water accounts with results of earlier (non-SEEA) water accounting projects in Botswana. The water accounts results show that water abstraction and consumption have been largely stable since 2010/11 despite population (1.9% p.a.) and economic growth (around 5% p.a.) likely due to a combination of water sector reforms and drought conditions in south eastern Botswana; the latter led to the drying up of several dams and the imposition of severe water restrictions. While public attention focuses mostly on water service providers, self-providers (mines and the agricultural sector) account for more than 50% of total water abstracted from the environment of water, demonstrating the need to pay more attention to self-providers in IWRM implementation. Water consumption is highest for the agricultural sector (70.2 Mm3) followed by households and mines at 41.2 and 39 Mm3 respectively in 2014/15. In terms of water use efficiency, value added per m3 has increased in time, showing (some) decoupling of water consumption and economic growth. This positive trend needs to be enhanced in the pursuit of economic diversification, which should focus on growth of water-efficient economic sectors. Finally, per capita water consumption has decreased over time; while this may indicate that people conserve water, it may also point

  6. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  7. Formal Test Automation: A Simple Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belinfante, Axel; Feenstra, J.; de Vries, R.G.; Tretmans, G.J.; Goga, N.; Feijs, Loe; Mauw, Sjouke; Heerink, A.W.; Csopaki, Gyula; Dibuz, Sarolta; Tarnay, Katalin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper1 we study the automation of test derivation and execution in the area of conformance testing. The test scenarios are derived from multiple specication languages: LOTOS, Promela and SDL. A central theme of this study is the usability of batch-oriented and on-the-fly testing approaches.

  8. HEAVY WATER COMPONENTS TEST REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2011-10-13

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment

  9. Melt water interaction tests. PREMIX tests PM10 and PM11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, A.; Schuetz, W.; Will, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments is being performed in the PREMIX test facility in which the mixing behaviour is investigated of a hot alumina melt discharged into water. The major parameters have been: the melt mass, the number of nozzles, the distance between the nozzle and the water, and the depth of the water. The paper describes the last two tests in which 20 kg of melt were released through one and three nozzles, respectively, directly into the water whose depth was 500 mm. The melt penetration and the associated phenomena of mixing are described by means of high-speed films and various measurements. The steam production and, subsequently, the pressure increased markedly only after the melt had reached the bottom of the pool. Spreading of the melt across the bottom caused violent boiling in both tests. Whereas the boiling lasted for minutes in the single-jet test, a steam explosion occurred in the triple-jet test about one second after the start of melt penetration. (author)

  10. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  11. Bottled or tap? Testing perceptions about water in Lebanon and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Researchers compared water quality available in two informal settlements in Lebanon and Jordan. Tests were conducted to compare water supplied by the municipality and bottled water. The results: tests showed that their quality is similar, although the brand of the bottled water and how it is stored affected ...

  12. [Study on tests of genetics experiments in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, He; Hao, Zhang; Lili, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Based on the present situation and the development of experiment tests in universities, we introduced a reform in tests of genetics experiments. According to the teaching goals and course contents of genetics experiment, the tests of genetics experiments contain four aspects on the performance of students: the adherence to the experimental procedures, the depth of participation in experiment, the quality of experiment report, and the mastery of experiment principles and skills, which account for 10 %, 20 %, 40 % and 30 % in the total scores, respectively. All four aspects were graded quantitatively. This evaluation system has been tested in our experiment teaching. The results suggest that it has an effect on the promotion of teaching in genetics experiments.

  13. Patch testing experience with 1000 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajaj A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patch testing is a definitive tool for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. It reveals the prevalence and trends of contact sensitization in the community, thereby paving the way for better standard series. There is paucity of large series of patch-tested patients from India. Aim: To report the 9-year patch-test data from a single general dermatology centre in North India. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with signs/symptoms of suspected ACD were patch tested from May 1997 to April 2006. The Indian Standard Series was used. Parthenium was tested only in selected patients and cetrimide and chloroxylenol were added to the series. Results: In total, records of 1000 patients (566 male, 434 female were analyzed, yielding 1155 positive reactions in 590 (59% patients. Footwear dermatitis was the commonest suspected diagnosis, followed by ACD to medicaments, cosmetic dermatitis and plant dermatitis. Out of the allergens that were tested in all the patients, positivity to nickel was the commonest (12.9%, followed by potassium dichromate (11.1% neomycin (7%, mercaptobenzthiazole (6.6%, nitrofurazone (6%, colophony (5.7%, fragrance mix (5.5% and cobalt chloride (5.4%. However, parthenium was the commonest allergen based on the proportion of patients tested with it (14.5%. In men, potassium dichromate (30% was the commonest sensitizer and in women, nickel (43% was the commonest to show patch-test positivity. Conclusion: Our study revealed higher prevalence of footwear and medicament dermatitis in comparison to existing data. Allergy to antiseptics is significant in our patients. Further collaborative studies involving patients from other parts of India are required to have an overall view of ACD in India.

  14. The reliability of a functional agility test for water polo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucher, Guilherme; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; Martins da Silva, António José Rocha

    2014-06-28

    Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old) with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP) was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), 95% limit of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM) were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05). The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88). The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  15. The Reliability of a Functional Agility Test for Water Polo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05. The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88. The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  16. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  17. Impacts of Personal Experience: Informing Water Conservation Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Extension educators have diligently educated the general public about water conservation. Incorporating audiences' personal experience into educational programming is recommended as an approach to effectively enhance audiences' adoption of water conservation practices. To ensure the impact on the audiences and environment, understanding the…

  18. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Difficulties arise in operating on test samples or on materials with porosity varied for decay. While carrying on the test, fluctuations in the bearing of the environmental parameters were negligible, but not the pressure applied to the surface, that induced the release of different water amounts towards the material. For this reason we designed a metal piece of the same diameter of the plate carrying the sponge, to be screwed at the tip of a pocket penetrometer. With this instrument the sponge was kept in contact with the surface for 1 minute applying two different loads, at first pushed with 0.3 kg/cm2 in order to press the sponge, but not its holder, against the surface. Then, a load of 1.1 kg/ cm2 was applied, still avoiding deviating the load to the sponge holder. We applied both the current and our implemented method to determine the water absorption by contact sponge on 5 fresh rock types (4 limestones: Fine - and Coarse grained Pietra di Vicenza, Rosso Verona, Breccia Aurora, and the silicoclastic Macigno sandstone). The results show that 1) the current methodology imply manual skill and experience to produce a coherent set of data; the variable involved are in fact not only the imposed pressure but also the compression mechanics. 2) The control on the applied pressure allowed reproducible measurements. Moreover, 3) the use of a thicker sponge enabled to apply the method even on rougher surfaces, as the device holding the sponge is not in contact with the tested object. Finally, 4) the

  19. Computer-Adaptive Testing: Implications for Students' Achievement, Motivation, Engagement, and Subjective Test Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Lazendic, Goran

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the implications of computer-adaptive testing (operationalized by way of multistage adaptive testing; MAT) and "conventional" fixed order computer testing for various test-relevant outcomes in numeracy, including achievement, test-relevant motivation and engagement, and subjective test experience. It did so…

  20. Gas and water recycling system for IOC vivarium experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, K.; Otsubo, K.

    1986-01-01

    Water and gas recycling units designed as one of the common experiment support system for the life science experiment facilities used in the Japanese Experiment Module are discussed. These units will save transportation and operation costs for the life science experiments in the space station. These units are also designed to have interfaces so simple that the connection to another life science experiment facilities such as the Research Animal Holding Facility developed by the Rockheed Missiles and Space Company can be easily done with small modification.

  1. Can a Century Old Experiment Reveal Hidden Properties of Water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar C. Fuchs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1893 Sir William Armstrong placed a cotton thread between two wine glasses filled with chemically pure water. After applying a high voltage, a watery connection formed, and after some time, the cotton thread was pulled into one of the glasses, leaving a rope of water suspended between the two glasses. Although being a very simple experiment, it is of special interest since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science like electrolysis-less charge transport and nanobubbles. This work gives some background information about water research in general and describes the water bridge phenomenon from the viewpoint of different fields such as electrohydrodynamics and quantum field theory. It is shown that the investigation of the floating water bridge led to new discoveries about water, both in the macroscopic and microscopic realm – but these were merely “hidden” in that sense that they only become evident upon application of electric fields.

  2. [A novel technology for water quality testing based on UV spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-quan; Li, Yu-chun; Guo, Yi; Gu, Bai-jun; Yang, Zhen

    2012-05-01

    Water pollution control and prevention require that the water quality testing is of real time, online and portability. The presejt paper provides a water detecting system based on UV-visible spectra. The R2 of the linear regression is greater than 0.99 between absorbance and COD of the samples. Single measurement is within 1 s. At the same time, two methods were presented for direct comparison and normalization of the spectra and their corresponding indicator parameters. By a large number of experiments with standard solution of the potassium hydrogen phthalate and water samples, we found that these methods can be used to classify samples, find suitable mathematical model of the test water from the database, to improve the universal ability of the UV water testing technology, and get other water quality indices.

  3. [Script Concordance Test: first nationwide experience in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui, Magali; Ferreira, Juan P; Torrents, Milagros; Torres, Fernando; Ibarra, Mariano; Ossorio, Maria F; Urrutia, Luis; Ferrero, Fernando

    2018-02-01

    The Script Concordance Test is a suitable test for assessing clinical reasoning in postgraduate medical education. We present the first nationwide, realtime, web-based experience of a Script Concordance Test administered to 3rd year pediatric residents. The test was administered to 268 residents (postgraduate year 3), from 56 different programs, requiring 46.1 ± 27.1 minutes to complete it, and scoring 65.3 ± 7.47 points. A later survey showed limited satisfaction from participants. This experience showed that this kind of test is feasible in this setting. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  5. On-sky Testing of the Active Phasing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonté, Frédéric; Araujo, Constanza; Bourtembourg, Reynald; Brast, Roland; Derie, Frédéric; Duhoux, Philippe; Dupuy, Christophe; Frank, Christophe; Karban, Robert; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Noethe, Lothar; Sedghi, Babak; Surdej, Isabelle; Yaitskova, Natalia; Luong, Bruno; Chueca, Sergio; Reyes, Marcos; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Quiros Pacheco, Fernando; Dohlen, Kjetil; Vigan, Arthur

    2009-06-01

    The Active Phasing Experiment (APE) has been used by ESO to gain experience in controlling segmented primary mirrors in preparation for the European Extremely Large Telescope. The experiment tested various phasing techniques and explored their advantages and limitations. Four optical phasing sensors were developed using different techniques — a curvature sensor, a pyramid sensor, a Shack-Hartmann sensor and a sensor based on a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The design of the APE instrument is described. APE was installed at the VLT visitor focus for on-sky testing and a brief summary of the results of the experiment is given.

  6. Lidar Atmopheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Data Obtained During the ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LASE_AFWEX data are Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment water vapor and aerosol data measurements taken during ARM-FIRE (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement - First...

  7. Cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This is a summer internship presentation by the Hydro Working Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and goes into detail about their cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison. Specifically, the gas gun experiment is detailed along with applications, the cylinder expansion test is detailed along with applications, there is a comparison of the methods with pros and cons and limitations listed, the summer project is detailed, and future work is talked about.

  8. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  9. Element test experiments and simulations: From dry towards cohesive powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Kumar, Nishant; Luding, Stefan; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2011-01-01

    Findings from experiments and particle simulations for dry and cohesive granular materials are presented with the goal to reach quantitative agreement between simulations and experiments. Results for the compressibility, tested with the FT4 Powder Rheometer are presented. The first simulation

  10. Does the Fizeau Experiment Really Test Special Relativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    The motivation and interpretation of the Fizeau experiment are reviewed, and its status as a test of special relativity is discussed. It is shown, with the aid of a simplified, purely mechanical model of the propagation of light in matter, that the experiment actually cannot discriminate between Galilean and relativistic kinematics. (Author/SK)

  11. Irrigation experiments with produced waters from the retorting of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    The research described herein was conducted by Geokinetics to qualitatively assess the tolerance of native and certain introduced species of vegetation to irrigation with produced water from the retorting of oil shale. Two separate experiments were conducted at the Kamp Kerogen field site in Uintah County, Utah. The results indicate possible effects on vegetation that a prolonged exposure to produced water would have. The two simple experiments were initiated during the summer of 1979. It was expected that irrigation with produced water would eventually result in detrimental effects to the plants receiving it; the concentrations of boron, molybdenum, arsenic, oil and other constituents in untreated production waters are high enough to likely cause damage to plants. In one experiment a 27 foot by 27 foot plot of native vegetation was irrigated with one inch of produced water per week for five weeks using a lawn sprinkler. Grasses and shrubs within the test plot appeared to have died; germination of annual plants was greatly inhibited. In the other experiment, 30 container-grown seedlings ranging in height from 0.3 feet to 3.0 feet were transplanted. Six species of broadleaf, deciduous trees not native to the test site were represented by five seedlings each. All 30 trees received well water irrigation for one month, after which four trees of each species were irrigated with produced water for seven weeks. One tree of each species continued to receive well water throughout the experiment; only two of those trees survived the summer of 1979. All six species appeared to have been adversely affected by produced water. The horse chesnut trees were the hardiest of the species planted. Most of the 30 trees, including those irrigated with well water, did not survive the winter season.

  12. Intercomparison of U.S. Ballast Water Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    GBF) and the Great Ships Initiative (GSI). Due to scheduling factors, the first TF to conduct testing was GBF, located in Vallejo , California... VALLEJO , CA ......................................................................................... A-1  APPENDIX B.  CONTENTS OF THE VERIFICATION...defined as a full-scale ballast water test using water taken up from the Carquinez Strait at the vessel’s mooring point in Vallejo , CA. All testing

  13. Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piper, Brian J; Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A; Kobel, Yuliyana V; Benice, Ted S; Chu, Alex M; Olsen, Reid H. J; Rice, Douglas Z; Gray, Hilary M; Mueller, Shane T

    2012-01-01

    ... Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5–89 years...

  14. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  15. Development Of Teal Ruby Experiment Radiometric Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtley, W. B.; Kowallis, O. K.; Molnar, L. A.; Wright, T. J.

    1981-12-01

    The Teal Ruby Experiment (TRE) sensor presents unique problems to radiometric performance testing and calibration of a mosaic infrared sensor because of the large number of resolution elements; the wide range of spectral, temporal, and flux level operating regions; and the cryogenic operating conditions. This paper contains a summary of the Teal Ruby test facilities and requirements at the infrared charge-coupled device (IRCCD) detector array, zone assembly, focal plane assembly, and sensor levels. Automated test facilities and capabilities are presented to highlight the development requirements and approaches to testing. Key issues concern the complexity of testing, selection of test parameters, commonality of test algorithms and data presentation, data needs for acceptance testing, optimization and integration, and test equipment standards for accuracy, operating range, and contamination control.

  16. Light water reactor fuel response during reactivity initiated accident experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P. E.; McCardell, R. K.; Martinson, Z. R.; Seiffert, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results from six recent Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactivity initiated accident (RIA) tests are compared with data from previous Special Power Excursion Reactor Test (SPERT), and Japanese Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) tests. The RIA fuel behavior experimental program recently started in the PBF is being conducted with coolant conditions typical of hot-startup conditions in a commercial boiling water reactor. The SPERT and NSRR test programs investigated the behavior of single or small clusters of light water reactor (LWR) type fuel rods under approximate room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions in capsules containing stagnant water. As observed in the SPERT and NSRR tests, energy deposition, and consequent enthalpy increase in the PBF test fuel, appears to be the single most important variable. However, the consequences of failure at boiling water hot-startup system conditions appear to be more severe than previously observed in either the stagnant capsule SPERT or NSRR tests. Metallographic examination of both previously unirradiated and irradiated PBF fuel rod cross sections revealed extensive variation in cladding wall thicknesses (involving considerable plastic flow) and fuel shattering along grain boundaries in both restructured and unrestructured fuel regions. Oxidation of the cladding resulted in fracture at the location of cladding thinning and disintegration of the rods during quench. In addition,swelling of the gaseous and potentially volatile fission products in previously irradiated fuel resulted in volume increases of up to 180% and blockage of the coolant channels within the flow shrouds surrounding the fuel rods.

  17. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang [SAM JIN Industrial Co. LTD., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  18. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  19. Land utilization and water resource inventories over extended test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In addition to the work on the corn blight this year, several other analysis tests were completed which resulted in significant findings. These aspects are discussed as follows: (1) field spectral measurements of soil conditions; (2) analysis of extended test site data; this discussion involves three different sets of data analysis sequences; (3) urban land use analysis, for studying water runoff potentials; and (4) thermal data quality study, as an expansion of our water resources studies involving temperature calibration techniques.

  20. Suitability of the H2S method for testing untreated and chlorinated water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J; Gibbs, R; Mathew, K; Ho, G E

    2001-01-01

    Rainwater, borewater and catchment water are used for domestic water supply purposes with or without treatment in remote areas around the world. These places seldom have any facilities for routine testing of their drinking water. A simple on-site testing method is highly required in such areas. The H2S method has been tested for treated drinking water and was found to have a good correlation with the standard methods. The present study was aimed at assessing the suitability of the H2S method for testing different sources of drinking water. Since these types of water may contain H2S producing bacteria not of faecal origin the occurrence of false results in this method cannot be overruled. Therefore it was worthwhile to study whether the positive results are true positive results and what percentage of false positive and false negative results could be expected while using this test for routine analysis of water samples. Results were compared with the results using standard procedures for testing total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The present experiment analysed 121 rainwater samples, 17 borewater samples, 41 catchment water samples and 74 remote Aboriginal community water samples. Rainwater, borewater and catchment water samples gave true results of 78.5%, 82.3% and 80.5% respectively while the treated and untreated community samples gave true results of 93.7 and 84.6% respectively. It was concluded that in the developing countries where the acceptable level of total coliform is <10 MPN, the H2S method would be a good test to identify microbial contamination. In other regions, the H2S method could be used as a screening test for drinking water supplies.

  1. Predicting the occurrence of mixed mode failure associated with hydraulic fracturing, part 2 water saturated tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choens, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barrow, Perry Carl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Seven water-saturated triaxial extension experiments were conducted on four sedimentary rocks. This experimental condition was hypothesized more representative of that existing for downhole hydrofracture and thus it may improve our understanding of the phenomena. In all tests the pore pressure was 10 MPa and confirming pressure was adjusted to achieve tensile and transitional failure mode conditions. Using previous work in this LDRD for comparison, the law of effective stress is demonstrated in extension using this sample geometry. In three of the four lithologies, no apparent chemo-mechanical effect of water is apparent, and in the fourth lithology test results indicate some chemo-mechanical effect of water.

  2. Chemistry and movement of ground water, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, S.L.; Moore, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    Three chemical types of ground water are distinguished at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. A sodium-potassium water is related to tuff (in part zeolitized) and to alluvium containing detrital tuff. A calcium-magnesium water is related to limestone and dolomite, or to alluvium containing detritus of these rock types. A mixed chemical type, containing about as much sodium and potassium as calcium and magnesium, may result from the addition of one of the first two types of water to the other; to passage of water first through tuff and then through carbonate rock, or vice versa; and to ion-exchange during water travel. Consideration of the distribution of these water types, together with the distribution of sodium in the water and progressive changes in the dissolved solids, suggests that the ground water in the Nevada Test Site probably moves toward the Amargosa Desert, not into Indian Spring Valley and thence southeastward toward Las Vegas. The low dissolved solids content of ground-water reservoirs in alluvium and tuff of the enclosed basins indicates that recharge is local in origin.

  3. Long Duration Testing of a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice; Cox, Marlon; Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Colunga, Aaron; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is a heat-rejection device that is being developed to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. Cooling is achieved by circulating water from the liquid cooling garment (LCG) through hollow fibers (HoFi s), which are small hydrophobic tubes. Liquid water remains within the hydrophobic tubes, but water vapor is exhausted to space, thereby removing heat. A SWME test article was tested over the course of a year, for a total of 600 cumulative hours. In order to evaluate SWME tolerance to contamination due to constituents caused by distillation processes, these constituents were allowed to accumulate in the water as evaporation occurred. A test article was tested over the course of a year for a total of 600 cumulative hours. The heat rejection performance of the SWME degraded significantly--below 700 W, attributable to the accumulation of rust in the circulating loop and biofilm growth. Bubble elimination capability, a feature that was previously proven with SWME, was compromised during the test, most likely due to loss of hydrophobic properties of the hollow fibers. The utilization of water for heat rejection was shown not to be dependent on test article, life cycle, heat rejection rate, or freezing of the membranes.

  4. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    the fact that the integration time of the harmonic components of the signal can be prolonged in a programmable way, so that (in particular) there is the possibility to reject undesired narrow band interferences without filtering the signal, namely without loosing part of the information contained in the signal. The third property is that the power can be modulated frequency by frequency. Indeed, we don't know if this third property is a real advantage, but the first two have been already exploited showing some encouraging results. At the conference, we will show the results achieved from two measurement campaign performed in two controlled site, namely the the test site of Hydrogeosite Laboratory, in Marsico Nuovo (Southern Italy), belonging to the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of the Italian National Research Council [3] and the test site of Montelibretti, in central Italy, belonging to the Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage of the National Research Council [4]. In both test sites, among other things, anomalies resembling features of archaeological or near surface interest have been predisposed, as a tomb, a paved road, an amphora, a statue, a buried chamber, a cylinder, a structure in opus coementicium. The test site of Montelibretti is outdoor, in an area of archaeological interest were the ancient population of the Sabini has left relevant testimonies. The test site of Hydrogeosite Laboratory is indoor, in a hat were a large pool (240m3) has been filled up with sand after burying the test targets. This test site is equipped also for hydrogeophysical experiments by means of a controlled hydraulic system for the progressive immission of water in the sand. Depth slices will be shown for both sites, as well as some tests for the mitigation of intereferences by means of the modulation of the integration time of the harmonic components of the signal. Some of the interferences have been artificially introduced by means of a

  5. Impact of musical experience on the Seashore Rhythm Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzmark, P

    2001-08-01

    The Seashore Rhythm Test (SRT) is sensitive to musical talent. The possibility that this reduces its clinical sensitivity in cognitively impaired persons with musical experience was investigated. Subjects were 101 referrals to the neuropsychology service of a large medical center. The results indicate that patients with a substantial amount of musical experience tend to perform normally on the SRT, even when overall performance on a neuropsychological test battery suggests cognitive impairment. This finding suggests caution in interpreting normal SRT results in those with a musical background.

  6. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucher, Guilherme; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio; da Silva, António José Rocha Martins; Garrido, Nuno Domingos

    2015-06-27

    The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old) with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years) and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), 95% limit of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM) were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92). The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

  7. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92. The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

  8. TESTING OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water. Relevant direction for improving of quality of potable water is application of active carbons at various stages of water treatments. This work includes complex research dealing with testing of a broad spectrum of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide and nitrite ions from water. The role of the surface functional groups of carbonaceous adsorbents, their acid-basic properties, and the influence of the type of impregnated heteroatom (N, O, or metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, on removal of hydrogen sulfide species and nitrite ions have been researched. The efficiency of the catalyst obtained from peach stones by impregnation with Cu2+ ions of oxidized active carbon was established, being recommended for practical purposes to remove the hydrogen sulfide species from the sulfurous ground waters. Comparative analysis of carbonaceous adsorbents reveals the importance of surface chemistry for oxidation of nitrite ions.

  9. A Dynamic Test Management Framework for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Avolio, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Kazarov, A; Lehmann Miotto, G; Papaevgeniou, L; Soloviev, I; Unel, G

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Its Data Acquisition (DAQ) is a large distributed and inhomogeneous system: it consists of thousands of interconnected computers and electronics devices that operate coherently to readout and select the relevant Physics data. In order to verify the functioning of the DAQ and to diagnose any problems we have developed a flexible test management system that allows the experts to define and configure tests for different components, indicate follow-up actions to test failures and describe inter-dependencies between DAQ elements. This development is based on the experience gained with the previous test system that has been used during the first three years of data taking, that showed that more emphasis needed to be put on the flexibility and configurability of the verification and diagnostics functionality by the many people that are ,each, knowledgeable and expert on individual compone...

  10. Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report discusses the phase one testing of a data acquisition system for a supercritical water waste oxidation system. The system is designed to destroy a wide range of organic materials in mixed wastes. The design and testing of the MODAR Oxidizer is discussed. An analysis of the optimized runs is included.

  11. Updating national standards for drinking-water: a Philippine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomboy, M; Riego de Dios, J; Magtibay, B; Quizon, R; Molina, V; Fadrilan-Camacho, V; See, J; Enoveso, A; Barbosa, L; Agravante, A

    2017-04-01

    The latest version of the Philippine National Standards for Drinking-Water (PNSDW) was issued in 2007 by the Department of Health (DOH). Due to several issues and concerns, the DOH decided to make an update which is relevant and necessary to meet the needs of the stakeholders. As an output, the water quality parameters are now categorized into mandatory, primary, and secondary. The ten mandatory parameters are core parameters which all water service providers nationwide are obligated to test. These include thermotolerant coliforms or Escherichia coli, arsenic, cadmium, lead, nitrate, color, turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, and disinfectant residual. The 55 primary parameters are site-specific and can be adopted as enforceable parameters when developing new water sources or when the existing source is at high risk of contamination. The 11 secondary parameters include operational parameters and those that affect the esthetic quality of drinking-water. In addition, the updated PNSDW include new sections: (1) reporting and interpretation of results and corrective actions; (2) emergency drinking-water parameters; (3) proposed Sustainable Development Goal parameters; and (4) standards for other drinking-water sources. The lessons learned and insights gained from the updating of standards are likewise incorporated in this paper.

  12. Testing for difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a meta-analytic method that tests for the difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments. We use kernel density estimation in three-dimensional brain space to convert points representing focal brain activations into a voxel-based representation. We find the maxim...... thermal pain studies where "hot pain" and "cold pain" form the two groups....

  13. Water Containment Systems for Testing High-Speed Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trase, Larry; Thompson, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Water-filled containers are used as building blocks in a new generation of containment systems for testing high-speed flywheels. Such containment systems are needed to ensure safety by trapping high-speed debris in the event of centrifugal breakup or bearing failure. Traditional containment systems for testing flywheels consist mainly of thick steel rings. The effectiveness of this approach to shielding against high-speed debris was demonstrated in a series of tests.

  14. The VFAT Production Test Platform for the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Bialas, W; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Petäjäjärvi, J; Radicioni, E; Rouet, J; Snoeys, W; Vichoudis, P

    2008-01-01

    VFAT is the front-end ASIC designed for the charge readout of silicon and gas detectors within the TOTEM experiment of the LHC. A stand alone portable Totem Test Platform (TTP) with USB interface has been developed for the systematic testing of the TOTEM hybrids equipped with VFAT chips. This paper is divided into 3 sections; the first describes the hardware features of the TTP, the second describes the software routines for the control and systematic testing of VFATs, the third presents the analysis and a sample of results.

  15. Statistical tests for quantum state reconstruction II: Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Philipp; Monz, Thomas [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Blatt, Rainer [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    Quantum state tomography is nowadays routinely used in many experiments, for instance to characterize entangled quantum states or to determine input and output states of a quantum processor. Tomography reconstruction algorithms are designed to restrict the results onto physical states. These methods will always return a valid quantum state for any data and therefore it seems necessary to test the recorded data prior to reconstructing the quantum state. We directly apply statistical tests on our experimental data taken in an ion trap quantum computer. In particular, we analyze the sensitivity of these tests to various experimental imperfections like crosstalk and rotated bases.

  16. Overview of the first earthquake forecast testing experiment in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, K. Z.; Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Jordan, T. H.

    2011-03-01

    The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is an international partnership to support research on rigorous earthquake prediction in multiple tectonic environments. This paper outlines the first earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area conducted within the CSEP framework. We begin with some background and briefly describe efforts in setting up the experiment. The experiment, which closely follows CSEP concepts, is of a prospective sort and is highly objective. Its major feature consists in using Japan, one of the most seismically active and well-instrumented regions in the world, as a natural laboratory. To make full use of this location and of the earthquake catalog maintained by the Japan Meteorological Agency, rules for this experiment have been set up. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with four testing classes each with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively) and three testing regions called "All Japan," "Mainland," and "Kanto." A total of 91 models were submitted; these are currently under the CSEP official suite of tests for evaluating the performance of forecasts. This paper briefly describes each model but does not attempt to pass judgment on individual models. Comparative appraisal of the different models will be presented in future publications. Moreover, this is only the first experiment, and more trials are forthcoming. Our aim is to describe what has turned out to be the first occasion for setting up a research environment for rigorous earthquake forecasting in Japan. We argue that now is the time to invest considerably more efforts in related research fields.

  17. ISO standards on test methods for water radioactivity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Herranz, M; Jerome, S; Kwakman, P; Llaurado, M; Tokonami, S

    2013-11-01

    Water is vital to humans and each of us needs at least 1.5L of safe water a day to drink. Beginning as long ago as 1958 the World Health Organization (WHO) has published guidelines to help ensure water is safe to drink. Focused from the start on monitoring radionuclides in water, and continually cooperating with WHO, the International Standardization Organization (ISO) has been publishing standards on radioactivity test methods since 1978. As reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity measurements, international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an important tool for production of such measurements. This paper presents the ISO standards already published that could be used as normative references by testing laboratories in charge of radioactivity monitoring of drinking water as well as those currently under drafting and the prospect of standardized fast test methods in response to a nuclear accident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demand-based water options for arsenic mitigation: an experience from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Hoque, M M; Ahmed, T; Islam, S; Azad, A K; Ali, N; Hossain, M; Hossain, M S

    2004-01-01

    A supply of safe drinking water is a recognized global concern. The arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh and other countries has furthered this concern. Lack of appropriate water options is one of the main barriers to the supply of safe drinking water for 30-60 million people who are exposed to the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated water in Bangladesh. This paper describes the experience from a water supply programme for arsenic mitigation based on demand and participation of 30,000 rural people in Srinagar, a subdistrict of Bangladesh. About 85% of the 912 tubewell water samples tested had an arsenic content higher than 0.05 mg/l. The project promoted 11 options including groundwater, surface-water and rainwater-harvesting household-based options as well as community managed technologies. Most people, particularly women, wanted piped water, and hand-operated deep tubewells were also requested. Four cluster-based motorized piped water systems, 20 home-based arsenic-removal options (two types) and an arsenic-removal filter plant were installed. The public contributed about 49, 25 and 20% of the installation costs of piped water, home-based options and filter options, respectively, and 100% of all operation and maintenance costs. The household options and filter plant were abandoned within a few weeks. Reportedly, those options required too much attention, discharged small volumes of water at low rates, were difficult to maintain, and discharged poor-quality water. The proportion of families (54%) that drank arsenic-contaminated water during the final survey was significantly lower than in the baseline survey (87%). For arsenic-affected areas, it is recommended that a cluster-based piped water system be given proper consideration when selecting appropriate water options rather than household-based options or the development of new low-cost options.

  19. Supercritical water loop for in-pile materials testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzickova, M.; Vsolak, R.; Hajek, P.; Zychova, M.; Fukac, R. [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The Supercritical Water Loop (SCWL) has been designed and built within the HPLWR Phase 2 project, with the objective of testing materials under supercritical water conditions and radiation. The design parameters are set to 25MPa and 600{sup o}C in the testing area, where material samples shall be located. The loop has recently undergone pressure and leakage tests, during which the strength and tightness of the loop were proved. The loop has been also subjected to the first trial operation at nearly maximum operating parameters (temperature 550 {sup o}C was reached); loop operation was steady during several days. Presently, loop operation is envisaged in order to test the loop's long term operation ability. Samples of a material that needs further testing under out- of-pile conditions shall be exposed in the loop; the choice shall be made in agreement with the results of the WP4 - Materials of the HPLWR Phase 2 project. (author)

  20. LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions is presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a Dump-type because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

  1. Empirical retrocausality: Testing physics hypotheses with parapsychological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobyns, York

    2017-05-01

    In 2011, Daryl Bem published a report of nine parapsychological experiments showing evidence of retrocausal information transfer. Earlier in 2016, the team of Bem, Tressoldi, Rabeyron, and Duggan published the results of a meta-analysis containing 81 independent replications of the original Bem experiments (total of 90 with the originals).[1] This much larger database continues to show positive results of generally comparable effect size, thus demonstrating that the effects claimed by Bem can be replicated by independent researchers and greatly strengthening the case for empirically observed retrocausation. Earlier (2011) work by this author showed how a modification of one of Bem's original experiments could be used to test the mechanism implicitly proposed by Echeverria, Klinkhammer, and Thorne to explain how retrocausal phenomena can exist without any risk of self-contradictory event sequences (time paradoxes). In light of the new publication and new evidence, the current work generalizes the previous analysis which was restricted to only one of Bem's experimental genres (precognitive approach and avoidance). The current analysis shows how minor modifications can be made in Bem's other experimental genres of retroactive priming, retroactive habituation, and retroactive facilitation of recall to test the EKT anti-paradox mechanism. If the EKT hypothesis is correct, the modified experiments, while continuing to show replicable retrocausal phenomena, will also show a characteristic pattern of distortion in the statistics of the random selections used to drive the experiments.

  2. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  3. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  4. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 6: Water ejector plume tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginnis, F. K.; Summerhays, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Results are given of vacuum testing of nozzles designed to eject water vapor away from the space shuttle to prevent contamination of the spacecraft surfaces and payload. The water vapor is generated by an active cooling system which evaporates excess fuel cell water to supplement a modular radiator system (MRS). The complete heat rejection system including the MRS, flash evaporator or sublimator and nozzle were first tested to demonstrate the system operational characteristics. The plume tests were performed in two phases and the objectives of this test series were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of a supersonic nozzle and a plugged nozzle in minimizing impingement upon the spacecraft of water vapor exhausted by an active device (flash evaporator or sublimator); and (2) to obtain basic data on the flow fields of exhaust plumes generated by these active devices, both with and without nozzles installed.

  5. Unscaled Bayes factors for multiple hypothesis testing in microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Francesco; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Racugno, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing collects a series of techniques usually based on p-values as a summary of the available evidence from many statistical tests. In hypothesis testing, under a Bayesian perspective, the evidence for a specified hypothesis against an alternative, conditionally on data, is given by the Bayes factor. In this study, we approach multiple hypothesis testing based on both Bayes factors and p-values, regarding multiple hypothesis testing as a multiple model selection problem. To obtain the Bayes factors we assume default priors that are typically improper. In this case, the Bayes factor is usually undetermined due to the ratio of prior pseudo-constants. We show that ignoring prior pseudo-constants leads to unscaled Bayes factor which do not invalidate the inferential procedure in multiple hypothesis testing, because they are used within a comparative scheme. In fact, using partial information from the p-values, we are able to approximate the sampling null distribution of the unscaled Bayes factor and use it within Efron's multiple testing procedure. The simulation study suggests that under normal sampling model and even with small sample sizes, our approach provides false positive and false negative proportions that are less than other common multiple hypothesis testing approaches based only on p-values. The proposed procedure is illustrated in two simulation studies, and the advantages of its use are showed in the analysis of two microarray experiments. © The Author(s) 2011.

  6. Tunnel fire testing and modeling the Morgex North tunnel experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borghetti, Fabio; Gandini, Paolo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Tavelli, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behavior of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests. This book will be of interest to all ...

  7. Testing the robustness of two water distribution system layouts under changing drinking water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia; Blokker, M; Vreeburg, J; Vogelaar, H.; Hillegers, S; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A drinking water distribution system (DWDS) is a critical and a costly asset with a long lifetime. Drinking water demand is likely to change in the coming decades. Quantifying these changes involves large uncertainties. This paper proposes a stress test on the robustness of existing DWDS under

  8. Attachment of composite porous supra-particles to air-water and oil-water interfaces: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunov, Vesselin N; Al-Shehri, Hamza; Horozov, Tommy S

    2016-09-29

    We developed and tested a theoretical model for the attachment of fluid-infused porous supra-particles to a fluid-liquid interface. We considered the wetting behaviour of agglomerated clusters of particles, typical of powdered materials dispersed in a liquid, as well as of the adsorption of liquid-infused colloidosomes at the liquid-fluid interface. The free energy of attachment of a composite spherical porous supra-particle made from much smaller aggregated spherical particles to the oil-water interface was calculated. Two cases were considered: (i) a water-filled porous supra-particle adsorbed at the oil-water interface from the water phase, and, (ii) an oil-filled porous supra-particle adsorbed at the oil-water interface from the oil-phase. We derived equations relating the three-phase contact angle of the smaller "building block" particles and the contact angle of the liquid-infused porous supra-particles. The theory predicts that the porous supra-particle contact angle attached at the liquid interface strongly depends on the type of fluid infused in the particle pores and the fluid phase from which it approaches the liquid interface. We tested the theory by using millimetre-sized porous supra-particles fabricated by evaporation of droplets of polystyrene latex suspension on a pre-heated super-hydrophobic surface, followed by thermal annealing at the glass transition temperature. Such porous particles were initially infused with water or oil and approached to the oil-water interface from the infusing phase. The experiment showed that when attaching at the hexadecane-water interface, the porous supra-particles behaved as hydrophilic when they were pre-filled with water and hydrophobic when they were pre-filled with hexadecane. The results agree with the theoretically predicted contact angles for the porous composite supra-particles based on the values of the contact angles of their building block latex particles measured with the Gel Trapping Technique. The

  9. Test data from the US-Demonstration Poloidal Coil experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, T.A.; Steeves, M.M.; Takayasu, M.; Gung, C.; Hoenig, M.O. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center); Tsuji, H.; Ando, T.; Hiyama, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Nishi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Okuno, K.; Nakajima, H.; Kato, T.; Sugimoto, M.; Isono, T.; Kawano, K.; Koizumi, N.; Osikiri, M.; Hanawa, H.; Ouchi, H.; Ono, M.; Ishida, H.; Hiue, H.; Yoshida, J.; Kamiyauchi, Y.; Ouchi, T.; Tajiri, F.

    1992-01-01

    The US Demonstration Poloidal Field Coil (US-DPC) experiment took place successfully at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in late 1990. The 8 MJ niobium-tin coil was leak tight; it performed very well in DC tests; it performed well in AC tests, achieving approximately 70% of its design goal. An unexpected ramp-rate barrier at high currents was identified. The barrier could not be explored in the regime of higher fields and slower ramp rates due to limitations of the background-field coils. This document presents the results of the experiment with as little editing as possible. The coil, conductor, and operating conditions are given. The intent is to present data in a form that can be used by magnet analysts and designers.

  10. Testing Numerical Modeling of Phase Coarsening by Microgravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. G.; Glicksman, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative understanding of the morphological evolution that occurs during phase coarsening is crucial for optimization of processing procedures to control the final structure and properties of multiphase materials. Generally, ground-based experimental studies of phase coarsening in solids are limited to model alloy systems. Data from microgravity experiments on phase coarsening in Sn-Pb solid-liquid mixtures, executed on the International Space Station, are archived in NASA's Physical Sciences Informatics (PSI) system. In such microgravity experiments, it is expected that the rate of sedimentation will be greatly reduced compared with terrestrial conditions, allowing the kinetics of phase coarsening to be followed more carefully and accurately. In this work we tested existing numerical models of phase coarsening using NASA's PSI microgravity data. Specially, we compared the microstructures derived from phase-field and multiparticle diffusion simulations with those observed in microgravity experiments.

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-15

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8{approx}2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4{approx}2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure.

  12. Water Information as a Tool to Enhance Sustainable Water Management—The Australian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Horne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries and regions have struggled to put in place adequate water information systems to assist with sustainable water management. This article describes and assesses the key components of Australia’s water information and data systems, with particular reference to rural and regional Australia, focusing on progress with strengthening these systems at a national level since 2007. Through the early part of the period, much of Australia was experiencing a crisis in water availability. The article concludes with ongoing challenges for Australia and lessons from the Australian experience for other countries embarking on upgrading their water information and data systems. Upgrading a nation’s water information systems is a long-term task, but an important one in a world of climate change and increased climate variability. Substantial progress is likely to take five to 10 years to materialize. From the outset, upgrading information systems needs to be focused on data series that will facilitate answering key policy questions, assist water users in making significant decisions more effectively, and allow businesses and government to better address risks from water-related events. As always, political support matters. To sustain investments in information, its coverage must facilitate illuminating key questions and issues. Custodians of information systems must ensure that the value proposition is clear to all.

  13. Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

  14. Impact of Gamification of Vision Tests on the User Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodduluri, Lakshmi; Boon, Mei Ying; Ryan, Malcolm; Dain, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    Gamification has been incorporated into vision tests and vision therapies in the expectation that it may increase the user experience and engagement with the task. The current study aimed to understand how gamification affects the user experience, specifically during the undertaking of psychophysical tasks designed to estimate vision thresholds (chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity). Three tablet computer-based games were developed with three levels of gaming elements. Game 1 was designed to be a simple clinical test (no gaming elements), game 2 was similar to game 1 but with added gaming elements (i.e., feedback, scores, and sounds), and game 3 was a complete game. Participants (N = 144, age: 9.9-42 years) played three games in random order. The user experience for each game was assessed using a Short Feedback Questionnaire. The median (interquartile range) fun level for the three games was 2.5 (1.6), 3.9 (1.7), and 2.5 (2.8), respectively. Overall, participants reported greater fun level and higher preparedness to play the game again for game 2 than games 1 and 3 (P users, without affecting engagement with the vision test.

  15. Healthcare workers’ experiences of HIV testing in Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamakwa S. Mataboge

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In an era when antiretroviral (ARV therapy has become part of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention strategy, early testing and introduction to ARVs iscritical for improving public health outcomes in general and, in particular, the lives of people living with HIV. South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV as compared with the rest of the world. Initiated voluntary HIV counselling and testing and provider initiated counselling and testing (PICT are required in order to increase the uptake of HIV testing.Objectives: To explore and describe the experiences of healthcare workers who are themselves in need of HIV testing.Method: A descriptive, exploratory design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with the 26 healthcare workers who were involved in HIV testing in the Tshwane district of South Africa. The participants were sampled purposively from two healthcare settings. A thematic framework was used for data analysis.Results: There was a complication with regard to PICT as healthcare workers felt they could not initiate HIV testing for themselves and or their work colleagues without their confidentiality being compromised. This was complicated further by both the perceived and actual fear of stigmatisation and discrimination. It was difficult for qualified staff to support and encourage the uptake of HIV testing by students nurses as this was seen, albeit incorrectly, as targeting the students in a negative manner.Conclusion: There is a need for accessible HIV testing policies for healthcare workers in order to increase access to HIV testing and prevent the progression of the disease

  16. Testing the implicit processing hypothesis of precognitive dream experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valášek, Milan; Watt, Caroline; Hutton, Jenny; Neill, Rebecca; Nuttall, Rachel; Renwick, Grace

    2014-08-01

    Seemingly precognitive (prophetic) dreams may be a result of one's unconscious processing of environmental cues and having an implicit inference based on these cues manifest itself in one's dreams. We present two studies exploring this implicit processing hypothesis of precognitive dream experience. Study 1 investigated the relationship between implicit learning, transliminality, and precognitive dream belief and experience. Participants completed the Serial Reaction Time task and several questionnaires. We predicted a positive relationship between the variables. With the exception of relationships between transliminality and precognitive dream belief and experience, this prediction was not supported. Study 2 tested the hypothesis that differences in the ability to notice subtle cues explicitly might account for precognitive dream beliefs and experiences. Participants completed a modified version of the flicker paradigm. We predicted a negative relationship between the ability to explicitly detect changes and precognitive dream variables. This relationship was not found. There was also no relationship between precognitive dream belief and experience and implicit change detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Results on a Low-Energy RMF-FRC Experiment with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchizono, Nolan; Hill, Carrie; Holmes, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory-Edwards has developed a new Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) test cell for researching low-energy (RMF) FRC plasma source. FRC's are compatible with a variety of propellants - including complex propellants, like water and CO2. Water was the propellant of choice for this experiment. The input conditions of the test cell were varied to study their effects on FRC formation and plasma content. FRC formation was studied using a suite of diagnostics, including voltage and current probes, and excluded-flux measurements. Plasma species composition was studied using a residual gas analyzer, and optical emission spectroscopy. The propellant decomposition and ionization stage used in this experiment is presented in companion work at this conference.

  18. Information on the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this report provides information related to the design of the Oregon State University Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) test facility. Information provided in this report have been pulled from the following information sources: Reference 1: R. Nourgaliev and et.al, "Summary Report on NGSAC (Next-Generation Safety Analysis Code) Development and Testing," Idaho National Laboratory, 2011. Note that this is report has not been released as an external report. Reference 2: O. Stevens, Characterization of the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Passive Residual Heat Removal System Heat Exchanger, Master Thesis, June 1996. Reference 3: J. Reyes, Jr., Q. Wu, and J. King, Jr., Scaling Assessment for the Design of the OSU APEX-1000 Test Facility, OSU-APEX-03001 (Rev. 0), May 2003. Reference 4: J. Reyes et al, Final Report of the NRC AP600 Research Conducted at Oregon State University, NUREG/CR-6641, July 1999. Reference 5: K. Welter et al, APEX-1000 Confirmatory Testing to Support AP1000 Design Certification (non-proprietary), NUREG-1826, August 2005.

  19. Experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX). Hydrogen generation and chemical augmentation of energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The results of the first data series of experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. These experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of pure zirconium or zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water. A total of nine tests were conducted, including four with pure zirconium melt and five with Zr-ZrO{sub 2} mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite extensive, the estimated explosion energetics were found to be very small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available. (author)

  20. Operational experience from LCLS-II cryomodule testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Hansen, B.; White, M.; Hurd, J.; Atassi, O. Al; Bossert, R.; Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Makara, J.; Theilacker, J.; Kaluzny, J.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  1. Operational Experience from LCLS-II Cryomodule Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renzhuo [Fermilab; Hansen, Benjamin [Fermilab; White, Michael [Fermilab; Hurd, Joseph [Fermilab; Atassi, Omar Al [Fermilab; Bossert, Richard [Fermilab; Pei, Liujin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab; Makara, Jerry [Fermilab; Theilacker, Jay [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  2. PROPOSAL FOR BUILD A TEST STAND TO THE STUDY WATER RAM BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz GRYGO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was developed of a test stand to a study physics phenomena accruing at work in a ram water based on the construction recommendations. The experience gained by a number of attempts allowed to the developed construction recommendations that allowed to adjust the test stand to perform various studies of physics phenomena occurring at the work of water ram and easy adaptions to the new requirements. The article includes: the review of the test stands on which performed the study in the history and in the present times, description of the construction recommendations of the universal test stand and the proposal of the test stand developed based on the construction recommendations. Motivation to take up this issue follows from the interest of devices that work in an unconventional way, devices used a renewable energy that can be used in household e.g. to improve their energy balance, delivery water to houses, drinking water for animals, fields irrigation, etc. Analysis of the literature of the water ram, test stands and their performance shown that it is small and typically old development in popular science form. In times of intensive search new sources of renewable energy reactivation of this type equipment may be highly probable.

  3. Recent performance experience with US light water reactor self-actuating safety and relief valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, C.G.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past several years, there have been a number of operating reactor events involving performance of primary and secondary safety and relief valves in U.S. Light Water Reactors. There are several different types of safety and relief valves installed for overpressure protection of various safety systems throughout a typical nuclear power plant. The following discussion is limited to those valves in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) and main steam systems of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and in the RCS of boiling water reactors (BWR), all of which are self-actuating having a setpoint controlled by a spring-loaded disk acting against system fluid pressure. The following discussion relates some of the significant recent experience involving operating reactor events or various testing data. Some of the more unusual and interesting operating events or test data involving some of these designs are included, in addition to some involving a number of similar events and those which have generic applicability.

  4. Soil water repellency in long term drought and warming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Emmett, Bridget; Tietema, Albert; Robinson, David

    2017-04-01

    Increased global temperatures, altered rainfall patterns and frequently occurring extreme climatic events are already observed globally as a result of the climatic changes and further increases are predicted by the climatic models. Extreme weather events such as prolonged dry spells and heat waves can significantly affect soil ecosystem functions mainly due to decrease in soil moisture. Several studies suggested an increase in soil water repellency severity and spread as a consequence of the warming and drought, however, such understanding is based on the laboratory experimentations with soil treated as a 'black box'. In this study we tested the hypothesis of increased severity of soil water repellency subjected to drought and warming under field conditions. Occurrence and severity of soil water repellency was tested in soils subjected to a long-term (10 years) climatic simulation at two upland heathland sites in Oldebroek (Netherlands) and in Clocaenog (UK)[1]. Soil plots with similar vegetation were subjected to repeated drought and warming, compared with the control plots. Drought effect was created by a rainfall exclusion using an automatic self-retracting waterproof curtains while the warming effect was made by using a self-retracting curtains reflecting infrared radiation overnight. The results available to date provide a strong indication that climatic conditions do affect the development of SWR.

  5. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

  6. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Lewis, R.E.; Engelman, R.E.; Pearson, A.L.; Murray, C.J.; Smoot, J.L. Lu, A.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Randall, P.R. [Three Rivers Scientific, Richland, WA (United States); Wegener, W.H. [Hoquiam High School, Hoquiam, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ``Sisson and the Lu experiment``) should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises.

  7. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment in the High Temperature Insert-Reflight (HTI-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Zappoli, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Current research on supercritical water processes on board the International Space Station (ISS) focuses on salt precipitation and transport in a test cell designed for supercritical water. This study, known as the Supercritical Water Mixture Experiment (SCWM) serves as a precursor experiment for developing a better understanding of inorganic salt precipitation and transport during supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) processes for the eventual application of this technology for waste management and resource reclamation in microgravity conditions. During typical SCWO reactions any inorganic salts present in the reactant stream will precipitate and begin to coat reactor surfaces and control mechanisms (e.g., valves) often severely impacting the systems performance. The SCWM experiment employs a Sample Cell Unit (SCU) filled with an aqueous solution of Na2SO4 0.5-w at the critical density and uses a refurbished High Temperature Insert, which was used in an earlier ISS experiment designed to study pure water at near-critical conditions. The insert, designated as the HTI-Reflight (HTI-R) will be deployed in the DECLIC (Device for the Study of Critical Liquids and Crystallization) Facility on the International Space Station (ISS). Objectives of the study include measurement of the shift in critical temperature due to the presence of the inorganic salt, assessment of the predominant mode of precipitation (i.e., heterogeneously on SCU surfaces or homogeneously in the bulk fluid), determination of the salt morphology including size and shapes of particulate clusters, and the determination of the dominant mode of transport of salt particles in the presence of an imposed temperature gradient. Initial results from the ISS experiments will be presented and compared to findings from laboratory experiments on the ground.

  8. Experience with Video Head Impulse Testing (vHIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ÁLVAREZ-SANTACRUZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The diagnosis and study of vestibular pathology has been always guided by the medical history, exploration and caloric test. The caloric test has some limitations because it only allows the study of horizontal semicircular canal and it is also poorly tolerated by patients. Alternatively, the vHIT (Video Head Impulse Test, allows the analysis of all semicircular channels being quicker to perform and less obtrusive. The objective of the following study is to reflect our initial experience with the vHIT and compare it with another diagnosis tests. Method: This is a observational, prospective and descriptive study, of one year of observation in our Healthcare center for all patients who described symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness or vertigo. Results: A total of 155 patients were included. There was a clear predominance of females, being Meniere's disease the most frequently diagnosed entity. The diagnosis was reached by vHIT. Caloric test was also performed in patients without definite or doubt in the diagnosis. With the data, the statistical relationships were established, being significant between sex with vestibular neuritis and vestibular migraine. There was a statistically significant relationship between vestibule-ocular reflex and caloric test associated with the previous pathologies. Discussion: The head impulse assisted video is a quick, simple and well tolerated technique without adverse symptoms like the caloric test. The disparities of results are due to differences in the stimulated frequencies, being the vHIT more physiological. Conclusions: vHIT facilitates the complementary diagnosis of acute pathology, being a well-tolerated technique. However, in pathologies with central compensation the results by vHIT may be normal, requiring the caloric test for better diagnostic approach.

  9. Testing Light Dark Matter Coannihilation With Fixed-Target Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, Eder [Brookhaven Natl. Lab.; Kahn, Yonatan [Princeton U.; Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab; Moschella, Matthew [Princeton U.

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, we introduce a novel program of fixed-target searches for thermal-origin Dark Matter (DM), which couples inelastically to the Standard Model. Since the DM only interacts by transitioning to a heavier state, freeze-out proceeds via coannihilation and the unstable heavier state is depleted at later times. For sufficiently large mass splittings, direct detection is kinematically forbidden and indirect detection is impossible, so this scenario can only be tested with accelerators. Here we propose new searches at proton and electron beam fixed-target experiments to probe sub-GeV coannihilation, exploiting the distinctive signals of up- and down-scattering as well as decay of the excited state inside the detector volume. We focus on a representative model in which DM is a pseudo-Dirac fermion coupled to a hidden gauge field (dark photon), which kinetically mixes with the visible photon. We define theoretical targets in this framework and determine the existing bounds by reanalyzing results from previous experiments. We find that LSND, E137, and BaBar data already place strong constraints on the parameter space consistent with a thermal freeze-out origin, and that future searches at Belle II and MiniBooNE, as well as recently-proposed fixed-target experiments such as LDMX and BDX, can cover nearly all remaining gaps. We also briefly comment on the discovery potential for proposed beam dump and neutrino experiments which operate at much higher beam energies.

  10. Testing light dark matter coannihilation with fixed-target experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Eder; Kahn, Yonatan; Krnjaic, Gordan; Moschella, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a novel program of fixed-target searches for thermal-origin dark matter (DM), which couples inelastically to the Standard Model. Since the DM only interacts by transitioning to a heavier state, freeze-out proceeds via coannihilation and the unstable heavier state is depleted at later times. For sufficiently large mass splittings, direct detection is kinematically forbidden and indirect detection is impossible, so this scenario can only be tested with accelerators. Here we propose new searches at proton- and electron-beam fixed-target experiments to probe sub-GeV coannihilation, exploiting the distinctive signals of up- and downscattering as well as decay of the excited state inside the detector volume. We focus on a representative model in which DM is a pseudo-Dirac fermion coupled to a hidden gauge field (dark photon), which kinetically mixes with the visible photon. We define theoretical targets in this framework and determine the existing bounds by reanalyzing results from previous experiments. We find that LSND, E137, and BABAR data already place strong constraints on the parameter space consistent with a thermal freeze-out origin, and that future searches at Belle II and MiniBooNE, as well as recently proposed fixed-target experiments such as LDMX and BDX, can cover nearly all remaining gaps. We also briefly comment on the discovery potential for proposed beam dump and neutrino experiments which operate at much higher beam energies.

  11. Phototube Testing for the MiniBooNE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Laura; Brice, Steve; Bugel, Len; Fleming, Bonnie; Hawker, Eric; Killewald, Phillip; May, Justin; McKenney, Shawn; Nienaber, Paul; Patterson, Ryan; Roe, Byron; Sandberg, Vern; Smith, Darrel; Wysocki, Matt

    2005-04-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment at FNAL is a neutrino νμ->νe oscillation search whose detector is a 12 m spherical oil tank lined with 1520 8 inch photomultiplier tubes, Hamamatsu models R1408 and R5912, with custom--designed bases. Tests were performed on all the phototubes to determine the dark rate, charge and timing resolutions of the response, double--pulsing rate, and desired operating voltage for each tube, so that they could be sorted for optimal use in the detector. Eight additional phototubes were tested to find the angular dependance of their response, and these results for the R1408 and R5912 phototubes were fit to 5-- and 6--degree polynomials, respectively. This test was performed again at various voltages. These fits were incorporated into the MiniBooNE Monte Carlo. After the Super--K phototube implosion accident, an analysis was performed to determine the risk of a similar accident with MiniBooNE, and the risk was found to be negligible. *MiniBooNE is an experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

  12. DipTest: A litmus test for E. coli detection in water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Siva Kumar Gunda

    Full Text Available We have developed a new litmus paper test (DipTest for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli in water samples by performing enzymatic reactions directly on the porous paper substrate. The paper strip consists of a long narrow piece of cellulose blotting paper coated with chemoattractant (at bottom edge, wax hydrophobic barrier (at the top edge, and custom formulated chemical reagents (at reaction zone immediately below the wax hydrophobic barrier. When the paper strip is dipped in water, E. coli in the water sample is attracted toward the paper strip due to a chemotaxic mechanism followed by the ascent along the paper strip toward the reaction zone due to a capillary wicking mechanism, and finally the capillary motion is arrested at the top edge of the paper strip by the hydrophobic barrier. The E. coli concentrated at the reaction zone of the paper strip will react with custom formulated chemical reagents to produce a pinkish-red color. Such a color change on the paper strip when dipped into water samples indicates the presence of E. coli contamination in potable water. The performance of the DipTest device has been checked with different known concentrations of E. coli contaminated water samples using different dip and wait times. The DipTest device has also been tested with different interfering bacteria and chemical contaminants. It has been observed that the different interfering contaminants do not have any impact on the DipTest, and it can become a potential solution for screening water samples for E. coli contamination at the point of source.

  13. DipTest: A litmus test for E. coli detection in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Dasgupta, Saumyadeb; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new litmus paper test (DipTest) for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples by performing enzymatic reactions directly on the porous paper substrate. The paper strip consists of a long narrow piece of cellulose blotting paper coated with chemoattractant (at bottom edge), wax hydrophobic barrier (at the top edge), and custom formulated chemical reagents (at reaction zone immediately below the wax hydrophobic barrier). When the paper strip is dipped in water, E. coli in the water sample is attracted toward the paper strip due to a chemotaxic mechanism followed by the ascent along the paper strip toward the reaction zone due to a capillary wicking mechanism, and finally the capillary motion is arrested at the top edge of the paper strip by the hydrophobic barrier. The E. coli concentrated at the reaction zone of the paper strip will react with custom formulated chemical reagents to produce a pinkish-red color. Such a color change on the paper strip when dipped into water samples indicates the presence of E. coli contamination in potable water. The performance of the DipTest device has been checked with different known concentrations of E. coli contaminated water samples using different dip and wait times. The DipTest device has also been tested with different interfering bacteria and chemical contaminants. It has been observed that the different interfering contaminants do not have any impact on the DipTest, and it can become a potential solution for screening water samples for E. coli contamination at the point of source.

  14. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  15. Plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chen, P. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-04-01

    We intend to carry out a series of plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam facility at SLAC. These experiments will be the first to study the focusing of particle beams by plasma focusing devices in the parameter regime of interest for high energy colliders, and is expected to lead to plasma lens designs capable of unprecedented spot sizes. Plasma focusing of positron beams will be attempted for the first time. We will study the effects of lens aberrations due to various lens imperfections. Several approaches will be applied to create the plasma required including laser ionization and beam ionization of a working gas. At an increased bunch population of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 10}, tunneling ionization of a gas target by an electron beam -- an effect which has never been observed before -- should be significant. The compactness of our device should prove to be of interest for applications at the SLC and the next generation linear colliders.

  16. The Water-Wheel IR (WIR): A Contact Survey Experiment for Water and Carbonates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Freeman, John; Dong, Edward X.; Kuebler, Karla E.

    2004-01-01

    Minimum requirements for life include water and accessible carbon. Mars has both in its polar caps and atmosphere. Water (or water-equivalent hydrogen) is present at shallow depths (approx. 10-20 cm) at latitudes =60 and is heterogeneously distributed in other parts of Mars [1]. Mars may have once had surface water that could plausibly have produced carbonate deposits [2-5]. Mars shows signs of hydrothermal activity [6-8] that may have affected soil composition [9, 10]. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on the Mars Global Surveyor found large and small patches of hematite that may have been water-borne or water-derived [11, 12]. Current orbiting spacecraft (MGS & Odyssey) have not found massive carbonate deposits, however [13]. Shales and limestones, which we associate with moist and benign environments on Earth, are apparently not abundant on Mars. Both carbonate and organic carbon occur as alteration products in Martian meteorites of igneous origin [14]. One study of MGS-TES data suggests 2-5 wt% carbonates (mainly MgCO3) in surface dust, but found no concentrated source [15]. Carbonates and H2O/OH bearing minerals will be sought by the mini-TES and Mossbauer experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, one of which landed successfully on Mars on January 3.

  17. Experiment data report: Gap Conductance Test Series, Test GC 1-3 postirradiation examination. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, B. A.

    1977-09-01

    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO/sub 2/-fueled rods tested as part of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 1-3 which was conducted to obtain experimental data from which test rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state integral kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided will aid in interpreting and understanding the experimental data obtained during Test GC 1-3 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure and rod power profiles are discussed. Evidence is presented showing that significant amounts of water had been present in two of the four fuel rods during testing. For the two fuel rods that remained intact during the test, measurements of fuel pellet-to-cladding gap, as well as the surface area of the fuel cracks at several axial locations are presented. A total effective radial gap is calculated and the fuel structure and porosity are analyzed.

  18. Validation of a non-invasive blood-sampling technique for doubly-labelled water experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Helversen, Otto Von; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for bleeding small mammals have been used in doubly-labeled water (DLW) studies, including vena puncture and the use of starved nymphal stages of hematophagous reduviid bugs (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). In this study, we tested the validity of using reduviid bugs in doubly-labeled water experiments. We found that the isotope enrichment in initial blood samples collected with bugs was significantly lower compared to isotope enrichment in blood samples obtained using vena puncture. We therefore used the desiccation method for estimating total body water (TBW) in DLW experiments because TBW calculated using the isotope dilution method was overestimated when blood samples were collected using reduviid bugs. In our validation experiment with nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), we compared estimates of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using DLW with those derived from the energy balance method. We considered Speakman's equation (controlling for 25% fractionated water loss) as the most appropriate for our study animal and calculated DEE accordingly. On average, DEE estimated with DLW was not significantly different from the mean value obtained with the energy balance method (mean deviation 1.2%). We conclude that although bug hemolymph or intestinal liquids most likely contaminate the samples, estimates of DEE are still valid because the DLW method does not depend on absolute isotope enrichments but on the rate of isotope decrease over time. However, dilution of blood with intestinal liquids or hemolymph from a bug may lead to larger variation in DEE estimates. We also tested how the relative error of DLW estimates changed with varying assumptions about fractionation. We used three additional equations for calculating DEE in DLW experiments. The basic equation for DLW experiments published by Lifson and McClintock (LM-6) assumes no fractionation, resulted in an overestimate of DEE by 10%. Nagy's equation (N-2) controls for changes in body mass but not for

  19. Quantification of the recovered oil and water fractions during water flooding laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During core flooding experiments where water is injected in residual oil saturated core plugs, the fluids are often produced in small amounts. Oil and water come out of the core and are collected in glass vials using a fraction collector. Quantification of these fluids is often difficult since...... the volume might be less than a few microliters. In this study, we approach the determination of the oil volumes in flooding effluents using predetermined amounts of the North Sea oil with synthetic seawater. The UV/visible spectroscopy method and low-field NMR spectrometry are compared...... for this determination, and an account of advantages and disadvantages of each method is given. Both methods are reproducible with high accuracy. The NMR method was capable of direct quantification of both oil and water fractions, while the UV/visible spectroscopy quantifies only the oil fraction using a standard curve....

  20. Post test calculation of the experiment `small break loss-of- coolant test` SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischke, W.; Vandreier, B. [Univ. for Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Technology

    1997-12-31

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory. 5 refs.

  1. Results of irradiated cladding tests and clad plate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects critical to the fracture behavior of three-wire stainless steel cladding were investigated by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program: (1) radiation effects on cladding strength and toughness, and (2) the response of mechanically loaded, flawed structures in the presence of cladding (clad plate experiments). Postirradiation testing results show that, in the test temperature range from /minus/125 to 288/degree/C, the yield strength increased, and ductility insignificantly increased, while there was almost no change in ultimate tensile strength. All cladding exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior during Charpy impact testing. Radiation damage decreased the Charpy upper-shelf energy by 15 to 20% and resulted in up to 28/degree/C shifts of the Charpy impact transition temperature. Results of irradiated 12.5-mm-thick compact specimens (0.5TCS) show consistent decreases in the ductile fracture toughness, J/sub Ic/, and the tearing modulus. Results from clad plate tests have shown that (1) a tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has arrested running flaws under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured, and (2) the residual load-bearing capacity of clad plates with large subclad flaws significantly exceeded that of an unclad plate. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Applications of the water drinking test in glaucoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna, Remo; Clement, Colin; Goldberg, Ivan; Hatanaka, Marcelo

    2017-08-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) peaks and means have been considered important factors for glaucoma onset and progression. However, peak IOP detection depends only on appropriated IOP checks at office visits, whereas the mean IOP requires longitudinal IOP data collection and may be affected by the interval between visits. Also, IOP peak assessment is necessary to verify if the peak pressure of a given patient is in target range, to evaluate glaucoma suspect risk, the efficacy of hypotensive drugs and to detect early loss of IOP control. The water-drinking test has gained significant attention in recent years as an important tool to evaluate IOP peaks and instability. The main objective of this review was to present new findings and to discuss the applicability of the water-drinking test in glaucoma management. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Combined Experiment Phase 1. [Horizontal axis wind turbines: wind tunnel testing versus field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  4. MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

    2000-01-01

    The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

  5. Robust test method for time-course microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stephen L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a time-course microarray experiment, the expression level for each gene is observed across a number of time-points in order to characterize the temporal trajectories of the gene-expression profiles. For many of these experiments, the scientific aim is the identification of genes for which the trajectories depend on an experimental or phenotypic factor. There is an extensive recent body of literature on statistical methodology for addressing this analytical problem. Most of the existing methods are based on estimating the time-course trajectories using parametric or non-parametric mean regression methods. The sensitivity of these regression methods to outliers, an issue that is well documented in the statistical literature, should be of concern when analyzing microarray data. Results In this paper, we propose a robust testing method for identifying genes whose expression time profiles depend on a factor. Furthermore, we propose a multiple testing procedure to adjust for multiplicity. Conclusions Through an extensive simulation study, we will illustrate the performance of our method. Finally, we will report the results from applying our method to a case study and discussing potential extensions.

  6. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W. [Univ. for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA`s fourth phase at the original plant. 4 refs.

  7. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-29-3; integral test from reduced initial pressure. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapo, H.S.; Collins, B.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1976-09-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-29-3 of the Semiscale Mod-1 special heat transfer test series. This test is among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor system. Test S-29-3 was conducted from an initial cold leg fluid temperature of 544/sup 0/F and an initial pressure of 1,760 psia. A simulated double-ended offset shear cold leg break was used to investigate the system response to a depressurization transient starting from a lower initial pressure than that usually associated with pressurized water reactor operation. System flow was set to achieve a full core fluid temperature differential of 66/sup 0/F at full core power of 1.6 MW. The flow resistance of the intact loop was based on core area scaling. An electrically heated core with a peaked radial power profile was used in the pressure vessel to simulate the effects of a nuclear core. During system depressurization, core power was reduced from the initial level of 1.6 MW to simulate the surface heat flux response of nuclear fuel rods until such time that departure from nucleate boiling might occur. Blowdown to the pressure suppression system was accompanied by simulated emergency core cooling injection into both the intact and broken loops. Coolant injection was continued until testtermination at 200 seconds after initiation of blowdown. The purpose of the report is to make available the uninterpreted data from Test S-29-3 for future data analysis and test results reporting activites. The data, presented in the form of graphs in engineering units, have been analyzed only to the extent necessary to assure that they are reasonable and consistent.

  8. Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Drescher, A.; Greene, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Miller, P. [Natural Resources Defense Council (United States); Motau, C. [South African Center for Essential Community Services (South Africa); Stevens, F. [Durban Metro Water (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    A recently invented device, ``UV Waterworks,`` uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of less than 10 US cents per person. UV Waterworks has been successfully tested in the laboratory. Limited field trials of an early version of the device were conducted in India in 1994--95. Insights from these trials led to the present design. Extended field trials of UV Waterworks, initiated in South Africa in February 1997, will be coordinated by the South African Center for Essential Community Services (SACECS), with technical and organizational support from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (both US). The first of the eight planned sites of the year long trial is an AIDS hospice near Durban. Durban metro Water and LBNL lab-tested a UV Waterworks unit prior to installing it at the hospice in August, 1997. The authors describe the field test plans and preliminary results from Durban.

  9. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  10. Sauna, sweat and science - quantifying the proportion of condensation water versus sweat using a stable water isotope ((2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O) tracer experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Michael; Bösel, Stefanie; Tuthorn, Mario; Benesch, Marianne; Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most visitors of a sauna appreciate the heat pulse that is perceived when water is poured on the stones of a sauna stove. However, probably only few bathers are aware that this pleasant heat pulse is caused by latent heat being released onto our skin due to condensation of water vapour. In order to quantify the proportion of condensation water versus sweat to dripping water of test persons we conducted sauna experiments using isotopically labelled (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) thrown water as tracer. This allows differentiating between 'pure sweat' and 'condensation water'. Two ways of isotope mass balance calculations were applied and yielded similar results for both water isotopes. Accordingly, condensation contributed considerably to dripping water with mean proportions of 52 ± 12 and 54 ± 7% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2011/12 and 30 ± 13 and 33 ± 6% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2012/13, respectively, depending on the way of calculating the isotope mass balance. It can be concluded from the results of our dual isotope labelling sauna experiment that it is not all about sweat in the sauna.

  11. Controlled laboratory experiments and modeling of vegetative filter strips with shallow water tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Garey A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Purvis, Rebecca A.

    2018-01-01

    Natural or planted vegetation at the edge of fields or adjacent to streams, also known as vegetative filter strips (VFS), are commonly used as an environmental mitigation practice for runoff pollution and agrochemical spray drift. The VFS position in lowlands near water bodies often implies the presence of a seasonal shallow water table (WT). In spite of its potential importance, there is limited experimental work that systematically studies the effect of shallow WTs on VFS efficacy. Previous research recently coupled a new physically based algorithm describing infiltration into soils bounded by a water table into the VFS numerical overland flow and transport model, VFSMOD, to simulate VFS dynamics under shallow WT conditions. In this study, we tested the performance of the model against laboratory mesoscale data under controlled conditions. A laboratory soil box (1.0 m wide, 2.0 m long, and 0.7 m deep) was used to simulate a VFS and quantify the influence of shallow WTs on runoff. Experiments included planted Bermuda grass on repacked silt loam and sandy loam soils. A series of experiments were performed including a free drainage case (no WT) and a static shallow water table (0.3-0.4 m below ground surface). For each soil type, this research first calibrated VFSMOD to the observed outflow hydrograph for the free drainage experiments to parameterize the soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters, and then evaluated the model based on outflow hydrographs for the shallow WT experiments. This research used several statistical metrics and a new approach based on hypothesis testing of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE) to evaluate model performance. The new VFSMOD routines successfully simulated the outflow hydrographs under both free drainage and shallow WT conditions. Statistical metrics considered the model performance valid with greater than 99.5% probability across all scenarios. This research also simulated the shallow water table experiments with

  12. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-15

    Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

  13. Removal of phosphorus from water by using volcanic ash soil (VAS): batch and column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Maeda, Morihiro

    2016-09-01

    Using low-cost and naturally available materials is considered an optimal adsorbent for removing phosphorus (P) from water due to its simplicity and economic efficiency. This study examined the removal of P from water using volcanic ash soil (VAS) by batch and column experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity of P was 2.94 mg g -1 , estimated from the batch experiment according to a Langmuir isotherm. The column study showed a higher adsorption capacity of 5.57 mg g -1 . The breakthrough curve showed that influent water containing 2 mg L -1 P was completely purified by VAS within 1,230 pore volumes (PV). The breakthrough and saturation points of the curves were 3,100 PV and 14,875 PV, respectively. After an adsorption column was loaded with 20,508 PV, a regeneration procedure was developed to determine whether an ion exchange of P with chloride occurred or adsorbed P in the columns could be eluted. Approximately 20% of P was recovered from columns by desorption tests, regardless of NaCl solution or deionized water. Specific surface area and mineral concentrations are both important characteristics that improve the adsorption capacity of VAS. The present study suggests that VAS is a promising adsorbent to remove P in water.

  14. Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) trunnion verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) was designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-g space environment. The CFME has now become the storage and supply tank for the Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility, which includes transfer line and receiver tanks, as well. The liquid hydrogen storage and supply vessel is supported within a vacuum jacket to two fiberglass/epoxy composite trunnions which were analyzed and designed. Analysis using the limited available data indicated the trunnion was the most fatigue critical component in the storage vessel. Before committing the complete storage tank assembly to environmental testing, an experimental assessment was performed to verify the capability of the trunnion design to withstand expected vibration and loading conditions. Three tasks were conducted to evaluate trunnion integrity. The first determined the fatigue properties of the trunnion composite laminate materials. Tests at both ambient and liquid hydrogen temperatures showed composite material fatigue properties far in excess of those expected. Next, an assessment of the adequacy of the trunnion designs was performed (based on the tested material properties).

  15. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corno, Ada del, E-mail: delcorno@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Morandi, Sonia, E-mail: morandi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.araneo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy); CNR-IENI, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Casella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco2.casella@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m{sup 3}. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m{sup 3}. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was

  16. Differences in water consumption choices in Canada: the role of socio-demographics, experiences, and perceptions of health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane; Adamowicz, W L Vic; Krupnick, Alan

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 and 2001 Canadians were shocked by water contamination events that took place in two provinces. In 2004 we undertook an internet-based survey across Canada that asked respondents to identify in percentage terms their total drinking water consumption according to one of three sources: tap water, bottled water, and home-filtered water (either some type of container or an in-tap filter device). In this paper we investigate the factors that influence these choices and whether choosing to either filter or purchase water is linked to perceptions of health concerns with respect to tap water. A series of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests suggest that the presence of children in a household and self-reported concern that tap water causes health problems lead to significantly greater consumption of bottled water or filtered water and significantly less tap water consumption. In order to examine these choices in a multivariate framework, we estimate a multinomial logit model. Factors yielding higher probabilities of a respondent being primarily a bottled water drinker (relative to the choice of tap water) include: higher income, unpleasant taste experiences with tap water, non-French-speaking, and being a male with children in one's household. Similar factors yield higher probabilities of a respondent being primarily a filtered tap water drinker. An important finding is that two key variables linking a person's health perceptions regarding tap water quality are significant factors leading to the choice of either filtered tap water or bottled water over tap water. They are: a variable showing the degree of health concerns a respondent has with respect to tap water and a second variable indicating whether the respondent believes bottled water is safer than tap water.

  17. Performance Evaluation of the International Space Station Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Mackey, Jeff; Hall, Nancy; Frankenfield, Bruce; Harpster, George; May, Rochelle; Mudawar, Issam; Kharangate, Chirag R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A ground-based experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments is built in support of the development of the long duration Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) destined for operation on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR). We performed tests with the condensation test module oriented horizontally and vertically. Using FC-72 as the test fluid and water as the cooling fluid, we evaluated the operational characteristics of the condensation module and generated ground based data encompassing the range of parameters of interest to the condensation experiment to be performed on the ISS. During this testing, we also evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, and the heat loss from different components. In this presentation, we discuss representative results of performance testing of the FBCE flow loop. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is scheduled for flight in 2019.

  18. Physiological Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE) .04 Feasibility Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Hubert W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this feasibility study was to investigate the environmental/treatment stresses in the proposed PARE.04 experiments in a ground based study to determine if these stresses were of sufficient magnitude to compromise the planned shuttle experiments. Eighty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were received on day 2 (day l equals day of vaginal plug) of gestation (G2) and on G7 60 were laparotomized to determine the condition of pregnancy and allow assignment to test groups. The five test groups (N equals 10 each group) were as follows: Group 1, nominal flight; Group 2, laparotomy control; Group 3, hysterectomy control; Group 4, vivarium control; Group 5, caesarean delivery. On G17, groups 1, 2, and 5 were subjected to unilateral hysterectomy to obtain fetuses for evaluation. There was no difference in fetal crown-rump length, fetal weight, or placental weight in any of the test groups subjected to unilateral hysterectomy at G17. Animals were allowed to go to term and animals in each group delivered between the morning of G22 and the afternoon of G23. Rats assigned to Group 5 began delivering vaginally prior to the designated time for caesarean section, thus only 2 animals in this group were delivered by caesarean section. After delivery, a blood sample was taken from the dam, and they were euthanized and the thymus and adrenal glands weighed. Pups from experimental dams were tattooed for identification, the anogenital distance of male pups was photographed for later measurement, and all pups placed with foster dams and litter sizes were standardized to 10. On day 7, all pups were euthanized, and pup adrenal glands and thymus weighed. Laparotomy at G7 with or without unilateral hysterectomy at G17, had no effect on pregnancy maintenance or vaginal delivery. There was no difference in maternal adrenal or thymus weights or plasma levels of catecholamines, estradiol, progesterone, or corticosterone. Likewise, there was no difference in the anogenital distance

  19. CSEP Testing Center and the first results of the earthquake forecast testing experiment in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Schorlemmer, D.; Euchner, F.; Nanjo, K. Z.; Jordan, T. H.

    2012-08-01

    Major objectives of the Japanese earthquake prediction research program for the period 2009-2013 are to create earthquake forecasting models and begin the prospective testing of these models against recorded seismicity. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo has joined an international partnership to create a Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Here, we describe a new infrastructure for developing and evaluating forecasting models—the CSEP Japan Testing Center—as well as some preliminary testing results. On 1 November 2009, the Testing Center started a prospective and competitive earthquake predictability experiment using the seismically active and well-instrumented region of Japan as a natural laboratory.

  20. Feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment for vanadium alloys in the advanced test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Matsui, H. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment (DHCE) for vanadium alloys in the water-cooled Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being investigated as part of the U.S./Monbusho collaboration. Preliminary findings suggest that such an experiment is feasible, with certain constraints. Creating a suitable irradiation position in the ATR, designing an effective thermal neutron filter, incorporating thermocouples for limited specimen temperature monitoring, and handling of tritium during various phases of the assembly and reactor operation all appear to be feasible. An issue that would require special attention, however, is tritium permeation loss through the capsule wall at the higher design temperatures (>{approx}600{degrees}C). If permeation is excessive, the reduced amount of tritium entering the test specimens would limit the helium generation rates in them. At the lower design temperatures (<{approx}425{degrees}C), sodium, instead of lithium, may have to be used as the bond material to overcome the tritium solubility limitation.

  1. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, D; Rovere, M; Gallo, P

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  2. Experiences with a Focus on Test in Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2008-01-01

    quality high. This chapter discusses some concrete teaching guidelines that help in keeping the learning focus on quality and reports on our experiences in applying them. It furthermore presents an important observation relating to the use of test-driven development as a process that focus on high quality......Software of high quality is a major concern in teaching programming: simply making any program that fulfills the requirements is not enough. Yet the way teachers often state exercises tends to make the students focus more on functionality requirements and deadlines than on keeping the program...... Science Curriculum!. In Proceedings of 8th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2003....

  3. Experiment data report for LOFT nonnuclear Test L1-4. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batt, D. L.

    1977-07-01

    Test L1-4 was the fourth in a series of five nonnuclear isothermal blowdown tests conducted by the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Test L1-4 was the first Nuclear Regulatory Commission standard problem (International Problem No. 5 and U.S. Problem No. 7) experiment conducted at LOFT. Data from this test will be compared with predictions generated by the standard problem participants. For this test the LOFT Facility was configured to simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a large pressurized water reactor resulting from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in a cold leg of the primary coolant system. A hydraulic core simulator assembly was installed in place of the nuclear core. The initial conditions in the primary coolant system intact loop were temperature at 279/sup 0/C, gauge pressure at 15.65 MPa, and intact loop flow at 268.4 kg/s. During system depressurization into a simulated containment, emergency core cooling water was injected into the primary coolant system cold leg to provide data on the effects of emergency core cooling on system thermalhydraulic response.

  4. Beam tests of the balloon-borne ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, H S; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Case, G; Chang, H; Ellison, S; Fazely, A; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Han, Y J; Isbert, J; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kwon, Y; Panasyuk, M Y; Panov, A; Price, B; Samsonov, G; Schmidt, W K H; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Sokolskaya, N; Stewart, M; Voronin, A; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Zatsepin, V

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurements from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide information about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATIC's design centers on an 18 radiation length (X0) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75λint graphite target. In September 1999, the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000–January 2001 and again in December 2002–January 2003, ATIC flew on the first two of a series of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 to 375 G...

  5. Beam Tests of the Balloon-Borne ATIC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganel, O.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, E. J.; Ampe, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Case, G.; Chang, J.; Ellison, S.; Fazely, A.; Gould, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurement from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide crucial hints about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATTIC'S design centers on an 18 radiation length (X(sub Omnicron)) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75 lambda(sub int) graphite target. In September 1999 the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator, within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000 - January 2001, ATIC flew on the first of a series of long duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam-tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 GeV to 375 GeV, as well as signal linearity and collection efficiency estimates. We show how these results compare with expectations based on simulations, and their expected impacts on mission performance.

  6. An apparatus to estimate the hydrodynamic coefficients of autonomous underwater vehicles using water tunnel testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, N M; Mostafapour, K; Bahadori, R

    2016-06-01

    Hydrodynamic coefficients or hydrodynamic derivatives of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) play an important role in their development and maneuverability. The most popular way of estimating their coefficients is to implement captive model tests such as straight line tests and planar motion mechanism (PMM) tests in the towing tanks. This paper aims to develop an apparatus based on planar experiments of water tunnel in order to estimate hydrodynamic derivatives due to AUVs' acceleration and velocity. The capability of implementing straight line tests and PMM ones using mechanical oscillators located in the downstream flow of the model is considered in the design procedure of the system. The hydrodynamic derivatives that resulted from the acceleration and velocity of the AUV model were estimated using the apparatus that we developed. Static and dynamics test results were compared for the similar derivatives. The findings showed that the system provided the basis for conducting static tests, i.e., straight-line and dynamic tests that included pure pitch and pure heave. By conducting such tests in a water tunnel, we were able to eliminate errors related to the time limitation of the tests and the effects of surface waves in the towing tank on AUVs with applications in the deep sea.

  7. 4D ERT Monitoring of Subsurface Water Pipe Leakage During a Controlled Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, C.; Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Meldrum, P.; Swift, R. T.; Uhlemann, S.; Gunn, D.; Dashwood, B.; Taxil, J.; Curioni, G.

    2016-12-01

    Locating and delineating leakage from subsurface pipelines is an important task for civil engineers. 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows changes in subsurface resistivity to be imaged at a high spatial and temporal resolution in a minimally invasive manner. It is therefore a promising tool to supplement conventional point-sensing techniques to monitor subsurface flow processes. To assess the efficacy of ERT for pipe leakage monitoring several controlled leak experiments were carried out at a test site in Blagdon, Bristol, UK. To simulate the leak, a plastic pipe with a hole was buried below a flat, grassed area at a depth of 0.7 m, representing a standard UK mains water pipe installation. The water table at the site lies well below the surface meaning that the experiment took entirely place in the vadose zone, where changes in resistivity are primarily sensitive to water content variations. The ERT array covered an area of 6.5m x 6.5m around the leak location. Data acquisition was carried out with the BGS PRIME (Proactive Infrastructure Monitoring and Evaluation) system, which facilitates remote scheduling and autonomous ERT data collection and transmission. To obtain the resistivity changes of the subsurface a 4D inversion was carried out using a Gauss-Newton approach with spatial and temporal smoothness constraints. We were able to reliably observe the onset, spread and cessation of the leakage. Measurements from in-situ soil sensors at several depths above and below the leak complemented the ERT data and allowed us to assess their reliability and directly relate them to hydrogeological processes. Moreover, through experimental tests with soil samples from the test area, a Waxman-Smits relation was obtained to directly convert the changes in electrical resistivity to gravimetric soil moisture content. With future experiments on the test site more work is planned towards survey optimization, automated processing and tracking of leakage plumes.

  8. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  9. Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner.

  10. Installing Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment Test Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Jay Apt installs Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM0 test cell on STS-79. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/John Space Center).

  11. Supercritical water loop design for corrosion and water chemistry tests under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzickova, Mariana; Hajek, Petr; Vsolak, Rudolf; Kysela, Jan [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Reactor Services Division, Husinec (Czech Republic); Smida, Stepan [H and D Engineering, Praha (Czech Republic); Petr, Jan [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2008-03-15

    An experimental loop operating with water at supercritical conditions (25MPa, 600 .deg. C in the test section) is designed for operation in the research reactor LVR-15 in UJV Rez, Czech Republic. The loop should serve as an experimental facility for corrosion tests of materials for in-core as well as out-of-core structures, for testing and optimization of suitable water chemistry for a future HPLWR and for studies of radiolysis of water at supercritical conditions, which remains the domain where very few experimental data are available. At present, final necessary calculations (thermalhydraulic, neutronic, strength) are being performed on the irradiation channel, which is the most challenging part of the loop. The concept of the primary and auxiliary circuits has been completed. The design of the loop shall be finished in the course of the year 2007 to start the construction, out-of-pile testing to verify proper functioning of all systems and as such to be ready for in-pile tests by the end of the HPLWR Phase 2 European project by the end of 2009.

  12. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  13. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  14. Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.; Williford, Ralph E.

    2009-06-08

    Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.

  15. Time efficient detection of protein-ligand interactions with the polarization optimized PO-WaterLOGSY NMR experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossert, Alvar D; Henry, Christelle; Blommers, Marcel J J; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Fernández, César

    2009-04-01

    The identification of compounds that bind to a protein of interest is of central importance in contemporary drug research. For screening of compound libraries, NMR techniques are widely used, in particular the Water-Ligand Observed via Gradient SpectroscopY (WaterLOGSY) experiment. Here we present an optimized experiment, the polarization optimized WaterLOGSY (PO-WaterLOGSY). Based on a water flip-back strategy in conjunction with model calculations and numerical simulations, the PO-WaterLOGSY is optimized for water polarization recovery. Compared to a standard setup with the conventional WaterLOGSY, time consuming relaxation delays have been considerably shortened and can even be omitted through this approach. Furthermore, the robustness of the pulse sequence in an industrial setup was increased by the use of hard pulse trains for selective water excitation and water suppression. The PO-WaterLOGSY thus yields increased time efficiency by factor of 3-5 when compared with previously published schemes. These time savings have a substantial impact in drug discovery, since significantly larger compound libraries can be tested in screening campaigns.

  16. Time efficient detection of protein-ligand interactions with the polarization optimized PO-WaterLOGSY NMR experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossert, Alvar D.; Henry, Christelle; Blommers, Marcel J. J.; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Fernandez, Cesar [Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research (Switzerland)], E-mail: cesar.fernandez@novartis.com

    2009-04-15

    The identification of compounds that bind to a protein of interest is of central importance in contemporary drug research. For screening of compound libraries, NMR techniques are widely used, in particular the Water-Ligand Observed via Gradient SpectroscopY (WaterLOGSY) experiment. Here we present an optimized experiment, the polarization optimized WaterLOGSY (PO-WaterLOGSY). Based on a water flip-back strategy in conjunction with model calculations and numerical simulations, the PO-WaterLOGSY is optimized for water polarization recovery. Compared to a standard setup with the conventional WaterLOGSY, time consuming relaxation delays have been considerably shortened and can even be omitted through this approach. Furthermore, the robustness of the pulse sequence in an industrial setup was increased by the use of hard pulse trains for selective water excitation and water suppression. The PO-WaterLOGSY thus yields increased time efficiency by factor of 3-5 when compared with previously published schemes. These time savings have a substantial impact in drug discovery, since significantly larger compound libraries can be tested in screening campaigns.

  17. Liquid Water Cloud Properties During the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzei P.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, George; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present retrievals of water cloud properties from the measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX) held between January 14 and February 6, 2013. The RSP was onboard the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft based at NASA Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility in Palmdale, California. The retrieved cloud characteristics include cloud optical thickness, effective radius and variance of cloud droplet size distribution derived using a parameter-fitting technique, as well as the complete droplet size distribution function obtained by means of Rainbow Fourier Transform. Multi-modal size distributions are decomposed into several modes and the respective effective radii and variances are computed. The methodology used to produce the retrieval dataset is illustrated on the examples of a marine stratocumulus deck off California coast and stratus/fog over California's Central Valley. In the latter case the observed bimodal droplet size distributions were attributed to two-layer cloud structure. All retrieval data are available online from NASA GISS website.

  18. Biofouling reduction for improvement of depth water filtration. Filter production and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztuk - Sikorska Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is a strategic material. Recycling is an important component of balancing its use. Deep-bed filtration is an inexpensive purification method and seems to be very effective in spreading water recovery. Good filter designs, such as the fibrous filter, have high separation efficiency, low resistance for the up-flowing fluid and high retention capacity. However, one of the substantial problems of this process is the biofouling of the filter. Biofouling causes clogging and greatly reduces the life of the filter. Therefore, the melt-blown technique was used for the formation of novel antibacterial fibrous filters. Such filters are made of polypropylene composites with zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles on the fiber surface. These components act as inhibitors of bacterial growth in the filter and were tested in laboratory and full scale experiments. Antibacterial/bacteriostatic tests were performed on Petri dishes with E. coli and B. subtilis. Full scale experiments were performed on natural river water, which contained abiotic particles and mutualistic bacteria. The filter performance at industrial scale conditions was measured using a particle counter, a flow cytometer and a confocal microscope. The results of the experiments indicate a significant improvement of the composite filter performance compared to the regular fibrous filter. The differences were mostly due to a reduction in the biofouling effect.

  19. Improved biostability assessment of drinking water with a suite of test methods at a water supply treating eutrophic lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Martijn, Bram; Schaap, Peter G; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J

    2015-12-15

    Assessment of drinking-water biostability is generally based on measuring bacterial growth in short-term batch tests. However, microbial growth in the distribution system is affected by multiple interactions between water, biofilms and sediments. Therefore a diversity of test methods was applied to characterize the biostability of drinking water distributed without disinfectant residual at a surface-water supply. This drinking water complied with the standards for the heterotrophic plate count and coliforms, but aeromonads periodically exceeded the regulatory limit (1000 CFU 100 mL(-1)). Compounds promoting growth of the biopolymer-utilizing Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3 accounted for c. 21% of the easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration (17 ± 2 μg C L(-1)) determined by growth of pure cultures in the water after granular activated-carbon filtration (GACF). Growth of the indigenous bacteria measured as adenosine tri-phosphate in water samples incubated at 25 °C confirmed the low AOC in the GACF but revealed the presence of compounds promoting growth after more than one week of incubation. Furthermore, the concentration of particulate organic carbon in the GACF (83 ± 42 μg C L(-1), including 65% carbohydrates) exceeded the AOC concentration. The increased biomass accumulation rate in the continuous biofouling monitor (CBM) at the distribution system reservoir demonstrated the presence of easily biodegradable by-products related to ClO2 dosage to the GACF and in the CBM at 42 km from the treatment plant an iron-associated biomass accumulation was observed. The various methods applied thus distinguished between easily assimilable compounds, biopolymers, slowly biodegradable compounds and biomass-accumulation potential, providing an improved assessment of the biostability of the water. Regrowth of aeromonads may be related to biomass-turnover processes in the distribution system, but establishment of quantitative relationships is needed for

  20. Can water quality of tubewells be assessed without chemical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants found in aquifers on a global scale. The screening of tubewells for arsenic has helped many people to avoid drinking from highly polluted wells in the Bengal Delta (West Bengal and Bangladesh). However, there are still many millions of tubewells in Bangladesh yet to be tested, and a substantial proportion of these are likely to contain excessive arsenic. Due to the level of poverty and lack of infrastructure, it is unlikely that the rest of the tubewells will be tested quickly. However, water quality assessment without needing a chemical testing may be helpful in this case. Studies have found that qualitative factors, such as staining in the tubewell basement and/or on utensils, can indicate subsurface geology and water quality. The science behind this staining is well established, red staining is associated with iron reduction leading to release of arsenic whilst black staining is associated with manganese reduction (any release of arsenic due to manganese reduction is sorbed back on the, yet to be reduced, iron), whereas mixed staining may indicate overlapping manganese and iron reduction at the tubewell screen. Reduction is not uniform everywhere and hence chemical water quality including dissolved arsenic varies from place to place. This is why coupling existing tubewell arsenic information with user derived staining data could be useful in predicting the arsenic status at a particular site. Using well location, depth, along with colour of staining, an assessment of both good (nutrients) and bad (toxins and pathogens) substances in the tubewell could be provided. Social-network technology, combined with increasing use of smartphones, provides a powerful opportunity for both sharing and providing feedback to the user. Here we outline how a simple digital application can couple the reception both qualitative and quantitative tubewell data into a centralised interactive database and provide manipulated feedback to an

  1. Precision tests of gravitation: Liquid-supported torsion balance experiments and a tower experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Martin Patrick

    The use of a liquid-supported torsion balance (LSTB) in precision tests of gravity is explored. The LSTB uses water at its maximum density point of 4 C for support, and an electrostatic array for the centering force and the linear restoring torque. An optical detection system is used to measure the angular displacement. The LSTB holds 12 test masses arranged in a ring--6 made of copper, 6 made of lead. A proposed new intermediate-range (10 m-1000 m) composition-dependent force was tested using the local mass inhomogeneity of the sub-basement laboratory as the source. Attempts at improving the limits of a possible breakdown of the weak equivalence principle (universal free fall) at longer ranges, using the gravitational field of the sun as the source, were also made using two approaches. One approach was to look for a 24 h period in the torque on the balance due to a differing free fall rate between lead and copper. The other approach is similar except that the balance was rotated with period of 6 h in an attempt to remove the effect of other 24 h period disturbances on the balance. All results were consistent with Newtonian gravity with the accuracy limited by gravity multipole couplings, tilts, and temperature effects. A test of the inverse-square law of gravity was also undertaken on a 300 m tower at Erie, CO. This test is sensitive to the strength and range of a finite-range (Yukawa) force. Surface gravity data was used to predict the Newtonian gravity at eight heights on the tower. The measurements of gravity on the tower were done with LaCoste and Romberg relative gravimeters. The differences between the measured and the predicted values had an rms value of 10 microGal with the value at the 300 m height being 10 plus or minus microGal.

  2. A regional and multi-faceted approach to postgraduate water education - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale and presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work. Second, it presents preliminary findings and conclusions that the regional approach presented by WaterNet did make a contribution to the capacity needs of the region both in terms of management and research capacity. Third, it draws two generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson one pertains to the importance of legitimate ownership and an accountability structure for network effectiveness. Lesson two is related to the financial and intellectual resources required to jointly developing educational programmes through shared experience.

  3. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 on predator avoidance behaviour by reef fishes is not altered by experimental test water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Munday

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pioneering studies into the effects of elevated CO2 on the behaviour of reef fishes often tested high-CO2 reared fish using control water in the test arena. While subsequent studies using rearing treatment water (control or high CO2 in the test arena have confirmed the effects of high CO2 on a range of reef fish behaviours, a further investigation into the use of different test water in the experimental arena is warranted. Here, we used a fully factorial design to test the effect of rearing treatment water (control or high CO2 and experimental test water (control or high CO2 on antipredator responses of larval reef fishes. We tested antipredator behaviour in larval clownfish Amphiprion percula and ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis, two species that have been used in previous high CO2 experiments. Specifically, we tested if: (1 using control or high CO2 water in a two channel flume influenced the response of larval clownfish to predator odour; and (2 using control or high CO2 water in the test arena influenced the escape response of larval damselfish to a startle stimulus. Finally, (3 because the effects of high CO2 on fish behaviour appear to be caused by altered function of the GABA-A neurotransmitter we tested if antipredator behaviours were restored in clownfish treated with a GABA antagonist (gabazine in high CO2 water. Larval clownfish reared from hatching in control water (496 µatm strongly avoided predator cue whereas larval clownfish reared from hatching in high CO2 (1,022 µatm were attracted to the predator cue, as has been reported in previous studies. There was no effect on fish responses of using either control or high CO2 water in the flume. Larval damselfish reared for four days in high CO2 (1,051 µatm exhibited a slower response to a startle stimulus and slower escape speed compared with fish reared in control conditions (464 µatm. There was no effect of test water on escape responses. Treatment of high-CO2 reared

  5. Experiments and Modeling to Support Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Disposition of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) remains a continuing technical and sociopolitical challenge. We define HGNW as the combination of both heat generating defense high level waste (DHLW) and civilian spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Numerous concepts for HGNW management have been proposed and examined internationally, including an extensive focus on geologic disposal (c.f. Brunnengräber et al., 2013). One type of proposed geologic material is salt, so chosen because of its viscoplastic deformation that causes self-repair of damage or deformation induced in the salt by waste emplacement activities (Hansen and Leigh, 2011). Salt as a repository material has been tested at several sites around the world, notably the Morsleben facility in Germany (c.f. Fahland and Heusermann, 2013; Wollrath et al., 2014; Fahland et al., 2015) and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. Evaluating the technical feasibility of a HGNW repository in salt is an ongoing process involving experiments and numerical modeling of many processes at many facilities.

  6. Physiological Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE) .04 feasibility test 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Hubert W.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this feasibility study was to subject pregnant rats of the same age, strain, and size that will be utilized in a shuttle flight experiment to all flight conditions except the unique microgravity of space flight and determine the feasibility of the proposed experimental design to meet the experimental objectives. The study utilized facilities at NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA to subject the rats to the gravitational stresses of a simulated shuttle launch and simulated shuttle landing. One hundred pregnant rats were received on gestation day (G) 2 (day 1 = day of vaginal sperm) and on G7, eighty rats were laparotomized to determine the condition of pregnancy and allow assignment to test groups. The five test groups (N=10 each group) were as follows: Group 1, Nominal Flight; Group 2, Laparotomy Control; Group 3, Hysterectomy Control; Group 4, Vivarium Control; Group 5, Delayed Recovery. On G9, animals in groups 1,2,3, and 5 were subjected to a shuttle launch simulation. On G18, groups 1,2, and 3 were subjected to a shuttle landing simulation and on this same day groups 1 and 2 were subjected to unilateral hysterectomy to obtain fetuses and placentas for evaluation. Fetal crown-rump length and fetal weight of the Nominal Flight group was significantly less than the Laparotomy Control group, but placentas were similar. On G20, group 5 was subjected to a shuttle landing simulation and on this day this group received a unilateral hysterectomy and fetuses and placentas were weighed. Animals in all groups were allowed to go to term and all animals delivered between 06:00 hours G22 and 18:00 hours G23. After delivery, a blood sample was taken from each experimental dam, and they were euthanized and the thymus and adrenal glands weighed. The thymus weight from all experimental group dams was decreased relative to the Vivarium Control group but adrenal glands and hormone values in dam plasma was similar in all groups. Pups from experimental

  7. Water management at abandoned flooded underground mines. Fundamentals, tracer tests, modelling, water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkersdorfer, Christian [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). AG Hydrogeologie und Umweltgeologie

    2008-07-01

    Switching off the pumps of a mine is one of the last steps in the lifetime of a surface or underground mine. As the water in the open space rises, the water might become contaminated with different pollutants and eventually start to flow in the open voids. This book addresses the processes related to mine abandonment from a hydrogeological perspective. After an introduction to the relevant hydrogeochemical processes the book gives detailed information about mine closure procedures. Based on in-situ measurements the hydrodynamic processes in a flooded mine are described and some of the mine closure flow models exemplified. As all investigations are based on precise data, the book gives some key issues of monitoring and sampling, especially flow monitoring. Then the book presents some new methodologies for conducting tracer tests in flooded mines and gives some hints to passive mine water treatment. At the end of the book thirteen well investigated case studies of flooded underground mine and mine water tracer tests are described and interpreted from a hydrodynamic point of view. (orig.)

  8. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

  9. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  10. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Some tests of wet tropospheric calibration for the CASA Uno Global Positioning System experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T. H.; Wolf, S. Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    Wet tropospheric path delay can be a major error source for Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic experiments. Strategies for minimizing this error are investigted using data from CASA Uno, the first major GPS experiment in Central and South America, where wet path delays may be both high and variable. Wet path delay calibration using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and residual delay estimation is compared with strategies where the entire wet path delay is estimated stochastically without prior calibration, using data from a 270-km test baseline in Costa Rica. Both approaches yield centimeter-level baseline repeatability and similar tropospheric estimates, suggesting that WVR calibration is not critical for obtaining high precision results with GPS in the CASA region.

  12. Wind and water tunnel testing of a morphing aquatic micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Robert; Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Aerial robots capable of locomotion in both air and water would enable novel mission profiles in complex environments, such as water sampling after floods or underwater structural inspections. The design of such a vehicle is challenging because it implies significant propulsive and structural design trade-offs for operation in both fluids. In this paper, we present a unique Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV), which uses a reconfigurable wing to dive into the water from flight, inspired by the plunge diving strategy of water diving birds in the family Sulidae. The vehicle's performance is investigated in wind and water tunnel experiments, from which we develop a planar trajectory model. This model is used to predict the dive behaviour of the AquaMAV, and investigate the efficacy of passive dives initiated by wing folding as a means of water entry. The paper also includes first field tests of the AquaMAV prototype where the folding wings are used to initiate a plunge dive.

  13. Preparations for deuterium--tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Aschroft, D.; Barnes, C.W.; Barnes, G.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bateman, G.; Batha, S.; Baylor, L.A.; Beer, M.; Bell, M.G.; Biglow, T.S.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bonoli, P.; Bretz, N.L.; Brunkhorst, C.; Budny, R.; Burgess, T.; Bush, H.; Bush, C.E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Carnevale, H.; Chang, Z.; Chen, L.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chrzanowski, J.; Collazo, I.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Cowley, S.; Cropper, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Daugert, R.; DeLooper, J.; Duong, H.; Dudek, L.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ernst, D.; Faunce, J.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredd, E.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G.Y.; Furth, H.P.; Garzotto, V.; Gentile, C.; Gettelfinger, G.; Gilbert, J.; Gioia, J.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Golian, T.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gouge, M.J.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hermann, H.W.; Hill, K.W.; Hirshman, S.; Hoffman, D.J.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R.A.; Hsuan, H.; Ja

    1994-05-01

    The final hardware modifications for tritium operation have been completed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. [bold 21], 1324 (1992)]. These activities include preparation of the tritium gas handling system, installation of additional neutron shielding, conversion of the toroidal field coil cooling system from water to a Fluorinert[sup TM] system, modification of the vacuum system to handle tritium, preparation, and testing of the neutral beam system for tritium operation and a final deuterium--deuterium (D--D) run to simulate expected deuterium--tritium (D--T) operation. Testing of the tritium system with low concentration tritium has successfully begun. Simulation of trace and high power D--T experiments using D--D have been performed. The physics objectives of D--T operation are production of [approx]10 MW of fusion power, evaluation of confinement, and heating in deuterium--tritium plasmas, evaluation of [alpha]-particle heating of electrons, and collective effects driven by alpha particles and testing of diagnostics for confined [alpha] particles. Experimental results and theoretical modeling in support of the D--T experiments are reviewed.

  14. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-03-02

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  15. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-01-01

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety. PMID:26950135

  16. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  17. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot

  18. Synthesis of water suitable as the MEPC.174(58) G8 influent water for testing ballast water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Fabio; Del Core, Marianna; Cappello, Simone; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Here, we describe the methodologies adopted to ensure that natural seawater, used as "influent water" for the land test, complies with the requirement that should be fulfilled to show the efficacy of the new ballast water treatment system (BWTS). The new BWTS was located on the coast of SW Sicily (Italy), and the sampled seawater showed that bacteria and plankton were two orders of magnitude lower than requested. Integrated approaches for preparation of massive cultures of bacteria (Alcanivorax borkumensis and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus), algae (Tetraselmis suecica), rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), and crustaceans (Artemia salina) suitable to ensure that 200 m(3) of water fulfilled the international guidelines of MEPC.174(58)G8 are here described. These methodologies allowed us to prepare the "influent water" in good agreement with guidelines and without specific problems arising from natural conditions (seasons, weather, etc.) which significantly affect the concentrations of organisms at sea. This approach also offered the chance to reliably run land tests once every two weeks.

  19. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-0042] RIN 1904-AC53 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct... energy efficiency of electric instantaneous water heaters. c. Storage Water Heaters With Very Large... Approach to Predicting the Energy Efficiency of Residential Water Heaters-- Testing of Gas Tankless and...

  20. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  1. Complexometric assay for water hardness: an interactive lab experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Water hardness is due to the presence of multivalent metal ions. In natural waters, the most abundant ions are calcium(II) and, in less amount, magnesium(II). Cations such as Fe(III), Al(III), Mn(II) and other metal ions also contribute to hardness, although their concentration level is much below the concentration level of calcium. Water hardness is a parameter of interest in water analysis, since it has adverse consequences in a great deal of human activities related to the use of this natu...

  2. Significance of the Easy-to-use Water Quality Checker for Participative Environmental Monitoring and Experience Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kikuchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pack Test is a series of products of Kyoritsu Chemical-Check Laboratory Cooperation, Japan. It is easy-to-use, anybody can use at anywhere, low cost, nontoxic, safe, and professional-use, onetime use ion-selective color metric water quality checker. The aim of this research is to assess, then next, discuss the significance of applications of this tool. In this order, NH4-Pack Test was selected as an example for the discussions; although there are more than 60 parameters can be detected by pack test such as, COD, Cl-, NO3-, phosphate, hardness, pH, heavy metals, etc.. As for field survey, Ion chromatography was used to measure ammonium concentration of river water in Jakarta. Then detection range of the NH4-Pack Test was compared to the data, and Indonesian and Malaysian national water quality standard. River water quality of Jakarta was weekly degraded at upstream area, but it was seriously degraded at downstream area (up to 5-10 NH4-N mg/L. As for ammonium concentration, obviously the detection range and step of Pack Test was sufficient to assess the ammonium concentrations of rive water in Jakarta. Of course Pack Test is very simplified tool, environmental water quality standard of ammonia for class I in Indonesia and Class I and II in Malaysia were difficult to evaluate. However, it was obviously applicable to check treated effluent and Class III to V water quality of Malaysian environmental standard. Consequently, it is suggested to adopt a double standard policy of water quality monitoring, such as combination of “easy-to-use simplified” and “conventional-accurate”. Because of low cost, and professional-convenient design, implementation of Pack Test will significant to empower on-site water quality monitoring in developing country, participative environmental awareness public programs, experience base environmental learning in schools, and other grass-rooted environmental activities.

  3. Why a regional approach to postgraduate water education makes sense - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale. This is because water has a transboundary dimension that poses delicate sharing questions, an approach that promotes a common understanding of what the real water-related issues are, results in future water specialists speaking a common (water) language, enhances mutual respect, and can thus be considered an investment in future peace. Second, it presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work and has an impact. Third, it draws three generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson 1: For a regional capacity building network to be effective, it must have a legitimate ownership structure and a clear mandate. Lesson 2: Organising water-related training opportunities at a regional and transboundary scale makes sense - not only because knowledge resources are scattered, but also because the topic - water - has a regional and transboundary scope. Lesson 3: Jointly developing educational programmes by sharing expertise and resources requires intense intellectual management and sufficient financial means.

  4. Using Economic Experiments to Test the Effect of Reliability Pricing and Self-Sizing on the Private Provision of a Public Good Results: The Case of Constructing Water Conveyance Infrastructure to Mitigate Water Quantity and Quality Concerns in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J.; Howitt, R. E.; Kroll, S.

    2016-12-01

    Public financing of public projects is becoming more difficult with growing political and financial pressure to reduce the size and scope of government action. Private provision is possible but is often doomed by under-provision. If however, market-like mechanisms could be incorporated into the solicitation of funds to finance the provision of the good, because, for example, the good is supplied stochastically and is divisible, then we would expect fewer incentives to free ride and greater efficiency in providing the public good. In a controlled computer-based economic experiment, we evaluate two market-like conditions (reliability pricing allocation and self-sizing of the good) that are designed to reduce under-provision. The results suggest that financing an infrastructure project when the delivery is allocated based on reliability pricing rather than historical allocation results in significantly greater price formation efficiency and less free riding whether the project is of a fixed size determined by external policy makers or determined endogenously by the sum of private contributions. When reliability pricing and self-sizing (endogenous) mechanism are used in combination free-riding is reduced the greatest among the tested treatments. Furthermore, and as expected, self-sizing when combined with historical allocations results in the worst level of free-riding. This setting for this treatment creates an incentive to undervalue willingness to pay since very low contributions still return positive earnings as long as enough contributions are raised for a single unit. If everyone perceives everyone else is undervaluing their contribution the incentive grows stronger and we see the greatest degree of free riding among the treatments. Lastly, the results from the analysis suggested that the rebate rule may have encouraged those with willingness to pay values less than the cost of the project to feel confident when contributing more than their willingness to pay and

  5. A water-cooling solution for PC-racks of the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vannerem, P

    2004-01-01

    With ever increasing power consumption and heat dissipation of todays CPUs, cooling of rack-mounted PCs is an issue for the future online farms of the LHC experiments. In order to investigate the viability of a water-cooling solution, a prototype PC-farm rack has been equipped with a commercially available retrofitted heat exchanger. The project has been carried out as a collaboration of the four LHC experiments and the PH-ESS group . This note reports on the results of a series of cooling and power measurements of the prototype rack with configurations of 30 to 48 PCs. The cooling performance of the rack-cooler is found to be adequate; it extracts the heat dissipated by the CPUs efficiently into the cooling water. Hence, the closed PC rack transfers almost no heat into the room. The measurements and the failure tests show that the rack-cooler concept is a viable solution for the future PC farms of the LHC experiments.

  6. Coping with drought: the experience of water sensitive urban design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the extent of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) activities in the George Municipality in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, and its impact on water consumption. The WSUD approach aims to influence design and planning from the moment rainwater is captured in dams, to when it is treated, ...

  7. Comparison of soil water potential sensors: a drying experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degre, Aurore; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Caldwell, Todd; Gooren, H.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    The soil water retention curve (WRC) plays a major role in a soil’s hydrodynamic behavior. Many measurement techniques are currently available for determining the WRC in the laboratory. Direct in situ WRC can be obtained from simultaneous soil moisture and water potential readings covering a wide

  8. Experiments in which oil, water and colloidal particles meet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the results are reported of experimental studies in which oil, water and colloidal particles meet. Colloidal particles are particles that have at least one characteristic length scale in the range between a few nanometers (nm) and several micrometers (μm). Mixtures of oil and water,

  9. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This... testing features of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES...

  10. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  11. NASA IN-STEP Cryo System Experiment flight test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S. C.; Sugimura, R. S.

    The Cryo System Experiment (CSE), a NASA In-Space Technology Experiments Program (IN-STEP) flight experiment, was flown on Space Shuttle Discovery (STS 63) in February 1995. The experiment was developed by Hughes Aircraft Company to validate in zero- g space a 65 K cryogenic system for focal planes, optics, instruments or other equipment (gamma-ray spectrometers and infrared and submillimetre imaging instruments) that requires continuous cryogenic cooling. The CSE is funded by the NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology's IN-STEP and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The overall goal of the CSE was to validate and characterize the on-orbit performance of the two thermal management technologies that comprise a hybrid cryogenic system. These thermal management technologies consist of (1) a second-generation long-life, low-vibration, Stirling-cycle 65 K cryocooler that was used to cool a simulated thermal energy storage device (TRP) and (2) a diode oxygen heat pipe thermal switch that enables physical separation between a cryogenic refrigerator and a TRP. All CSE experiment objectives and 100% of the experiment success criteria were achieved. The level of confidence provided by this flight experiment is an important NASA and Department of Defense (DoD) milestone prior to multi-year mission commitment. Presented are generic lessons learned from the system integration of cryocoolers for a flight experiment and the recorded zero- g performance of the Stirling cryocooler and the diode oxygen heat pipe.

  12. Tested Demonstrations. Brownian Motion: A Classroom Demonstration and Student Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirksey, H. Graden; Jones, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how video recordings of the Brownian motion of tiny particles may be made. Describes a classroom demonstration and cites a reported experiment designed to show the random nature of Brownian motion. Suggests a student experiment to discover the distance a tiny particle travels as a function of time. (MVL)

  13. Modeling and experiments on the drive characteristics of high-strength water hydraulic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengmeng; Hou, Jiaoyi; Ning, Dayong; Gong, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yongjun

    2017-05-01

    Fluidic artificial muscles are popular in robotics and function as biomimetic actuators. Their pneumatic version has been widely investigated. A novel water hydraulic artificial muscle (WHAM) with high strength is developed in this study. WHAMs can be applied to underwater manipulators widely used in ocean development because of their environment-friendly characteristics, high force-to-weight ratio, and good bio-imitability. Therefore, the strength of WHAMs has been improved to fit the requirements of underwater environments and the work pressure of water hydraulic components. However, understanding the mechanical behaviors of WHAMs is necessary because WHAMs use work media and pressure control that are different from those used by pneumatic artificial muscles. This paper presents the static and dynamic characteristics of the WHAM system, including the water hydraulic pressure control circuit. A test system is designed and built to analyze the drive characteristics of the developed WHAM. The theoretical relationships among the amount of contraction, pressure, and output drawing force of the WHAM are tested and verified. A linearized transfer function is proposed, and the dynamic characteristics of the WHAM are investigated through simulation and inertia load experiments. Simulation results agree with the experimental results and show that the proposed model can be applied to the control of WHAM actuators.

  14. Womens experiences of HIV testing and counselling in the labour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tested to update their status. Four women were found HIV-positive while 6 were HIVnegative. The primary theme was that women appreciated and accepted HIV testing and counseling. Testing was accepted as a necessary step to protect the ...

  15. Improved Kennedy-Thorndike experiment to test special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hils, Dieter; Hall, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    A modern version of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment was carried out by searching for sidereal variations between the frequency of a laser locked to an I2 reference line and a laser locked to the resonance frequency of a highly stable cavity. No variations were found at the level of 2 x 10 to the -12th. This represents a 300-fold improvement over the original Kennedy-Thorndike experiment and allows the Lorentz transformations to be deduced entirely from experiment at an accuracy level of 70 ppm.

  16. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH ATOPY PATCH TESTS WITH AEROALLERGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of atopy patch testing with aeroallergens as a diagnostic method in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Method: The complet dermatological and allergological examinations were performed in 29 patients; 10 men, 19 women with the average age of 27.8 years, min. 17, max. 57 years; with the median SCORAD 24.2 points, s.d. 13.3 points. Wormwood, grass, dog dander, cat dander, dermatophagoides pharinae, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and birch pollen were examined in diagnostic procedures. Skin prick tests, specific IgE were examined; the atopy patch tests were performed with aeroallergens for skin prick tests in concentration 1× skin prick tests. Results: Specific IgE and skin prick tests to one or more tested aeroallergens were positive altogether in 27 patients; atopy patch tests were positive only in one of these patients. Conclusion: For atopy patch testing with aeroallergens the concentration of 1× skin prick tests is low to confirme the eczematic reaction in patients suffering from allergy to inhallant allergens.

  17. Experience of 12 kA / 16 V SMPS during the HTS Current Leads Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, P.; Christian, D.; Panchal, R.; Sonara, D.; Purwar, G.; Garg, A.; Nimavat, H.; Singh, G.; Patel, J.; Tanna, V.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    As a part of up gradation plans in SST-1 Tokamak, one pair of 3.3 kA rated prototype hybrid current leads were developed using Di-BSCCO as High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) and the copper heat exchanger. In order to validate the manufacturing procedure prior to go for series production of such current leads, it was recommended to test these current leads using dedicated and very reliable DC switch mode power supply (SMPS). As part of test facility, 12 kA, 16 VDC programmable SMPS was successfully installed, commissioned and tested. This power supply has special features such as modularity, N+1 redundancy, very low ripple voltage, precise current measurements with Direct Current Current Transformer, CC/CV modes with auto-crossover and auto-sequence programming. As a part of acceptance of this converter, A 5.8 mΩ water-cooled resistive dummy load and PLC based SCADA system is designed, developed for commissioning of power supply. The same power supply was used for the testing of the prototype HTS current leads. The paper describes the salient features and experience of state-of-art of power supply and results obtained from this converter during the HTS current leads test.

  18. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 tests S-05-6 and S-05-7 (alternate ECC injection tests). [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, E. M.; Sackett, K. E.

    1977-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Tests S-05-6 and S-05-7 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Tests S-05-6 and S-05-7 were conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 550/sup 0/F and 2253 psia and 551/sup 0/F, respectively, to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. The specific objective for these tests was to investigate the effectiveness of low pressure injection system (LPIS) coolant injection into the upper plenum when combined with cold leg intact loop injection.

  19. Five years experience of photopatch testing in 50 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Pramila

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Photopatch testing with Scandinavian photopatch series was done in 50 patients with photodermatitis. The frequent photosensitisers were musk ambrette, chlorpromazine, promethazine, and PABA.

  20. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  1. Womens experiences of HIV testing and counselling in the labour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. HIV counseling and testing during labour can be emotional, but is important because it allows mothers and babies to receive PMTCT prophylaxis if previous identification of HIV infection has not occurred. The study explores how HIV testing and counseling during early labour affects women. Methodology.

  2. The distribution of tritium between water and suspended matter in a laboratory experiment exposing sediment to tritiated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

    2013-02-01

    Following recent suggestions regarding the strong affinity of tritiated water for organic matter in suspended particulates and sediments, two equilibration experiments between sediment organic matter (dry and fresh) and tritiated water were performed to look for potential tritium bio-concentration. The T/H ratios measured at the end of both experiments are lower in the sediment organic matter than in the water, indicating that only a fraction of the hydrogen pool (between 14% and 20%) within the sediment equilibrated with the tritiated water. These results are consistent with the widely used concept of exchangeable and non-exchangeable tritium pools in organic matter and show no sign of tritium bio-accumulation in the sediment relative to water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics (DWOA): The Philippine Sea, OBSANP, and THAAW Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Philippine Sea. During 2009–2011 three experiments were conducted to study deep- water acoustic propagation and ambient noise in the oceanographically and...instrumented with a Teledyne Webb Research (TWR) swept-frequency source and a prototype DVLA receiver. The PhilSea10 experiment embedded a water ...therefore temperature and salinity , along the ray paths. Over the approximately one- year experiment , the state estimate was able to match the travel times

  4. Blood Donor Test-Seeking Motivation and Prior HIV Testing Experiences in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Blatyta, Paula F; Santos, Fernanda M; Montebello, Sandra; Esposti, Sandra P D; Hangai, Fatima N; Salles, Nanci Alves; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester C; McFarland, Willi; Gonçalez, Thelma T

    2015-09-01

    HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities and 2.7 % acknowledged getting tested for HIV as the primary reason for donating. Dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience was reported by 2.5 % of donors. Current test-seeking motivation was associated with dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience and testing at a public alternative facility. The most common reasons for dissatisfaction were too long of a wait to get tested and for results, counseling was too long, lack of privacy, and low confidence in the equipment and accuracy of the test. Lack of awareness about the availability of free and confidential public HIV testing services as well as dissatisfaction with past HIV testing and counseling experiences motivate some individuals to test at blood banks. Test-seeking behavior among blood donors may be best addressed by improving alternative testing programs, particularly with respect to time delays, privacy and perceptions about test accuracy. Educational campaigns on safe blood donation and HIV testing for diagnosis, risk counseling and referral to care are also needed for the general public and for health care providers.

  5. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test: An efficient alternative to exact binomial testing for Clean Water Act 303(d) evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Connie; Gribble, Matthew O; Bartroff, Jay; Bay, Steven M; Goldstein, Larry

    2017-05-01

    The United States's Clean Water Act stipulates in section 303(d) that states must identify impaired water bodies for which total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) of pollution inputs into water bodies are developed. Decision-making procedures about how to list, or delist, water bodies as impaired, or not, per Clean Water Act 303(d) differ across states. In states such as California, whether or not a particular monitoring sample suggests that water quality is impaired can be regarded as a binary outcome variable, and California's current regulatory framework invokes a version of the exact binomial test to consolidate evidence across samples and assess whether the overall water body complies with the Clean Water Act. Here, we contrast the performance of California's exact binomial test with one potential alternative, the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). The SPRT uses a sequential testing framework, testing samples as they become available and evaluating evidence as it emerges, rather than measuring all the samples and calculating a test statistic at the end of the data collection process. Through simulations and theoretical derivations, we demonstrate that the SPRT on average requires fewer samples to be measured to have comparable Type I and Type II error rates as the current fixed-sample binomial test. Policymakers might consider efficient alternatives such as SPRT to current procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Troponin Testing in the Emergency Department: Real world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Maskari

    2018-01-01

    excluded. Results: A total of 4,845 patients attended the emergency department during the study period; of these, troponin tests were ordered for 588 patients. The majority of the patients had negative troponin test results (81.3%. Chest pain, palpitations and breathlessness were the most common presenting complaints for those with positive troponin results. However, 41.8% of patients did not have any cardiac symptoms. Individuals with positive troponin tests had a significantly longer LOS compared to those with negative tests (mean: three versus one day; P = 0.001. In total, only 28.2% of those with positive troponin test results had final diagnoses associated with a cardiac condition, such as heart failure, an acute coronary syndrome (ACS, atrial fibrillation or other types of arrhythmia. Conclusion: A positive troponin test was associated with increased LOS; however, only a small proportion of these patients had a final diagnosis associated with a cardiac condition. Guidelines should be provided to ensure that troponin testing is performed only in cases where an ACS is suspected.

  7. Guidance simulation and test support for differential GPS flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, G. J.; Loomis, P. V. W.; Cabak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Three separate tasks which supported the test preparation, test operations, and post test analysis of the NASA Ames flight test evaluation of the differential Global Positioning System (GPS) are presented. Task 1 consisted of a navigation filter design, coding, and testing to optimally make use of GPS in a differential mode. The filter can be configured to accept inputs from external censors such as an accelerometer and a barometric or radar altimeter. The filter runs in real time onboard a NASA helicopter. It processes raw pseudo and delta range measurements from a single channel sequential GPS receiver. The Kalman filter software interfaces are described in detail, followed by a description of the filter algorithm, including the basic propagation and measurement update equations. The performance during flight tests is reviewed and discussed. Task 2 describes a refinement performed on the lateral and vertical steering algorithms developed on a previous contract. The refinements include modification of the internal logic to allow more diverse inflight initialization procedures, further data smoothing and compensation for system induced time delays. Task 3 describes the TAU Corp participation in the analysis of the real time Kalman navigation filter. The performance was compared to that of the Z-set filter in flight and to the laser tracker position data during post test analysis. This analysis allowed a more optimum selection of the parameters of the filter.

  8. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-06-01

    In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

  9. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  10. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackerbauer, Johann [Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: wackerbauer@ifo.de

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term 'privatisation' relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term 'liberalisation' implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term 'liberalisation' in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to

  11. MARINET experiment KNSWING testing an I-Beam OWC attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; Bingham, Harry B.

    2015-01-01

    energy converter with 20 Oscillating Water Column (OWC) chambers on each side. The damping applied to each chamber by the Power Take Off (PTO) is modeled by forcing the air through a hole with an area of about 1.3% of the chamber water surface area.The results in irregular wave conditions shows...... that the converter can absorb more than 2.5. MW of wave power that in wave conditions with significant wave heights of 5. m. A capture width ratio between 20% and 25% was measured in the most frequent wave conditions with average periods between 5 and 7. s with significant wave height of 2 m. In short crested waves...

  12. Reproducing Black’s experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water

    OpenAIRE

    Güémez, Júlio; Fiolhais, Carlos; Fiolhais, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after Black. The depression of the freezing point can hardly be fitted in the framework of the caloric theory of heat,...

  13. Design and experiment of pneumatic EPB test platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianshi GONG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the accuracy and reliability of the function and control strategy of the pneumatic electronic parking brake(EPB system, a test platform of the pneumatic EPB system is designed. The working principle of the air pressure type EPB test platform is introduced, the composition of the platform is confirmed, including air press storage module, braking module, man-machine interaction module, signal imitation module, data collection module, and fault diagnosis module, and the function of rapid charging and discharging of the pneumatic EPB system is carried out. The results show that, compared with manual control valve, the air pressure EPB braking process is more sensitive, and the test platform can meet the test requirements of the pneumatic electronic brake system.

  14. Liquid water infiltration into a layered snowpack: evaluation of a 3-D water transport model with laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Hiroyuki; Avanzi, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Satoru

    2017-11-01

    The heterogeneous movement of liquid water through the snowpack during precipitation and snowmelt leads to complex liquid water distributions that are important for avalanche and runoff forecasting. We reproduced the formation of capillary barriers and the development of preferential flow through snow using a three-dimensional water transport model, which was then validated using laboratory experiments of liquid water infiltration into layered, initially dry snow. Three-dimensional simulations assumed the same column shape and size, grain size, snow density, and water input rate as the laboratory experiments. Model evaluation focused on the timing of water movement, thickness of the upper layer affected by ponding, water content profiles and wet snow fraction. Simulation results showed that the model reconstructs relevant features of capillary barriers, including ponding in the upper layer, preferential infiltration far from the interface, and the timing of liquid water arrival at the snow base. In contrast, the area of preferential flow paths was usually underestimated and consequently the averaged water content in areas characterized by preferential flow paths was also underestimated. Improving the representation of preferential infiltration into initially dry snow is necessary to reproduce the transition from a dry-snow-dominant condition to a wet-snow-dominant one, especially in long-period simulations.

  15. Brake System Analysis, Reliability Testing And Control Using Bench Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z.; Yang, B.

    1997-01-01

    In this project, the authors investigated the dynamics and reliability of a brake control system using a test bench which is a Lincoln Town Car brake system. The objectives of the project are to: 1) experimentally characterize the brake system; 2) obtain good nonlinear models of the brake system; 3) perform reliability analysis of the brake control system; and, 4) develop algorithms for brake malfunction detection and brake reliability enhancement. By using the brake test bench, the dynamic c...

  16. New solutions for large scale functional tests in the WLCG infrastructure with SAM/Nagios: the experiments experience

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Di Girolamo, A; Kakkar, A; Litmaath, M; Magini, N; Negri, G; Ramachandran, S; Roiser, S; Saiz, P; Saiz Santos, M D; Sarkar, B; Schovancova, J; Sciabà, A; Wakankar, A

    2012-01-01

    Since several years the LHC experiments rely on the WLCG Service Availability Monitoring framework (SAM) to run functional tests on their distributed computing systems. The SAM tests have become an essential tool to measure the reliability of the Grid infrastructure and to ensure reliable computing operations, both for the sites and the experiments. Recently the old SAM framework was replaced with a completely new system based on Nagios and ActiveMQ to better support the transition to EGI and to its more distributed infrastructure support model and to implement several scalability and functionality enhancements. This required all LHC experiments and the WLCG support teams to migrate their tests, to acquire expertise on the new system, to validate the new availability and reliability computations and to adopt new visualisation tools. In this contribution we describe in detail the current state of the art of functional testing in WLCG: how the experiments use the new SAM/Nagios framework, the advanced functiona...

  17. Mesocosm experiments for evaluating the biological efficacy of ozone treatment of marine ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrins, Jake C; Cordell, Jeffery R; Ferm, Nissa C; Grocock, Jaime L; Herwig, Russell P

    2006-12-01

    Ballast water is a major pathway for the transfer of non-indigenous species in aquatic environments. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of ozone to reduce the numbers of a spectrum of marine organisms collected from Puget Sound, Washington in replicated mesocosm (280 l) experiments, and estimate the minimum ozone concentrations as measured by total residual oxidant (TRO) required to reduce organism densities. Ozone treatment was effective in removing bacteria, phytoplankton, and mesozooplankton with initial TRO concentrations of 2-5 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity and cumulative mortality. TRO decay allowed bacteria populations to multiply when TRO levels fell below 0.5-1.0 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations were rapidly reduced by ozone treatment and did not increase in any treatments or controls because of lack of light. Overall mesozooplankton viability was rapidly reduced by 90-99% in treatment TRO levels above 1.85 mg l(-1) as Br(2). Our study outlines novel protocols that can be used for testing different potential ballast water treatment systems in replicated and controlled mesocosm experiments.

  18. Controls of the water and sediment fluxes on alluvial fans morphology: theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, Laure; Delorme, Pauline; Métivier, François; Lajeunesse, Eric; Devauchelle, Olivier; Barrier, Laurie

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans are major sedimentary bodies that make the transition between the reliefs in erosion and the sedimentary basins, where deposition occurs. Understanding their dynamics of formation and evolution is a great problem of sediment transport, which leads to a better understanding of the control exerted by the water and sediment fluxes on the fan morphology. At the cost of several simplifications, we propose a totally predictive model for one-dimensional fans composed by one grain size and built under laminar flow. In this simplified context, it is possible to propose a unique relationship between the water flux, the sediment flux, the grain size and the slope of the fan. The theory is validated by one-dimension experiments, performed with glass beads and glycerine: the fan grows quasi-statically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. In addition, at leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. These main predictions are then successfully tested in two-dimensional experiments.

  19. De baten van wonen aan water: Een internet keuze experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Hess, S.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Het doel van de hier gepresenteerde studie is om nader onderzoek te doen naar de waarde van wonen aan water en specifiek te kijken naar de toegevoegde waarde van ecologische waterkwaliteit en natuurvriendelijke oevers in huizenprijzen. Hiertoe is een internetenquête ontwikkeld waarin woningzoekenden

  20. . Informing water harvesting technology contract design using choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarfasa, S.; Brouwer, R.; Sheremet, O.I.; Bouma, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducing water harvesting technology is expected to be more effective and last longer if farm households are involved in their design. The main objective of this study is to inform policymakers in Ethiopia about the most important terms and conditions to incentivize farmers to enter into a

  1. Experiments on melt droplets falling into a water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analysis related to melt droplets falling into a water pool. A binary CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt mixture is used to study the influence of melt superheat and water subcooling on droplet deformation and fragmentation. For the conditions studied (We {<=} 1000), the surface tension of the melt droplet and the film boiling stability greatly affect the fragmentation behaviour. If the melt temperature is between the liquidus and solidus point (mushy zone) or if the film boiling is stable due to a relatively low subcooling, the droplet deformation and fragmentation are mitigated. This behaviour can be related to the effective Weber number (We) of the melt droplet upon entry into the water pool. Similar phenomena can be expected also for interactions of corium (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) and water, which are characterized by a potentially fast transformation of melt into the mushy zone and by particularly stable film boiling. (author)

  2. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Above Deck Water Sound Suppression Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) program test matrix was designed to determine the acoustic reduction for the Liftoff acoustics (LOA) environment with an above deck water sound suppression system. The scale model test can be used to quantify the effectiveness of the water suppression system as well as optimize the systems necessary for the LOA noise reduction. Several water flow rates were tested to determine which rate provides the greatest acoustic reductions. Preliminary results are presented.

  3. Experiment on Conical Pick Cutting Rock Material Assisted with Front and Rear Water Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conical picks are one kind of cutting tools widely used in engineering machinery. In the process of rock breaking, the conical pick bears great cutting force and wear. To solve the problem, a new method, conical pick assisted with high pressure water jet, could break rock effectively, and four different configuration modes of water jet were presented. In this paper, based on the analysis of the different water jet configuration’s advantages and disadvantages, experiments on front water jet, new typed rear water jet, and the combination of those two water jet configuration modes were conducted to study the assisting cutting performance and obtain the quantitative results.

  4. Water column velocimeter for NSRR experiment. Characteristics and data processing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Fuketa, Toyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    In order to clarify fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions, pulse irradiation experiments on fuel rods are carried out in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). One of concerns at fuel failure is mechanical energy generation in the reactor vessel. The mechanical energy is generated by a water hammer or a pressure impact occurred at fuel failure, and has possibility to damage reactor structures. Thus, the amount of generated mechanical energy is critical information for the safety evaluation of power reactor. In the NSRR experiments, the mechanical energy due to the water hammer is evaluated as the kinetic energy of the jumping water column at fuel failure, and the velocity of the water column is measured by the float type water column velocimeter. This report presents characteristics of the water column velocimeter and the procedure of data processing in the NSRR experiments. (author)

  5. Adoption of irrigation water policies to guarantee water supply: A choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcon, F.; Tapsuwan, S.; Brouwer, R.; de Miguel, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient and sustainable use of water is increasingly becoming an urgency in drought prone parts of the world. In particular, in water scarce regions such as the Mediterranean, water supply is expected to become more uncertain because of climate change. Consequently, pro-active policy

  6. Managing a duopolistic water market with confirmed proposals. An experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Gallego, Aurora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report results from experimental water markets in which owners of two different sources of water supply water to households and farmers. The final water quality consumed by each type of consumer is determined through mixing of qualities from two different resources. We compare the standard duopolistic market structure with an alternative market clearing mechanism inspired by games with confirmed strategies (which have been shown to yield collusive outcomes. As in the static case, complex dynamic markets operating under a confirmed proposals protocol yield less efficient outcomes because coordination among independent suppliers has the usual effects of restricting output and increasing prices to the users. Our results suggest that, when market mechanisms are used to allocate water to its users, the rule of thumb used by competition authorities can also serve as a guide towards water market regulation.

    Se presentan resultados de un experimento con mercados acuíferos en el que los propietarios de agua de distinta calidad la ofrecen a hogares y agricultores. La calidad finalmente consumida por cada tipo de consumidor se determina a partir de una mezcla de las dos calidades. Se compara el duopolio estándar con una forma alternativa de cerrar el mercado que está inspirada en los juegos con propuestas confirmadas, que consiguen resultados relativamente más colusivos. Como en el caso estático, los mercados dinámicos y complejos que operan bajo un protocolo de propuestas confirmadas son menos eficientes porque la coordinación entre oferentes independientes tiene los efectos de restringir el output y de provocar un crecimiento de los precios. Nuestros resultados sugieren que cuando los mecanismos de mercado se utilizan para distribuir el agua a sus usuarios, la regla utilizada por parte de las autoridades de la competencia puede servir también como guía para la regulación de los mercados acuíferos.

  7. Mandatory premarital testing for human immunodeficiency virus. The Illinois experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, B J; Kelly, C J

    1989-06-16

    During the first 6 months of legislatively mandated premarital testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Illinois, 8 of 70,846 applicants for marriage licenses were found to be seropositive, yielding a seroprevalence of 0.011%. The total cost of the testing program for 6 months is estimated at $2.5 million or $312,000 per seropositive individual identified. Half of the reported seropositive individuals reported a history of risk behavior. During the same period, the number of marriage licenses issued in Illinois decreased by 22.5%, while the number of licenses issued to Illinois residents in surrounding states increased significantly. We conclude that mandatory premarital testing is not a cost-effective method for the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  8. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-15

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  9. Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-08-01

    The ocean-energy industry is still in its infancy and device developers have provided their own equipment and procedures for testing. Currently, no testing standards exist for ocean energy devices in the United States. Furthermore, as prototype devices move from the test tank to in-water testing, the logistical challenges and costs grow exponentially. Development of a common instrumentation package that can be moved from device to device is one means of reducing testing costs and providing normalized data to the industry as a whole. As a first step, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has initiated an effort to develop an instrumentation package to provide a tool to allow common measurements across various ocean energy devices. The effort is summarized in this paper. First, we present the current status of ocean energy devices. We then review the experiences of the wind industry in its development of the instrumentation package and discuss how they can be applied in the ocean environment. Next, the challenges that will be addressed in the development of the ocean instrumentation package are discussed. For example, the instrument package must be highly adaptable to fit a large array of devices but still conduct common measurements. Finally, some possible system configurations are outlined followed by input from the industry regarding its measurement needs, lessons learned from prior testing, and other ideas.

  10. Water adsorption in hydrophilic zeolites: experiment and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Juan Manuel; Silvestre-Albero, Juaquin; Rodriguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; CALERO, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    We have measured experimental adsorption isotherms of water in zeolite LTA4A, and studied the regeneration process by performing subsequent adsorption cycles after degassing at different temperatures. We observed incomplete desorption at low temperatures, and cation rearrangement at successive adsorption cycles. We also developed a new molecular simulation force field able to reproduce experimental adsorption isotherms in the range of temperatures between 273 K and 374 K. Small deviations obs...

  11. Three Experiments Involving Probability Measurement Procedures with Mathematics Test Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This is a report from the Project on Individually Guided Mathematics, Phase 2 Analysis of Mathematics Instruction. The report outlines some of the characteristics of probability measurement procedures for scoring objective tests, discusses hypothesized advantages and disadvantages of the methods, and reports the results of three experiments…

  12. Cognitive Laboratory Experiences : On Pre-testing Computerised Questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijkers, G.J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the literature on questionnaire design and survey methodology, pre-testing is mentioned as a way to evaluate questionnaires (i.e. investigate whether they work as intended) and control for measurement errors (i.e. assess data quality). As the American Statistical Association puts it (ASA, 1999,

  13. 101 . experience with hepatitis b viral load testing in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. 2. Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian ... The COBAS Amplicor automated Analyzer (PCR based) was used to assay the virus quantitatively. Results: 594 patients were tested from .... dose-response relationship. That study also showed that HBV DNA ...

  14. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch

  15. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-06-02

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status.

  16. Flight Testing of the Forward Osmosis Bag for Water Recovery on STS-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael S.; Soler, Monica; Mortenson, Todd; McCoy, LaShelle; Woodward, Spencer; Levine, Howard G.

    2011-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Bag (FOB) is a personal water purification device for recovery of potable liquid from almost any non-potable water source. The FOB experiment was flown as a sortie mission on STS-135/ULF7 using flight-certified materials and a design based on the X-Pack(TradeMark) from Hydration Technology Innovations (Albany, OR). The primary objective was to validate the technology for use under microgravity conditions. The FOB utilizes a difference in solute concentration across a selectively permeable membrane to draw water molecules from the non-potable water while rejecting most chemical and all microbial contaminants contained within. Six FOB devices were tested on STS-135 for their ability to produce a potable liquid permeate from a feed solution containing 500 mL potassium chloride (15 g/L) amended with 0.1% methyl blue dye (w:v) tracer against an osmotic gradient created by addition of 60 mL of concentrate containing the osmolytes fructose and glucose, and 0.01% sodium fluorescein (w:v) tracer. Three FOB devices were physically mixed by hand for 2 minutes by a crewmember after loading to augment membrane wetting for comparison with three unmixed FOB devices. Hydraulic flux rate and rejection of salt and dye in microgravity were determined from a 60-mL sample collected by the crew on orbit after 6 hours. Post-flight analysis of samples collected on orbit demonstrated that the Forward Osmosis Bag achieved expected design specifications in microgravity. The hydraulic flux rate of water across the membrane was reduced approximately 50% in microgravity relative to ground controls that generated an average of 50 mL per hour using the same water and osmolyte solutions. The membrane rejected both potassium and chloride at >92% and methyl blue dye at >99.9%. Physical mixing of the FOB during water recovery did not have any significant effect on either flux rate or rejection of solutes from the water solution. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection in

  17. Results of poplar clone testing in field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Saša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth vigor of 7 poplar clones was researched, i.e. 5 candidate clones for registration (B-81, B-229, PE 19/66, 182/81 and 129/8 and 2 clonal cultivars (1-214 and "Pannonia" which had been registered earlier. The taxonomy of the study poplar clones was as follows: B-81 (Populus deltoides, B-229 (Populus deltoides, PE 19/66 (Populus deltoides, 182/81 (Populus deltoides, 129/81 (Populus x euramericana, 1-214 (Populus x euramericana and "Pannonia" (Populus x euramericana. The research was performed in three field experiments established in 2002 on the area of the Forest Estate Sremska Mitrovica. Although the experiments were established with several planting spaces, the first information indicate that the candidate clone PE 19/66 had the greatest vigor on the optimal soil types (humofluviosol and fluvisol loamy form, while the candidate clone B-81 had the advantage on the less favored soil type (meadow black soil on loess alluvium. Based on the attained diameters and heights, it can be concluded that these are the successfully established plantations and that the candidate clones showed significant genetic potentials, which points to the fact that in future the production of poplar wood volume can be significantly increased.

  18. Effects of radiation damping for biomolecular NMR experiments in solution: a hemisphere concept for water suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishima, Rieko

    2015-09-01

    Abundant solvent nuclear spins, such as water protons in aqueous solution, cause radiation damping in NMR experiments. It is important to know how the effect of radiation damping appears in high-resolution protein NMR because macromolecular studies always require very high magnetic field strengths with a highly sensitive NMR probe that can easily cause radiation damping. Here, we show the behavior of water magnetization after a pulsed-field gradient (PFG) using nutation experiments at 900 MHz with a cryogenic probe: when water magnetization is located in the upper hemisphere (having +Z component, parallel to the external magnetic field), dephasing of the magnetization by a PFG effectively suppresses residual water magnetization in the transverse plane. In contrast, when magnetization is located in the lower hemisphere (having -Z component), the small residual transverse component remaining after a PFG is still sufficient to induce radiation damping. Based on this observation, we designed 1 H- 15 N HSQC experiments in which water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere, but not necessarily along Z, and compared them with the conventional experiments, in which water magnetization is inverted during the t 1 period. The result demonstrates moderate gain of signal-to-noise ratio, 0-28%. Designing the experiments such that water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere allows shorter pulses to be used compared to the complete water flip-back and, thereby, is useful as a building block of protein NMR pulse programs in solution.

  19. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  20. Tests of a Roman Pot prototype for the TOTEM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deile, M.; Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.; Antchev, G.; Ayache, M.; Caspers, F.; Dimovasili, E.; Dinapoli, R.; Drouhin, F.; Eggert, K.; Escourrou, J.L; Fochler, O.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Haung, F.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kroyer, T.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Mattelon, E.; Niewiadomski, H.; Mirabito, L.; Noschis, E.P.; Oriunno, M.; Park, a.; Perrot, A.-L.; Pirotte, O.; Quetsch, J.M.; Regnier, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Saramad, S.; Siegrist, P.; Snoeys, W.; sSouissi, T.; Szczygiel, R.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Verdier, A.; Da Vià, C.; Hasi, J.; Kok, A.; Watts, S.; Kašpar, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Smotlacha, J.; Avati, V.; Järvinen, M.; Kalliokoski, M.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Österberg, K.; Palmieri, V.; Saarikko, H.; Soininen, A.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Buzzo, A.; Cuneo, S.; Ferro, F.; Macrí, M.; Minutoli, S.; Morelli, A.; Musico, P.; Negri, M.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Sobol, A.; sBerardi, V.; Catanesi, M.G.; Radicioni, E.

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

  1. Tests of a Roman Pot Prototype for the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, Mario; Anelli, Giovanni M; Antchev, Gueorgui H; Avati, Valentina; Ayache, M; Berardi, Vincenzo; Boccone, Vittorio; Bozzo, Marco; Buzzo, Alberto; Caspers, Friedhelm; Catanesi, Maria G; Cuneo, Stefano; Da Vià, C; Dimovasili, Evangelia; Dinapoli, Roberto; Drouhin, Frederic; Eggert, Karsten; Escourrou, J; Ferro, Fabrizio; Fochler, O; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Hasi, Jasmine; Haug, Friedrich; Jarron, Pierre; Järvinen, Matti; Kalliokoski, M; Kalliopuska, Juha; Kaplon, J; Kasper, J; Kok, Angela; Kroyer, Tom; Kundrât, Vojtech; Kurvinen, Kari; Lauhakangas, Rauno; Lokajicek, Milos V; Luntama, T; Macina, Daniela; Macri, Mario; Mattelon, E; Minutoli, Saverio; Mirabito, L; Morelli, Aldo; Musico, Paolo; Negri, Marco; Niewiadomski, Hubert; Noschis, Elias P; Oljemark, Fredrik; Orava, Risto; Oriunno, Marco; Palmieri, Vittorio; Park, A; Perrot, Anne Laure; Pirotte, Olivier; Quetsch, J M; Radicioni, Emilio; Regnier, Frederic; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Saarikko, Heimo; Santroni, Alberto; Saramad, Shahyar; Sette, Giuseppe; Siegrist, P; Smotlacha, J; Snoeys, Walter; Sobol, Andrei; Soininen, J A; Souissi, T; Szczygiel, R; Troska, J; Vasey, F; Verdier, Andre; Watts, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

  2. Development of an in vitro Endotoxin Test for Monoolein–Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    vitro endotoxin test (LAL test) for water- insoluble gel products. Since our research group is currently developing monoolein–water liquid crystalline gels of gentamycin for use as bioresorbable implants for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis [10-12], we set out to develop an in vitro test method for endotoxin in this.

  3. Albert Einstein and the Fizeau 1851 Water Tube Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    In 1895 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz derived the Fresnel dragging coefficient in his theory of immobile ether and electrons. This derivation did not explicitly involve electromagnetic theory at all. According to the 1922 Kyoto lecture notes, before 1905 Einstein tried to discuss Fizeau's experiment "as originally discussed by Lorentz" (in 1895). At this time he was still under the impression that the ordinary Newtonian law of addition of velocities was unproblematic. In 1907 Max Laue showed that the Fresnel dragging coefficient would follow from a straightforward application of the relativistic addition theorem of velocities. This derivation is mathematically equivalent to Lorentz's derivation of 1895. From 1907 onwards Einstein adopted Laue's derivation. When Robert Shankland asked Einstein how he had learned of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein told him that he had become aware of it through the writings of Lorentz, but only after 1905 had it come to his attention. "Otherwise", he said, "I would have ment...

  4. Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of Ballast Water Treatment Systems in Freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    effluent collected from treatment tanks 3P and 4P (all dilutions) and the algae exposed to the receiving water control, filtered water from Duluth...Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of Ballast Water Treatment Systems in Freshwater Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release...Title and Subtitle Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of Ballast Water Treatment Systems in Freshwater 5. Report Date November 2014 6

  5. Experiences with austenitic steels in boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, O. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Bruemmer, G. [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    Stabilized austenitic steels are susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) under boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions. This important finding for the German nuclear power station industry arises from the detection of cracks during the last 3 years in reactor hot water pipes made from titanium-stabilized steel AISI 321 in six BWRs and in reactor core components made from the niobium-stabilized steel AISI 347 in one BWR. All the observed cracks had a common feature: they had their origin in the chromium carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries and in the associated chromium-depleted region near the grain boundary. These microstructural features in the heat-affected zones of the hot water pipe weldments were caused by the heat input during deposition of the root bead. The TiC partially dissolved in the region near the fusion line and the released carbon reacted to form chromium-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. Regarding the cracks found in the core shroud and the core grid plates, it was shown that a sensitizing heat treatment of rings taken from the same heat of steel could give rise to a microstructure susceptible to IGSCC in the region of a weldment. High carbon contents coupled with low stabilization ratios led to sensitization. Residual stresses developed during welding provided the significant contributions to the tensile stress necessary for IGSCC. With regard to the service medium, the influence of the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) was recognized as a dominant factor, together with the conductivity. The corrosion potential was mainly determined by the radiolytic formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; with increasing distance from the core, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content decreased owing to catalytic decomposition. For the pipes the problem of IGSCC could be resolved by the use of optimized steel (lower carbon content with maximum allowable stabilization ratio).

  6. Rainfall simulation experiments: Influence of water temperature, water quality and plot design on soil erosion and runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Pegoraro, Dominique; Schlösser, Angelika; Thesing, Hannah; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Field rainfall simulators are designed to study soil erosion processes and provide urgently needed data for various geomorphological, hydrological and pedological issues. Due to the different conditions and technologies applied, there are several methodological aspects under review of the scientific community, particularly concerning design, procedures and conditions of measurement for infiltration, runoff and soil erosion. This study aims at contributing fundamental data for understanding rainfall simulations in depth by studying the effect of the following parameters on the measurement results: 1. Plot design - round or rectangular plot: Can we identify differences in amount of runoff and erosion? 2. Water quality: What is the influence of the water's salt load on interrill erosion and infiltration as measured by rainfall experiments? 3. Water temperature: How much are the results conditioned by the temperature of water, which is subject to changes due to environmental conditions during the experiments? Preliminary results show a moderate increase of soil erosion with the water's salt load while runoff stays almost on the same level. With increasing water temperature, runoff increases continuously. At very high temperatures, soil erosion is clearly increased. A first comparison between round and rectangular plot indicates the rectangular plot to be the most suitable plot shape, but ambiguous results make further research necessary. The analysis of these three factors concerning their influence on runoff and erosion shows that clear methodological standards are necessary in order to make rainfall simulation experiments comparable.

  7. Test experience on an ultrareliable computer communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    The dispersed sensor processing mesh (DSPM) is an experimental, ultra-reliable, fault-tolerant computer communications network that exhibits an organic-like ability to regenerate itself after suffering damage. The regeneration is accomplished by two routines - grow and repair. This paper discusses the DSPM concept for achieving fault tolerance and provides a brief description of the mechanization of both the experiment and the six-node experimental network. The main topic of this paper is the system performance of the growth algorithm contained in the grow routine. The characteristics imbued to DSPM by the growth algorithm are also discussed. Data from an experimental DSPM network and software simulation of larger DSPM-type networks are used to examine the inherent limitation on growth time by the growth algorithm and the relationship of growth time to network size and topology.

  8. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state‐of‐the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. PMID:27818853

  9. Modelization of an experimental solar test box equipped with a water-flow based window

    OpenAIRE

    Padial Molina, Juan Francisco; Claros Marfíl, Luis; Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito

    2013-01-01

    A study on a water- ow window installed in a test box is presented. This window is composed of two glass panes separated by a chamber through water ows. The ow of water comes from an isolated tank which contains heat water. In order to fully evaluate the water- ow window performance for different room and window sizes, locations and weather conditions, a mathematical model of the whole box is needed. The proposed model, in which conduction heat transfer mechanism ...

  10. LMFBR large valve development. Task II. IHTS isolation valve internals water test. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, L.; Perschler, J.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to perform proof-of-principle (POP) testing in water of a reduced bore rotating offset ball valve as required by AEC Contract No. AT(04-3)-1035. The water POP test article is shown on AMCO Drawing 16-E-4020, Sheets 1 through 4, dated 3-18-74. This report presents the water flow test results and the leakage results for one of the three seal designs.

  11. Test results on re-use of reclaimed shower water: Summary. [space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, C. E.; Garcia, R.; Sauer, R.; Linton, A. T.; Elms, T.; Reysa, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    A microgravity whole body shower (WBS) and waste water recovery systems (WWRS) were evaluated in three separate closed loop tests. Following a protocol similar to that anticipated for the U.S. Space Station, test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower. The WWRS processes evaluated during the test series were phase change and reverse osmosis (RO). A preprototype Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem phase change process was used for the initial test with chemical pretreatment of the shower water waste input. The second and third tests concentrated on RO technologies. The second test evaluated a dynamic RO membrane consisting of zirconium oxide polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membranes deposited on the interior diameter of 316L porous stainless steel tubes while the final test employed a thin semipermeable RO membrane deposited on the interior surface of polysulfone hollow fibers. All reclaimed water was post-treated for purity using ion exchange and granular activated carbon beds immediately followed by microbial control treatment using both heat and iodine. The test hardware, controls exercised for whole body showering, types of soaps evaluated, shower subject response to reclaimed water showering, and shower water collection and chemical pretreatment (if required) for microbial control are described. The WWRS recovered water performance and the effectiveness of the reclaimed water post-treatment techniques used for maintaining water purity and microorganism control are compared. Results on chemical and microbial impurity content of the water samples obtained from various locations in the shower water reuse system are summarized.

  12. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    technologies or techniques that can mitigate the impacts of oil in the water column on the surrounding environment through containment, diversion, or...impacts on the environment , water intakes, and commercial facilities. Currently there is no well-established technology , technique, or strategy to prevent... technology did not prove to be effective at removing the dispensed oil. 3. Minimization of environmental impacts with a focus on wildlife and plant life

  13. Experiences of improving water access in rural areas in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bresci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The GESAAF Department of the UNIFI has been involved in the project “Gestione ambientale e del rischio nel dipartimento di Sololà” in the period 2011-’12 aiming at guaranteeing water access to people leaving in rural areas in the Sololà Department in Guatemala, in collaboration with the two NGOs Movimento Africa ’70 and Oxfam Italia. Appropriate technologies, such as EMAS pump and well drilled with the Baptista- Boliviana technique, have been proposed and utilized for improving water access in areas where lack of water represented a limiting factor for the human development. They can be both considered compatible with local, cultural and economic conditions: in fact locally available materials are used and the tools can be maintained and operationally controlled by the local users. At the end of the project, 52 EMAS pumps have been installed and 19 wells drilled, 33 pumps have been installed in already existing wells tank. Formation activities of local people played an important role: diffusion actions of the methodology started from schools, 20 workers participated to an in class course and more than 100 participated in the field work. Monitoring activities on the 52 installed pumps have been carried out in order to check the performances of the pumps and the knowledge level acquired by the users. After some months of operation, more than 80% of the pumps were correctly functioning and the required maintenance activities have been carried out in collaboration with the local users. In order to analyze the project results, a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats has been carried out for developing a strategy able to tackle the weaknesses and threats of the procedure. The application of the SWOT analysis showed to be an useful tool to analyse the current situation coming from the ended project. It has been helpful to gauge how the project performed. The analysis results may be also utilized for exploring

  14. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  15. WARM WATER SCALE MODEL EXPERIMENTS FOR MAGNESIUM DIE CASTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    High-pressure die casting (HPDC) involves the filling of a cavity with the molten metal through a thin gate. High gate velocities yield jet break-up and atomization phenomena. In order to improve the quality of magnesium parts, the mold filling pattern, including atomization phenomena, needs to be understood. The goal of this study was to obtain experimental data on jet break-up characteristics for conditions similar to that of magnesium HPDC, and measure the droplet velocity and size distribution. A scale analysis is first presented in order to identify appropriate analogue for liquid magnesium alloys. Based on the scale analysis warm water was chosen as a suitable analogue and different nozzles were manufactured. A 2-D component phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and 2-D component particle image velocimetry (PIV) were then used to obtain fine particle diameter and velocity distributions in 2-D plane.

  16. Corpus Linguistics and Language Testing: Navigating Uncharted Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The use of corpora and corpus linguistic methods in language testing research is increasing at an accelerated pace. The growing body of language testing research that uses corpus linguistic data is a testament to their utility in test development and validation. Although there are many reasons to be optimistic about the future of using corpus data…

  17. Factors affecting water prices in a rural water market: A South Australian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlund, Henning; McKay, Jennifer

    Government agencies and water managers have showed an increasing interest for tradeable water entitlements (TWE) as a tool to alleviate the influence of raising water prices and to facilitate a reallocation of water resources to more efficient and sustainable uses from economic, social, and environmental perspectives. An understanding of how the water market works and which factors determine water right prices has become important to establish whether TWE policies facilitate this process. This research shows that the objectives largely have been achieved and that the more efficient irrigators are willing to pay a higher price for water, whereas the least efficient farmers are willing to sell at a lower price, showing that the buyers with high value of marginal product are willing to pay a price in excess of the value of the income generated by the sellers with low value of marginal product. Within the present legislative framework TWE does not, however, always direct water to the most sustainable users in an equitable manner.

  18. Data acquisition electronics for NESTOR experiment: project and tests

    CERN Document Server

    Ameli, F; Bottai, S; Capone, A; Curti, F; Desiati, P; De Marchis, G; Massa, F; Masullo, R; Piccari, L; Vannucci, I

    1999-01-01

    The NESTOR detector, at present under construction, is a telescope for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The apparatus, based on Cherenkov light detection, will be deployed in deep sea (about 4000 m) near the S.W. Greek coast. We briefly describe the NESTOR detector, then we describe with more details the electronics for NESTOR data acquisition and transmission. The detector signals are sampled at 200 MHz and all the resulting information are transmitted to the laboratory on 30 km long electro-optical cable. The estimated Mean Time Between Failure of the full electronics system is greater than 20 years. Tests performed on the first prototypes confirm the main characteristics of these electronics: the dynamic range allowed for the signals is bigger than 1000, the pulse shape is reconstructed with an 8 bit ADC accuracy and the resolution in the measurement of the signal 'threshold crossing time' is better than 200 ps.

  19. Status of Wakefield Monitor Experiments at the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Lillestøl, Reidar; Aftab, Namra; Corsini, Roberto; Döbert, Steffen; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Grudiev, Alexej; Javeed, Sumera; Pfingstner, Juergen; Wuensch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    For the very low emittance beams in CLIC, it is vital to mitigate emittance growth which leads to reduced luminosity in the detectors. One factor that leads to emittance growth is transverse wakefields in the accelerating structures. In order to combat this the structures must be aligned with a precision of a few um. For achieving this tolerance, accelerating structures are equipped with wakefield monitors that measure higher-order dipole modes excited by the beam when offset from the structure axis. We report on such measurements, performed using prototype CLIC accelerating structures which are part of the module installed in the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. Measurements with and without the drive beam that feeds rf power to the structures are compared. Improvements to the experimental setup are discussed, and finally remaining measurements that should be performed before the completion of the program are summarized.

  20. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  1. The impact of water table drawdown and drying on subterranean aquatic fauna in in-vitro experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stumpp

    Full Text Available The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity.

  2. The impact of water table drawdown and drying on subterranean aquatic fauna in in-vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpp, Christine; Hose, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda) under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity.

  3. Proof load testing of reinforced concrete bridges: Experience from a program of testing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.

    2017-01-01

    For existing bridges with large uncertainties, analytical methods have limitations. Therefore, to reduce these uncertainties, field testing of a bridge can be used. A type of such a field test is a proof load test, in which a load equivalent to the factored live load is applied. If the bridge can

  4. Effects of hardness and alkalinity in culture and test waters on reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Hardin, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Ceriodaphnia dubia were cultured in four reconstituted water formulations with hardness and alkalinity concentrations ranging from soft to the moderately hard water that is required by whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing methods for culturing test organisms. The effects of these culture formulations alone and in combination with two levels of Cl-, SO42, and HCO3- on reproduction of C. dubia were evaluated with the standard three-brood test. Reproduction was significantly reduced when test waters had lower hardness than culture waters. However, reproduction was not significantly different when animals cultured in low-hardness waters were exposed to moderately hard waters. The hardness of the culture water did not significantly affect the sensitivity of C. dubia to the three anions. Conversely, increased hardness in test waters significantly reduced the toxicities of Cl- and SO42-, with HCO3- toxicity following the same pattern. Alkalinity exhibited no consistent effect on Cl- and SO42- toxicity. The physiological stress of placing animals cultured in moderately hard water into softer test waters might contribute to marginal failures of otherwise nontoxic effluents. The standard WET protocol should be revised to allow the culture of C. dubia under lower hardness conditions to better represent local surface water chemistries.

  5. Cytogenotoxicity screening of source water, wastewater and treated water of drinking water treatment plants using two in vivo test systems: Allium cepa root based and Nile tilapia erythrocyte based tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka. Measured physico-chemical parameters of the raw water, effluents and treated water samples complied with the respective Sri Lankan standards. In the in vivo tests, raw water induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitodepression and chromosomal abnormalities in the root meristem of the plant and micronuclei/nuclear buds evolution and genetic damage (as reflected by comet scores) in the erythrocytes of the fish compared to the aged tap water controls signifying greater genotoxicity of the source water especially in the dry period. The effluents provoked relatively high cytogenotoxic effects on both test systems but the toxicity in most cases was considerably reduced to the raw water level with the effluent dilution (1:8). In vivo tests indicated reduction of cytogenotoxic potential in the tested drinking water samples. The results support the potential applications of practically feasible in vivo biological test systems such as A. cepa root based tests and the fish erythrocyte based tests as complementary tools for screening cytogenotoxicity potential of the source water and water treatment waste reaching downstream of aquatic ecosystems and for evaluating cytogenotoxicity eliminating efficacy of the DWTPs in different seasons in view of human and ecological safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  7. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  8. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Wade, Jeremy [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  9. Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

  10. CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE) Fall 2005 R/V Oceanus Voyage 419, November 9, 2005 - November 27, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutto, Lara; Weller, Robert; Fratantoni, David; Lord, Jeff; Kemp, John; Lund, John; Brambilla, Elena; Bigorre, Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    CLIMODE (CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment) is a program designed to understand and quantify the processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of North Atlantic subtropical mode water, also called Eighteen Degree Water (EDW...

  11. Human posture experiments under water: ways of applying the findings to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlich, Thomas

    For the design and layout human spacecraft interiors the Neutral Body Posture (NBP) in micro-gravity is of great importance. The NBP has been defined as the stable, replicable and nearly constant posture the body "automatically" assumes when a human relaxes in microgravity. Furthermore the NBP, as published, suggests that there is one standard neutral posture for all individuals. Published experiments from space, parabolic flights and under water on the other hand show strong inter-individual variations of neutral (relaxed) postures. This might originate from the quite small sample sizes of subjects analyzed or the different experiment conditions, e. g. space and under water. Since 2008 a collaborative research project focussing on human postures and motions in microgravity has been ongoing at the Technische Univer-sitüt München (TUM). This collaborative effort is undertaken by the Institute of Astronautics a (LRT) and the Institute of Ergonomics (LfE). Several test campaigns have been conducted in simulated microgravity under water using a specially designed standardized experiment setup. Stereo-metric HD video footage and anthropometric data from over 50 subjects (female and male) has been gathered in over 80 experiments. The video data is analyzed using PCMAN software, developed by the LfE, resulting in a 3D volumetric CAD-based model of each subject and posture. Preliminary and ongoing analysis of the data offer evidence for the existence of intra-individually constant neutral postures, as well as continuously recurring relaxation strate-gies. But as with the data published prior the TUM experiments show quite a large variation of inter-individual postures. These variation might be induced or influenced by the special environmental conditions in the underwater experiment. Thus in present paper ways of stan-dardizing data and applying the findings gathered under water to real microgravity are being discussed. The following influences stemming from the

  12. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.

    2006-11-01

    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  13. Adhesion scratch testing - A round-robin experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, A. J.; Valli, J.; Steinmann, P. A.

    Six sets of samples, TiN coated by chemical or physical vapor deposition methods (CVD or PVD) onto cemented carbide or high-speed steel (HSS), and TiC coated by CVD onto cemented carbide have been scratch tested using three types of commercially available scratch adhesion tester. With exception of one cemented carbide set, the reproducibility of the critical loads for any given set with a given stylus is excellent, about + or - 5 percent, and is about + or - 20 percent for different styli. Any differences in critical loads recorded for any given sample set can be attributed to the condition of the stylus (clean, new, etc.), the instrument used, the stylus itself (friction coefficient, etc.), and the sample set itself. One CVD set showed remarkably large differences in critical loads for different styli, which is thought to be related to a mechanical interaction between stylus and coating which is enhanced by a plastic deformability in the film related to the coating microstructure. The critical load for TiN on HSS increases with coating thickness, and differences in frictional conditions led to a systematic variation in the critical loads depending on the stylus used.

  14. Water nucleation: A comparison between some phenomenological theories and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Thomas P; Barrett, Jonathan C

    2012-09-28

    The predictions of several homogeneous nucleation theories are compared with experimental results for water for a range of temperatures and vapor supersaturations, S. The theoretical models considered are: classical theory (including the 1/S correction factor), the Gibbs p-form, mean-field kinetic nucleation theory (MKNT), the extended modified liquid drop model-dynamical nucleation theory, and two forms of density functional theory, one without and one with a contribution due to association. The theoretical expressions for the logarithm of the nucleation rate are expanded in a series in powers of the logarithm of S. The residual dependence (once the classical dependence has been factored out) of the experimental results shows a stronger decrease with increasing temperature than all the theories except MKNT. The residual S-dependence of the experimental results decreases with increasing supersaturation whereas all the theories except the Gibbs p-form predict an increase. The first correction term to classical theory involves both the liquid compressibility and curvature correction to the surface tension (Tolman length) so the experimental results suggest that the Tolman length is zero (as assumed in the Gibbs p-form) or positive whereas the other theories predict a negative Tolman length. The effect of including a term proportional to ln(lnS) in the series expansion is also discussed.

  15. Assessment of supercritical water oxidation system testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Army Science and Technology; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    2013-01-01

    "Assessment of Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant reviews and evaluates the results of the tests conducted on one of the SCWO units...

  16. Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzner, Daniel S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Kotilinek, Linda A; Ashe, Karen Hsiao; Reed, Miranda Nicole

    2015-06-22

    The Morris water maze (MWM) is a commonly used task to assess hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in transgenic mouse models of disease, including neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the background strain of the mouse model used can have a substantial effect on the observed behavioral phenotype, with some strains exhibiting superior learning ability relative to others. To ensure differences between transgene negative and transgene positive mice can be detected, identification of a training procedure sensitive to the background strain is essential. Failure to tailor the MWM protocol to the background strain of the mouse model may lead to under- or over- training, thereby masking group differences in probe trials. Here, a MWM protocol tailored for use with the F1 FVB/N x 129S6 background is described. This is a frequently used background strain to study the age-dependent effects of mutant P301L tau (rTg(TauP301L)4510 mice) on the memory deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. Also described is a strategy to re-optimize, as dictated by the particular testing environment utilized.

  17. Special Operations of CERES for Radiation Experiment Tests (SOCRATES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Z. Peter

    of both instruments were adjusted to align with the minor plane (orthogonal to the solar plane at local noon). Data for comparison were collected at each node with the focus on Greenland as the target for SW comparison. This experiment is repeated every year during summer solstice to monitor CERES Terra and Aqua consistency. (iv) Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments aboard the MeteoSat-8 and 9 spacecraft use arrays with 256 detectors each to measure the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation. It generates an Earth radiation snapshot every 15 minutes. Since 2004, CERES (FM2) scanner on Terra has made measurements of the same radiances by matching the GERB-2 and then GERB-1 Earth viewing geometry. These special data collection campaigns have been performed during summer and winter solstice periods. Daily, up to five Terra passes are in the view of GERB, and data collected by FM2 are used to compare the GERB detectors with each other using the CERES as a transfer radiometer. In addition, the CERES/GERB comparison is done on geolocated gridboxes.

  18. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of nanofibre microfiltration membranes, spun by an innovative electrospinning technique, in water filtration applications. As such, this study bridges the gap between developments in electrospinning techniques for the production of flat-sheet membranes and the application of ...

  19. Water absorption tests for measuring permeability of field concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The research results from CFIRE Project 04-06 were communicated to engineers and researchers in this project. : Specifically, the water absorption of concrete samples (i.e., 2-in. thick, 4-in. diameter discs cut from concrete : cylinders) was found s...

  20. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-17

    Nov 17, 2009 ... 1 Research Group EnBichem, Departement of Industrial Engineering and Technology, University College West Flanders,. Ghent University Association ... techniques for the production of flat-sheet membranes and the application of these membranes in water filtration. Three dif- ferent applications were ...

  1. Water developments and canids in two North American deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas K Hall

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis. We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet and without (dry free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids.

  2. Water Developments and Canids in Two North American Deserts: A Test of the Indirect Effect of Water Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lucas K.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Bunnell, Kevin D.; McMillan, Brock R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis). We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097

  3. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  4. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M. [CEA/DSM/DRFC Centre de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Blanchet, J.; Cellier, F. [Framatome, 71 - Saint Marcel (France). Centre Technique

    2007-07-01

    Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralised water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/7.0 (25 C/200 C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal combinations survived the test campaign without stress corrosion cracking, with the exception of the memory metal junction (creep in Cu) and the bellows made of St-St 316L and Inconel 625 while 316 Ti bellows survived. In contrary to the vacuum brazed Cu-LSTP to St-St samples, some of flame brazed Cu to St-St samples failed either in the braze joint or in the copper structure itself. For comparison, a spot weld of an inflated 316L panel sample, filled voluntary with a caustic solution of pH 11.5 (25 C), failed after 90 h of testing (intergranular cracking at the spot weld), while an identical sample containing AVT water of pH 9.0 (25 C) survived without damage. The results of these tests, performed during 1986 and 1997, have never been published and therefore are presented more in detail in this paper since corrosion in hydraulic circuits is also an issue of ITER. Up to day, the TS cooling water plant operates with an above mentioned water treatment and no water leaks have been detected on in-vessel components originating from water corrosion at high temperature and high pressure. (orig.)

  5. "It's a maybe test": men's experiences of prostate specific antigen testing in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Edwards, A.G.; Elwyn, G.; Watson, E.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Brett, J.; Austoker, J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing in primary care is an important and contentious issue. Due to concerns about the test and the value of early detection, countries such as the UK advocate 'informed choice' instead of population screening. It is not known whether this policy is

  6. Further Experiments with Lok-Test and Ultrasonic Test in Relation to Fresh and Hardened Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Kristian Jehrbo

    Lok-test is mainly a non-destructive pull-out test for determination of concrete strength. The method is deseribed in (l) and it is detailed discussed in theory (2). The method is welknown in practice. Ultrasonic is commonly used for investigations of several materials, especially concrete...

  7. Growing up Tested: Teachers' Lived Experiences of Testing as Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Gabriel; Patel, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Since No Child Left Behind was passed nearly 20 years ago, test-based accountability policies have grown more comprehensive in scope than ever before. Tests have always mattered, but they have become substantively empowered, now dominating classroom conversation and activity. To ascertain the impact they have on people's lives one must involve…

  8. An Open-source Community Web Site To Support Ground-Water Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. R.; Bakker, M.; Craig, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, howtos, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analytical solutions, including source code and documentation. A diversity of code snippets are sought in a variety of languages, including Fortran, C, C++, Matlab, Python. In the spirit of a wiki, all contributions may be edited and altered by other users, and open source licensing is promoted. Community accepted contributions are graduated into the library of analytic solutions and organized into either a Strack (Groundwater Mechanics, 1989) or Bruggeman (Analytical Solutions of Geohydrological Problems, 1999) classification. The examples section of the wiki are meant to include laboratory experiments (e.g., Hele Shaw), classical benchmark problems (e.g., Henry Problem), and controlled field experiments (e.g., Borden landfill and Cape Cod tracer tests). Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  9. Shallow-Water Nitrox Diving, the NASA Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) contains a 6.2 million gallon, 12-meter deep pool where astronauts prepare for space missions involving space walks (extravehicular activity EVA). Training is conducted in a space suit (extravehicular mobility unit EMU) pressurized to 4.0 - 4.3 PSI for up to 6.5 hours while breathing a 46% NITROX mix. Since the facility opened in 1997, over 30,000 hours of suited training has been completed with no occurrence of decompression sickness (DCS) or oxygen toxicity. This study examines the last 5 years of astronaut suited training runs. All suited runs are computer monitored and data is recorded in the Environmental Control System (ECS) database. Astronaut training runs from 2004 - 2008 were reviewed and specific data including total run time, maximum depth and average depth were analyzed. One hundred twenty seven astronauts and cosmonauts completed 2,231 training runs totaling 12,880 exposure hours. Data was available for 96% of the runs. It was revealed that the suit configuration produces a maximum equivalent air depth of 7 meters, essentially eliminating the risk of DCS. Based on average run depth and time, approximately 17% of the training runs exceeded the NOAA oxygen maximum single exposure limits, with no resulting oxygen toxicity. The NBL suited training protocols are safe and time tested. Consideration should be given to reevaluate the NOAA oxygen exposure limits for PO2 levels at or below 1 ATA.

  10. A simple field test for the detection of faecal pollution in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manja, K S; Maurya, M S; Rao, K M

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive field investigation in several parts of India has revealed that the presence of coliforms in drinking water is associated with hydrogen sulfide-producing organisms. This paper describes a simple, rapid, and inexpensive field test for the screening of drinking water for faecal pollution, based on the detection of hydrogen sulfide. The new test showed good agreement with the standard most probable number (MPN) test. It proved highly successful in the field when it was used to detect faecal pollution and to monitor water quality during an outbreak of water-borne hepatitis A infection in the city of Gwalior. The test is reliable and simple to perform, and will be especially useful for screening rural water supplies and for large-scale screening of urban water supplies where resources, time, manpower, and laboratory facilities are limited.

  11. The testing effect for mediator final test cues and related final test cues in online and laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Leonora C.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The testing effect is the finding that information that is retrieved during learning is more often correctly retrieved on a final test than information that is restudied. According to the semantic mediator hypothesis the testing effect arises because retrieval practice of cue-target pairs

  12. The testing effect for mediator final test cues and related final test cues in online and laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Coppens; R.M.J.P. Rikers; P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen; S. Bouwmeester

    2016-01-01

    Background The testing effect is the finding that information that is retrieved during learning is more often correctly retrieved on a final test than information that is restudied. According to the semantic mediator hypothesis the testing effect arises because retrieval practice of cue-target

  13. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes the general scope and depth that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. DATES...

  14. History of the water chemistry for the few tube test model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, S.A.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The water chemistry activities carried out in support of the Few Tube Test are described. This test was conducted to provide design confirmation data for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) steam generators. Proposed CRBRP chemistry was followed; all volatile treatment (AVT) of water was carried out with on-line monitoring capability.

  15. The harp: a vehicle crash test apparatus for full-scale crash test experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, J. S.; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

    2012-01-01

    Published version of an article in the journal: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-3960-3 The current paper describes an apparatus for full-scale vehicle crash test experimentation. This apparatus is referred to as the harp. In brief, the harp may either accelerate a trolley which is impacted into a test vehicle or the test vehicle itself may be accelerated and impacted into an object su...

  16. Rotary Wing Aircraft Water Impact Test and Analyses Correlation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wittlin, Gil

    2000-01-01

    ... with a decreasing dependence on expensive scale model ditching tests. This paper describes an effort that focuses on the application of a crash modeling and simulation approach utilizing both a nonlinear finite-element code (MSC/DYTRAN(registered...

  17. Dispelling the myths behind pediatric patch testing-experience from our tertiary care patch testing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace; Brod, Bruce; Crawford, Glen H

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is now known to be a common problem in pediatric populations, accounting for up to 20% of all dermatitis seen in children. Seminal studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated a prevalence rate in the range of 25% to 60% of children referred for epicutaneous patch testing. This patch test procedure is generally accepted as the gold standardin vivo technique to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. However, the overwhelming majority of research studies to date have been conducted on adult populations. Increasingly, pediatric patients are undergoing patch test procedures with techniques that have been standardized and optimized almost exclusively in adults. With this article, we hope to emphasize common misconceptions and pitfalls encountered with this approach. In addition, we hope to stimulate research interest in this field so as to determine the optimum patch test conditions and techniques for children.

  18. Water Ingress Testing of the Turbula Jar and U-233 Lead Pig Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karns, Tristan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Understanding the water ingress behavior of containers used at the TA-55 Plutonium Facility has significant implications for criticality safety. The purpose of this report is to document the water ingress behavior of the Turbula Jar with Bakelite lid and Viton gaskets (Turbula Jar) used in oxide blending operations and the U-233 lead pig container used to store and transport U-233 material. The technical basis for water resistant containers at TA-55 is described in LA-UR-15-22781, “Water Resistant Container Technical Basis Document for the TA-55 Criticality Safety Program.” Testing of the water ingress behavior of various containers is described in LA-CP-13-00695, “Water Penetration Tests on the Filters of Hagan and SAVY Containers,” LA-UR-15-23121, “Water Ingress into Crimped Convenience Containers under Flooding Conditions,” and in LA-UR- 16-2411, “Water Ingress Testing for TA-55 Containers.” Water ingress criteria are defined in TA55-AP-522 “TA-55 Criticality Safety Program”, and in PA-RD-01009 “TA55 Criticality Safety Requirements.” The water ingress criteria for submersion is no more than 50 ml of water ingress at a 6” water column height for a period of 2 hours.

  19. Experiment and simulation study of laser dicing silicon with water-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jiading; Long, Yuhong, E-mail: longyuhong@guet.edu.cn; Tong, Youqun; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Zupeng

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with ns-pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating. • Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. • SPH modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining. - Abstract: Water-jet laser processing is an internationally advanced technique, which combines the advantages of laser processing with water jet cutting. In the study, the experiment of water-jet laser dicing are conducted with ns pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating, and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) technique by AUTODYN software was modeled to research the fluid dynamics of water and melt when water jet impacting molten material. The silicon surface morphology of the irradiated spots has an appearance as one can see in porous formation. The surface morphology exhibits a large number of cavities which indicates as bubble nucleation sites. The observed surface morphology shows that the explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with nanosecond pulse laser of 1064 nm irradiating. Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining.

  20. Proposed test method for determining discharge rates from water closets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, V.; Fjord Jensen, T.

    At present the rates at which discharge takes place from sanitary appliances are mostly known only in the form of estimated average values. SBI has developed a measuring method enabling determination of the exact rate of discharge from a sanitary appliance as function of time. The methods depends...... on the application of a calibrated measuring vessel, the volume of water in the vessel being measured at a given moment by means of a transducer and recorded by an UV recorder which is able to follow very rapid variations. In the article the apparatus is described in detail, and an example is given...

  1. Efficient Testing Combing Design of Experiment and Learn-to-Fly Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Brandon, Jay M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid modeling and efficient testing methods are important in a number of aerospace applications. In this study efficient testing strategies were evaluated in a wind tunnel test environment and combined to suggest a promising approach for both ground-based and flight-based experiments. Benefits of using Design of Experiment techniques, well established in scientific, military, and manufacturing applications are evaluated in combination with newly developing methods for global nonlinear modeling. The nonlinear modeling methods, referred to as Learn-to-Fly methods, utilize fuzzy logic and multivariate orthogonal function techniques that have been successfully demonstrated in flight test. The blended approach presented has a focus on experiment design and identifies a sequential testing process with clearly defined completion metrics that produce increased testing efficiency.

  2. Test Management Framework for the Data Acquisition of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, Andrei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Data Acquisition (DAQ) of the ATLAS experiment is a large distributed and inhomogeneous system: it consists of thousands of interconnected computers and electronics devices that operate coherently to read out and select relevant physics data. Advanced testing and diagnostics capabilities of the TDAQ control system are a crucial feature which contributes significantly to smooth operation and fast recovery in case of the problems and, finally, to the high efficiency of the whole experiment. The base layer of the verification and diagnostic functionality is a test management framework. We have developed a flexible test management system that allows the experts to define and configure tests for different components, indicate follow-up actions to test failures and describe inter-dependencies between DAQ or detector elements. This development is based on the experience gained with the previous test system that was used during the first three years of the data taking. We discovered that more emphasis needed to be pu...

  3. Numerical simulation of the geographical sources of water for Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Sud, Yogesh; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several important research questions that the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is actively pursuing, namely: What is the intensity of the water cycle and how does it change? And what is the sustainability of water resources? Much of the research to address these questions is directed at understanding the atmospheric water cycle. In this paper, we have used a new diagnostic tool, called Water Vapor Tracers (WVTs), to quantify the how much precipitation originated as continental or oceanic evaporation. This shows how long water can remain in the atmosphere and how far it can travel. The model-simulated data are analyzed over regions of interest to the GEWEX community, specifically, their Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) that are in place in the United States, Europe, Asia, Brazil, Africa and Canada. The paper presents quantitative data on how much each continent and ocean on Earth supplies water for each CSE. Furthermore, the analysis also shows the seasonal variation of the water sources. For example, in the United States, summertime precipitation is dominated by continental (land surface) sources of water, while wintertime precipitation is dominated by the Pacific Ocean sources of water. We also analyze the residence time of water in the atmosphere. The new diagnostic shows a longer residence time for water (9.2 days) than more traditional estimates (7.5 days). We emphasize that the results are based on model simulations and they depend on the model s veracity. However, there are many potential uses for the new diagnostic tool in understanding weather processes and large and small scales.

  4. Analyzing the limitations and the applicability domain of water-sediment transformation tests like OECD 308

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, ter Mechteld; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of chemical degradation rates from water-sediment experiments like for instance OECD 308 is challenging due to parallel occurrence of processes like degradation, sorption and diffusive transport, at different rates in water and sediment or at their interface. To systematically and

  5. Modal survey testing of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) - A Space Shuttle payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.; Driskill, T. C.; Lindell, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the modal survey test of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE), a Space Shuttle payload mounted in a Spacelab flight single pallet. The test was performed by the Dynamics Test Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL and run in two phases. In the first phase, an unloaded orthogrid connected to the pallet with 52 tension struts was tested. This test included 73 measurement points in three directions. In the second phase, the pallet was integrated with mass simulators mounted on the flight support structure to represent the dynamics (weight and center of gravity) of the various components comprising the LITE experiment and instrumented at 213 points in 3 directions. The test article was suspended by an air bag system to simulate a free-free boundary condition. This paper presents the results obtained from the testing and analytical model correlation efforts. The effect of the suspension system on the test article is also discussed.

  6. In search of memory tests equivalent for experiments on animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-12-19

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test - Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test - Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary.

  7. Surface self-potential patterns related to transmissive fracture trends during a water injection test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, A. J.; Butler, K. E.; MacQuarrie, K. TB

    2018-03-01

    Variations in self-potential (SP) signals were recorded over an electrode array during a constant head injection test in a fractured bedrock aquifer. Water was injected into a 2.2 m interval isolated between two inflatable packers at 44 m depth in a vertical well. Negative SP responses were recorded on surface corresponding to the start of the injection period with strongest magnitudes recorded in electrodes nearest the well. SP response decreased in magnitude at electrodes further from the well. Deflation of the packer system resulted in a strong reversal in the SP signal. Anomalous SP patterns observed at surface at steady state were found to be aligned with dominant fracture strike orientations found within the test interval. Numerical modelling of fluid and current flow within a simplified fracture network showed that azimuthal patterns in SP are mainly controlled by transmissive fracture orientations. The strongest SP gradients occur parallel to hydraulic gradients associated with water flowing out of the transmissive fractures into the tighter matrix and other less permeable cross-cutting fractures. Sensitivity studies indicate that increasing fracture frequency near the well increases the SP magnitude and enhances the SP anomaly parallel to the transmissive set. Decreasing the length of the transmissive fractures leads to more fluid flow into the matrix and into cross-cutting fractures proximal to the well, resulting in a more circular and higher magnitude SP anomaly. Results from the field experiment and modelling provide evidence that surface-based SP monitoring during constant head injection tests has the ability to identify groundwater flow pathways within a fractured bedrock aquifer.

  8. Local stability tests in Dresden 2 boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, J.; Fry, D.N.; Buchanan, M.E.; McNew, C.O.

    1984-04-01

    This report presents the results of a local stability test performed at Dresden Unit 2 in May 1983 to determine the effect of a new fuel element design on local channel stability. This test was performed because the diameter of the new fuel rods increases the heat transfer coefficient, making the reactor more responsive and, thus, more susceptible to instabilities. After four of the new fuel elements with a 9 x 9 array of fuel rods were loaded into Dresden 2, the test was performed by inserting an adjacent control rod all the way in and then withdrawing it to its original position at maximum speed. At the moment of the test, reactor conditions were 52.7% power and 38.9% flow. Both the new 9 x 9 fuel elements and the standard 8 x 8 ones proved to be locally stable when operating at minimum pump speed at the beginning of cycle in Dresden 2, and no significant difference was found between the behavior of the two fuel types. Finally, Dresden 2 showed a high degree of stability during control rod and normal noise type perturbations.

  9. Long-term water absorption tests for frost insulation materials taking into account frost attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni A. Pakkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water absorption of several different frost insulation materials was tested for four years. The test took into account both immersion and frost attack to materials. On the basis of the research the water absorption on XPS specimens is significantly minor compared to EPS specimens that were studied. The most significant result was that freezing of test specimens did not affect on water absorption of XPS specimens but had a major effect on water absorption of EPS specimens. With frozen EPS specimen the absorption continued increasing even after 48 months of immersion. Presumably the reason for such a behaviour is that the pore structure of EPS is not able to resist the tension caused by freezing water and therefore cracks are formed. Thus, more water absorbs inside the EPS through the cracks and it causes cracking deeper in the specimen which is why absorption increases after every freezing period.

  10. Test Plan for the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis . These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same vertical, canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern vertical, canistered dry cask systems. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above-ground and below-ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 deg C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the

  11. Experiences of high-risk pregnant women who were offered a choice between non-invasive prenatal testing, invasive testing or no follow-up test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schendel, Rachel; Page-Christiaens, Lieve; Beulen, Lean; Bilardo, Katia; De Boer, Marjon; Coumans, Audrey; Faas, Brigitte; Van Langen, Irene; Lichtenbelt, Klaske; Van Maarle, Merel; Macville, Merryn; Oepkes, Dick; Pajkrt, Eva; Henneman, Lidewij

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The TRIDENT study (Trial by Dutch laboratories for Evaluation of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing) evaluates the implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in the Dutch healthcare system. Here we report on the preferences and experiences of pregnant women at high risk for fetal

  12. QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR SWIMMING POOL AND SEASONAL BATHING RESORTS WATER USING MICROTOX® TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łaskawiec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tests were to specify the toxic effect on the basis of Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition caused by chemical compounds present in pool water samples. The testing tool was Microtox®; This biotest produces quick results thus making it a comfortable tool for testing water for various toxicants. Furthermore, UV254 absorbance measure was carried out and its value was a proxy parameter for defining participation of precursors to disinfection by-products in the samples. Some of the samples had high UV254 values, one of them was 144 m 1. The Microtox® quality tests of indoor and outdoor swimming pool water presented in the paper proved impact of such factors like air exchange or supply of pool water circulation on water quality. Seasonal bathing waters had lower toxicity values. In the context of the work specifies that the impurities in the water cause its toxicity. However, there was no relationship between high UV254 absorbance values and higher toxicity of the samples. The toxicological analysis may serve as a screening test of swimming pool water quality. It is of key importance to check the free chlorine value for a water sample. High chlorine concentration can cause higher bioluminescence inhibition values.

  13. Emergence of a signal from background noise in the "memory of water" experiments: how to explain it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Francis

    2012-01-01

    After more than 20 years, the case of the "memory of water" still has not been resolved satisfactorily. After the affair with the journal Nature, Benveniste extended his results on high dilutions to an "electromagnetic biology" and then to a "digital biology," where electromagnetic signals supposed to be emitted from biologically active solutions were said to be stored on magnetic memories. Although the results obtained by Benveniste and coworkers were obvious, the difficulties in reproducibility by other teams created doubt of the reality of the alleged phenomenon. In a first step, we analyzed a set of experiments obtained by Benveniste's team in the 1990s. We quantified the relationship between "expected" effects (ie, labels of the tested samples) and apparatus outcomes, and we defined the experimental conditions to observe significant correlations. We concluded that the results of these experiments were related to experimenter-dependent correlations, which did not support the initial "memory of water" hypothesis. The fact that a signal emerged from background noise, however, remained puzzling. Therefore, in a second step, we described Benveniste's experiments according to the relational interpretation of quantum physics of C. Rovelli. In this interpretation, the state of a system is observer-dependent and the collapse of the wave function appears only in the states relative to a given observer. This interpretation allowed us to elaborate a model describing Benveniste's experiments in which the emergence of a signal from background noise was described by the entanglement of the experimenter with the observed system. In conclusion, the pursuit of the experimental "proof" to support the "memory of water" hypothesis has prevented other interpretations. Although our hypothesis does not definitely dismiss the possibility of "memory of water," the experimenter-dependent entanglement could be an attractive alternative interpretation of Benveniste's experiments

  14. Study of influence of an experiment scale on cylinder test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar A. Trzciński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work, influence of a scale of experiment on the results of cylindrical test used todetermine the acceleration capabilities of explosives was analyzed. Explosives used in ammunition(TNT, hexogen and explosives for civil purpose (ammonals were selected for testing. Copper tubeswith different diameters and wall thickness were used. Conclusions are drawn regarding the advisabilityof increasing or decreasing the scale of the cylinder test.[b]Keywords[/b]: explosives, acceleration ability, cylinder test

  15. Laboratory Experiments to Investigate the Exchange of Water Between the Atmosphere and Surface on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakakos, G.; Whiteway, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory chamber experiments have been carried out to investigate the exchange of water between the atmosphere and surface on Mars. Raman Scattering was applied to detect water uptake by samples of magnesium perchlorate hexahydrate. When exposed to the water vapor pressure and temperatures found at the Phoenix landing site, magnesium perchlorate hexahydrate samples of the size found on Mars began to undergo deliquescence at temperatures above the frost point temperature for pure water ice. Significant water uptake from the atmosphere began to occur within minutes, indicating that bulk deliquescence is likely to occur on present-day Mars. This demonstrates that perchlorates in the surface material can contribute to the hydrological cycle on Mars by absorbing water directly from the atmosphere. Chamber experiments have also been conducted to study adsorption of water on regolith grains. Raman spectroscopy has been applied to study the adsorption properties of zeolites under conditions found at the Phoenix landing site on Mars. Preliminary experimental results indicate that zeolites on the surface of Mars are capable of adsorbing water from the atmosphere on diurnal time scales and that Raman spectroscopy provides a promising method for detecting this process during a landed mission.

  16. Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  17. Experience of inundation or drought alters the responses of plants to subsequent water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shu; Callaway, Ragan M.; Zhou, Dao-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The availability of water is often highly variable over the life of a plant in nature, and most plants experience episodic extremes in water scarcity and abundance. The importance of plant plasticity in coping with such experiences is widely recognized, but little is known about how plastic...... responses to current conditions are affected by prior environmental experiences. * Our objectives were to investigate the effects of early inundation or drought on the subsequent responses of plant species to the same, opposite or more favourable conditions. * To address these questions, we subjected four...... invasive and four native herbaceous perennial species from different habitats (xeric, mesic, hydric) to two rounds of hydrological treatments (drought, moderate water, inundation) and analysed the effects of the early treatments on survival and performance (total biomass and relative growth) of individuals...

  18. Microgravity Multi-Phase Flow Experiment for Suborbital Testing (MFEST) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), had previously developed an orbital flight experiment to 1) test the feasibility of a...

  19. Apollo A-7L Spacesuit Tests and Certification, and Apollo 7 Through 14 Missions Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBarron, James W., II

    2015-01-01

    As a result of his 50 years of experience and research, Jim McBarron shared his significant knowledge about Apollo A-7L spacesuit certification testing and Apollo 7 through 14 missions' spacesuit details.

  20. Towards WaterLab: A Test Facility for New Cyber-Physical Technologies in Water Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tejada, Arturo; Horváth, Klaudia; Shiromoto, Humberto Stein; Bosman, Hedde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the initial steps in the development of WaterLab, an ambitious experimental facility for the testing of new cyber-physical technologies in drinking water distribution networks (DWDN). WaterLab's initial focus is on wireless control networks and on data-based, distributed anomaly detection over wireless sensor networks. The former can be used to control the hydraulic properties of a DWDN, while the latter can be used for in-situ detection and isolation of contamination and h...

  1. Strategy for Testing the Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    that make up each major grouping (Figure 1). It must be noted that the major endpoints of the tree (e.g., Porifera , Mollusca, Diatoms, Red Algae) are...dwelling marine invertebrates have planktonic stages (Barnes, 1974), which are assayed as zooplankton in BWT testing. Within the animal or zooplankton...community. 21 5.0 REFERENCES Barnes, R.D. (1974). Invertebrate Zoology. Third Edition. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. Bavykin, S.G., J.P. Akowski

  2. Initial Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeond, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas,Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    The Memory Test Experiment is a space test of a ferroelectric memory device on a low Earth orbit satellite that launched in November 2010. The memory device being tested is a commercial Ramtron Inc. 512K memory device. The circuit was designed into the satellite avionics and is not used to control the satellite. The test consists of writing and reading data with the ferroelectric based memory device. Any errors are detected and are stored on board the satellite. The data is sent to the ground through telemetry once a day. Analysis of the data can determine the kind of error that was found and will lead to a better understanding of the effects of space radiation on memory systems. The test is one of the first flight demonstrations of ferroelectric memory in a near polar orbit which allows testing in a varied radiation environment. The initial data from the test is presented. This paper details the goals and purpose of this experiment as well as the development process. The process for analyzing the data to gain the maximum understanding of the performance of the ferroelectric memory device is detailed.

  3. Production test IP-750 raw water as a reactor coolant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frymier, J.W.; Geier, R.G.

    1966-08-10

    Approximately ten years ago single-tube tests demonstrated the feasibility of using unfiltered river water as a reactor coolant from the standpoint of aluminum corrosion and film formation. However, some effluent activity penalty was indicated. Inasmuch as both current water plant operation and the characteristics of Columbia River water have changed, it was deemed appropriate to reinvestigate the use of partially treated water as a reactor coolant. This report summarizes the results of a half-reactor test carried out at F Reactor.

  4. Water-anion hydrogen bonding dynamics: Ultrafast IR experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Steven A.; Thompson, Ward H.; Fayer, Michael D.

    2017-06-01

    Many of water's remarkable properties arise from its tendency to form an intricate and robust hydrogen bond network. Understanding the dynamics that govern this network is fundamental to elucidating the behavior of pure water and water in biological and physical systems. In ultrafast nonlinear infrared experiments, the accessible time scales are limited by water's rapid vibrational relaxation (1.8 ps for dilute HOD in H2O), precluding interrogation of slow hydrogen bond evolution in non-bulk systems. Here, hydrogen bonding dynamics in bulk D2O were studied from the perspective of the much longer lived (36.2 ps) CN stretch mode of selenocyanate (SeCN-) using polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) experiments, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations make use of the empirical frequency mapping approach, applied to SeCN- for the first time. The PSPP experiments and simulations show that the orientational correlation function decays via fast (2.0 ps) restricted angular diffusion (wobbling-in-a-cone) and complete orientational diffusive randomization (4.5 ps). Spectral diffusion, quantified in terms of the frequency-frequency correlation function, occurs on two time scales. The initial 0.6 ps time scale is attributed to small length and angle fluctuations of the hydrogen bonds between water and SeCN-. The second 1.4 ps measured time scale, identical to that for HOD in bulk D2O, reports on the collective reorganization of the water hydrogen bond network around the anion. The experiments and simulations provide details of the anion-water hydrogen bonding and demonstrate that SeCN- is a reliable vibrational probe of the ultrafast spectroscopy of water.

  5. Experimental data from coastal diffusion tests. [Smoke diffusion over coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynor, G S; Brown, R M; SethuRaman, S

    1976-10-01

    Data are reported from a series of seven experiments on the diffusion of smoke plumes over northeast Atlantic Ocean coastal waters in response to wind fluctuations and other meteorological variables. A qualitative description of smoke behavior during each experiment is included and photographs of the smoke are included to illustrate the type of diffusion observed. (CH)

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal mediation of biomass-density relationship of Medicago sativa L. under two water conditions in a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Liming; Tang, Jianjun; Bai, Minge; Chen, Xin

    2011-05-01

    The biomass-density relationship (whereby the biomass of individual plants decreases as plant density increases) has generally been explained by competition for resources. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are able to affect plant interactions by mediating resource utilization, but whether this AMF-mediated interaction will change the biomass-density relationship is unclear. We conducted an experiment to test the hypothesis that AMF will shift the biomass-density relationship by affecting intraspecific competition. Four population densities (10, 100, 1,000, or 10,000 seedlings per square meter) of Medicago sativa L. were planted in field plots. Water application (1,435 or 327.7 mm/year) simulated precipitation in wet areas (sufficient water) and arid areas (insufficient water). The fungicide benomyl was applied to suppress AMF in some plots ("low-AMF" treatment) and not in others ("high-AMF" treatment). The effect of the AMF treatment on the biomass-density relationship depended on water conditions. High AMF enhanced the decrease of individual biomass with increasing density (the biomass-density line had a steeper slope) when water was sufficient but not when water was insufficient. AMF treatment did not affect plant survival rate or population size but did affect absolute competition intensity (ACI). When water was sufficient, ACI was significantly higher in the high-AMF treatment than in the low-AMF treatment, but ACI was unaffected by AMF treatment when water was insufficient. Our results suggest that AMF status did not impact survival rate and population size but did shift the biomass-density relationship via effects on intraspecific competition. This effect of AMF on the biomass-density relationship depended on the availability of water.

  7. Ongoing research experiments at the former Soviet nuclear test site in eastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, William S.; Kluchko, Luke J.; Konovalov, Vladimir; Vouille, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Degelen mountain, located in EasternKazakhstan near the city of Semipalatinsk, was once the Soviets most active underground nuclear test site. Two hundred fifteen nuclear tests were conducted in 181 tunnels driven horizontally into its many ridges--almost twice the number of tests as at any other Soviet underground nuclear test site. It was also the site of the first Soviet underground nuclear test--a 1-kiloton device detonated on October 11, 1961. Until recently, the details of testing at Degelen were kept secret and have been the subject of considerable speculation. However, in 1991, the Semipalatinsk test site became part of the newly independent Republic of Kazakhstan; and in 1995, the Kazakhstani government concluded an agreement with the U.S. Department of Defense to eliminate the nuclear testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. This agreement, which calls for the "demilitarization of the infrastructure directly associated with the nuclear weapons test tunnels," has been implemented as the "Degelen Mountain Tunnel Closure Program." The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, in partnership with the Department of Energy, has permitted the use of the tunnel closure project at the former nuclear test site as a foundation on which to support cost-effective, research-and-development-funded experiments. These experiments are principally designed to improve U.S. capabilities to monitor and verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), but have provided a new source of information on the effects of nuclear and chemical explosions on hard, fractured rock environments. These new data extends and confirms the results of recent Russian publications on the rock environment at the site and the mechanical effects of large-scale chemical and nuclear testing. In 1998, a large-scale tunnel closure experiment, Omega-1, was conducted in Tunnel 214 at Degelen mountain. In this experiment, a 100-ton chemical explosive blast was used to test technologies for monitoring the

  8. Solute Dispersion in Water-Unsaturated Porous Media - Results from High Resolution Lab Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, S.; Buchner, J. S.; Roth, K.

    2011-12-01

    Dispersion of dissolved substances depends on the velocity field and on the geometry of the flow domain. So far, most experimental and theoretical studies focused on water-saturated media. This allows a simple parameterization of the constant microscopic flow domain. For water-unsaturated porous media, the microscopic flow domain depends strongly on the local water saturation which in turn relates to the local flow. We study the dispersion of a conservative dye tracer in a series of lab experiments with different flow rates and water contents. The experiments are run in a thin slab of uniformly packed translucent glass beads (porous Hele-Shaw cell). A light-transmission method allows to capture concentration distributions at high temporal and spatial resolutions. A first series of experiments was run with different flow rates and under saturated condition. It reproduced the well-established power-law relation between microscopic Peclet number (mean velocity) and scaled dispersion coefficient. In a second series of experiments under non-saturated conditions, we find that dispersion is strongly increased. For gravity flow one expects a functional relationship between dispersion and water content which will be explored in our presentation.

  9. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... energy conservation standards adopted pursuant to EPCA, and for making representations about the... product literature, product markings, product marketing, or product installation and operation..., and allow for an accurate representation of efficiency of a wide range of different water heaters...

  10. The cryogenic pumping section of KATRIN and the test experiment TRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Eichelhardt, F

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) employs a Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) at ~ 4.5 K to suppress the tritium penetration into the spectrometers. A test experiment (TRAP - Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been set up to investigate the tritium pumping performance of the CPS.

  11. Methodology for performing RF reliability experiments on a generic test structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; de Vries, Rein J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses a new technique developed for generating well defined RF large voltage swing signals for on wafer experiments. This technique can be employed for performing a broad range of different RF reliability experiments on one generic test structure. The frequency dependence of a

  12. Review of recent benchmark experiments on integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Konno, Chikara; Fukahori, Tokio; Hayashi, Katsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    A survey work of recent benchmark experiments on an integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation was carried out as one of the work of the Task Force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this paper the results are compiled and the status of recent benchmark experiments is described. (author)

  13. Engineering test plan for field radionuclide migration experiments in climax granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Stone, R.; Lord, D.; Rector, N.; Failor, R.

    1982-05-01

    This Engineering Test Plan (ETP) describes field studies of radionuclide migration in fractured rock designed for the Climax grainite at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of the ETP is to provide a detailed written document of the method of accomplishing these studies. The ETP contains the experimental test plans, an instrumentation plan, system schematics, a description of the test facility, and a brief outline of the laboratory support studies needed to understand the chemistry of the rock/water/radionuclide interactions. Results of our initial hydrologic investigations are presented along with pretest predictions based on the hydrologic test results.

  14. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  15. Sport-Specific Motor Fitness Tests in Water Polo: Reliability, Validity and Playing Position Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport-specific motor fitness tests are not often examined in water polo. In this study we examined the reliability, factorial and discriminative validity of 10 water-polo-specific motor-fitness tests, namely: three tests of in-water jumps (thrusts, two characteristic swimming sprints (10 and 20 metres from the water start, three ball-throws (shoots, one test of passing precision (accuracy, and a test of the dynamometric force produced while using the eggbeater kick. The sample of subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15 to 17 years of age; 1.86 ± 0.07 m, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg. All tests were applied over three testing trials. Reliability analyses included Cronbach Alpha coefficients (CA, inter-item- correlations (IIR and coefficients of the variation (CV, while an analysis of variance was used to define any systematic bias between the testing trials. All tests except the test of accuracy (precision were found to be reliable (CA ranged from 0.83 to 0.97; IIR from 0.62 to 0.91; CV from 2% to 21%; with small and irregular biases between the testing trials. Factor analysis revealed that jumping capacities as well as throwing and sprinting capacities should be observed as a relatively independent latent dimensions among young water polo players. Discriminative validity of the applied tests is partially proven since the playing positions significantly (p < 0.05 differed in some of the applied tests, with the points being superior in their fitness capacities in comparison to their teammates. This study included players from one of the world’s best junior National leagues, and reported values could be used as fitness standards for such an age. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the proposed test procedures to older subjects and females.

  16. Understanding the experiences of allergy testing: a qualitative study of people with perceived serious allergic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Irshad, Tasneem; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the experience of patients with perceived severe allergic disorders in obtaining allergen testing. In-depth interviews with 20 purposively sampled adults and parents of children with, or at perceived risk of, serious allergic problems. Data were analysed thematically, drawing on Frank's classification of narratives to help interpret patient/career accounts. Accounts fell into four main groups: (i) children with anaphylaxis occurring 'out of the blue' (ii) children in whom the recognition of severe allergy by professionals was perceived as delayed; (iii) adults with anaphylaxis who adapted; and (iv) adults who remained in search of an answer. Whereas children had eventually been assessed and tested in a specialist clinic, adults had difficulty in obtaining testing, and most-including those for whom current guidelines would recommend testing-had not been tested. Participants incorporated their past experience of testing into narrative accounts, which included current ways of dealing with their allergy. They saw testing as only one component of appropriate allergy management which required interpretive expertise in professionals who ordered tests. Despite the limitations in NHS allergy testing provision, there was relatively little interest among patients/carers in using complementary and alternative providers of allergy testing. Patients perceived major shortfalls in relation to NHS allergy testing provision, focusing on both the availability of testing and expertise in interpreting the results. Any increased provision of testing needs to be matched by access to specialist interpretation of these tests.

  17. Nitrate Accumulation and Leaching in Surface and Ground Water Based on Simulated Rainfall Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Li, Xing-hua; Zhang, Shao-long; Wang, Hong-jie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the process of nitrate accumulation and leaching in surface and ground water, we conducted simulated rainfall experiments. The experiments were performed in areas of 5.3 m2 with bare slopes of 3° that were treated with two nitrogen fertilizer inputs, high (22.5 g/m2 NH4NO3) and control (no fertilizer), and subjected to 2 hours of rainfall, with. From the 1st to the 7th experiments, the same content of fertilizer mixed with soil was uniformly applied to the soil surface at 10 minutes before rainfall, and no fertilizer was applied for the 8th through 12th experiments. Initially, the time-series nitrate concentration in the surface flow quickly increased, and then it rapidly decreased and gradually stabilized at a low level during the fertilizer experiments. The nitrogen loss in the surface flow primarily occurred during the first 18.6 minutes of rainfall. For the continuous fertilizer experiments, the mean nitrate concentrations in the groundwater flow remained at less than 10 mg/L before the 5th experiment, and after the 7th experiment, these nitrate concentrations were greater than 10 mg/L throughout the process. The time-series process of the changing concentration in the groundwater flow exhibited the same parabolic trend for each fertilizer experiment. However, the time at which the nitrate concentration began to change lagged behind the start time of groundwater flow by approximately 0.94 hours on average. The experiments were also performed with no fertilizer. In these experiments, the mean nitrate concentration of groundwater initially increased continuously, and then, the process exhibited the same parabolic trend as the results of the fertilization experiments. The nitrate concentration decreased in the subsequent experiments. Eight days after the 12 rainfall experiments, 50.53% of the total nitrate applied remained in the experimental soil. Nitrate residues mainly existed at the surface and in the bottom soil layers, which represents a

  18. Nitrate Accumulation and Leaching in Surface and Ground Water Based on Simulated Rainfall Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the process of nitrate accumulation and leaching in surface and ground water, we conducted simulated rainfall experiments. The experiments were performed in areas of 5.3 m2 with bare slopes of 3° that were treated with two nitrogen fertilizer inputs, high (22.5 g/m2 NH4NO3 and control (no fertilizer, and subjected to 2 hours of rainfall, with. From the 1st to the 7th experiments, the same content of fertilizer mixed with soil was uniformly applied to the soil surface at 10 minutes before rainfall, and no fertilizer was applied for the 8th through 12th experiments. Initially, the time-series nitrate concentration in the surface flow quickly increased, and then it rapidly decreased and gradually stabilized at a low level during the fertilizer experiments. The nitrogen loss in the surface flow primarily occurred during the first 18.6 minutes of rainfall. For the continuous fertilizer experiments, the mean nitrate concentrations in the groundwater flow remained at less than 10 mg/L before the 5th experiment, and after the 7th experiment, these nitrate concentrations were greater than 10 mg/L throughout the process. The time-series process of the changing concentration in the groundwater flow exhibited the same parabolic trend for each fertilizer experiment. However, the time at which the nitrate concentration began to change lagged behind the start time of groundwater flow by approximately 0.94 hours on average. The experiments were also performed with no fertilizer. In these experiments, the mean nitrate concentration of groundwater initially increased continuously, and then, the process exhibited the same parabolic trend as the results of the fertilization experiments. The nitrate concentration decreased in the subsequent experiments. Eight days after the 12 rainfall experiments, 50.53% of the total nitrate applied remained in the experimental soil. Nitrate residues mainly existed at the surface and in the bottom soil layers, which

  19. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

  20. Water Load Test in Children with Chronic Abdominal Pain or Obesity Compared with Nonobese Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrouk, Rami; Karpinski, Aryn; Lavenbarg, Teri; Belmont, John; McCallum, Richard W; Hyman, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Satiety is the perception of satisfied fullness and represents a summation of neural and hormonal influences. Satiety can be assessed by drink tests, including water load. The objective of our study was to confirm the difference in water load volume between nonobese control children and children with functional dyspepsia (FD), children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and obese children. A total of 158 children ages 6 to 13 years participated in the study. There were 43 children with FD, 25 with IBS, 44 obese children, and 46 nonobese age-matched control children. Subjects drank as much water as possible in 3 minutes or until their stomachs felt full. Children in the FD and IBS groups drank less water than did the nonobese controls; the obese children drank more water than did the nonobese controls. The water load test demonstrated high specificity but poor sensitivity in predicting children with FD. A water load test offers a simple, noninvasive research tool to measure satiety. Children with chronic abdominal pain drank less than nonobese control children; however, the water load test did not discriminate between FD and IBS. Obese children drank more water than the other groups, suggesting the possibility of an underlying abnormality in the perception of satiety.

  1. Relap5/mod2 post-test calculation of a loss of feedwater experiment at the Pactel test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protze, M. [Siemens-KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Post-test calculations for verification purposes of the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 are of fundamental importance for the licensing procedure. The RELAP5/MOD2 code has a large international assessment base regarding western PWR. WWER-reactors are russian designed PWRs with some specific differences compared with the western PWR`s, especially the horizontal steam generators. For that reason some post-test calculations have to be performed to verify the RELAP5/MOD2 code for these WWER typical phenomena. The impact of the horizontal steam generators on the accident behaviour during transients or pipe ruptures on the secondary side is significant. The nodalization of the test facility PACTEL was chosen equally to WWER plant nodalization to verify the use of a coarse modelling of the steam generator secondary side for analyses of transient with decreasing water level in the SG secondary side. The calculational results showed a good compliance to the test results, demonstrating the correct use of a coarse nodalization. To sum up, the RELAP5/ MOD2 results met the test results appropriately thereby the RELAP5/ MOD2 code is validated for analyses of transients with decreasing water level in a horizontal steam generator secondary side. (orig.). 4 refs.

  2. Status and Prospect of Test Methods of Quality Silicone Water Repellent for Protecting Reinforced Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H. Y.; Yuan, Z. Y.; Yang, Z.; Shan, G. L. [Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing (China); Shen, M. X. [Hehai University, Nanjing (China)

    2017-06-15

    Impregnating with quality silicone water repellent on the concrete surface is an effective method of protecting concrete. Quality silicone water repellent has been widely used in the engineering profession because of its desirable properties such as hydrophobicity, keeping concrete breathable and preserving the original appearance of the concrete. The companies in China that produce silicone water repellent are listed. Test methods in the specifications or standards about silicone water repellent in China are summed. The test methods relative to durability of concrete impregnated with silicone water repellent (such as resistant to chloride ion penetration, resistant to alkali, resistance to freezing and thawing and weather ability etc.) and the constructive quality (such as water absorption rate, impregnating depth and the dry velocity coefficient etc.) are compared and analyzed. The results indicate that there are differences among test methods relative to different specifications with the same index and therefore, confusion has ensued when selecting test methods. All test methods with the exception of the method of water absorption rate by using a Karsten flask are not non-destructive methods or conducted in a laboratory. Finally, further research on silicone water repellent during application is proposed.

  3. A focused liquid jet formed by a water hammer in a test tube

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyama, Akihito; Ando, Keita; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate motion of a gas-liquid interface in a test tube induced by a large acceleration via impulsive force. We conduct simple experiments in which the tube partially filled with a liquid falls under gravity and impacts a rigid floor. A curved gas-liquid interface inside the tube reverses and eventually forms an elongated jet (i.e. the so-called a focused jet). In our experiments, there arises either vibration of the interface or increment in the velocity of a liquid jet accompanied by the onset of cavitation in the liquid column. These phenomena cannot be explained by considering pressure impulse in a classical potential flow analysis, which does not account for finite speeds of sound as well as phase change. Here we model such water-hammer events as a result of one-dimensional pressure wave propagation and its interaction with boundaries through acoustic impedance mismatching. The method of characteristics is applied to describe pressure wave interactions and the subsequent cavitation. The proposed m...

  4. Development of a test facility for analyzing transients in supercritical water-cooled reactors by fractional scaling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, Thiago D., E-mail: thiagodbtr@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN—RJ), Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro Caixa-Postal: 68550, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Mário A. B. da, E-mail: mabs500@gmail.com [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (CTG/UFPE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, Recife 50740-540, PE (Brazil); Lapa, Celso M.F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN—RJ), Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro Caixa-Postal: 68550, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    The feasibility of performing experiments using water under supercritical conditions is limited by technical and financial difficulties. These difficulties can be overcome by using model fluids that are characterized by feasible supercritical conditions, that is, lower critical pressure and critical temperature. Experimental investigations are normally used to determine the conditions under which model fluids reliably represent supercritical fluids under steady-state conditions. A fluid-to-fluid scaling approach has been proposed to determine the model fluids that represent supercritical fluids in a transient state. Recently, a similar technique known as fractional scaling analysis was developed to establish the conditions under which experiments can be performed using models that represent transients in prototypes. This paper presents a fractional scaling analysis application to determine parameters for a test facility in which transient conditions in supercritical water-cooled reactors are simulated by using carbon dioxide as a model fluid, whose critical point conditions are more feasible than those of water. Similarity is obtained between water (prototype) and carbon dioxide (model) by depressurization in a simple vessel. The main parameters required for the construction of a future test facility are obtained using the proposed method.

  5. REACTIVITY INITIATED ACCIDENT TEST SERIES TEST RIA 1-4 EXPERIMENT PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S. K.; Martinson, Z. R.

    1980-02-01

    The results of the pretest analyses for Test RIA 1-4 are presented. Test RIA 1-4 consists of a 3x3 array of previously irradiated MAP! fuel rods. The rods have 5.7% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in zircaloy-4 cladding with an average burnup of 5300 MWd/t. The objective for Test RIA 1-4 is to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following RIA event for a radial-average peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g UO{sub 2}). Radial averaged peak fuel enthalpies of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g) 1077 J/g {257 cal/g), and 978 J/g (234 cal/g) for the corner, side, and center fuel rods, respectively, are planned to be achieved during a 2.7 ms reactor period power burst. The results of the FRAP-T5 analyses indicate that all nine rods will fail within 26 ms from the start of the power burst due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. All of the rods will undergo partial fuel melting. All rods will operate under extended film boiling (>30 sec) conditions and about 70% of the cladding length is expected to be molten. Approximately 15% of the cladding thickness will be oxided. Fuel swelling due to fission gas release and melting combined with fuel and cladding fragmentation, will probably produce a complete coolant flow blockage within the flow shroud.

  6. Development of Next Generation Memory Test Experiment for Deployment on a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd; Ho, Fat D.

    2012-01-01

    The original Memory Test Experiment successfully flew on the FASTSAT satellite launched in November 2010. It contained a single Ramtron 512K ferroelectric memory. The memory device went through many thousands of read/write cycles and recorded any errors that were encountered. The original mission length was schedule to last 6 months but was extended to 18 months. New opportunities exist to launch a similar satellite and considerations for a new memory test experiment should be examined. The original experiment had to be designed and integrated in less than two months, so the experiment was a simple design using readily available parts. The follow-on experiment needs to be more sophisticated and encompass more technologies. This paper lays out the considerations for the design and development of this follow-on flight memory experiment. It also details the results from the original Memory Test Experiment that flew on board FASTSAT. Some of the design considerations for the new experiment include the number and type of memory devices to be used, the kinds of tests that will be performed, other data needed to analyze the results, and best use of limited resources on a small satellite. The memory technologies that are considered are FRAM, FLASH, SONOS, Resistive Memory, Phase Change Memory, Nano-wire Memory, Magneto-resistive Memory, Standard DRAM, and Standard SRAM. The kinds of tests that could be performed are read/write operations, non-volatile memory retention, write cycle endurance, power measurements, and testing Error Detection and Correction schemes. Other data that may help analyze the results are GPS location of recorded errors, time stamp of all data recorded, radiation measurements, temperature, and other activities being perform by the satellite. The resources of power, volume, mass, temperature, processing power, and telemetry bandwidth are extremely limited on a small satellite. Design considerations must be made to allow the experiment to not interfere

  7. The world of water, or testing neoliberalism: Is water a common good or private property?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošonc Alpar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The backbone of neoliberalisation is privatization of common goods from the perspective of market naturalization and creation of a specific resource regime. It is of important to emphasis that neoliberalism coexists with other societal projects and we are witnessing simultaneity amongst different projects. The naturalization of market structures and identification of market with competition produce intensified risk-related consequences for the society; actually, neoliberalism exposes the society to environmental risks with a number of concrete examples. The author analyses the importance of water resources from the economic perspective, especially with regard to the neoliberal perspectives on water resources. The modalities of market-based usage of water are presented, constituting the property-rights regime. It is argued that an unconditional, socially irresponsible privatization does not take into account community-related management of common pools and dogmatically acknowledges only state and private forms of property. Such a critical view is supported with considerations that a the ongoing form of economic globalization does not maintain the development of the green market b water is a common good embedded in cultural and political relationships and filled with symbolic meanings. The impasse concerning the status of water takes place in the context where the Washington-consensus proved to be defective. At the same there is no other coherently formulated corpus of ideas to substitute the neoliberal canon. Water as a common good needs normative engagement and ecological economy has a task to participate in determination of sustainable levels of costs and prices of water resources.

  8. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M.; Blanchet, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cellier, F. [Framatome, Centre Technique, 71 - Saint Marcel (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tore supra (TS) has used from the beginning of operation in 1989 actively cooled plasma facing components. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be up to 230 deg. C at 40 bars, a special water chemistry of the cooling water plant was suggested in order to avoid eventual water leaks due to corrosion (general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion, etc.) at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, pipes, bellows, water boxes, coils, etc. From the beginning of TS operation, in vessel components (e.g. wall protection panels, limiters, ergodic divertor coils, neutralisers and diagnostics) represented a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit mainly such as stainless steel, Inconel, CuCrZr, Nickel and Copper. These different materials were joined together by welding (St to St, Inconel to Inconel, CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to St-St via a Ni sleeve adapter), brazing (St-St to Cu and Cu-LSTP), friction (CuCrZr and Cu to St-St), explosion (CuCrZr to St-St) and memory metal junction (Cryo-fit to Cu - only test sample). Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralized water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/ 7.0 (25 deg. C/ 200 deg. C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 deg. C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal

  9. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  10. Water resources development and management: an experience in rural hilly area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S

    2010-01-01

    The Himalayan region of Tehri Garhwal in India has scattered habitations in the villages with scanty, non-perennial and unsafe water resources like springs and streams. Poor environmental conditions arising from unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitary measures, unhygienic disposal of excreta, sullage and accumulation of solid wastes have resulted in poor public health. The experiences gained through water supply and sanitation studies carried out especially in this rural area have been shared in this paper so as to enable adoption of relevant practices and technologies developed by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI, India) in the affected areas. Environmental protection of the streams and springs for sustained water availability and safe drinking water supply was ensured with active public participation, training, and awareness programs. Various surface rainwater harvesting structures were constructed at suitable sites along with ferro-cement roofwater harvesting tanks in selected villages. The activities related to designing and commissioning of a small slow sand filtration unit were carried out at Chhati (Nakot) village for safe drinking water supply. Chlorination pots were demonstrated and installed in rainwater harvesting tanks for disinfection of water for drinking purpose. Water quality assessment and health survey (parasitic and hemoglobin investigation) in the affected villages were carried out before and after technological intervention. The training and awareness programs were organised for people of 23 villages in the study area covering water and sanitation related topics. The beneficiary's opinions, perceptions, apprehensions, as well as expectations reflected positive approach towards the achievement of anticipated benefits and impacts.

  11. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  12. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Castello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical water gasification (SCWG is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 °C, p > 22 MPa are definitely a challenge for the manufacturing of the reactors. Metal surfaces are indeed subject to corrosion under hydrothermal conditions, and expensive special alloys are needed to overcome such drawbacks. A ceramic reactor could be a potential solution to this issue. Finding a suitable material is, however, complex because the catalytic effect of the material can influence the gas yield and composition. In this work, a research reactor featuring an internal alumina inlay was utilized to conduct long-time (16 h batch tests with real biomasses and model compounds. The same experiments were also conducted in batch reactors made of stainless steel and Inconel 625. The results show that the three devices have similar performance patterns in terms of gas production, although in the ceramic reactor higher yields of C2+ hydrocarbons were obtained. The SEM observation of the reacted alumina surface revealed a good resistance of such material to supercritical conditions, even though some intergranular corrosion was observed.

  13. Water channel experiments of a novel fully-passive flapping-foil turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Matthieu; Dumas, Guy; Rahimpour, Mostafa; Oshkai, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Experiments have been conducted to assess the performances of a fully-passive flapping-foil hydrokinetic turbine for which the blade's motions are stemming from the interaction between the blade's elastic supports (springs and dampers) and the flow field. Previous numerical studies conducted by Peng & Zhu (2009) and Zhu (2012) have proved that a simplified version of such a turbine can extract a substantial amount of energy from the flow while offering the potential to greatly simplify the complex mechanical apparatus needed to constrain and link the blade's pitching and heaving motions in the case of the more classical flapping-foil turbine (e.g., Kinsey et al., 2011). Based on the promising numerical investigations of Veilleux (2014) and Veilleux & Dumas (2016), who proposed a more general version of this novel concept, a prototype has been built and tested in a water channel at a chord Reynolds number of 17,000. Periodic motions of large amplitudes have been observed leading to interesting energy harvesting efficiencies reaching 25% for some specific sets of structural parameters. The sensitivity of the turbine's dynamics to each of the seven structural parameters appearing in the equations of motion has been experimentally evaluated around a case close to the optimal one. Financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) is gratefully acknowledged by the authors.

  14. Student Experiences of High-Stakes Testing for Progression in One Undergraduate Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenny, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing in undergraduate nursing education are those assessments used to make critical decisions for student progression and graduation. The purpose of this study was to explore the different ways students experience multiple high-stakes tests for progression in one undergraduate BSN program. Research participants were prelicensure…

  15. Standardized measures of critical thinking. Experience with the California Critical Thinking Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppa, C J

    1997-01-01

    Standardized measures of student critical thinking are an attractive option for nursing educators under pressure to demonstrate student higher order thinking skills. One program's experience using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory illustrates some of the problems of using standardized test and potential solutions.

  16. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure: Drawing on Twentieth-Century Danish History of Education Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based…

  17. Water Associated Zero Maze: A novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, freezing and startle behaviors in the context of a previously experienced stress are taken as an indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-like symptoms in rats. However, PTSD is characterized by large individual variations of symptoms. In order to take into consideration the complex and long term distinctive variations in effects of trauma exposure additional behavioral measures are required.The current study used a novel behavioral test, the Water Associated Zero Maze (WAZM. This test was planned to enable a formation of an association between the context of the maze and an underwater trauma or swim stress in order to examine the impact of exposure to the context which immediately precedes a stressful or a traumatic experience on rat's complex behavior. Rats were exposed to the WAZM and immediately after to an underwater trauma or short swim. One month later rats were re-exposed to the context of the WAZM while their behavior was video recorded. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the amygdala was measured 90 min after this exposure.The results of the current study indicate that the WAZM can be used to discern behavioral changes measured a long time after the actual traumatic or stressful events. Furthermore, the behavioral changes detected were accompanied by changes of c-Fos expression in the amygdala of exposed rats. We suggest that the WAZM can be used to model traumatic memories re-experiencing in rodent models of human stress-related pathologies such as PTSD.

  18. Sequential Design of Experiments to Maximize Learning from Carbon Capture Pilot Plant Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soepyan, Frits B.; Morgan, Joshua C.; Omell, Benjamin P.; Zamarripa-Perez, Miguel A.; Matuszewski, Michael S.; Miller, David C.

    2018-02-06

    Pilot plant test campaigns can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is of interest to maximize the amount of learning and the efficiency of the test campaign given the limited number of experiments that can be conducted. This work investigates the use of sequential design of experiments (SDOE) to overcome these challenges by demonstrating its usefulness for a recent solvent-based CO2 capture plant test campaign. Unlike traditional design of experiments methods, SDOE regularly uses information from ongoing experiments to determine the optimum locations in the design space for subsequent runs within the same experiment. However, there are challenges that need to be addressed, including reducing the high computational burden to efficiently update the model, and the need to incorporate the methodology into a computational tool. We address these challenges by applying SDOE in combination with a software tool, the Framework for Optimization, Quantification of Uncertainty and Surrogates (FOQUS) (Miller et al., 2014a, 2016, 2017). The results of applying SDOE on a pilot plant test campaign for CO2 capture suggests that relative to traditional design of experiments methods, SDOE can more effectively reduce the uncertainty of the model, thus decreasing technical risk. Future work includes integrating SDOE into FOQUS and using SDOE to support additional large-scale pilot plant test campaigns.

  19. Danish experiments with a grid system tested in the North Sea shrimp fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Hansen, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Grids have been proven successful worldwide as bycatch reducers in shrimp fisheries but have never been tested in the North Sea shrimp fishery. The objectives of this experiment were to develop and test a flexible grid system for the Danish Fladen Ground shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery, which...... can retain marketable catches of roundfish and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). The grid system was made of polyamide with a fish escape hole at the top and a Norway lobster escape hole at the bottom. Hinges made the grid flexible. The grid system was developed acid tested in a flume tank......) in the first experiment. The grid system was altered in experiment 2 resulting in no significant difference in the catch of cod and saithe above the minimum landing size while the catch of Norway lobster and shrimp improved significantly. Experiments with collecting bags indicated that most fish went through...

  20. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  1. Dataset for Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the results of a simulation study using the source inversion techniques available in the Water Security Toolkit. The data was created to test...

  2. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  3. Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenbach, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

  4. Nitrate Accumulation and Leaching in Surface and Ground Water Based on Simulated Rainfall Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Wang; Jian-en Gao; Xing-hua Li; Shao-long Zhang; Hong-jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the process of nitrate accumulation and leaching in surface and ground water, we conducted simulated rainfall experiments. The experiments were performed in areas of 5.3 m2 with bare slopes of 3° that were treated with two nitrogen fertilizer inputs, high (22.5 g/m2 NH4NO3) and control (no fertilizer), and subjected to 2 hours of rainfall, with. From the 1st to the 7th experiments, the same content of fertilizer mixed with soil was uniformly applied to the soil surface at 10 minut...

  5. Batch test screening of industrial product/byproduct filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water ...

  6. A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter; Hilner, Emelie Kristin Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Core tests have demonstrated that decreasing the salinity of injection water can increase oil recovery. Although recovery is enhanced by simply decreasing salt content, optimising injection water salinty would offer a clear economic advantage for several reasons. Too low salinity risks swelling o...

  7. Twenty years of experience with central softening in The Netherlands : Water quality – Environmental benefits – Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, J.A.M.H.; Kramer, O.J.I.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Nederlof, M; Groenendijk, M

    2006-01-01

    Central softening has been utilized by the Dutch water utilities since the late 1970s. It was introduced in the water treatment process as a method to supply water with an optimum water composition to prevent lead and copper release and to prevent excessive scaling. Twenty years of experience show

  8. Forecast Surface Quality of Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Based on Neural Network and Verified by Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gui-Lin Yang

    2013-01-01

      In this study, firstly, the YL12 aluminum alloy is used as experimental materials, then in the following experiments it is cut in JJ-I-type water jet machines, and 1,000 group data are gotten by measurement...

  9. Sport-specific motor fitness tests in water polo: reliability, validity and playing position differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljevic, Ognjen; Spasic, Miodrag; Sekulic, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Sport-specific motor fitness tests are not often examined in water polo. In this study we examined the reliability, factorial and discriminative validity of 10 water-polo-specific motor-fitness tests, namely: three tests of in-water jumps (thrusts), two characteristic swimming sprints (10 and 20 metres from the water start), three ball-throws (shoots), one test of passing precision (accuracy), and a test of the dynamometric force produced while using the eggbeater kick. The sample of subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15 to 17 years of age; 1.86 ± 0.07 m, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg). All tests were applied over three testing trials. Reliability analyses included Cronbach Alpha coefficients (CA), inter-item- correlations (IIR) and coefficients of the variation (CV), while an analysis of variance was used to define any systematic bias between the testing trials. All tests except the test of accuracy (precision) were found to be reliable (CA ranged from 0.83 to 0.97; IIR from 0.62 to 0.91; CV from 2% to 21%); with small and irregular biases between the testing trials. Factor analysis revealed that jumping capacities as well as throwing and sprinting capacities should be observed as a relatively independent latent dimensions among young water polo players. Discriminative validity of the applied tests is partially proven since the playing positions significantly (p fitness capacities in comparison to their teammates. This study included players from one of the world's best junior National leagues, and reported values could be used as fitness standards for such an age. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the proposed test procedures to older subjects and females. Key PointsHere presented and validated sport specific water polo motor fitness tests are found to be reliable in the sample of young male water polo players.Factor analysis revealed existence of three inde-pendent latent motor dimensions, namely, in-water jumping capacity

  10. Large-scale dispersant leaching and effectiveness experiments with oils on calm water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alun; Trudel, B Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V

    2010-02-01

    The use of dispersants to treat oil spills in calm seas is discouraged because there is insufficient 'mixing energy' to cause immediate dispersion of the oil. However, dispersants might be applied while the seas are calm, in the expectation that they would work later when sea states increase. The present study examined the persistence of dispersants in treated oil slicks on calm water in a large outdoor wave tank. Test slicks, pre-mixed with dispersant, were allowed to stand on static and flowing water for up to six days, after which their dispersibility was tested by exposing them to breaking waves. Results showed that thicker slicks exposed to calm water for up to six days dispersed completely with the addition of breaking waves. Thinner slicks and slicks exposed to water movement became less dispersible within two days. The loss of dispersibility was caused by dispersant loss rather than by oil weathering. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  12. LLNL Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  13. Laboratory Test of a Cylindrical Heat Storage Module with Water and Sodium Acetate Trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    phase change material was reduced over 17 test cycles. The heat released after solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate with thickening agent and graphite was stable over the test cycles. Stable supercooling was obtained in 7 out of 17 test cycles with the module with sodium acetate...... trihydrate with extra water and in 6 out of 35 test cycles for the module with thickening agent....

  14. Slow Strain Rate Testing for Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Alloy 718 in Substitute Ocean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCoursiere, M. P.; Aidun, D. K.; Morrison, D. J.

    2017-05-01

    The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of near-peak-aged UNS N07718 (Alloy 718) was evaluated by performing slow strain rate tests at room temperature in air and substitute ocean water. Tests in substitute ocean water were accomplished in an environmental cell that enabled in situ cathodic charging under an applied potential of -1.1 V versus SCE. Some specimens were cathodically precharged for 4 or 16 weeks at the same potential in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl-distilled water solution at 50 °C. Unprecharged specimens tested in substitute ocean water exhibited only moderate embrittlement with plastic strain to failure decreasing by about 20% compared to unprecharged specimens tested in air. However, precharged specimens exhibited significant embrittlement with plastic strain to failure decreasing by about 70%. Test environment (air or substitute ocean water with in situ charging) and precharge time (4 or 16 weeks) had little effect on the results of the precharged specimens. Fracture surfaces of precharged specimens were typical of hydrogen embrittlement and consisted of an outer brittle ring related to the region in which hydrogen infused during precharging, a finely dimpled transition zone probably related to the region where hydrogen was drawn in by dislocation transport, and a central highly dimpled ductile region. Fracture surfaces of unprecharged specimens tested in substitute ocean water consisted of a finely dimpled outer ring and heavily dimpled central region typical of ductile fracture.

  15. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  16. HIV testing preferences among long distance truck drivers in Kenya: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Michael; George, Gavin; Lansdell, Emma; Mantell, Joanne E; Govender, Kaymarlin; Romo, Matthew; Odhiambo, Jacob; Mwai, Eva; Nyaga, Eston N; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    Providing HIV testing services to truck drivers in Africa is crucial but has proven challenging. The introduction of HIV self-testing promises to provide expanded service delivery options for clients, potentially increasing demand for services and expanding coverage - especially important for high-risk and difficult-to-reach populations. This study examines the preferences regarding HIV testing service delivery models, among long distance truck drivers to identify testing services that would appeal to this population. Using a discrete choice experiment, this study examines the drivers of choice regarding HIV counselling and testing among 305 truck drivers recruited from two roadside wellness clinics along major trucking routes in Kenya. Participants made trade-offs between characteristics of HIV testing service delivery models by making hypothetical choices in a series of paired HIV testing scenarios. Conditional logit models were used to identify the HIV testing characteristics driving the selection of preferred scenarios, as well as determine whether preferences interact with individual characteristics - especially HIV testing history. Participants preferred free, provider-administered HIV testing at a roadside clinic, using a finger-prick test, with in-person counselling, undertaken in the shortest possible time. The strongest driver of choice was the cost of the test. Those who had never tested previously preferred oral testing and telephonic counselling, while those who were not regular testers favoured clinic based - over self-testing. The results of this study indicate that for the majority of participants - most of whom had tested before - the existing services offered at roadside clinics were the preferred service delivery model. The introduction of oral self-testing increases the options available to truck drivers and may even improve testing uptake for some, especially among those who have never tested before. However, these findings suggest the impact

  17. Long Duration Life Test of Propylene Glycol Water Based Thermal Fluid Within Thermal Control Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung; Hill, Charles; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of thermal properties and resistance to microbial growth concluded that 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture was desirable for use as a fluid within a vehicle s thermal control loop. However, previous testing with a commercial mixture of PG and water containing phosphate corrosion inhibitors resulted in corrosion of aluminum within the test system and instability of the test fluid. This paper describes a follow-on long duration testing and analysis of 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture with inorganic corrosion inhibitors used in place of phosphates. The test evaluates the long-term fluid stability and resistance to microbial and chemical changes

  18. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Feretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L. These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia. No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  19. BIOMEX Experiment: Ultrastructural Alterations, Molecular Damage and Survival of the Fungus Cryomyces antarcticus after the Experiment Verification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; De Vera, Jean-Pierre; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; de la Torre, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano

    2017-06-01

    The search for traces of extinct or extant life in extraterrestrial environments is one of the main goals for astrobiologists; due to their ability to withstand stress producing conditions, extremophiles are perfect candidates for astrobiological studies. The BIOMEX project aims to test the ability of biomolecules and cell components to preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions, while at the same time investigating the survival capability of microorganisms. The experiment has been launched into space and is being exposed on the EXPOSE-R2 payload, outside of the International Space Station (ISS) over a time-span of 1.5 years. Along with a number of other extremophilic microorganisms, the Antarctic cryptoendolithic black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 has been included in the experiment. Before launch, dried colonies grown on Lunar and Martian regolith analogues were exposed to vacuum, irradiation and temperature cycles in ground based experiments (EVT1 and EVT2). Cultural and molecular tests revealed that the fungus survived on rock analogues under space and simulated Martian conditions, showing only slight ultra-structural and molecular damage.

  20. Measuring the Change in Water Table with Gravity Methods - a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Christiansen, Lars; Andersen, O. B.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity changes linearly with the change in soil water content. With the GRACE satellite mission the interest for ground-based gravity methods in hydrology has gained new attention. Time-lapse gravity data have the potential to constrain hydrological model parameters in a calibration scheme...... in water content, a controlled experiment was set up in 30 m by 20 m basin. The water table was lowered 0.69 m within 1½ hours and the corresponding gravity signal measured using two different approaches: a time series measurements at one location and a gravity network measurement including four points....... Both where in agreement with the calculated maximum theoretical gravity change of 27*10^-8 m/s^2. Uncertainties on the change in gravity in the network measurements where 4*10^-8 m/s^2 (one standard deviation). This corresponds to an infinite horizontal slab of water with a thickness of 0.1 m. The time...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF SAFETY OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER WITH USE OF ALIVE TEST - OBJECT – PLANARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYUDMILA G. ELISEEVA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The samples of drinking water in bottles were compared by organoleptic, chemical composition and safety. To determine safety the method of biotesting with Planaria (Dugesia tigrina was used. The degree of planarian regeneration in different water samples was measured. The data obtained showed that this test object may be successfully used for assessment of safety of bottled drinking water with sufficient correlation with organoleptic properties and toxic elements content. The properties of water were shown to depend on the source and producer.

  2. Testing of Commercial Hollow Fiber Membranes for Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Hanford, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Three commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane evaporators, modified for low pressure, were tested in a vacuum chamber at pressures below 33 pascals as potential space suit water membrane evaporator (SWME) heat rejection technologies. Water quality was controlled in a series of 25 tests, first simulating potable water reclaimed from waste water and then changing periodically to simulate the ever concentrating make-up of the circulating coolant over that is predicted over the course of 100 EVAs. Two of the systems, comprised of non-porous tubes with hydrophilic molecular channels as the water vapor transport mechanism, were severely impacted by the increasing concentrations of cations in the water. One of the systems, based on hydrophobic porous polypropylene tubes was not affected by the degrading water quality, or the presence of microbes. The polypropylene system, called SWME 1, was selected for further testing. An inverse flow configuration was also tested with SWME 1, with vacuum exposure on the inside of the tubes, provided only 20% of the performance of the standard configuration. SWME 1 was also modified to block 50% and 90% of the central tube layers, and tested to investigate performance efficiency. Performance curves were also developed in back-pressure regulation tests, and revealed important design considerations arising from the fully closed valve. SWME 1 was shown to be insensitive to air bubbles injected into the coolant loop. Development and testing of a full-scale prototype based on this technology and these test results is in progress.

  3. Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station ECLSS: Part 1, Bulk Phase Water and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recover Tests (WRT) from 1990-1998. These tests show that it is possible to recycle water from different sources including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municpally produced tap water.

  4. Efficiency of Software Testing Techniques: A Controlled Experiment Replication and Network Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Gómez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common approaches to software verification include static testing techniques, such as code reading, and dynamic testing techniques, such as black-box and white-box testing. Objective: With the aim of gaining a~better understanding of software testing techniques, a~controlled experiment replication and the synthesis of previous experiments which examine the efficiency of code reading, black-box and white-box testing techniques were conducted. Method: The replication reported here is composed of four experiments in which instrumented programs were used. Participants randomly applied one of the techniques to one of the instrumented programs. The outcomes were synthesized with seven experiments using the method of network meta-analysis (NMA. Results: No significant differences in the efficiency of the techniques were observed. However, it was discovered the instrumented programs had a~significant effect on the efficiency. The NMA results suggest that the black-box and white-box techniques behave alike; and the efficiency of code reading seems to be sensitive to other factors. Conclusion: Taking into account these findings, the Authors suggest that prior to carrying out software verification activities, software engineers should have a~clear understanding of the software product to be verified; they can apply either black-box or white-box testing techniques as they yield similar defect detection rates.

  5. Integral experiments on in-vessel coolability and vessel creep: results and analysis of the FOREVER-C1 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas Vaeg., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the FOREVER (Failure Of REactor VEssel Retention) experimental program, which is currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS). The objectives of the FOREVER experiments are to obtain data and develop validated models (i) on the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular, on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure); and (ii) on the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside and/or outside the lower head. The paper presents the experimental results and analysis of the first FOREVER-C1 test. During this experiment, the 1/10th scale pressure vessel, heated to about 900degC and pressurized to 26 bars, was subjected to creep deformation in a non-stop 24-hours test. The vessel wall displacement data clearly shows different stages of the vessel deformation due to thermal expansion, elastic, plastic and creep processes. The maximum displacement was observed at the lowermost region of the vessel lower plenum. Information on the FOREVER-C1 measured thermal characteristics and analysis of the observed thermal and structural behavior is presented. The coupled nature of thermal and mechanical processes, as well as the effect of other system conditions (such as depressurization) on the melt pool and vessel temperature responses are analyzed. (author)

  6. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces, the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  8. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Kronberg, Magnus (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for approx6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO{sub 2} 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that

  9. Power Supply System for the Atlas Experiment: Design Specifications, Implementation, Test and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaroni, M.; Citterio, M.; Latorre, S.; Lanza, A.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Giuliani, F.

    2014-06-01

    The planned upgrade of instrumentation sensitivity in the ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, calls for a new type of power distribution architecture. Moreover, power supplies require DC-DC power converters able to work in very hostile environment and maintaining high level of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (denoted as RAMS requirements) during the experimental activity. Two main issues need to be discussed: first, electronic devices and equipment must operate in very high background of both charged and neutral particles and high static magnetic field and, second, the increase of the radiation background and the requirements of new front-end electronics are indeed incompatible with the current capability of the actual distribution system. The APOLLO R&D collaboration, funded by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), aims to study dedicated topologies of both distribution system and DC-DC power converters and to design, build and test demonstrators, developing the needed technology for the industrialization phase. The collaboration has designed a 3kW, 280V-12V converter (MC) based on the Switch in Line architecture (SIL), a DC to DC phase-shifted converter characterized by a disposition in line of the MOSFETs with good soft switching performances, and in the last year many steps have been taken to enhance the power dissipation and the reliability and to improve the general features of the designed converter. In particular a new water heat sink was designed on the basis of TFD simulation accounting for the layout of the specific converter. Experimental activities in order to characterize both thermal and electrical features of the MC confirm the correctness of the adopted design criteria.

  10. Pre-Gas Drilling Drinking Water Testing--An Educational Opportunity for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Brian; Clark, James

    2015-01-01

    The increase in shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania has resulted in thousands of landowners receiving predrilling testing of their drinking water. Landowners often have difficulty understanding test reports resulting in low awareness of pre-existing problems. Extension and several partners developed a program to improve understanding of…

  11. Effects of effluent spray irrigation on ground water at a test site near Tarpon Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Secondary-treated effluent was applied to a 7.2-acre test site near Tarpon Springs, Fla., for about 1 year at an average rate of 0.06 million gallons per day and 3 years at 0.11 million gallons per day. Chemical fertilizer was applied periodically to the test site and adjacent areas. Periodic mounding of the water table occurred due to effluent irrigation, inducing radial flow from the test site. Physical, geochemical, biochemical processes effectively reduced total nitrogen concentration 90% and total phosphorous concentration more than 95% in the ground water of the surficial aquifer about 300 feet downgradient from the test site from that of the applied effluent. Downgradient, total nitrogen averaged 2.4 milligrams per liter and total phosphorus averaged 0.17 milligrams per liter. Substantial increases in total phosphorus were observed when the pH of the ground water increased. Total coliform bacteria in the ground water of the surficial aquifer were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters. Fecal coliform bacteria were generally less than 25 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site and were not detected downgradient or near the test site. Fecal streptococcal bacteria were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site, but were detected on three occasions near the test site. (USGS)

  12. The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... broken sewage pipes finds its way into the stream. All of the sites were ... variances (Levene`s test, p < 0.05) and normality of distribution. (Shapiro-Wilk test, p ...... Water Board network In: Whitton BA and Rott E (eds.) Use of.

  13. The Inter Facility Testing of a Standard Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Type Wave Energy Converter (WEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg

    This report describes the behavior and preliminary performance of a simplified standard oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The same tests will be conducted at different scales at 6 different test facilities and the results obtained will be used for comparison. This project...

  14. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Operational Experience, Performance Testing, and Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.; Ramsden, T. G.; Kramer, W. E.; Novachek, F. J.

    2009-03-01

    The Wind2H2 system is fully functional and continues to gather performance data. In this report, specifications of the Wind2H2 equipment (electrolyzers, compressor, hydrogen storage tanks, and the hydrogen fueled generator) are summarized. System operational experience and lessons learned are discussed. Valuable operational experience is shared through running, testing, daily operations, and troubleshooting the Wind2H2 system and equipment errors are being logged to help evaluate the reliability of the system.

  15. Dissolution-precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonoosamy, Jenna; Kosakowski, Georg; Van Loon, Luc R.; Mäder, Urs

    2015-06-01

    In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective-diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time.

  16. An Artificial Channel Experiment for Purifying Drainage Water Containing Arsenic by Using Eleocharis acicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kenji; Yamazaki, Shusaku; Kurahashi, Toshiyuki; Sakakibara, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the results of an artificial channel experiment in which water containing arsenic was purified by using Eleocharis acicularis. The experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation by Eleocharis acicularis in civil engineering projects. In the experiment, 15 m2 of Eleocharis acicularis mats were laid in an artificial channel. Three sessions of artificial flow were implemented by leading 100.0 L of river water containing 0.234 mg/L of arsenic into the channel each time. The arsenic concentration of the leachate from the channel was analyzed. As the results of experiment, the arsenic concentrations of the leachate for the three sessions were 0.045 mg/L, 0.133 mg/L, and 0.249 mg/L. This shows that the arsenic concentration decreased during the first two sessions, whose flow totaled 200 L. The arsenic concentrations in the Eleocharis acicularis were 0.87 mg/kg, 1.01 mg/kg, and 4.16 mg/kg, which show that the plant absorbs arsenic. Moreover, it was found that the amount of sample water was reduced through evapotranspiration from the plant and the artificial channel.

  17. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  18. Summary of Thermocouple Performance During Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor and Out-of-Pile Thermocouple Testing in Support of Such Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Palmer; DC Haggard; J. W. Herter; M. Scervini; W. D. Swank; D. L. Knudson; R. S. Cherry

    2011-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B); and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Types C and W). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of these Nickel based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000°C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past ten years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700oC – 1200oC. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out of pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150oC and 1200oC for 2000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250oC, and 200 hours at 1300oC. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl2O4) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly thermocouple with hard fired alumina

  19. Summary of thermocouple performance during advanced gas reactor fuel irradiation experiments in the advanced test reactor and out-of-pile thermocouple testing in support of such experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. J.; Haggard, DC; Herter, J. W.; Swank, W. D.; Knudson, D. L.; Cherry, R. S. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, (United States); Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS, Cambridge, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple-based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time-dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time-dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B) and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Type C). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with Type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly, Type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluence. Currently, the use of these nickel-based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past 10 years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C - 1200 deg. C. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out-of-pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150 deg. C and 1200 deg. C for 2,000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250 deg. C and 200 hours at 1300 deg. C. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity, crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including a Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly

  20. 78 FR 63516 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY... Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors.'' This RG describes testing methods the NRC staff...)-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors.'' DG-1277...

  1. Construction and testing of ceramic fabric heat pipe with water working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Zenen I.; Webb, Brent J.; Bates, James M.; Cooper, Matthew F.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported 25 to 80 W of power at 423 K. Component development and testing is continuing with the aim of providing an improved prototype, with a 38 micron stainless steel liner covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark) sleeve that is approximately 300 microns thick. This fabric has been tested to 800 K, and its emittance is about 0.5 at that temperature. Advanced versions of the water heat pipe will probably require a coating over the ceramic fabric in order to increase this emittance to the 0.8 to 0.9 range.

  2. Review of LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) large break experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modro, S. M. [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. (Austria); Aksan, S. N. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Wuerenlingen (Switzerland); Berta, V. T. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wahba, A. B. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit m.b.H. (GRS), Garching (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    Six non-nuclear and five nuclear large break loss-of-coolant experiments were performed in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) PWR facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These experiments provided a large amount of data necessary for evaluation and refinement of reactor system computer codes and had major impact on the understanding of large break loss-of-coolant accidents. An overview of these nuclear large break experiments performed under NRC and OECD LOFT programs is given and the major research results are presented. 55 refs., 89 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Women's Experience with Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing and Emotional Well-being and Satisfaction after Test-Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V; Page-Christiaens, G C M Lieve; Beulen, Lean; Bilardo, Caterina M; de Boer, Marjon A; Coumans, Audrey B C; Faas, Brigitte H W; van Langen, Irene M; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D; van Maarle, Merel C; Macville, Merryn V E; Oepkes, Dick; Pajkrt, Eva; Henneman, Lidewij

    2017-12-01

    Increasingly, high-risk pregnant women opt for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) instead of invasive diagnostic testing. Since NIPT is less accurate than invasive testing, a normal NIPT result might leave women less reassured. A questionnaire study was performed among pregnant women with elevated risk for fetal aneuploidy based on first-trimester combined test (risk ≥1:200) or medical history, who were offered NIPT in the nationwide Dutch TRIDENT study. Pre- and post-test questionnaires (n = 682) included measures on: experiences with NIPT procedure, feelings of reassurance, anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI), child-related anxiety (PRAQ-R), and satisfaction. The majority (96.1%) were glad to have been offered NIPT. Most (68.5%) perceived the waiting time for NIPT results (mean: 15 days, range 5-32) as (much) too long. Most women with a normal NIPT result felt reassured (80.9%) or somewhat reassured (15.7%). Levels of anxiety and child-related anxiety were significantly lower after receiving a normal NIPT result as compared to the moment of intake (p test-result anxiety (Mean (M) STAI = 31.6 and 30.0, respectively) compared to those with adequate health literacy (M = 28.6) and no medical history (M = 28.6), indicating these women might benefit from extra information and/or guidance when communicating NIPT test-results. Introducing NIPT as an alternative to invasive testing, led to an offer that satisfied and largely reassured high-risk pregnant women.

  4. Self-healing mortar with pH-sensitive superabsorbent polymers: testing of the sealing efficiency by water flow tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruyaert, Elke; Debbaut, Brenda; Snoeck, Didier; Díaz, Pilar; Arizo, Alejandro; Tziviloglou, Eirini; Schlangen, Erik; De Belie, Nele

    2016-08-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) have potential to be used as healing agent in self-healing concrete due to their property to attract moisture from the environment and their capacity to promote autogenous healing. A possible drawback, however, is their uptake of mixing water during concrete manufacturing, resulting in an increased volume of macro-pores in the hardened concrete. To limit this drawback, newly developed SAPs with a high swelling and pH-sensitiveness were developed and tested within the FP7 project HEALCON. Evaluation of their self-sealing performance occurred through a water permeability test via water flow, a test method also developed within HEALCON. Three different sizes of the newly developed SAP were compared with a commercial SAP. Swelling tests in cement filtrate solution indicated that the commercial and in-house synthesized SAPs performed quite similar, but the difference between the swelling capacity at pH 9 and pH 13 is more pronounced for the self-synthesized SAPs. Moreover, in comparison to the commercial SAPs, less macro-pores are formed in the cement matrix of mixes with self-synthesized SAPs and the effect on the mechanical properties is lower, but not negligible, when using high amounts of SAPs. Although the immediate sealing effect of cracks in mortar was the highest for the commercial SAPs, the in-house made SAPs with a particle size between 400 and 600 μm performed the best with regard to crack closure (mainly CaCO3 precipitation) and self-sealing efficiency, after exposing the specimens to 28 wet-dry cycles. Some specimens could even withstand a water pressure of 2 bar.

  5. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2013–2014 Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, Carlos [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) completed a fourth year-long evaluation on residential hot water heating systems in a laboratory environment (east central Florida, hot-humid climate). The evaluation studied the performance of five hot water systems (HWS) plus a reference baseline system for each fuel, (i.e., electric and natural gas). Electric HWS consisted of two residential electric heat pump water heaters (HPWHs, 60 and 80 gallons), a solar thermal system using a polymer absorber (glazed) collector with 80-gallon storage and a duplicate 50-gallon standard electric water heater with added cap and wrap insulation. Baseline performance data were collected from a standard 50-gallon electric water heater of minimum code efficiency to compare energy savings. Similarly, a standard 40-gallon upright vented natural gas water heater served as baseline for the natural gas fuel category. The latter, having a larger jacket diameter [18 in., with an energy factor (EF) of 0.62] with increased insulation, replaced a former baseline (17 in. diameter, EF = 0.59) that served during three previous testing rotations (2009–2013). A high-efficiency, condensing natural gas hybrid water heater with 27-gallon buffered tank was also tested and compared against the gas baseline. All systems underwent testing simultaneously side-by-side under the criteria specified elsewhere in this report.

  6. Heterogeneous HIV testing preferences in an urban setting in Tanzania: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ostermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission through treatment rely on HIV testing programs that are acceptable to broad populations. Yet, testing preferences among diverse at-risk populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE to evaluate factors that influence HIV-testing preferences in a low-resource setting. METHODS: Using formative work, a pilot study, and pretesting, we developed a DCE survey with five attributes: distance to testing, confidentiality, testing days (weekday vs. weekend, method for obtaining the sample for testing (blood from finger or arm, oral swab, and availability of HIV medications at the testing site. Cluster-randomization and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI sampling methodology were used to enroll 486 community members, ages 18-49, in an urban setting in Northern Tanzania. Interviewer-assisted DCEs, presented to participants on iPads, were administered between September 2012 and February 2013. RESULTS: Nearly three of five males (58% and 85% of females had previously tested for HIV; 20% of males and 37% of females had tested within the past year. In gender-specific mixed logit analyses, distance to testing was the most important attribute to respondents, followed by confidentiality and the method for obtaining the sample for the HIV test. Both unconditional assessments of preferences for each attribute and mixed logit analyses of DCE choice patterns suggest significant preference heterogeneity among participants. Preferences differed between males and females, between those who had previously tested for HIV and those who had never tested, and between those who tested in the past year and those who tested more than a year ago. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest potentially significant benefits from tailoring HIV testing interventions to match the preferences of specific populations, including males and females

  7. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

  8. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, Russell L.; Carr, R. Scott

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciatazoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciatazoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

  9. The role of affective experience in work motivation: Test of a conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; Bartunek, Jean M.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to contribute to understanding of the crucial role of emotion in work motivation by testing a conceptual model developed by Seo, Barrett, and Bartunek (2004) that predicted the impacts of core affect on three behavioral outcomes of work motivation, generative-defensive orientation, effort, and persistence. We tested the model using an Internet-based investment simulation combined with an experience sampling procedure. Consistent with the predictions of the model,...

  10. Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is planning on going beyond Low Earth orbit with manned exploration missions. The radiation environment for most Low Earth orbit missions is harsher than at the Earth's surface but much less harsh than deep space. Development of new electronics is needed to meet the requirements of high performance, radiation tolerance, and reliability. The need for both Volatile and Non-volatile memory has been identified. Emerging Non-volatile memory technologies (FRAM, C-RAM,M-RAM, R-RAM, Radiation Tolerant FLASH, SONOS, etc.) need to be investigated for use in Space missions. An opportunity arose to fly a small memory experiment on a high inclination satellite (FASTSAT). An off-the-shelf 512K Ramtron FRAM was chosen to be tested in the experiment.

  11. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical

  12. Modeling the Test-Retest Statistics of a Localization Experiment in the Full Horizontal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsnowski, André; Maune, Steffen

    2016-10-01

    Two approaches to model the test-retest statistics of a localization experiment basing on Gaussian distribution and on surrogate data are introduced. Their efficiency is investigated using different measures describing directional hearing ability. A localization experiment in the full horizontal plane is a challenging task for hearing impaired patients. In clinical routine, we use this experiment to evaluate the progress of our cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Listening and time effort limit the reproducibility. The localization experiment consists of a 12 loudspeaker circle, placed in an anechoic room, a "camera silens". In darkness, HSM sentences are presented at 65 dB pseudo-erratically from all 12 directions with five repetitions. This experiment is modeled by a set of Gaussian distributions with different standard deviations added to a perfect estimator, as well as by surrogate data. Five repetitions per direction are used to produce surrogate data distributions for the sensation directions. To investigate the statistics, we retrospectively use the data of 33 CI patients with 92 pairs of test-retest-measurements from the same day. The first model does not take inversions into account, (i.e., permutations of the direction from back to front and vice versa are not considered), although they are common for hearing impaired persons particularly in the rear hemisphere. The second model considers these inversions but does not work with all measures. The introduced models successfully describe test-retest statistics of directional hearing. However, since their applications on the investigated measures perform differently no general recommendation can be provided. The presented test-retest statistics enable pair test comparisons for localization experiments.

  13. Testing of the KRIA Ionizing Water Treatment System for Waters Contaminated with Diesel, PCBs, and Nutrients (Nitrogen Forms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    with hydrofracturing ( fracking ), although these fluids contain a much broader range of potential contaminants that may require some additional...for establishing sanitation in third world countries. • The KRIA should be tested on solutions associated with fracking and on water bodies...affected by fracking operations to assess its utility for these solutions. ERDC/EL TR-16-3 22 References Agarwal, A., W. J. Ng, and Y. Liu. 2011

  14. U.S. EPA Water Technology Innovation Cluster Leaders Meeting - "Successfully Supporting Early-Stage Companies: The Role of Technology Testing" Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this workshop were to: (1) increase the cluster leaders’ level of knowledge regarding past and current water technology testing programs, facilities and requirements; (2) learn from the experiences of technology vendors in getting innovative, commercial-ready product...

  15. Laboratory experiment on coalbed-methane desorption influenced by water injection and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, D.; Feng, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2011-07-15

    The exploration of coalbed-methane (CBM) has significantly increased in the last decade, its exploitation is now widely spread. CBM exploitation technologies involve high-pressure water, which reduces the CBM-desorption capacity resulting in a low efficiency. This study has been conducted to examine the CBM desorption and output after water injection and temperature increase. They developed a new experimental system to simulate water-injection in ideal conditions and study the behaviour of water and methane in a coalbed. These experiments revealed that, at constant temperature, water injection pressure controls the CBM-desorption capacity; and that this capacity is highly increased when the temperature is increased. These results show that a higher temperature would increase the efficiency of CBM exploitation, thus producers are likely to use heating in future CBM technologies. Some advances were made in the knowledge of water pressure and temperature effects on desorption behaviour but further research has to be carried to fully define these effects.

  16. Combining experiment and theory to elucidate the role of supercritical water in sulfide decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yuko; Class, Caleb A; Concepcion, Anthony J; Timko, Michael T; Green, William H

    2014-05-28

    The cleavage of C-S linkages plays a key role in fuel processing and organic geochemistry. Water is known to affect these processes, and several hypotheses have been proposed, but the mechanism has been elusive. Here we use both experiment and theory to demonstrate that supercritical water reacts with intermediates formed during alkyl sulfide decomposition. During hexyl sulfide decomposition in supercritical water, pentane and CO + CO2 were detected in addition to the expected six carbon products. A multi-step reaction sequence for hexyl sulfide reacting with supercritical water is proposed which explains the surprising products, and quantum chemical calculations provide quantitative rates that support the proposed mechanism. The key sequence is cleavage of one C-S bond to form a thioaldehyde via radical reactions, followed by a pericyclic addition of water to the C[double bond, length as m-dash]S bond to form a geminal mercaptoalcohol. The mercaptoalcohol decomposes into an aldehyde and H2S either directly or via a water-catalyzed 6-membered ring transition state. The aldehyde quickly decomposes into CO plus pentane by radical reactions. The time is ripe for quantitative modelling of organosulfur reaction kinetics based on modern quantum chemistry.

  17. Management experiences and trends for water reuse implementation in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Heather N; Simon, Gregory L; Frisby, Tammy M; Luthy, Richard G

    2012-01-03

    In 2010, California fell nearly 300,000 acre-ft per year (AFY) short of its goal to recycle 1,000,000 AFY of municipal wastewater. Growth of recycled water in the 48 Northern California counties represented only 20% of the statewide increase in reuse between 2001 and 2009. To evaluate these trends and experiences, major drivers and challenges that influenced the implementation of recycled water programs in Northern California are presented based on a survey of 71 program managers conducted in 2010. Regulatory requirements limiting discharge, cited by 65% of respondents as a driver for program implementation, historically played an important role in motivating many water reuse programs in the region. More recently, pressures from limited water supplies and needs for system reliability are prevalent drivers. Almost half of respondents (49%) cited ecological protection or enhancement goals as drivers for implementation. However, water reuse for direct benefit of natural systems and wildlife habitat represents just 6-7% of total recycling in Northern California and few financial incentives exist for such projects. Economic challenges are the greatest barrier to successful project implementation. In particular, high costs of distribution systems (pipelines) are especially challenging, with $1 to 3 million/mile costs experienced. Negative perceptions of water reuse were cited by only 26% of respondents as major hindrances to implementation of surveyed programs.

  18. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  19. Review and proposal for heat transfer predictions at supercritical water conditions using existing correlations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Wadim, E-mail: wadim.jaeger@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, DE-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, DE-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hurtado, Antonio [Technical University of Dresden, Institute of Power Engineering, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Implementation of heat transfer correlations for supercritical water into TRACE. > Simulation of several heat transfer experiments with modified TRACE version. > Most correlations are not able to reproduce the experimental results. > Bishop, Sandberg and Tong correlation is most suitable for TRACE applications. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the activities of the TRACE code validation at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology related to supercritical water conditions. In particular, the providing of the thermo physical properties and its appropriate use in the wall-to-fluid heat transfer models in the frame of the TRACE code is the object of this investigation. In a first step, the thermo physical properties of the original TRACE code were modified in order to account for supercritical conditions. In a second step, existing Nusselt correlations were reviewed and implemented into TRACE and available experiments were simulated to identify the most suitable Nusselt correlation(s).

  20. Criticality experiments with low enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.R.; Murphy, E.S.; Clayton, E.D.; Keay, R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO/sub 2/ rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % /sup 235/U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ rods containing 4.31 wt % /sup 235/U and 2 wt % PuO/sub 2/ in natural UO/sub 2/ respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in /sup 235/U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel.

  1. Test Capabilities and Recent Experiences in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jeffrey S.; Harvin, Stephen F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel is a combustion-heated hypersonic blowdown-to-atmosphere wind tunnel that provides flight enthalpy simulation for Mach numbers of 4, 5, and 7 through an altitude range from 50,000 to 120,000 feet. The open-.jet test section is 8-ft. in diameter and 12-ft. long. The test section will accommodate large air-breathing hypersonic propulsion systems as well as structural and thermal protection system components. Stable wind tunnel test conditions can be provided for 60 seconds. Additional test capabilities are provided by a radiant heater system used to simulate ascent or entry heating profiles. The test medium is the combustion products of air and methane that are burned in a pressurized combustion chamber. Oxygen is added to the test medium for air-breathing propulsion tests so that the test gas contains 21 percent molar oxygen. The facility was modified extensively in the late 1980's to provide airbreathing propulsion testing capability. In this paper, a brief history and general description of the facility are presented along with a discussion of the types of supported testing. Recently completed tests are discussed to explain the capabilities this facility provides and to demonstrate the experience of the staff.

  2. Development and construction of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks: Free shrinkage tests, restrained ring tests, construction experience, and crack survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiqiu

    2011-12-01

    The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along with another deck bid under the LC-HPC specifications but for which the owner did not enforce the specification. This study is divided into four parts covering (1) an evaluation of the free shrinkage properties of LC-HPC candidate mixtures, (2) an investigation of the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete, (3) a study of the restrained shrinkage performance of concrete using restrained ring tests, and (4) a description of the construction and preliminary evaluation of LC-HPC and control bridge decks constructed in Kansas. The first portion of the study involves evaluating the effects of the duration of curing, fly ash, and a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) on the free-shrinkage characteristics of concrete mixtures. The results indicate that an increase of curing period reduces free shrinkage. With 7 days of curing, concretes containing fly ash as a partial replacement for cement exhibit higher free shrinkage than concretes with 100% portland cement. When the curing period is increased to 14, 28, and 56 days, the adverse effect of adding fly ash on free shrinkage is minimized and finally reversed. The addition of an SRA significantly reduces free shrinkage for both the 100% portland cement mixture and the mixture containing fly ash. The second portion of the study investigates the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete. A linear relationship between free shrinkage and evaporable water content in the cement paste is observed. For a given mixture, specimens cured for a longer period contain less evaporable water and exhibit lower free shrinkage and less weight loss in the free shrinkage

  3. Sea urchin fertilization assay: an evaluation of assumptions related to sample salinity adjustment and use of natural and synthetic marine waters for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, E; Gilron, G; Zajdlik, B

    2001-04-01

    Most industrial effluents discharged into the marine coastal environment are freshwater in nature and therefore require manipulation prior to testing with marine organisms. The sea urchin fertilization test is a common marine bioassay used for routine environmental monitoring, investigative evaluations, and/or regulatory testing of effluents and sediment pore waters. The existing Canadian and U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies test procedures using sea urchin (and sand dollar) gametes allow for sample salinity adjustment using either brine or dry salts. Moreover, these procedures also allow for the use of either natural or synthetic marine water for culturing/holding test organisms and for full-scale testing. At present, it is unclear to what extent these variables affect test results for whole effluents. The test methods simply state that there are no data available and that the use of artificial dry sea salts should be considered provisional. We conducted a series of concurrent experiments aimed at comparing the two different treatments of sample salinity adjustment and the use of natural versus synthetic seawater in order to test these assumptions and evaluate effects on the estimated end points generated by the sea urchin fertilization sublethal toxicity test. Results from these experiments indicated that there is no significant difference in test end points when dry salts or brine are used for sample salinity adjustment. Similarly, results obtained from parallel (split-sample) industrial effluent tests with natural and artificial seawater suggest that both dilution waters produce similar test results. However, data obtained from concurrent tests with the reference toxicant, copper sulfate, showed higher variability and greater sensitivity when using natural seawater as control/dilution water.

  4. Core-concrete interactions with overlying water pools. The WETCOR-1 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blose, R.E. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Powers, D.A.; Copus, E.R.; Brockmann, J.E.; Simpson, R.B.; Lucero, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The WETCOR-1 test of simultaneous interactions of a high-temperature melt with water and a limestone/common-sand concrete is described. The test used a 34.1-kg melt of 76.8 w/o Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 16.9 w/o CaO, and 4.0 w/o SiO{sub 2} heated by induction using tungsten susceptors. Once quasi-steady attack on concrete by the melt was established, an attempt was made to quench the melt at 1850 K with 295 K water flowing at 57 liters per minute. Net power into the melt at the time of water addition was 0.61 {plus_minus} 0.19 W/cm{sup 3}. The test configuration used in the WETCOR-1 test was designed to delay melt freezing to the walls of the test fixture. This was done to test hypotheses concerning the inherent stability of crust formation when high-temperature melts are exposed to water. No instability in crust formation was observed. The flux of heat through the crust to the water pool maintained over the melt in the test was found to be 0.52 {plus_minus} 0.13 MW/m{sup 2}. Solidified crusts were found to attenuate aerosol emissions during the melt concrete interactions by factors of 1.3 to 3.5. The combination of a solidified crust and a 30-cm deep subcooled water pool was found to attenuate aerosol emissions by factors of 3 to 15.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of the Drag Coefficient of Water Rockets by a Simple Free-Fall Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E. Arguelles-Diaz, K.; Fernandez-Oro, J.

    2009-01-01

    The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag…

  6. Water evaporation over sump surface in nuclear containment studies: CFD and LP codes validation on TOSQAN tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Degrees du Lou, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arts et Métiers ParisTech, DynFluid Lab. EA92, 151, boulevard de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Gelain, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Simulations of evaporative TOSQAN sump tests are performed. • These tests are under air–steam gas conditions with addition of He, CO{sub 2} and SF{sub 6}. • ASTEC-CPA LP and TONUS-CFD codes with UDF for sump model are used. • Validation of sump models of both codes show good results. • The code–experiment differences are attributed to turbulent gas mixing modeling. -- Abstract: During the course of a severe accident in a Nuclear Power Plant, water can be collected in the sump containment through steam condensation on walls and spray systems activation. The objective of this paper is to present code validation on evaporative sump tests performed on TOSQAN facility. The ASTEC-CPA code is used as a lumped-parameter code and specific user-defined-functions are developed for the TONUS-CFD code. The seven tests are air–steam tests, as well as tests with other non-condensable gases (He, CO{sub 2} and SF{sub 6}) under steady and transient conditions (two depressurization tests). The results show a good agreement between codes and experiments, indicating a good behavior of the sump models in both codes. The sump model developed as User-Defined Functions (UDF) for TONUS is considered as well validated and is ‘ready-to-use’ for all CFD codes in which such UDF can be added. The remaining discrepancies between codes and experiments are caused by turbulent transport and gas mixing, especially in the presence of non-condensable gases other than air, so that code validation on this important topic for hydrogen safety analysis is still recommended.

  7. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  8. A Lymnaea stagnalis Embryo Test for Toxicity Bioindication of Acidification and Ammonia Pollution in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mazur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study leading to a new acute toxicity test on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide were used as waterborne toxicants in laboratory experiments. The exposure time was 24 h. Tests were conducted in 5–10 replications for each toxicant. The toxicity of the substances was classified according to different scales and the test’s sensitivity was compared to that of the commonly used bioindicator Daphnia magna Straus. The assessment of toxicity impact was supported by microscopic observations. The probit method was used as a parametric statistical procedure to estimate LC50 and the associated 95% confidence interval. Our study showed that the early developmental stages of Lymnaea stagnalis are very sensitive bioindicators, making it possible to detect even very low levels of the above-mentioned water toxicants. The highest toxicity is shown by ammonium hydroxide with LC50/24h values, respectively, 24.27 for embryos and 24.72 for juvenile forms, and the lowest is shown by nitric acid ions with LC50/24h values, respectively, 105.19 for embryos and 170.47 for juvenile forms. It is highly cost-effective due to simple and efficient breeding and the small size of the organisms in the bioassay population. Compared with Daphnia magna, relatively low concentrations of toxicants caused a lethal effect on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail. Owing to their common occurrence and sensitivity, early developmental forms of Lymnaea stagnalis can be a valuable new tool in biomonitoring of the freshwater environment.

  9. Trials and tribulations of a new regulation: coal bed methane water well testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lintott, D.; Swyngedouw, C.; Schneider, E. [Norwest Labs, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lintott, D.; Swyngedouw, C.; Schneider, E. [Bodycote Testing Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    As of January 2006, coalbed methane (CBM) activity in Alberta was at 3600 producing wells with the potential for 25,000 to 50,000 wells. Coalbed methane risks and regulations were discussed. Regulatory initiatives, politics of coalbed methane, and a regulatory timeline was provided and the trials of a new regulation were presented. Other topics of discussion included: methane sampling and analysis; dissolved methane in water; gas isotopes; routine water potability; microbiology testing; and, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)/iron-related bacteria (IRB) method validation. The results of the microbial testing were presented. Although relatively few positive coliforms in wells were analyzed, most wells demonstrated positive presence for iron and sulfate bacteria. It was recommended that further research be conducted to evaluate the water sulfide concentration/turbidity, along with other parameters with presence and concentration of SRB and IRB bacteria as an indication of poor water quality. refs., tabs.

  10. Ecological restoration of small water courses, experiences from Germany and from projects in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Binder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From 2009 until 2012 the project “Watershed Management of Forest Land in Beijing, Restoration of Small Water Bodies (SWBR” was implemented, combining Close to Nature Forest Management and Restoration of Small Water Bodies. The targets were to improve flood control, to enhance the ecological conditions by copying nature and to support the recreational value of small water bodies, all in cooperation with people living there. The efficiency of each project was proofed by comparison of biological and hydro-morphological assessment before the projects started and 2–3 years after they were finished. The results confirmed the ecological improvements of the restored river sections and showed the achievements. Guidelines to assess the biological and hydro-morphological status of rivers were developed and there are plans to introduce them as Beijing Standards. Planning and implementation of measures, based on experiences in Central Europe, will be documented in a handbook.

  11. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  12. Testing an MCM for high-energy physics experiments a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Benso, A; Prinetto, P; Giovannetti, S; Mariani, R; Motto, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the test strategy adopted at different hierarchical abstraction levels (from board to die level) during the development of a multichannel data acquisition and signal processing MCM, designed for the new generation experiments of high-energy physics on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. (10 refs).

  13. A Dataset of Three Educational Technology Experiments on Differentiation, Formative Testing and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haelermans, Carla; Ghysels, Joris; Prince, Fernao

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset with data from three individually randomized educational technology experiments on differentiation, formative testing and feedback during one school year for a group of 8th grade students in the Netherlands, using administrative data and the online motivation questionnaire of Boekaerts. The dataset consists of pre-…

  14. Engineering a Multi-Purpose Test Collection for Web Retrieval Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Peter; Craswell, Nick; Hawking, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a test collection that was developed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments on the Web in distributed information retrieval, hyperlink algorithms, and conventional ad hoc retrieval. Discusses inter-server connectivity, integrity of server holdings, inclusion of documents related to a wide spread of likely queries, and distribution of…

  15. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI: Wind Tunnel Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.; Schreck, S.; Larwood, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    The primary objective of the insteady aerodynamics experiment was to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. This report is intended to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.

  16. A numerical optimization of high altitude testing facility for wind tunnel experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Ralphin Rose J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High altitude test facilities are required to test the high area ratio nozzles operating at the upper stages of rocket in the nozzle full flow conditions. It is typically achieved by creating the ambient pressure equal or less than the nozzle exit pressure. On average, air/GN2 is used as active gas for ejector system that is stored in the high pressure cylinders. The wind tunnel facilities are used for conducting aerodynamic simulation experiments at/under various flow velocities and operating conditions. However, constructing both of these facilities require more laboratory space and expensive instruments. Because of this demerit, a novel scheme is implemented for conducting wind tunnel experiments by using the existing infrastructure available in the high altitude testing (HAT facility. This article presents the details about the methods implemented for suitably modifying the sub-scale HAT facility to conduct wind tunnel experiments. Hence, the design of nozzle for required area ratio A/A∗, realization of test section and the optimized configuration are focused in the present analysis. Specific insights into various rocket models including high thrust cryogenic engines and their holding mechanisms to conduct wind tunnel experiments in the HAT facility are analyzed. A detailed CFD analysis is done to propose this conversion without affecting the existing functional requirements of the HAT facility.

  17. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  18. Physicists purchase materials testing machine in support of pioneering particle physics experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Sharpe, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    "The particle physics group at Liverpool University has purchased an LRXPlus singlecolumn materials testing machine from Lloyd Instruments, which will be used to help characterise the carbon-fibre support frames for detectors used for state-of-the-art particle physics experiments." (1 page)

  19. Experiment of Critical Swimming Speed of Fingerling Masu Salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou) Using River Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Kato, Koh

    The authors conducted a field swimming experiment using cultured masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou) fingerlings in order to study their critical swimming speed during their release into the river in the Iwaki River diversion weir. The experimental equipment was a small, rectangular cross-section channel, which was installed in a local riverbed at the fishway. The experiment was conducted using an average cross-sectional water flow velocity of 17 to 92 cm·s-1, and using masu salmon fingerlings from 4.8 to 7.1 cm in the length. River water temperature was between 13.7 and 20.6 °C. The critical swimming speed measured over 60 minutes was between 16 and 41 cm·s-1 and a positive correlation was found between the critical swimming speed and body length. The critical swimming speed measured by body length (BL) was 3.5 to 6.9 times (that is, the distance travelled per second based on body length), and the mean critical swimming speed was 5.5 (with a standard deviation of 1.1). Results showed that water temperature differences in the experiment had no significant effect on the critical swimming speed measured over 60 minutes.

  20. Manufacture and test of prototype water pipe chase barrier in ITER Magnet Feeder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Kun, E-mail: lukun@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wen, Xinjie; Liu, Chen; Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui (China); Niu, Erwu [ITER China, 15B Fuxing Road, Beijing 100862 (China); Gung, Chenyu; Su, Man [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    The Magnet Feeder system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) deploys electrical currents and supercritical helium to the superconducting magnets and the magnet diagnostic signals to the operators. In the current design, the feeders located in the upper L3 level of the Tokamak gallery penetrate the Tokamak coolant water system vault, the biological shield and the cryostat. As a secondary confinement to contain the activated coolant water in the vault in the case of water pipe burst accident, a water barrier is welded between the penetration in the water pipe chase outer wall and the mid-plane of the vacuum jacket of the Feeder Coil Terminal Box (CTB). A thin-wall stainless steel diaphragm with an omega shape profile is welded around the CTB as the water barrier to endure 2 bar hydraulic pressure. In addition, the barrier is designed as a flexible compensator to withstand a maximum of 15 mm of axial displacement of the CTB in case of helium leak accident without failure. This paper presents the detail configuration, the manufacturing and assembly processes of the water barrier. Test results of the prototype water barrier under simulated accident conditions are also reported. Successful qualification of the design and manufacturing process of the water barrier lays a good foundation for the series production of this subsystem.

  1. Test for Fauske and Associates to perform tube propagation experiments with simulated Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, C.D.

    1996-02-01

    This test plan, prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, provides guidance for performing tube propagation experiments on simulated Hanford tank wastes and on actual tank waste samples. Simulant compositions are defined and an experimental logic tree is provided for Fauske and Associates (FAI) to perform the experiments. From this guidance, methods and equipment for small-scale tube propagation experiments to be performed at the Hanford Site on actual tank samples will be developed. Propagation behavior of wastes will directly support the safety analysis (SARR) for the organic tanks. Tube propagation may be the definitive tool for determining the relative reactivity of the wastes contained in the Hanford tanks. FAI have performed tube propagation studies previously on simple two- and three-component surrogate mixtures. The simulant defined in this test plan more closely represents actual tank composition. Data will be used to support preparation of criteria for determining the relative safety of the organic bearing wastes.

  2. As-Run Physics Analysis for the UCSB-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joseph Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) -1 experiment was irradiated in the A-10 position of the ATR. The experiment was irradiated during cycles 145A, 145B, 146A, and 146B. Capsule 6A was removed from the test train following Cycle 145A and replaced with Capsule 6B. This report documents the as-run physics analysis in support of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the test. This report documents the as-run fluence and displacements per atom (DPA) for each capsule of the experiment based on as-run operating history of the ATR. Average as-run heating rates for each capsule are also presented in this report to support the thermal analysis.

  3. A study on effects of ceramic foam filter on flow aspect through water modeling experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Young Hwang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Casting defects that are closely related to entrapped air bubbles and metallic oxides occur very frequently in the sand mold casting process. Many researchers have shown that these defects can be reduced by adopting an appropriate gating system design. However, it is difficult for field engineers to identify a specific gating system that is more appropriate for their products. In this study, we tried to draw a comparison between two gating system designs with and without a ceramic foam filter. The ceramic foam filter was added to the horizontal runner just after the down sprue to prevent air bubble generation and reduce turbulence without a change of gating system design. The water modeling experiment was conducted with four different amounts of the initial volumes of water in the reservoir to verify the effects of initial pouring velocity. The results of the experiment applying the filter showed remarkably changed flow characteristics. The use of the filter was found to convert the flow pattern of water in the desired direction. The ceramic foam filter performed well to reduce flow velocity and stabilize the water stream.The flow pattern without a filter can be improved significantly even with the the use of just a 10 PPI irregular filter. Although the study confirmed that use of the filter may change the flow characteristics, it needs to be noted that the use of the ceramic filter alone cannot solve all the problems caused by a poorly designed gating system.

  4. On informal hypothesis testing in hydrology: the example of the "two water worlds" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2017-04-01

    Rigorous hypothesis tests provide useful tools for making statistical inferences about hydrological processes and have indeed led to major advances in the field of hydrology. However, the formulation of such (typically rather simple) tests with valid assumptions is not always realistic for complex hydrological problems with limited data. Moreover, ill-defined hypothesis tests can lead to meaningless results and increased risks of drawing ambiguous conclusions. In such cases, data plots can be more powerful than p-values. Nevertheless, the formulation and evaluation of (working) hypotheses can offer an important framework to structure data collection and analyses of a more exploratory nature. Here we demonstrate the power of such an approach using the example of the topical "two water worlds" hypothesis in (eco)hydrology. Several recent studies in this field have suggested that there may be "ecohydrological separation" of distinct soil water pools ("water worlds") comprising plant-available water on one hand and water that drains to streams on the other. However, contrary to findings in most other climates, preliminary investigations in humid northern environments did not find strong evidence to support the hypothesis, which has further highlighted the complex nature of subsurface soil water storage processes and vegetation water use. While unambiguously rejecting or verifying the "two water worlds" hypothesis might be an unrealistic aim, studies addressing it more informally have so far led to new insights into e.g. soil-vegetation water interactions, the potential drivers of such separation and advances in our commonly used data collection and analyses techniques.

  5. Groundwater levels and water quality during a 96-hour aquifer test in Pickaway County, Ohio, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Runkle, Donna L.; Mailot, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    During October–November 2012, a 96-hour aquifer test was performed at a proposed well field in northern Pickaway County, Ohio, to investigate groundwater with elevated nitrate concentrations. Earlier sampling done by the City of Columbus revealed that some wells had concentrations of nitrate that approached 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), whereas other wells and the nearby Scioto River had concentrations from 2 to 6 mg/L. The purpose of the current test was to examine potential changes in water quality that may be expected if the site was developed into a public water-supply source; therefore, water-transmitting properties determined during a previous test were not determined a second time. Before and during the test, water-level data and water-quality samples were obtained from observation wells while a test production well was pumped at 1,300 gallons per minute. Before the test, local groundwater levels indicated that groundwater was being discharged to the nearby Scioto River, but during the test, the stream was losing streamflow owing to infiltration. Water levels declined in the pumping well, in adjacent observation wells, and in a nearby streambed piezometer as pumping commenced. The maximum drawdown in the pumping well was 29.75 feet, measured about 95 hours after pumping began. Water-quality data, including analyses for field parameters, major and trace elements, nutrients, and stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen in nitrate, demonstrated only small variations before and during the test. Concentrations of nitrate in five samples from the pumping well ranged from about 5.10 to 5.42 mg/L before and during the test, whereas concentrations of nitrate in five samples on or about the same sampling dates and times at a monitoring site on the Scioto River adjacent to the pumping well ranged from 3.46 to 4.97 mg/L. Water from two nearby observation wells had nitrate concentrations approaching 10 mg/L, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum

  6. Application of FTIR spectrometer to the test of extinction performance of water fog with infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanyu

    2009-05-01

    The infrared spectrum, granularity distribution and mass concentration of water fog were tested by a FTIR spectrometer, laser granularity device and other apparatus in a 75.6m3 test room. The transmittance and mass extinction coefficients of water fog with infrared emission were tested and analyzed within 3~5μm and 8~14μm wave band. The extinction efficiency factors of water fog with 3~14μm infrared were calculated according to Van der Hulst formula and the curve was drawn to show the factors varied with the incident wavelength. According to the experimental results, the water fog has a good extinction performance to infrared emission and the extinction performance is obviously influenced by incident wavelength. For example, the extinction efficiency factor increases with the incident wavelength within 3~5μm but has the least at 10.4μm and has the maximum at 13μm. By the analysis, the average mass extinction coefficient of the water fog between 3μm and 5μm infrared wave band is 0.110m2/g while between 8μm and 14μm is 0.102m2/g. The experimental result tested by FTIR spectrometer is consistent with theoretic result calculated according to Van der Hulst formula, so that the method to test the mass extinction coefficient of water fog with infrared emission by FTIR spectrometer is viable and scientific, while Van der Hulst formula may be applied to calculate the extinction efficiency factors of particles from water fog.

  7. Water Impact Test and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Sparks, Chad; Sareen, Ashish

    2003-01-01

    In March 2002, a 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted onto water. The purpose of the test was to obtain experimental data characterizing the structural response of the fuselage section during water impact for comparison with two previous drop tests that were performed onto a rigid surface and soft soil. For the drop test, the fuselage section was configured with ten 100-lb. lead masses, five per side, that were attached to seat rails mounted to the floor. The fuselage section was raised to a height of 10-ft. and dropped vertically into a 15-ft. diameter pool filled to a depth of 3.5-ft. with water. Approximately 70 channels of data were collected during the drop test at a 10-kHz sampling rate. The test data were used to validate crash simulations of the water impact that were developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic codes, MSC.Dytran and LS-DYNA. The fuselage structure was modeled using shell and solid elements with a Lagrangian mesh, and the water was modeled with both Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques. The fluid-structure interactions were executed using the fast general coupling in MSC.Dytran and the Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) coupling in LS-DYNA. Additionally, the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) meshless Lagrangian technique was used in LS-DYNA to represent the fluid. The simulation results were correlated with the test data to validate the modeling approach. Additional simulation studies were performed to determine how changes in mesh density, mesh uniformity, fluid viscosity, and failure strain influence the test-analysis correlation.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.

  9. Dataset for Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset includes the results of a simulation study using the source inversion techniques available in the Water Security Toolkit. The data was created to test the different techniques for accuracy, specificity, false positive rate, and false negative rate. The tests examined different parameters including measurement error, modeling error, injection characteristics, time horizon, network size, and sensor placement. The water distribution system network models that were used in the study are also included in the dataset. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Seth, A., K. Klise, J. Siirola, T. Haxton , and C. Laird. Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks. Journal of Environmental Division, Proceedings of American Society of Civil Engineers. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, USA, ., (2016).

  10. Clinical experience from Thailand: noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manotaya, S; Xu, H; Uerpairojkit, B; Chen, F; Charoenvidhya, D; Liu, H; Petcharaburanin, N; Liu, Y; Tang, S; Wang, X; Dansakul, S; Thomsopa, T; Gao, Y; Zhang, H; Xu, H; Jiang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the clinical experience and performance of massively parallel sequencing-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a screening method in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 (T21/T18/T13) in a mixed-risk population in Thailand. In a 30-month period, 121 medical centers in Thailand offered NIPT as clinical screening tests for fetal T21, T18, and T13 in the mixed-risk population. All NIPT-positive cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. A total of 4736 participants received the NIPT test, including 2840 high-risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35 years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including 36 T21, 19 T18, and 8 T13; 82.5% (52/63) took prenatal diagnosis, and 11.5% (6/52) false-positive cases were observed. The positive predictive values for the detection of T21, T18, and T13 were 94.4%, 79.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. With stringent protocol, our prospective large-scale multicenter nationwide study demonstrated that NIPT showed excellent performance as screening tests for the detection of fetal T21, T18, and T13 in mixed-risk pregnancies in Thailand. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike E. Nett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, Mage=17.09 years completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed.

  12. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, anairplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  13. Genetic counselor opinions of, and experiences with telephone communication of BRCA1/2 test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, A R; Patrick-Miller, L; Fetzer, D; Egleston, B; Cummings, S A; Forman, A; Bealin, L; Peterson, C; Corbman, M; O'Connell, J; Daly, M B

    2011-02-01

    BRCA1/2 test disclosure has, historically, been conducted in-person by genetics professionals. Given increasing demand for, and access to, genetic testing, interest in telephone and Internet genetic services, including disclosure of test results, has increased. Semi-structured interviews with genetic counselors were conducted to determine interest in, and experiences with telephone disclosure of BRCA1/2 test results. Descriptive data are summarized with response proportions. One hundred and ninety-four genetic counselors completed self-administered surveys via the web. Although 98% had provided BRCA1/2 results by telephone, 77% had never provided pre-test counseling by telephone. Genetic counselors reported perceived advantages and disadvantages to telephone disclosure. Thirty-two percent of participants described experiences that made them question this practice. Genetic counselors more frequently reported discomfort with telephone disclosure of a positive result or variant of uncertain significance (p disadvantages to telephone disclosure, and recognize the potential for testing and patient factors to impact patient outcomes. Further research evaluating the impact of testing and patient factors on cognitive, affective, social and behavioral outcomes of alternative models of communicating genetic information is warranted. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. The pap-smear test experience of women in Turkey: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Zeynep; Ozsoy, Suheyla

    2012-01-01

    The study was planned with the purpose of examining the attitude of women who have pap-smear test for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, factors affecting their decisions and their feelings and experiences during this period. A phenomenological method was used. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 using standard and purposive samplings from 17 women. A detailed interview with women were held in their houses and recorded. The data collection tool consisted of two parts, one of which is information form with 17 questions identifying sociodemographic and cervical cancer risk factors of women and the second part is made up of semi-structured interview form with 15 alternative questions taking literature and the pap-smear test into consideration. Collected data were put into a written document. Content analysis was held by loading the documents into NVIVO 8 Statistical Programme. The study comprised themes such as cervical risk factor, decision of taking pap-smear test, taking pap-smear test, knowledge about pap-smear test, relieving factors during pap-smear test, obstructive factors during pap-smear test, gynecological examination and feelings of women during and after pap-smear test while waiting for the results. As women perceive gynaecological examinations differently from other examinations, they have different feelings in each process of the Pap smear test. Medical staff should advise women more clearly on the nature and advantages of the Pap-smear test.

  15. Inclusion and exclusion in mid-life lesbians' experiences of the Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Szewchuk, Andrea; Munro, Jenny

    2010-11-01

    Lesbians are said to feel excluded by sexual health messages that presume heterosexuality, a finding linked to lower levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. This paper discusses a small, focused qualitative study based in Calgary, Canada that illuminated mid-life lesbians' experiences and perceptions of Pap testing and health. Participants indicated that they felt compelled and invited to access Pap testing by an inclusive discourse - that of 'mid-life', a period associated with an increased need for body surveillance. They also reflected upon aging as an experience of liberation, increased confidence and a time when they could 'catch up' on health and sexuality issues denied them in their younger days. On the other hand, there was significant uncertainty about Pap testing, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer and what kind of sexual healthcare is necessary for lesbians, which was reinforced by physician messages suggesting a reduced need for Pap testing when lesbian sexual identity was disclosed. In approaching mid-life lesbian healthcare, we suggest that greater analytical attention should be paid to the ways in which lesbian women are included, as much as excluded, in dominant sexual health scripts particularly by health providers who need to attend to women's diverse experiences and needs.

  16. Optimization of testing system and experiment research for pump turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Li, D.; Wang, H. J.; Zhao, J. L.; Gong, R. Z.; Wei, X. Z.; Qin, D. Q.

    2013-12-01

    The pump turbine is key component of Pump Storage Power Plants. Moreover, the model testing proves significant guidance on design of pump turbine. Since pump turbine model testing is different from turbine model resulting from four quadrant experiment, point acquisition for transient operation conditions and special data processing, the optimization is made for these technological difficulties. In order to obtain a higher efficiency, a higher precision and a high degree of automation, the system of data acquisition is designed, in which the PXI platform was adopted, and the virtual instrument software LabVIEW was employed. And this system was successfully applied for the testing platform of Harbin Institute of Large Electric Machinery which achieves functions of transient conditions acquisition, measurement for positive and negative flow and speed, data processing, generating report, analysis for pressure fluctuation and so on. Finally four quadrant experiment was carried out in this test platform, results show that steady for the experiment operation conditions and repeatability for data which can better reflect the characteristic for "S-shaped" and reverse pump conditions. The system of pump turbine model test is significant for the research of pump turbine and has some guiding significance for the application of engineering.

  17. Comparison of Impact Duration Between Experiment and Theory From Charpy Impact Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the comparison of impact duration between experiment and theory from impact signal through a Charpy test. Recently, the number of accidents on the highway has been increased and it depends on the impact duration of material that have the ability to provide adequate protection to passengers from harmful and improve occupant survivability during crash event. Charpy impact test was implemented on different material and thickness but at the same striker velocity. Impact signal is obtained through the strain gauge that has been installed to striker hammer and connected to frequency data acquisition system. Collected signal is then analysed to identify the time period during impact before fractured. Result from both experiment and theory shows an increment to the impact duration as thickness is increased. Charpy test shows that aluminium 6061-T6 has a higher impact duration compared to carbon steel 1050.

  18. Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Leticia; Meyer, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This paper summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test conducted over one year. The AWP recovered 90% of water from four crewmembers using (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater, including urine, hygiene, laundry and humidity condensate. Downstream, a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system removed large organics and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed and a 29% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume and consumable-saving design that doesn't require toxic pretreatment. This paper will explain the reasons for this and will discuss steps to optimize each subsystem to increase effluent quality from the MABRs and the FOST to advance the system.

  19. Venting of a Water/Inhibited Propylene Glycol Mixture in a Vacuum Environment-Characterization and Representative Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    , the mass of the test article was measured as it changed over time, as was its temperature and backpressure. The tests were successful. Somewhat surprisingly, the results showed that the evaporation behavior of the three fluids had more similarities than differences. The 50/50 mixture evaporated similarly to the pure water - albeit at a slower rate. The test results indicate that our extensive space - based experience with venting of single component fluids can be applied to the problem of Orion ATCS venting as long as the appropriate puts, takes, and caveats are applied.

  20. Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

  1. Post-mining water treatment. Nanofiltration of uranium-contaminated drainage. Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Nanofiltration of real uranium-contaminated mine drainage was successfully discussed in experiments and modeling. For the simulation a renowned model was adapted that is capable of describing multi-component solutions. Although the description of synthetic multi-component solutions with a limited number of components was performed before ([Garcia-Aleman2004], [Geraldes2006], [Bandini2003]) the results of this work show that the adapted model is capable of describing the very complex solution. The model developed here is based on: The Donnan-Steric Partitioning Pore Model incorporating Dielectric Exclusion - DSPM and DE ref. [Bowen1997], [Bandini2003], [Bowen2002], [Vezzani2002]. The steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion model - SEDE ref. [Szymczyk2005]. The developed modeling approach is capable of describing multi-component transport, and is based on the pore radius, membrane thickness, and volumetric membrane charge density as physically relevant membrane parameters instead of mere fitting parameters which allows conclusions concerning membrane modification or process design. The experiments involve typical commercially available membranes in combination with a water sample of industrial relevance in the mining sector. Furthermore, it has been shown experimentally that uranium speciation influences its retention. Hence, all experiments consider the speciation of uranium when assessing its charge and size. In the simulation 10 different ionic components have been taken into account. By freely fitting 4 parameters in parallel (pore radius, membrane thickness, membrane charge, relative permittivity of the oriented water layer at the pore wall) an excellent agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained. Moreover, the determined membrane thickness and pore radius is in close agreement with the values obtained by independent membrane characterization using pure water permeability and glucose retention. On the other hand, the fitted and the literature

  2. BUGLE-96 validation with MORSE-SGC/S using water and iron experiments from SINBAD 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-03

    This document summarizes the validation of MORSE-SGC/S with the BUGLE-96 cross section library. SINBAD Benchmark Experiment 2.004, Winfrith Water Benchmark Experiment and SBE 6.001, Karlsruhe Iron Sphere Benchmark Experiment were utilized for this validation. The MORESE-SGC/S code with the BUGLE-96 cross-section library was used to model the experimental configurations as given in SINDBAD 97. SINDBAD is a shielding integral benchmark archive and database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). For means of comparison, the experimental models were also executed with MORSE-SGC/S using the BUGLE-80 cross-section library. BUGLE-96 cross section will be used for shielding applications only as recommended by ORNL.

  3. Tracer tests - possibilities and limitations. Experience from SKB fieldwork: 1977-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin; Crawford, James; Elert, Mark (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-09-15

    Tracer tests have played, and still play, a central role in investigations relating to the understanding of radionuclide retention processes in the field. At present there is a debate within the scientific community concerning how, and to what extent, tracer tests can be used to evaluate large-scale and long-term transport and retardation of radionuclides and other solutes of interest for Safety Assessment of repositories for spent nuclear fuel. In this report the SKB fieldwork on tracer tests performed at Swedish sites from 1977 to 2007 is described and discussed. Furthermore, the knowledge and process understanding evolved during the decades of radionuclide transport experiments and modelling within the SKB programme is summarised. One of the main objectives of this report is to discuss what data and knowledge can be extracted from different in situ tests in a robust fashion. Given the level of complexity associated with transport processes that may occur over the timescale of a tracer test, the utility of tracer tests is considered in the context of evidence-based interpretations of data which we characterise in the form of a sequence of questions of increasing complexity. The complexity of this sequence ranges from whether connection can be confirmed between injection and withdrawal points to whether quantitative data can be extrapolated from a tracer test to be subsequently used in Safety Assessment. The main findings of this report are that: Field scale tracer tests can confirm flow connectivity. Field scale tracer tests confirm the existence of retention. Field scale tracer tests alone can only broadly substantiate our process understanding. However, if performing extensive Site Characterisation and integrating the tracer test results with the full range of geoscientific information available, much support can be given to our process understanding. Field scale tracer tests can deliver the product of the material property group MPG and the F-factor, valid

  4. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part I Straw firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, A; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal......-fired plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted. Three types of exposure were undertaken...... to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam temperature range of 450-600°C...

  5. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  6. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makisha, Nikolay; Gogina, Elena

    2017-11-01

    Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  7. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Water and Aqueous Systems: Experiment, Theory, and Current Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Fang, Wei; Kusalik, Peter G; McKenzie, Ross H; Michaelides, Angelos; Morales, Miguel A; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-07-13

    Nuclear quantum effects influence the structure and dynamics of hydrogen-bonded systems, such as water, which impacts their observed properties with widely varying magnitudes. This review highlights the recent significant developments in the experiment, theory, and simulation of nuclear quantum effects in water. Novel experimental techniques, such as deep inelastic neutron scattering, now provide a detailed view of the role of nuclear quantum effects in water's properties. These have been combined with theoretical developments such as the introduction of the principle of competing quantum effects that allows the subtle interplay of water's quantum effects and their manifestation in experimental observables to be explained. We discuss how this principle has recently been used to explain the apparent dichotomy in water's isotope effects, which can range from very large to almost nonexistent depending on the property and conditions. We then review the latest major developments in simulation algorithms and theory that have enabled the efficient inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in molecular simulations, permitting their combination with on-the-fly evaluation of the potential energy surface using electronic structure theory. Finally, we identify current challenges and future opportunities in this area of research.

  8. Polycentrism and Poverty: Experiences of Rural Water Supply Reform in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Falk

    2009-02-01

    This paper investigates how polycentric rural water supply reform impacts on natural resource management and water users’ livelihoods in three communal areas of Namibia. The analysis takes into account the effects of historic discriminative policies and the resulting low financial, human and social capital of rural communities. We conclude that the devolution of institutional and financial responsibility for water supply to users has had a positive impact on rural water management. However, the introduction of cost recovery principles conflicts with the objectives of the Namibian government to alleviate poverty and inequality. The high level of inequality within the country as a whole and also within communities impedes the development of fair fee systems. Polycentrism faces the major challenge of building on existing structures without replicating historic injustices. It allows, however, for the state to mitigate any negative impact on livelihoods. While the reform is in the process of full implementation, the government is discussing various options of how the poor can be guaranteed access to water without diminishing their development opportunities. The Namibian experience demonstrates the difficulties in developing effective incentive mechanisms without undermining major social objectives. Our analyses show that, compared to naive monocentric governance approaches, polycentrism offers much broader opportunities for achieving multidimensional objectives. Nonetheless, a reform does not become successful simply because it is polycentric.

  9. Adsorption of HMF from water/DMSO solutions onto hydrophobic zeolites: experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruichang; León, Marta; Nikolakis, Vladimiros; Sandler, Stanley I; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), DMSO, and