WorldWideScience

Sample records for water technology fact

  1. Water: Facts without Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  3. FACT : forgiving agent comfort technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Akkermans, Hans; Jelsma, J.; Bakker, L.

    2005-01-01

    To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, a new control technology is needed in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Improvement of the energy consumption is offered by agent-based systems for energy management in buildings, as well as possibilities for enhancing the comfort

  4. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  5. Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Related Links CDC Food Safety Adolescent and School Health BAM! Body and Mind Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake Recommend ...

  6. Fishing Facts Unlimited. Enterprise: Man & Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Technical and Industrial Education.

    Fishing Facts Unlimited, a student conducted enterprise in Technical and Industrial Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale has been a very successful operation, both financially and in providing a community service. The service provided by the enterprise was the production and sales of a 48-page fishing guide to Southern Illinois.…

  7. Next Generation Air Measurement Technologies Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is advancing lower cost and portable air measurement technology to enhance monitoring capabilities for complying with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The technology is providing mobile and stationary real-time measurement capabilities.

  8. Solar Energy Technologies Office Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2018-03-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs.

  9. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  10. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  11. Comfort agent: FACT : from technology to value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Bakker, L.

    2006-01-01

    Global warming, caused largely by energy consumption, is becoming a major problem. To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, new control technology is needed. There is a very exciting development in control strategy in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Within the SMART

  12. Tissue tightening technologies: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadick, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Skin laxity is associated with chronological aging and exposure to solar radiation. The authors summarize the advantages and limitations of current laser, light-, and radiofrequency (RF)-based technologies purported to treat skin laxity by effecting heat-induced collagen contraction and subsequent remodeling during the months after treatment. Although penetration of laser or broadband light to the deep dermal layers is limited because of scattering of the light by epidermal melanin, a new device in which broadband infrared light is minimally scattered may overcome these limitations. RF energy offers a treatment alternative that has not only been proven to promote collagen contraction and remodeling but also is not scattered by epidermal constituents. Recently launched devices that use combinations of optical and RF energy achieve clinical benefits at lower and therefore safer levels of energy, with only mild pain and few adverse effects. A combined infrared-RF device takes maximum advantage of both optical and RF technologies to achieve the desired clinical effect. The electrooptical synergy systems have proven to be safe, effective, reliable, and user-friendly. Other more advanced powerful technologies may also be effective in this setting.

  13. Internet and information technologies: facts and fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ronald D.

    2001-10-01

    Information technology advances are spawning visions of radically altered modus operandi for commerce, education, business, information storage and receival. Proponents of virtual technology domination offer a world of instant communications, information sharing, and binary commerce. Some express alarm to the electronic visionaries and see an expected world vacated of human interactions, which is populated by e-hermits. The reality is that access to the Internet is becoming pervasive worldwide and affords a virtual community and markets. Governments, education, markets, businesses and consumers are rushing to exploit and adjust to an electronic, virtual world. The exploitation and adjustment to this an 'ether-world' transcends boundaries is a challenge to stakeholders. Public policy, international agreements, education, businesses and consumers face monumental change in the way they live and conduct their lives. As with most paradigms shifts, pioneers rush forward and launch a myriad of new startups with many failing and some standing the test of time and utility. An example is the early pioneers in North America who headed westward to in search of a new vision of riches. They established towns, developed farms, dug mines and began new businesses. However, many of the pioneers moved from one venture to another. Some of their endeavors ended with ghost towns, abandoned farms and mines, and bankrupt businesses. In the end, however, a great nation was born. This author expects the ether-world to go through similar starts, fits, and adjustments before it emerges as a more stable part of the fabric of society.

  14. Facts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... it is a target to achieve but, rather, as a journey. Industry, government and academia coming together on policy innovation and standards development. Universities and R&D organizations collaboration for inventing technologies. Power grid and Smart grid is an corodinated effort. Any deficiency may give access to hackers..

  15. Some Interesting Facts about Water and Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The total amount of water in the world today is still the same as it was hundreds of thousands of years ago. Almost 97% of the water that is on this earth is undrinkable. About two percent of world's water is locked in polar ice caps and glaciers. Only one percent of world's water is available for human consumption. Agriculture, livestock farming, irrigation, manufacturing, factories, businesses, commercial establishments, offices, communities and household all have to share this 1% of water that is available. Although we call it drinking water, humans actually drink only about 1% of water that is actually supplied to the household by the utility companies. Inside a leak-proof average American household, about 70% of the water is used in the bathroom and about 20% is utilized in kitchen and laundry. The U.S. daily average consumption of water is about 200 gallons per person. Desalinated water may typically cost about 2,000 - 3000 an acre foot. This is approximately a penny a gallon. An acre-foot or 325,851 gallons is roughly the amount of water a family of five uses in a year. 1.2 trillion gallons of industrial waste, untreated sewage and storm water are dumped into U.S. waters each year. Faster depletion of water supplies is partly due to hotter summers, which mean thirstier people, livestock, plants, trees and shrubs. In addition, hotter summers mean more evaporation from lakes, rivers, reservoirs and irrigated farmland. The median household in the U.S. spends about one of its income on water and sewerage. The human body is about 75% water. Although government agencies have taken necessary steps, water pollution levels continue to rise rapidly. It is becoming more and more difficult to clean up polluted water bodies. Water conservation and preventing water pollution is the responsibility of very human being. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/water/http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/conservation_portal/

  16. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule

  17. Water Technology Lecture 1: Introducing Water Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is a full set of PowerPoint lectures for a course in Water Technology currently given at Trinity College, University of Dublin by professor N.F. Gray. The lectures cover all aspects of water and wastewater treatment and are available for use to lecturers or those interested in the subject. The lecture series is to be used in conjunction with the new textbook ?Water Science and Technology? (4th edition) published by CRC Press in 2017. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the water indust...

  18. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  19. Careers "Fact Sheets" for clinical engineering & biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacela, A F

    1991-01-01

    Three Careers "Fact Sheets" include information on CE and BMET job titles, job descriptions, and certification. These materials are intended to aid in furthering professional recognition for Clinical Engineers and BMETs, and may be useful in communicating with Administration or Human Resources departments.

  20. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  1. Technical fact sheets on the impacts of new energy efficiency technologies and measures in ice rinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents energy efficiency facts on ice rinks and arenas to advise and inform refrigeration and building professionals. The aim of the paper was to facilitate estimation and compare impacts of various energy efficiency measures and new technologies on the consumption of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A computer-based tool modelling ice rink energy consumption was constructed based on DOE-2.1E software. The simulation tool was developed to study the sensitivity of various eco-energetic technologies applied to arenas. Results of the simulations have made it possible to construct 8 facts sheets, including information on simulated heat exchange; calculation of energy consumption for heating and refrigeration; the incorporation of several types of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; and to show various strategies of operation. To account for the effects of ice within a building, calculation routines in the form of functional values were added. The model addressed the following parameters: climate; characteristics of the envelope; lighting power and intensity; temperature of the resurfacing water; ice sheet temperature; humidity level of the ice rink; fresh air intake; emissivity index of the ceiling above the ice sheet; refrigeration systems according to type, capacity, output and operation mode; capacity output and operation mode of the air heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system; and capacity, output and operation mode of the domestic and resurfacing hot water heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system. Fact sheets were presented for the type of technology; description; direct or indirect benefits; energy-savings potential; environmental impacts; specific comments from specialists; and a set of charts to facilitate comprehension. tabs., figs.

  2. FY2000 Hanford Technology Deployment Accomplishments Fact Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Cleaning up the Hanford Site is one of the top priorities for the U. S. Department of Energy. The department is continually looking for ways to expedite cleanup and reduce costs. During Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. Hanford Site staff deployed 24 new technologies, which produced an estimated lifecycle cost savings of 479 million dollars. This is a clear indicator of the impacts new technology has had and will have on the cleanup efforts. The Hanford Site cleanup is focused on the following: Restoring the Columbia River Corridor; Building and operating the tank waste treatment complex to complete the cleanup of highly radioactive tank waste at Hanford; and Transitioning the Central Plateau. Applying innovative science and technology from national laboratories, universities, and private industry is critical to our complex cleanup mission. The 24 new technologies deployed in FY 2000 are significantly higher than our goal of 14 technological deployments. Eleven of these technologies supported restoring the Columbia River Corridor, and seven were involved with the remediation of radioactive tank waste. These deployments produced valuable information to determine the effectiveness of the new technologies in the field and the efficiencies gained over existing cleanup methods. In several cases, the technology deployed presented a solution to a problem where a clear path of remediation had not yet been determined. New and innovative technologies will play a significant role in the cleanup of the Hanford Site and enable remediation to be done more efficiently. Technology is being developed at a staggering pace. This requires excellent communication throughout the scientific and industry arenas. To effect this communication, we have implemented a technology needs process in conjunction with the multi-year work planning process. Through the combination of these two processes, technology developments and deployments address the near-term technology needs and enable us to plan for the

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  6. Wind turbines - facts from 20 years of technological progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L H; Dannemand Andersen, P [Risoe Ntaional Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The first Danish commercial wind turbines were installed in the late 1970s. Over the last 20 years the Danish wind turbine market has been relatively stable concerning annual installations, and the wind turbine technology has been able to develop continuously. This gives a unique time track for technology analysts. The aim of this paper is to extract reliable information on this time track from existing archives and statistics. Seven generations of wind turbine technology have been identified mainly based on `characteristic` rotor diameters. The technological development of each generation is described using indicators such as: market share in Denmark, generator size, rotor diameter, hub height, electricity production and productivity. Economical indicators comprise: costs of turbine and standard foundation. (au)

  7. Wind turbines - facts from 20 years of technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.H.; Dannemand Andersen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The first Danish commercial wind turbines were installed in the late 1970s. Over the last 20 years the Danish wind turbine market has been relatively stable concerning annual installations, and the wind turbine technology has been able to develop continuously. This gives a unique time track for technology analysts. The aim of this paper is to extract reliable information on this time track from existing archives and statistics. Seven generations of wind turbine technology have been identified mainly based on 'characteristic' rotor diameters. The technological development of each generation is described using indicators such as: market share in Denmark, generator size, rotor diameter, hub height, electricity production and productivity. Economical indicators comprise: costs of turbine and standard foundation. (au)

  8. U.S. EPA Federal Technology Transfer Program Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), enacted by Congress in 1986 and building on previous legislation, improves access to federal laboratories by non-federal organizations for research and development opportunities.

  9. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) in humans: facts and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménézo, Y J; Veiga, A; Pouly, J L

    2000-01-15

    Since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, the number of patients using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) has increased tremendously. ART technologies have increased in number and their spectrum has also widened. The first IVF babies are now more than 20 years old. All the retrospective analyses have demonstrated that the obstetrical and pediatrical impact has not really affected single births. The main problems observed occur with multiple pregnancies, including high costs for the couples and for society. The decrease in the number of embryos transferred has improved the situation and moreover does not impair the final results. IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a more debatable and questionable technique with a real negative genetic impact. The main problem is chromosome abnormalities more specifically related to the sex chromosomes. The question of a systematic genetic work-up on the patients entering ICSI programs is discussed. No negative impact of cryopreservation has been demonstrated even though some controversy arises from time to time. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is now a interesting tool for patients carrying genetic defects. Blastocyst biopsy now has a future role in reproductive medicine. Gender selection through sperm sorting is also now a reality. As with the other developing bio-technologies related to reproduction, there are ethical questions. The decisions concerning these technologies do not belong solely to scientists but are rather a matter for society to decide.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions). Obtained through an iterative process of ...

  11. Water Technology Lecture 3: Water Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is the third lecture in the course Water Technology dealing with water distribution. This is a PowerPoint lecture which is free to use and modify. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the course text Gray, N.F. (2017) Water Science and Technology: An Introduction, published by CRC Press, Oxford. The basis of water distribution is explored including water pipe materials, distribution systems, leakage, water quality problems, pressure issue, water hydrants, effect of floods,...

  12. Fact Sheet: Notice of Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Tributyltin (TBT) - Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. This fact sheet includes the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  13. Oxide fuel fabrication technology development of the FaCT project (1). Overall review of fuel technology development of the FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tomoyuki; Namekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2011-01-01

    The FaCT project is in progress in Japan for the commercialization of fast reactor cycle system. The development goal of the fuel in the FaCT project is a low-decontaminated TRU homo-recycling in a closed cycle and extension in average discharge burn-up to 150 GWd/t. Research and development on innovative technologies concerning the short process, remote maintenance and cooling system of automatic fuel production equipments, long life cladding material and control of oxygen potential have been conducted in phase I of the FaCT project. As the result of various test including 600 g batch MOX tests, it is concluded that the short process is available to fuel pellet fabrication of the FaCT project. Although cold mock-up tests on test model of some typical process equipments suggest possibilities of remote maintenance of automatic fuel fabrication equipment, it is concluded that it still needs further efforts to judge the operability of the completely remote fabrication for low-decontaminated TRU fuel. A cold mock-up test on fuel pin assembling equipment show that influence of decay heat of MA can be managed by cooling system. Irradiation tests in BOR-60 indicate that 9Cr-ODS possess the satisfactory in-reactor performance as the long life cladding material if homogeneity of alloy element is adequately controlled. Modification of cladding tube fabrication process to ensure homogeneity and further development of measures to control oxygen potential inside the fuel pin are necessary to reach the burn-up target of the FaCT project. (author)

  14. Fact sheet: National primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Fact Sheet contains a summary of what the regulations will do, establish, and provide; regulatory impact in regards to benefits and costs; treatment technique requirements; tap water monitoring for lead and copper; water quality monitoring (other than lead and copper); monitoring schedules, regulatory schedules for large, medium-sized, and small systems

  15. Existing knowledge in science and technology as subject of judicial establishment of facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajika, D.

    1982-02-01

    The problems facing administrative courts in determining 'existing knowledge in science and technology' (No. 3 of paragraph 2 of sect. 7 of the Atomic Energy Law) cannot be solved by limiting the judicial establishment of facts. According to established law, in procedural or substantive law there is no foundation for doing so. Limits to this establishment of facts do result from the nature of the scientific process of understanding, which very often allows but the establishment of 'margins' pertaining to scientific opinions.

  16. Review of FACTS technologies and applications for power quality in smart grids with renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandoman, Foad H.; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2018-01-01

    In the last two decades, emerging use of renewable and distributed energy sources in electricity grid has created new challenges for the utility regarding the power quality, voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. Power electronic converters are extensively utilized to interface...... the power quality. Also, distributed FACTSs play an important role in improving the power factor, energy utilization, enhancing the power quality, and ensuring efficient energy utilization and energy management in smart grids with renewable energy sources. This paper presents a literature survey of FACTS...... technology tools and applications for power quality and efficient renewable energy system utilization....

  17. Fresh Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yang Mun; Kim, O Sik; Kim, Jin Nam; Kim, Cheol Su

    1985-02-01

    This book tells US summary of fresh water with evaporation system like basic principle and outline, multistage flash evaporation, multiple-effect evaporation, other evaporation, evaporation plant by development merger, design of evaporation plant, reverse osmosis on summary, type and production of membrane, reverse osmosis device, reverse osmosis process, electrodialysis with outline of electrodialysis and polarization and energy, freezing preservation and corrosion and scale.

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  19. New technology for sulfide reductions and increased oil recovery: Petroleum project fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-14

    This Fact Sheet is written for the Inventions and Innovations Program about a new technology for sulfide reduction and increased oil recovery. The new technology, called Bio-Competitive Exclusion (BCX), results in greater oil production and prevents the production of corrosive hydrogen sulfide in oil and gas reservoirs. This BCX process is initiated and maintained by a new product, called Max-Well 2000, in which nutrients are custom designed to stimulate targeted beneficial microorganisms that live in every oil and gas reservoir. Rapid growth of these microorganisms excludes activity of harmful sulfide-producing bacteria and produces by-products that serve as effective tertiary oil recovery agents and as sulfide degradation agents. Oil and gas production is both increased and sweetened.

  20. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  1. Technologies for Distributed Energy Resources. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Technical Assistance Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, P.; Brown, T.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page fact sheet describes distributed energy resources for Federal facilities, which are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Distributed energy resources include both existing and emerging energy technologies: advanced industrial turbines and microturbines; combined heat and power (CHP) systems; fuel cells; geothermal systems; natural gas reciprocating engines; photovoltaics and other solar systems; wind turbines; small, modular biopower; energy storage systems; and hybrid systems. DOE FEMP is investigating ways to use these alternative energy systems in government facilities to meet greater demand, to increase the reliability of the power-generation system, and to reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  2. Water environment and water preservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, M.; Ofuchi, M.; Tsuzuki, K. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Technologies on monitoring, purification, and simulation were described concerning water quality preservation, especially in closed water bodies such as lakes. In order to detect an increase in plankton bloom causing unpleasant taste and order, a water quality monitoring system using image analysis was developed. The main feature of this system is the use of a microscope to obtain images of plankton, coupled with a high speed image processor containing VLSI circuits used exclusively for image processing. The original gray image, obtained from the ITV in the microscope, is treated in the image processor, which extracts the features of isolated plankton, then classifies them, based on data previously input into the memory. As one of the water purification measures for lakes, a sprinkler system was developed. The sprinkler system has a pump in a boat-like structure set on a lake. It pumps up large quantities of cold water from depth of 10 m, then jets and sprays it from many nozzles after pressurization. In addition, a simulation technique was developed which can forecast the extent of water pollution and the effects of purification systems using the finite element method. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in a research contract between CNEA and the IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. This paper analyses the benefits and drawbacks of each desalination technology, the distinctive characteristics of the technology that fit better the different uses, and outlines the related antecedents of its application in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations made in the last years for the different technologies are also described. (author)

  4. Water Technology Innovation: 10 Market Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Technology Innovation Blueprint offers an overview of market opportunities that include conserving and recovering energy, recovering nutrients, improving water infrastructure, reducing costs for water monitoring, and improving water quality.

  5. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible, and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in the research contract CNEA - IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. The objective and scope of this work is to know the advantages and disadvantages of each desalination technology, distinctive characteristics of each of them, that make them adapt better to different uses and outline conditions and analysis of related antecedents of its use in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations found in the last years for the different technologies are also included. (author)

  6. Synthesis of a hybrid model of the VSC FACTS devices and HVDC technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Yu S.; Gusev, A. S.; Sulaymanov, A. O.; Ufa, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of FACTS devices and HVDC systems as part of real electric power systems (EPS). The Research object: An alternative hybrid approach for synthesizing VSC-FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is proposed. The results: the VSC- FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is designed in accordance with the presented concepts of hybrid simulation. The developed model allows us to carry out adequate simulation in real time of all the processes in HVDC, FACTS devices and EPS as a whole without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and also use the developed tool for effective solution of a design, operational and research tasks of EPS containing such devices.

  7. Synthesis of a hybrid model of the VSC FACTS devices and HVDC technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, Yu S; Gusev, A S; Sulaymanov, A O; Ufa, R A

    2014-01-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of FACTS devices and HVDC systems as part of real electric power systems (EPS). The Research object: An alternative hybrid approach for synthesizing VSC-FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is proposed. The results: the VSC- FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is designed in accordance with the presented concepts of hybrid simulation. The developed model allows us to carry out adequate simulation in real time of all the processes in HVDC, FACTS devices and EPS as a whole without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and also use the developed tool for effective solution of a design, operational and research tasks of EPS containing such devices

  8. Membrane technology revolutionizes water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderer, P A; Paris, S

    2007-01-01

    Membranes play a crucial role in living cells, plants and animals. They not only serve as barriers between the inside and outside world of cells and organs. More importantly, they are means of selective transport of materials and host for biochemical conversion. Natural membrane systems have demonstrated efficiency and reliability for millions of years and it is remarkable that most of these systems are small, efficient and highly reliable even under rapidly changing ambient conditions. Thus, it appears to be advisable for technology developers to keep a close eye on Mother Nature. By doing so it is most likely that ideas for novel technical solutions are born. Following the concept of natural systems it is hypothesized that the Millennium Development Goals can be best met when counting on small water and wastewater treatment systems. The core of such systems could be membranes in which chemical reactions are integrated allowing recovery and direct utilization of valuable substances.

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  10. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  11. Cable-Based Water Leak Detection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Water leaks can be considered as a serious problem from many sources such as water supply and return chains, air conditioning units, cold-water chillers, clogged drains, damaged skylights or windows, or even construction errors. The new water leak detection technologies can provide significant advantages in cost, reliability, and easy adoption have continued since the traditional technology mainly focusing on a spot detector revealed several limitations.

  12. Comments on: The moisture from the air as water resource in arid region: hopes, doubt and facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beysens, D.; Milimouk, I.; Nikolayev, V.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Muselli, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Kogan and Trahtman [2003. The moisture from the air as water resource in arid region: hopes, doubts and facts. Journal of Arid Environments 53, 231¿240] analysed the functioning of a passive dew condenser built by F.I. Zibold in 1912 in Feodosia, and proposed a model to explain how thousands of

  13. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  14. Fact Sheet for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities Residual Risk and Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities to address the results of the residual risk and technology review

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  1. Drug Facts

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  2. Drug Facts

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  4. Environmental technology applications: fact file on toxic contaminants in industrial waste process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1977-05-11

    This report is a compendium of facts related to chemical materials present in industrial waste process streams which have already been declared or are being evaluated as hazardous under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Since some 400 chemicals are presently covered by consensus standards, the substances reviewed are only those considered to be a major threat to public health and welfare by Federal and State regulatory agencies. For each hazardous material cited, the facts relate, where possible, to an identification of the stationary industrial sources, the kind of waste stream impacted, proposed regulations and established effluent standards, the volume of emissions produced each year, the volume of emissions per unit of industrial product produced, present clean-up capabilities, limitations, and costs. These data should be helpful in providing information for the assessment of potential problems, should be of use to the manufacturers of pollution control equipment or of chemicals for pollution control, should be of use to the operators or potential operators of processes which produce pollutants, and should help to define industry-wide emission practices and magnitudes.

  5. Revealing facts behind spray dried solid dispersion technology used for solubility enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh B.; Patel, Jayvadan K.; Chakraborty, Subhashis; Shukla, Dali

    2013-01-01

    Poor solubility and bioavailability of an existing or newly synthesized drug always pose challenge in the development of efficient pharmaceutical formulation. Numerous technologies can be used to improve the solubility and among them amorphous solid dispersion based spray drying technology can be successfully useful for development of product from lab scale to commercial scale with a wide range of powder characteristics. Current review deals with the importance of spray drying technology in drug delivery, basically for solubility and bioavailability enhancement. Role of additives, selection of polymer, effect of process and formulation parameters, scale up optimization, and IVIVC have been covered to gain the interest of readers about the technology. Design of experiment (DoE) to optimize the spray drying process has been covered in the review. A lot more research work is required to evaluate spray drying as a technology for screening the right polymer for solid dispersion, especially to overcome the issue related to drug re-crystallization and to achieve a stable product both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the recent FDA recommendation, the need of the hour is also to adopt Quality by Design approach in the manufacturing process to carefully optimize the spray drying technology for its smooth transfer from lab scale to commercial scale. PMID:27134535

  6. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle......-criteria decision analysis method was used to develop a decision support system and applied to the study. In this thesis a standard LCA of the drinking water supply technology of today (base case) and 4 alternative cases for water supply technologies is conducted. The standard LCA points at the case rain...

  7. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  8. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  9. Membrane technology water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzdev, E. N.; Starikov, E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The suggested technical solution, in contrast with the traditional treatment methods using pressure filtration and sorption cleaning, can be applied with minimal used for equipment, stable production and the use of reagents, prevention of the formation of waste water with high mineral content and avoid the need for neutralization of the main stream of waste water

  10. Brief: Information technology as an aid to productivity in petroleum exploration -- fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, M.; Iliffe, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between information technology investment, technical productivity, and business benefit. The effect of introducing IT to the industry and its impact on geoscience is described, along with a discussion of whether investment in IT has brought the expected benefits to other industries. The paper concludes with a consideration of the present business perceptions of IT and asks whether a company, by concentrating solely on such issues as technical productivity, will actually maximize the benefits of IT

  11. Energy Innovation Portal Brings DOE Technologies to the Market (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    For venture capitalists, energy entrepreneurs, and industry veterans, finding the right renewable energy or energy efficiency solution used to be like looking for a needle in a haystack. Now, a searchable treasure trove of innovative U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technologies is available. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the online Energy Innovation Portal helps businesses and entrepreneurs access the intellectual property of DOE's 17 national laboratories and other research partners.

  12. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  13. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  14. Drug Facts

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  17. Review of tritiated water concentration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    In order to cooperate with the construction of the spent fuel reprocessing plant in China, the research and application status of tritiated water concentration technology at home and abroad were summarized. Some suggestions for the technology research route in China were put forward. (author)

  18. The social construction of facts and artefacts: or How the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinch, Trevor J.; Bijker, Wiebe E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for an integrated social constructivist approach towards the study of science and technology is outlined. Within such a programme both scientific facts and technological artefacts are to be understood as social constructs. Literature on the sociology of science, the science-technology

  19. Decontamination technology of contaminated water with flocculating and settling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Hosobuchi, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    In the joint research and development of treatment systems of cooling water for cutting asphalt pavement surface with our authors' group, the liquid-solid separation technology by flocculating and settling technology, and the flocculants for the use of systems were developed. In this paper, the developed flocculating and settling technology and the flocculants are discussed first. Next, the demonstration tests of decontamination technology on the contaminated water in swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture had been conducted by use of the stationary purification system of contaminated water and the flocculants compounding with or without iron ferrocianide developed by the preliminary test. It was clarified from the results that ionized cesium (Cs) rarely exists in the stagnant water in pools, ponds, lakes and so on at the time when nine months have passed since Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accidents. Further, it is necessary to use the flocculants compounding iron ferrocianide in the case where ionized Cs exists in water. From the above-mentioned results, the following problems were pointed out: One problem was cyanide dissolution in the purified water and the other one was the dissolution from the dehydration sludge. Finally, the high-performance mobile purification units of contaminated water which is capable for carrying with trucks have been developed, and the demonstration test was performed in Minami-soma City, Fukushima Prefecture to purify the contaminated water in a pond and generated by the high-pressure water washing in a Public Hall. From the test results, it was made clear that the dehydration sludge separated by liquid-solid settling of the contaminated water of around 1,000Bq/l became a high radiation dose of about 185,000Bq/l. (author)

  20. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  1. An overview of latest deep water technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The 8th Deep Offshore Technology Conference (DOT VIII, Rio de Janeiro, October 30 - November 3, 1995) has brought together renowned specialists in deep water development projects, as well as managers from oil companies and engineering/service companies to discuss state-of-the-art technologies and ongoing projects in the deep offshore. This paper is a compilation of the session summaries about sub sea technologies, mooring and dynamic positioning, floaters (Tension Leg Platforms (TLP) and Floating Production Storage and Off loading (FPSO)), pipelines and risers, exploration and drilling, and other deep water techniques. (J.S.)

  2. Implementing Integrated Water Resources Management in the Ebro River Basin: From Theory to Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bielsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze how successful the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM in the Ebro river catchment (in Spain has been. Our main aim is to show some gaps between theory and practice. This implies analyzing the political dimensions of governance and their change and reflecting on the interface between governance and technical knowledge about water. We highlight problems, such as the lack of institutional coordination, blind spots in technical information and path dependences. Actual water management has led to plans for further irrigation even though water availability is, and is expected to continue, shrinking due to climate change and other local factors. To overcome these mismatches, we propose further synchronization, innovative ways of public participation and knowledge sharing between institutions and researchers. As a showcase, we portray a practical real example of a desirable institutional arrangement in one sub-catchment.

  3. Fast reactor cycle technology development. 'FaCT seminar - R and D for key technology of national importance'. Seminar report and collection of documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    An R and D program on the fast breeder reactor cycle commercialization, the FaCT Project, which was selected as one of the Key Technologies of National Importance, has been conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for the purposes of resolving the issues of long-term sustainable energy supply and the global warming. The first Seminar of the FaCT Project was held at the Osaka Science and Technology Center on November 30, 2007, to present the progress and status of the Project and exchange opinions among the participants from various sectors. In the Seminar, MEXT, METI and JAEA reported the national nuclear policy, the current status and future plan of the FaCT Project. A special panel session was also held on the approach to international collaboration relevant to the project, and the importance was stressed on further promoting the international collaboration and keeping the framework of international partnership in this area, while distinguishing the relationship between 'cooperation' and 'competition'. Over 260 audiences from various sectors including government, universities, research organizations, utilities, nuclear industries participated. This report provides a seminar summary and the presented papers. (author)

  4. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  5. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G. [Stanford Univ., Dept. of Economics, CA (United States); Van der Zwaan, B. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam, Inst. for Environmental Studies (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  6. TECHNICAL FACT SHEET: A Systematic Evaluation of Dissolved Metals Loss during Water Sample Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research study examined how water quality collection and filtration approaches, including commonly used capsule and disc syringe filters, may cause losses in the amounts of soluble lead and copper found in a sample. A variety of commercially available filter materials with a...

  7. Aquatek introduces new oily water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Many conventional oily water separators cause clogged filters on marine vessels, which has led some operators to illegally discharge oily wastes into lakes and oceans. This article presented details of a simple and reliable technology to separate chemically emulsified and mechanically suspended oil particles from water. Designed by Newfoundland entrepreneurs and commercialized by Aquatek Environmental Inc., the Aquatek separator does not require membranes or chemicals and can be configured to function without moving parts or external energy. The small size of the separator has made it the subject of considerable interest at marine technology shows. The technology is able to treat highly variable concentrations of oily water without clogging, and works on low oil concentrations as well as fluids consisting of all-free oil. The Aquatek has the ability to separate oil from water as well as water from oil. Tests have indicated that the technology can also be used to treat produced water at oilfields. It was concluded that the separator is a major improvement over other available products. 2 figs

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  9. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  10. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  11. Thermal diffusion of water vapour in porous materials: fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    diffusion. Thermal diffusion opponents, on the other hand, assert that these thermal transports are negligibly small. This paper resolves that contradiction. A critical analysis of the investigations supporting the occurrence of thermal diffusion reveals that all are flawed. A correct reinterpretation...... its negligible magnitude. It can in conclusion be stated that thermal diffusion is of no importance for building science applications, leaving vapour pressure as the sole significant transport potential for the diffusion of water vapour in porous materials. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  13. Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Qadir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustainable option that can supply fresh drinking water to communities where fog events are common. Because of the relatively simple design of fog collection systems, their operation and maintenance are minimal and the associated cost likewise; although, in certain cases, some financially constrained communities would need initial subsidies. Despite technology development and demonstrated benefits, there are certain challenges to fog harvesting, including lack of supportive policies, limited functional local institutions, inexpert communities, gender inequality, and perceived high costs without undertaking comprehensive economic analyses. By addressing such challenges, there is an opportunity to provide potable water in areas where fog intensity and duration are sufficient, and where the competition for clean water is intensifying because water resources are at a far distance or provided by expensive sources.

  14. Fact and fiction in ECP measurement and control in boiling water reactor primary coolant circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    A review is presented of various electrochemical potentials, including the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), that are used in the mitigation of stress corrosion cracking in the primary coolant circuits of boiling water reactors (BWRs). Attention is paid to carefully defining each potential in terms of fundamental electrochemical concepts, so as to counter the confusion that has arisen due to the misuse of previously accepted terminology. A brief discussion is also included of reference electrodes and it is shown on the basis of experimental data that the use of a platinum redox sensor as a reference electrode in the monitoring of ECP in BWR primary coolant circuits is inappropriate and should be discouraged. If platinum is used as a reference electrode, because of extenuating circumstances (e.g., potential measurements in high dose regions in a reactor core), the onus must be placed on the user to demonstrate quantitatively that the electrode behaves as an equilibrium electrode under the specified conditions and/or that its potential is invariant with changes in the independent variables of the system. Preferably, a means should also be demonstrated of transferring the measured potential to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) scale. (orig.)

  15. Water Jet Technology Used in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Magurová, D.; Valíček, Jan; Kozak, D.; Harničárová, M.; Rakin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2010), s. 237-240 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : abrasive water jet * medicine * technology Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.083, year: 2010

  16. Do water-saving technologies improve environmental flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Charles; Reddy, V. Ratna; Linstead, Conor; Dhar, Murli; Roy, Sumit; May, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Water saving and conservation technologies (WCTs) have been promoted widely in India as a practical means of improving the water use efficiency and freeing up water for other uses (e.g. for maintaining environmental flows in river systems). However, there is increasing evidence that, somewhat paradoxically, WCTs often contribute to intensification of water use by irrigated and rainfed farming systems. This occurs when: (1) Increased crop yields are coupled with increased consumptive water use and/or (2) Improved efficiency, productivity and profitability encourages farmers to increase the area cropped and/or to adopt multiple cropping systems. In both cases, the net effect is an increase in annual evapotranspiration that, particularly in areas of increasing water scarcity, can have the trade-off of reduced environmental flows. Recognition is also increasing that the claimed water savings of many WCTs may have been overstated. The root cause of this problem lies in confusion over what constitutes real water saving at the system or basin scales. The simple fact is that some of the water that is claimed to be ‘saved’ by WCTs would have percolated into the groundwater from where it can be and often is accessed and reused. Similarly, some of the “saved” runoff can be used downstream by, for example, farmers or freshwater ecosystems. This paper concludes that, particularly in areas facing increasing water scarcity, environmental flows will only be restored and maintained if they are given explicit (rather than theoretical or notional) attention. With this in mind, a simple methodology is proposed for deciding when and where WCTs may have detrimental impacts on environmental flows.

  17. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  18. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  19. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  20. Factors affecting the selection of a soil water sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hignett, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews of soil moisture measurement technologies are counterproductive in attempting to identify the single approach that has the best overall performance for a range of soil, crop and landscape conditions. Not only does such an approach preclude the addition of new technologies, but it also obscures the fact that we have available today sensors and technologies that cover most field conditions, are well understood in terms of technical capability and are mechanically and electronically reliable. This review defines decision-making processes for assessing the characteristics, good and bad, of technology in relation to project objectives. Two processes are needed. The first links soil texture and scale of variability with the nature of the project, single-plant to catchment scale, to the needs for soil water measurement. The second lists the capabilities of some devices and shows how they can be selected to accommodate necessary criteria. It is concluded that the 'best technology' is a function of the project and soil conditions. (author)

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  2. New aspects of sewerage and water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemczynowics, J.

    1993-01-01

    Highly developed countries with expensive water-related infrastructure, sophisticated waterworks and treatment plants, still contribute to local and global pollution. Many developing countries still lack water-treatment facilities and environmentally-sound water management. These problems are especially accentuated in some of the large and fast growing cities of the world. Means of solving the problems involve a new holistic approach to resource management. The goal of such an approach is to close the cycles of residuals that damage the environment, and to recover resources lost in residuals emitted from human activities. The most important step is to apply pollution prevention, i.e. pollution control at the source. Present knowledge suggests technologies that can solve the problem of pollution from human settlements on a single-house level. Alternatively, wastewater may be treated locally and reused. Ecologically-sound technologies that already exist should be used whenever possible. Water management can be integrated with management of other human activities, such as waste handling, industrial production, transportation, etc. Tools for implementation of such solutions are: legislation coupled with education programs; changing competition rules of the market economy; i.e. developing a sustainable society through resource recovery and reuse. Demonstration projects, in which the rules of preventive approach and novel technology are applied, may constitute a practical means of implementing such an approach. 34 refs, 3 figs

  3. Reprocessing technology for present water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    The basic Purex solvent extraction technology developed and applied in the U.S. in the 1950's provides a well-demonstrated and efficient process for recovering uranium and plutonium for fuel recycle and separating the wastes for further treatment and packaging. The technologies for confinement of radioactive effluents have been developed but have had limited utilization in the processing of commercial light water reactor fuels. Technologies for solidification and packaging of radioactive wastes have not yet been demonstrated but significant experience has been gained in laboratory and engineering scale experiments with simulated commercial reprocessing wastes and intermediate level wastes. Commercial scale experience with combined operations of all the required processes and equipment are needed to demonstrate reliable reprocessing centers

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  5. WATER MICROPOLLUTANTS: CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the different kinds of emerging contaminants, their origin and use, and their presence in the Spanish waters, both in surface and groundwater. Micropollutants are compounds of different origin and chemical nature which had been unnoticed (due to their low concentration and don’t have specific regulation. They are divided into six major groups, and many of them behave as endocrine disruptors causing large negative effects on human health and environment. They are in waters because the waste water treatment plants are not designed for their removal, so they are being discharged. Different alternatives for their removal are discussed - physico- chemical, biological and hybrid treatment technologies -. Among the physicochemical process, the advance oxidation processes (AOPs are very promising.

  6. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... saving agricultural technology, which include modern biological water-saving technology, unconventional ... and innovation, water, nutrient migration theory, regula- .... urban sewage of more than 50%; Mexico City, 90% of.

  7. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  8. Materials technologies of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1984-01-01

    Satisfactory materials performance is a key element in achieving reliable operation of light water reactors. Outstanding performance under rigorous operational conditions has been exhibited by pressure boundary components, core internals, fuel cladding, and other critical components of these systems. Corrosion and stress corrosion phenomena have, however, had an impact on plant availability, most notably relating to pipe cracking in BWR systems and steam generator corrosion in PWR systems. These experiences have stimulated extensive development activities by the nuclear industry in improved NDE techniques, investigation of corrosion phenomena, as well as improved materials and repair processes. This paper reviews key materials performance aspects of light water reactors with particular emphasis on the progress which has been made in modeling of corrosion phenomena, control of the plant operating environment, advanced material development, and application of sophisticated repair procedures. Implementation of this technology provides the basis for improved plant availability

  9. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  10. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... DEVELOPING TENDENCY OF MODERN WATER-. SAVING AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY. Excavation of the own water-saving potential using biotechnology. The biological water-saving technology that uses crop physiology control and modern breeding techniques to increase production and water ...

  11. Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusa-Idaman-Said

    2000-01-01

    Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

  12. Technology-Enhanced Assessment of Math Fact Automaticity: Patterns of Performance for Low- and Typically Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Eric M.; Sharp, Lindsay B.; Kenyon, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Because math fact automaticity has been identified as a key barrier for students struggling with mathematics, we examined how initial math achievement levels influenced the path to automaticity (e.g., variation in number of attempts, speed of retrieval, and skill maintenance over time) and the relation between attainment of automaticity and gains…

  13. Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing

  14. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 12: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; David Hall

    2005-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool was developed to estimate sediment generated by fuel management activities. WEPP FuMe estimates sediment generated for 12 fuel-related conditions from a single input. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does, and tells the user how to obtain the...

  15. Technological readiness of evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has evolved to a mature industry that supplies over 16% of the world's electricity, and it represents an important option for meeting the global energy demands of the coming century in an environmentally acceptable manner. New, evolutionary water cooled reactor designs that build on successful performance of predecessors have been developed; these designs have generally been guided by wishes to reduce cost, to improve availability and reliability, and to meet increasingly stringent safety objectives. These three aspects are important factors in what has been called technological readiness for an expanded deployment of nuclear power; a major increase in utilization of nuclear power will only occur if it is economically competitive, and meets safety expectations. To this end, the industry will also have to maintain or improve the public perception of nuclear power as a benign, economical and reliable energy source. (author)

  16. Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Qadir; Gabriela C. Jiménez; Rebecca L. Farnum; Leslie L. Dodson; Vladimir Smakhtin

    2018-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustaina...

  17. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... fastest 100-year in human history, in which the world population has .... achieving modern water-saving high-yield and quality type from .... Information technology, intelligent technology and 3S technology ... perfor-mance and longer service life. .... using artificial neural network technology and data commu-.

  18. Water Power Technologies FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Water Power Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies and market solutions for clean, domestic power generation from water resources across the U.S. (hydropower, marine and hydrokinetics).

  19. Rising Above the Water: New Orleans Implements Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Practices Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the technical assistance that the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provided to New Orleans, Louisiana, which helped the city incorporate energy efficiency into its rebuilding efforts for K-12 schools and homes following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. NREL also provided support and analysis on energy policy efforts.

  20. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  1. Materials and membrane technologies for water and energy sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-03-10

    Water and energy have always been crucial for the world’s social and economic growth. Their supply and use must be sustainable. This review discusses opportunities for membrane technologies in water and energy sustainbility by analyzing their potential applications and current status; providing emerging technologies and scrutinizing research and development challenges for membrane materials in this field.

  2. Materials and membrane technologies for water and energy sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Water and energy have always been crucial for the world’s social and economic growth. Their supply and use must be sustainable. This review discusses opportunities for membrane technologies in water and energy sustainbility by analyzing their potential applications and current status; providing emerging technologies and scrutinizing research and development challenges for membrane materials in this field.

  3. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the analysis of water-saving agricultural technology development status and trends in China, and in combination with the development and the needs of modern water-saving agricultural technology, we have put forward a future research emphasis and developing direction of modern watersaving agricultural ...

  4. Laser cutting technology using water jet waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Miyuki; Shiihara, Katsunori; Chida, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    Laser with water jet is examined to cut in-vessel structure. However, it is necessary to increase the break-up length of water jet to cut a thick plate. Therefore, the effects of the water jet parameter (water pressure, assist gas, laser power) on break-up length were investigated. It was found from observation results of water jet that the longest break-up length is about 135mm under condition of water pressure 40 MPa, laser power 30W and helium assist gas 1L/min. (author)

  5. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  6. BPA Facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal nonprofit power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest . Although BPA is part of the U .S . Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services . BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydro projects in the Columbia River Basin, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants . The dams are operated by the U .S . Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation . About 30 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest comes from BPA . BPA’s resources — primarily hydroelectric — make its power nearly carbon free . BPA also operates and maintains about three- fourths of the high-voltage transmission in its service territory . BPA’s service territory includes Idaho, Oregon, Washington, western Montana and small parts of eastern Montana, California, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming . BPA promotes energy efficiency, renewable resources and new technologies that improve its ability to deliver on its mission . BPA also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin . BPA is committed to public service and seeks to make its decisions in a manner that provides opportunities for input from stakeholders . In its vision statement, BPA dedicates itself to providing high system reliability, low rates consistent with sound business principles, environmental stewardship and accountability

  7. International water and sanitation technology transfers, experiences from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of transferring cost-effective, innovative water and wastewater technologies on public water markets are discussed based on experiences of the Dutch water business cluster in the Central and Eastern European Countries. These transfers evolved under suitable conditions, among others

  8. Deep lake water cooling a renewable technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliadis, C.

    2003-06-01

    In the face of increasing electrical demand for air conditioning, the damage to the ozone layer by CFCs used in conventional chillers, and efforts to reduce the greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired power generating stations more and more attention is focused on developing alternative strategies for sustainable energy. This article describes one such strategy, namely deep lake water cooling, of which the Enwave project recently completed on the north shore of Lake Ontario is a prime example. The Enwave Deep Lake Water Cooling (DLWC) project is a joint undertaking by Enwave and the City of Toronto. The $180 million project is unique in design and concept, using the coldness of the lake water from the depths of Lake Ontario (not the water itself) to provide environmentally friendly air conditioning to office towers. Concurrently, the system also provides improved quality raw cold water to the city's potable water supply. The plant has a rated capacity of 52,200 tons of refrigeration. The DLWC project is estimated to save 75-90 per cent of the electricity that would have been generated by a coal-fired power station. Enwave, established over 20 years ago, is North America's largest district energy system, delivering steam, hot water and chilled water to buildings from a central plant via an underground piping distribution network. 2 figs.

  9. Advantageous technology for treatment of laundry waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Y.; Gorbachev, D.; Volkov, A.; Barinov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, based on preliminary experimental studies, an improved scheme for cleaning of laundry water is offered which allows reuse of water and components of laundry solutions and produces low amounts of secondary radioactive waste. The principal feature of the proposed process is that waste water from rinsing (60-80% of the total volume) is processed by hyperfiltration, but waste water from the laundry (20-40% of the total volume) is treated by ultrafiltration. Concentrates after reverse osmosis desalination of waste liquids (after rinsing) contain a majority of laundry waste components, since a hyperfiltration membrane efficiently retains salts and surfactant molecules. Desalinated water (permeate) after hyperfiltration is reused, further reducing the volume of liquid wastes. (author)

  10. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1991. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Restoration of aquatic ecosystems - science, technologies and public policy; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences; and Ground water models - scientific and regulatory applications. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  11. Technologies for climate change adaptation. The water sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T De [ed.; UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark); Elliott, M; Armstrong, A; Lobuglio, J; Bartram, J [The Water Institute at the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This guidebook aims to provide expert information on the technologies most relevant for climate change adaptation in the water sector in developing countries. It is meant to be a practical tool for use by a broad range of stakeholders, including those in governmental agencies, water utilities, community water boards, non-governmental organizations, and private sector companies. Adaptation is an essential element of human response to climate change. The adverse impacts of climate change on the water sector will be experienced worldwide and are often projected to be most severe in resource-poor countries. Therefore, it is necessary to have access to a diverse array of adaptation technologies and practices that are appropriate and affordable in various contexts. The scale of these adaptation technologies/practices should range from the individual household level (e.g. household water treatment), to the community scale (e.g. rainwater collection in small reservoirs), to large facilities that can benefit a city or region (e.g. a desalination plant). The guidebook first reviews the projected impacts of climate change on the water sector. It then addresses the role of adaptation in the water sector and six typologies under which available strategies are categorized. Eleven technologies and practices are given detailed treatment in this guidebook and four others are covered briefly. While these do not constitute all of the adaptation technologies available in the water sector, they do represent many of the most important adaptation technologies for developing countries. For each of the 11 adaptation technologies and practices, the following are addressed: basic description, contribution to climate change and development, institutional and capacity building requirements, costs, barriers and opportunities for implementation, and extensive reference to external resources and case studies. The practical steps and appropriate contexts for implementation are covered in the

  12. Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Protection Agency EPS Extra-cellular Polymeric Substances M&E Materials and Energy MF Microfiltration MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NASA...and bays. On a regional scale, therefore, desalination could aid in restoring the balance between fresh water needs and fresh water supplies that has... Microfiltration (MF) membranes—used for turbidity reduction, removal of suspended solids and bacteria • Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes—used for color, odor

  13. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  14. Research and Development Opportunities for Technologies to Influence Water Consumption Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In April 2015, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a two-day workshop that convened water experts and stakeholders from across industry, government, and academia to undertake three primary tasks: 1) identify technology characteristics that are favorable for motivating behavioral change, 2) identify barriers that have prevented the development and market adoption of technologies with these characteristics in the water sector, and 3) identify concrete research and development pathways that could be undertaken to overcome these barriers, increase the penetration of technologies that influence water consumption behavior, and ultimately reduce domestic water consumption. While efforts to reduce water consumption have gained momentum in recent years, there are a number of key barriers that have limited the effectiveness of such efforts. Chief among these is the fact that many consumers have limited awareness of their water consumption patterns because of poor data availability, and/or are unmotivated to reduce their consumption because of low costs and split incentives. Without improved data availability and stronger price signals, it will be difficult to effect true transformative behavioral change. This report also reviews a number of technology characteristics that have successfully motivated behavioral change in other sectors, as well as several technologies that could be developed specifically for the water sector. Workshop participants discussed how technologies that provide active feedback and promote measurable goals and social accountability have successfully influenced changes in other types of behavior. A range of regulatory and policy actions that could be implemented to support such efforts are also presented. These include institutional aggregation, revenue decoupling, and price structure reforms. Finally, several R&D pathways were proposed, including efforts to identify optimal communication strategies and to better understand consumer perceptions and

  15. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  16. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  17. Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

  18. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Office Clean Water Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-03-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)’s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.

  20. Socio-Economic Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologies in Rwanda: A case study of Nyaruguru ... ownership and maintenance of established RWH technologies. ... production towards food security. .... The overall average family size for the households ..... respondents are aware of these techniques but few implement them- only 1 .... Water productivity in Rain-.

  1. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  2. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mission will visit two cities: Bangalore and Mumbai, where participants will receive market briefings and... water technology show, as a platform for business meetings and networking with the option to exhibit... technologies. To explore these and other opportunities, the trade mission will visit two cities: Bangalore and...

  3. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  5. Economics of selected water control technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a production function, marginal productivity of farm inputs and benefit-cost analysis, we explore the economics of selected water control technologies. From the production function, all farm inputs, including irrigation water is found to have a significant and positive effect on yield. Marginal value products of farm inputs ...

  6. Water Mapping Technology Rebuilds Lives in Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Using NASA Landsat satellite and other remote sensing topographical data, Radar Technologies International developed an algorithm-based software program that can locate underground water sources. Working with international organizations and governments, the firm, which maintains an office in New Braunfels, Texas, is helping to provide water for refugees and other people in drought-stricken regions such as Kenya, Sudan, and Afghanistan.

  7. Water Reclamation Technology Development at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pickering, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Who We Are: A staff of approximately 14 BS, MS, and PhD-Level Engineers and Scientists with experience in Aerospace, Civil, Environmental, and Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Physical Science and Water Pollution Microbiology. Our Primary Objective: To develop the next generation water recovery system technologies that will support NASA's long duration missions beyond low-earth orbit.

  8. Alternate applications of heavy water in biological and technological fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaran, M.; Prakash, R.

    2005-01-01

    Deuterium and its various compounds like heavy water exhibit distinctly different properties when compared to hydrogen and its compounds. The differences in properties are due to the primary and secondary isotopic effects. Though heavy water has been used solely for nuclear applications so far, its applications in life sciences and high technology areas are fast emerging. Heavy Water Board has taken up development of alternate applications of heavy water. The study taken up has indicated superior thermal stability for oral polio vaccine prepared in heavy water. This study has revealed various opportunities for application of heavy water or deuterium in life sciences and the paper dwells on these possibilities. The higher stability of compounds with deuterium has also brought in its applications in various high technology areas. These are mainly in micro electronics. Use of deuterium in manufacture of high quality optical fibres has already been established. These are also included in the paper. (author)

  9. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1993-1994. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Alternatives for ground water cleanup; Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; and, Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  10. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1992. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; Ground water vulnerability assessment; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; and Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  11. Recent activities on water detritiation technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kubo, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Yusuke; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Junichi [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo K.K., Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Water detritiation technology has been developed for the Japanese fusion DEMO plant. • Durability of an ion exchange membrane was checked with concentrated tritiated water. • Hydrophobic catalyst of SiO{sub 2} substrate has been developed for water detritiation. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed the water detritiation technology for CECE process considering the escalation in quantity and tritium concentration of tritiated water to be processed toward realization of the Japanese fusion DEMO plant. A commercial ion exchange perfluoro-membrane for concentrated tritiated water electrolyzer is durable against irradiation up to 1500 kGy in view of mechanical strength and ion exchange capacity. Concerning hydrophobic catalyst for LPCE column, a new method of manufacturing catalysts involving hydrophobic processing with an inorganic substance base has been developed. The catalyst created with this method has achieved the highest exchange efficiency, equivalent to 1.3 times the previously most powerful efficiency.

  12. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  13. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  14. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  15. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  16. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  17. Observation technology for remote operation in contaminated turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Manabu; Mitsui, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Remote underwater work in contaminated tanks and pools is one of major decontamination and decommissioning works under high-dose radiation environment. Generally in this kind of work, visual information is limited due to turbid water caused by suspended sludge particles in the water and it makes remote underwater work difficult to be performed safely and efficiently. Therefore, some alternative observation methods to optical cameras have been required. In order to satisfy this requirement, the alternative observation technology which can obtain visual information in contaminated turbid water has been developed since 2014. It is a technology using an acoustic imaging system in a designated airtight container. It provides the visual information in real time regardless of turbidity without significant contamination of any parts of the system. This paper will present development details of this innovative observation technology and its effectiveness to various remote works in contaminated turbid water. (author)

  18. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  19. Water chemistry technology. One of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry should be simultaneously satisfied: (1) better reliability of reactor structures and fuel rods; (2) lower occupational exposure and (3) fewer radwaste sources. Various groups in academia have carried out basic research to support the technical bases of water chemistry in plants. The Research Committee on Water Chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ), which has now been reorganized as the Division of Water Chemistry (DWC) of AESJ, has played important roles to promote improvements in water chemistry control, to share knowledge about and experiences with water chemistry control among plant operators and manufacturers and to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation of plant workers engaged in water chemistry. Furthermore, the DWC has tried and succeeded arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through roadmap planning. In the paper, major achievements in plant technologies and in basic research studies of water chemistry in Japan are reviewed. The contributions of the DWC to the long-term safe management of the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant until their decommissioning are introduced. (author)

  20. Water Power Technologies Office 2017 Marine Energy Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water Power Technologies Office

    2018-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Technologies Office's marine and hydrokinetic portfolio has numerous projects that support industry advancement in wave, tidal, and ocean and river current technologies. In order to strengthen state-of-the-art technologies in these fields and bring them closer to commercialization, the Water Power Technologies Office funds industry, academia, and the national laboratories. A U.S. chapter on marine and hydrokinetic energy research and development was included in the Ocean Energy Systems' Technology Programme—an intergovernmental collaboration between countries, which operates under a framework established by the International Energy Agency. This brochure is an overview of the U.S. accomplishments and updates from that report.

  1. Interactions of energy technology development and new energy exploitation with water technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of energy policies with water technology development in China are investigated using a hybrid input-output model and scenario analysis. The implementation of energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. Water saving potential of energy technology development is much larger than that of new energy exploitation. From the viewpoint of proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. From the viewpoint of proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water technology development, water sector benefits the most. Moreover, economic sectors are classified into four categories concerning co-benefits on water saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in categories 1 and 2 have big direct co-benefits. Thus, they can take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. If China implements life cycle materials management, sectors in category 3 can also take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in category 4 have few co-benefits from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Thus, putting additional responsibility on sectors in category 4 might produce pressure for their economic development. -- Highlights: ► Energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. ► For proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. ► For proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water policy, water sector benefits the most. ► China’s economic sectors are classified into four categories for policy implementation at sector scale.

  2. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  3. A simple and proven technology for reclaiming acidic mine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Chris; Mack, Bernie

    2011-01-01

    The cost of water treatment is now more than ever a major consideration for maintaining an environmentally and economically sustainable mining operation. As an industry, we often have to consider water sources that are highly impure and difficult to treat. We are also discovering the value of our waste waters in this regard and using new and improved methods and technology to reclaim and reuse water. In many instances, the water or waste water to be treated is highly acidic and saturated in sparingly soluble salts. Conventional systems used to liberate this type of water typically involve high doses of lime with large volumes of waste sludge produced, and are comparatively complex to operate, to pretreat the water in order to reduce scaling tendency on the reverse osmosis stage. However, if the water is considered valuable for reuse, then why not avoid difficult and cumbersome pretreatment processes and treat the water at low pH to keep the sparingly soluble salts, metals and other dissolved species in solution. This paper describes a patented technology that uses and successfully proves this concept as a cost effective option for certain situations. Results from a treatability study on an Australian groundwater are discussed, along with an economic comparison to a conventional method and discussion on full-scale potential.

  4. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  5. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Ertsen, Maurits; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-05-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  6. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-11-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  7. Drainage treatment technology for water pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebise, Sen' ichi

    1988-03-01

    Drainage is purified either at terminal treatment plants or by septic tanks for sewage. At terminal treatment plants, sewage is purified by activated sludge prosessing or by biological treatment equipment. By the normal activated sludge processing, only 20 - 30 % of nitrogen and phosphur can be removed. To solve this problem, many advanced processing systems have been employed, representative systems being coagulating sedimentation, rapid filtration, recirculating nitro-denitrification, etc. The coagulating sedimentation is a treatment process in which such metallic salt coagulations as aluminum, iron, etc. are injected and mixed with sewage, and then phosphur and the like are sedimented in the form of grains. The rapid filtration requires no large space, and can reliably remove suspended matter. For large scale septic tank processing system, advance treatment processing is supplemented to improve the quality of treated water. Among other systems of sewage purification are oxidized channel, oxidized pond, soil treatment, etc. (2 figs, 2 refs)

  8. The applied technologies to access clean water for remote communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabindra, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    A lot of research is done to overcome the remote communities to access clean water, yet very little is utilized and implemented by the community. Various reasons can probably be made for, which is the application of research results is assessed less practical. The aims of this paper is seeking a practical approach, how to establish criteria for the design can be easier applied, at the proper locations, the simple construction, effectively producing a volume and quality of clean water designation. The methods used in this paper is a technological model assessment of treatment/filtering clean water produced a variety of previous research, to establish a model of appropriate technology for remote communities. Various research results collected from the study of literature, while the identification of opportunities and threats to its application is done using a SWOT analysis. This article discussion is looking for alternative models of clean water filtration technology from the previous research results, to be selected as appropriate technology, easily applied and bring of many benefits to the remote communities. The conclusions resulting from the discussion in this paper, expected to be used as the basic criteria of design model of clean water filtration technologies that can be accepted and applied effectively by the remote communities.

  9. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  10. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of the IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors, has been undertaken to document the major current activities and trends of technological improvement and development for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with Light Water Reactors (LWRs) was published in 1988 (IAEA-TECDOC-479). Part II of the report covers Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) and has now been prepared. This report is based largely upon submissions from Member States. It has been supplemented by material from the presentations at the IAEA Technical Committee and Workshop on Progress in Heavy Water Reactor Design and Technology held in Montreal, Canada, December 6-9, 1988. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced heavy water reactor technology up to 1988 and ongoing development programmes will aid in disseminating information to Member States and in stimulating international cooperation. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Overcoming technology - obsolescence: a case study in Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, O.P.; Sonde, R.R.; Wechalekar, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia based Heavy Water Plants in India are set up essentially in conjunction with fertiliser plants for the supply of feed synthesis gas. Earlier ammonia was being produced in fertiliser plants using high-pressure technology which was highly energy intensive. However with fast developments in the field of production of ammonia, fertiliser plants are switching over to low pressure technology. Ammonia based heavy water plants have to operate on pressures corresponding to that of fertiliser plants. Due to low pressures in production of ammonia, heavy water plants would also be required to operate at low pressures than the existing operating pressures. This problem was faced at Heavy Water Plant at Baroda where GSFC supplying synthesis gas switched over to low pressure technology making it imperative on the part of Heavy Water Board to carry out modification to the main plant for continued operation of Heavy Water Plant, Baroda. Anticipating similar problems due to production of ammonia at lower pressures in other fertiliser plants linked to existing Heavy Water Plants, it became necessary for HWB to develop water ammonia front end. The feed in such a case would be water instead of synthesis gas. This would enable HWB to dispense with dependence on fertiliser plants especially if grass-root ammonia based heavy water plants are to be set up. Incorporation of water ammonia front end would enable HWB to de link ammonia based heavy water plants with fertiliser plants. This paper discusses the advantage of de linking heavy water plant respective fertiliser plant by incorporating water ammonia front end and technical issues related to front end technology. A novel concept of ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) was considered for the process integration with the front end. The incorporation of AAR with water ammonia front-end configuration utilizes liquid ammonia refrigerant to generate refrigeration without additional energy input which otherwise would have been

  12. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  13. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  14. Proceedings of the Trombay symposium on desalination and water reuse: technology interventions in water purification and management - challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Saurabh; Tiwari, S.A.; Kaza, Saikiran

    2015-01-01

    This conference deals with the issues relevant to water security, desalination processes and water reuse. The topics covered in the symposium include: water scenario, integrated water resource management, innovative desalination technologies, nuclear and renewable energy based desalination, intake and out fall systems, advances in water purification technologies, advanced water treatment, nanotechnologies in water purification, innovations in desalination technologies, reject brine management, drinking water in rural and remote areas, water quality monitoring and assurance, emerging membrane technologies, spent membrane management, environment and health, techno-economic evaluation and financial models etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  16. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  17. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  18. Conflict of technologies for water and sanitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, R R

    2000-01-01

    Borehole water supplies, in basement rock aquifers in the West Africa Sub-region, face potential pollution hazards as a result of their close location within the same geological environments as indiscriminately sited latrines, rubbish dumps, farms and animal watering points in the communities. The heterogeneous nature of the overburden and fractures in the bedrock constitute relatively fast flow paths for surface water contaminated mainly by bacteria and nitrates which enhance the pollution of the groundwater and boreholes. To improve the drinking water quality, some measures have been taken to minimize the hazards. Further studies are required to understand better the nature and scale of the problem and to avoid the apparent conflict of technologies. It is necessary to incorporate improvements in sanitation into rural water supply projects, if the otherwise good drinking water source should not be lost to society's wastes.

  19. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  20. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also

  1. Improvement of water desalination technologies in reverse osmosis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskii, S. P.; Konoval'chik, M. V.; Gul'ko, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening of requirements for the protection of surface-water sources and increases in the cost of reagents lead to the necessity of using membrane (especially, reverse osmosis) technologies of water desalination as an alternative to ion-exchange technologies. The peculiarities of using reverse osmosis technologies in the desalination of waters with an increased salinity have been discussed. An analogy has been made between the dependence of the adsorptive capacity of ion-exchange resins on the reagent consumption during ion exchange and the dependence of the specific ion flux on the voltage in the electrodialysis and productivity of membrane elements on the excess of the pressure of source water over the osmotic pressure in reverse osmosis. It has been proposed to regulate the number of water desalination steps in reverse osmosis plants, which makes it possible to flexibly change the productivity of equipment and the level of desalinization, depending on the requirements for the technological process. It is shown that the selectivity of reverse osmotic membranes with respect to bivalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and sulfates) is approximately four times higher than the selectivity with respect to monovalent ions (sodium and chlorine). The process of desalination in reverse osmosis plants depends on operation factors, such as the salt content and ion composition of source water, the salt content of the concentrate, and the temperatures of solution and operating pressure, and the design features of devices, such as the length of the motion of the desalination water flux, the distance between membranes, and types of membranes and turbulators (spacers). To assess the influence of separate parameters on the process of reverse osmosis desalination of water solutions, we derived criteria equations by compiling problem solution matrices on the basis of the dimensional method, taking into account the Huntley complement. The operation of membrane elements was

  2. The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Peter K; Barton, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Cynthia A

    2005-04-01

    Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode. Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never become accepted as a 'mainstream' water treatment technology. The lack of a systematic approach to electrocoagulation reactor design/operation and the issue of electrode reliability (particularly passivation of the electrodes over time) have limited its implementation. However recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale decentralised water treatment facilities have led to a re-evaluation of electrocoagulation. Starting with a review of electrocoagulation reactor design/operation, this article examines and identifies a conceptual framework for electrocoagulation that focuses on the interactions between electrochemistry, coagulation and flotation. In addition detailed experimental data are provided from a batch reactor system removing suspended solids together with a mathematical analysis based on the 'white water' model for the dissolved air flotation process. Current density is identified as the key operational parameter influencing which pollutant removal mechanism dominates. The conclusion is drawn that electrocoagulation has a future as a decentralised water treatment technology. A conceptual framework is presented for future research directed towards a more mechanistic understanding of the process.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  4. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  5. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies...... which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...

  6. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  7. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  8. Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

  9. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  10. Subtask 5.3 - Water and Energy Sustainability and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkedahl, Bruce; Martin, Christopher; Dunham, David

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of this Energy and Environmental Research Center project was to evaluate water capture technologies in a carbon capture and sequestration system and perform a complete systems analysis of the process to determine potential water minimization opportunities within the entire system. To achieve that goal, a pilot-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) was fabricated and tested in conjunction with a coal-fired combustion test furnace outfitted with CO 2 mitigation technologies, including the options of oxy-fired operation and postcombustion CO 2 capture using an amine scrubber. The process gas stream for these tests was a coal-derived flue gas that had undergone conventional pollutant control (particulates, SO 2 ) and CO 2 capture with an amine-based scrubber. The water balance data from the pilot-scale tests show that the packed-bed absorber design was very effective at capturing moisture down to levels that approach equilibrium conditions.

  11. Optimal purification technology of ultrapure water for instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Naoe

    2011-01-01

    Purified water is one of the most commonly utilized reagents in the laboratory. It is used throughout experimental protocols in virtually every type of laboratory application : as blanks, for the dissolution and dilution of samples, the dilution of standards, preparation of mobile phases and for media and buffer preparation. Contaminants present in purified water can therefore have a significant impact on results. Hence, it is important to ensure that the laboratory water-purification system contains a combination of purification technologies to target specific impurities related to each application. This article looks at some of these technologies and their relevance for specific applications, such as HPLC, LC/MS, and ion chromatography (IC). (author)

  12. Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications. Proceedings of the Conference on Water Jetting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications is the third international meeting of researchers, manufacturers, end-users, and all those interested in the technology of high-speed water jetting organized by the Department of material disintegration of the Institute of Geonics of the ASCR Ostrava. It provides a basis not only for exchange knowledge, ideas, information and experiences in areas of research, development and applications of water jets, as well as stimulating discussio...

  13. ON A NEW TECHNOLOGY OF PREPARATION OF HOT DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Jalilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains information concerning the new Cl-anionization technology in the preparation of hot drinking water. In contrast with water softening, that replaces all the hardness salts by sodium cations in the cation exchanger, this new technology makes it possible to replace incrustating HCO3̄ and SO42--anions in a strong-base anion exchanger by Cl⁻-ions. As a result, the incrustation on the surfaces of heating hot water heaters is prevented. Thus, cations of hardness that are valuable for the human body remain in the water, the quality of the latter conforming to drinking water quality. Considering the important role of calcium and magnesium in the human body, in Germany and Turkey the minimum value of hardness cations in drinking water is limited to 2.85 and 7.50 mg-Eqv/l, respectively. According to the World Health Organization, in the composition of drinking water, the concentration of cations of magnesium and calcium is recommended, respectively, within 10–(20–30, and 20–50 mg/l; the minimum value of total hardness is 2–4 mg-Eqv/l. According to the developed technology drinking water is passed consistently in the downward direction through the mechanical and chlorineanionite exchanger filters. In the latter, the main part of HCO3̄ and SO42--water ions are exchanged for Cl-anions of anionite. Then the water is collected in the tank, from where it is pumped to the hot water heater through the ultraviolet disinfection unit. After the depletion of the anionite by HCO3̄ and SO42--anions, it is regenerated by a solution of 8–12 % NaCl. The results of research by the anion exchangers Purolite A200EMBCl and AB-17-8 are plotted. It is noted that when the specific consumption of salt for regeneration is of about 45–55 kg/m³, working exchange capacity of the A200EMBCl occurs to be in the range 300–370 g-Eqv/m³. For anionization of water, the residual concentration of HCO3̄-ions are changed from 0.5 to 3.2 mg

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATERS ASSOCIATED WITH WATER CIRCULATION TECHNOLOGIES ON TROUT FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sidoruk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of aquaculture has led to an increasing impact on the status of surface waters. Fish production generates wastes that, at high concentrations, may present a serious risk to the aquatic environment. Studies on the assessment of the impact of water management technologies in trout production on the quality of surface waters were conducted in 2011. Six farms were selected for the studies and were divided into two groups based on water management solutions (n = 3: farms with a flow through system (FTS and farms with a recirculation aquaculture system (RAS. On all farms, water measurement points were set and they depicted the quality of inflow water, the quality of water in ponds and the quality of outflow water. The studies did not demonstrate any impact of applied technology on electrolyte conductivity or calcium and magnesium concentrations in outflow water from a trout operation. In addition, it was found that the use of water for production purposes resulted in a slight increase in phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in waste waters.

  15. A review of boiling water reactor water chemistry: Science, technology, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) water chemistry (science, technology, and performance) has been reviewed with an emphasis on the relationships between BWR water quality and corrosion fuel performance, and radiation buildup. A comparison of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.56, the Boiling Water Reactor Owners Group (BWROG) Water Chemistry Guidelines, and Plant Technical Specifications showed that the BWROG Guidelines are more stringent than the NRC Regulatory Guide, which is almost identical to Plant Technical Specifications. Plant performance with respect to BWR water chemistry has shown dramatic improvements in recent years. Up until 1979 BWRs experienced an average of 3.0 water chemistry incidents per reactor-year. Since 1979 the water chemistry technical specifications have been violated an average of only 0.2 times per reactor-year, with the most recent data from 1986-1987 showing only 0.05 violations per reactor-year. The data clearly demonstrate the industry-wide commitment to improving water quality in BWRs. In addition to improving water quality, domestic BWRs are beginning to switch to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), a remedy for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Three domestic BWRs are presently operating on HWC, and fourteen more have either performed HWC mini tests or are in various stages of HWC implementation. This report includes a detailed review of HWC science and technology as well as areas in which further research on BWR chemistry may be needed. 43 refs., 30 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  17. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlacek, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone, or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation. (author)

  18. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  19. Water and Energy Consumption at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    KAUST Repository

    Wiche Latorre, Pia Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Saudi Arabia is the greatest exporter of oil in the world and also the country with greatest desalination capacity. It is considered a rich country but not a developed one. Because water is scarce while energy is abundant, it becomes important to evaluate the environmental performance of populations in Saudi Arabia with regards to these two aspects. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is a gated community in Saudi Arabia with high living standards where water and energy are free of cost (no constraint over use). Four environmental sustainability indicators were used to determine the environmental performance of KAUST in comparison to other countries. It was found that per capita, KAUST is between the five greatest water and energy consumers in the world. Important factors to this result are the fact that KAUST is still under construction, that the peak capacity for permanent residents has not yet been reached and that there is little control over the water and energy systems at KAUST. It was concluded that KAUST should reduce its water and energy consumption per capita. To this means, some proposed solutions were to have wide-spread awareness-raising campaigns to all people working and living in KAUST, and to improve control over air conditioning control systems.

  20. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  1. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  2. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to set water prices that provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently. These new water pricing policies need to consider cost recovery of water services, including financial, environmental and resource cost. Prices were supposed to have been set by 2010. So far the record has been mixed. The European Commission has sent reasoned opinions to a number of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden) requesting them to adjust their national legislation to include all water services. Unbalanced water pricing may negatively affect the agricultural sector, especially in the southern EU countries, which are more dependent on irrigation water for production. The European Commission is funding several projects that aim to reduce the burden of increasing water prices on farmers by developing innovative technologies and decision support systems that will save water and increase productivity. The FP7 ENORASIS project (grant 282949) has developed a new integrated irrigation management decision support platform, which include high-resolution, ensemble weather forecasting, a GIS widget for the location of fields and sensors and a comprehensive decision support and database management software package to optimize irrigation water management. The field component includes wireless, solar-powered soil moisture sensors, small weather stations, and remotely controlled irrigation valves. A mobile App and a web-package are providing user-friendly interfaces for farmers, water companies and environmental consultants. In Cyprus, agricultural water prices have been set to achieve a cost recovery rate of 54% (2010). The pricing policy takes in consideration the social importance and financial viability of the agricultural sector, an important flexibility provided by the Water Framework Directive. The new price was set at 0.24 euro per m3 for water supply

  3. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  4. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In 1982, the National Research Council chose to recognize the importance of water resource issues by establishing the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). During the five years since its first meeting in November 1982, the WSTB has grown and matured. The WSTB has met 14 times to provide guidance and plan activities. Under the WSTB's direction, committees of experts have conducted approximately 30 studies on a broad array of topics, from dam safety to irrigation-induced water quality problems to ground water protection strategies. Studies have ranged in scope from the oversight of specific agency projects and programs to broader scientific reviews, such as a disciplinary assessment of the hydrologic sciences initiated in 1987. In all cases, studies have the general theme of ultimately improving the scientific and technological bases of programs of water management and environmental quality. This fifth annual report of the WSTB summarizes the Board's accomplishments during 1987, its current activities, and its plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program organizations, and the reports produced. The report should provide the reader with a basic understanding of the WSTB's interests, achievements, and capabilities. The WSTB welcomes inquiries and suggestions concerning its activities and will provide more detailed information on any aspects of its work to those interested.

  5. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  6. NASA Remote Sensing Technologies for Improved Integrated Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lee, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and international community to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. Key objectives of this talk will highlight NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs with their objective to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management in national and international applications. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. The presentation will also demonstrate how NASA is a major contributor to water tasks and activities in GEOSS (Global Earth Observing System of Systems) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations).

  7. R and D areas for next generation desalination and water purification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Rao, I.S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, desalination and water purification technologies are expected to contribute significantly to ensure a safe, sustainable, affordable and adequate water supply. The cost of producing water from the current generation desalination technologies has declined over time at a rate of only approximately 4% per year. So we need to accelerate our research and development (R and D) activities with a near and long term objective for evolution of current generation desalination technology and to create revolutionary next generation advanced desalination and water purification technologies which will offer a promise of step reduction in cost of producing water. There are five broad technological areas-thermal technologies, membrane technologies, alternate technologies, concentrate management technologies, reuse and recycle technologies that encompass the spectrum of desalination technology. In this paper high priority research areas in all the above technologies areas are discussed to make decision about research direction that will help to mitigate our nation's future water supply challenges. (author)

  8. Environmental Evaluation of Soil Salinity with Various Watering Technologies Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitkaziev, Adeubay; Shilibek, Kenzhegali; Fakhrudenova, Idiya; Salybayev, Satybaldy; Zhaparova, Sayagul; Duisenbayeva, Saule; Bayazitova, Zulfia; Aliya, Maimakova; Seitkazieva, Karlygash; Aubakirov, Hamit

    2018-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical tools for evaluating the level of environmental safety of various watering technologies. A set of indicators, was developed with regard to the natural factors, the nature of the man-induced load, degradation type, and characteristics of the disruption of humification conditions. Thermal and physical characteristics of the soil, the state of its surface, and meteorological factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, etc. were studied with a view to determining the heat and air exchange in the soil. An environmental evaluation of the methods for saline land development was conducted with regard to the heat and moisture supply. This tool can be used to determine the level of environmental safety of soil salinization during the environmental evaluation of the investigation of soil salinity with various watering technologies.

  9. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Facts 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    creativity . Representative Technical Positions ■■ Aerospace engineer ■■ Applications engineer ■■ Bioengineer ■■ Biologist 16 Facts 2012–2013...schedules, part-time employment, and telecommuting opportunities. Child Care The Technology Children’s Center facility in Lexington (TCC Lincoln

  10. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The meeting was attended by 20 participants from 12 countries who reviewed and discussed the status and progress of national programmes on advanced water-cooled reactors and recommended to the Scientific Secretary a comprehensive programme for 1991/1992 which would support technology development programmes in IWGATWR Member States. This summary report outlines the activities of IWGATWR since its Second Meeting in June 1988 and main results of the Third Meeting

  11. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The main purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status of national programmes, the progress achieved since the last meeting held in June 1988 in the field of advanced technologies and design trends for existing and future water cooled reactors. 24 specialists from 14 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting and 12 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) and its subgroups during 1989, it seventh year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1990, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is an introduction to the WSTB and its program for the year. 4 figs.

  13. Heavy water technology and its contribution to energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDiarmid, H.; Alizadeh, A.; Hopwood, J.; Duffey, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: As the global nuclear industry expands several markets are exploring avenues and technologies to underpin energy security. Heavy water reactors are the most versatile power reactors in the world. They have the potential to extend resource utilization significantly, to allow countries with developing industrial infrastructures access to clean and abundant energy, and to destroy long-lived nuclear waste. These benefits are available by choosing from an array of possible fuel cycles. Several factors, including Canada's early focus on heavy-water technology, limited heavy-industry infrastructure at the time, and a desire for both technological autonomy and energy self-sufficiency, contributed to the creation of the first commercial heavy water reactor in 1962. With the maturation of the industry, the unique design features of the now-familiar product-on-power refuelling, high neutron economy, and simple fuel design-make possible the realization of its potential fuel-cycle versatility. As resource constrains apply pressure on world markets, the feasibility of these options have become more attractive and closer to entering widespread commercial application

  14. Tightening water quality regulations produces an innovative separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welther, P.B.; Broussard, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of the recent proposed changes in the water quality standards for offshore producing platforms is having a far reaching effect on the oil and gas industry. At a time when oil companies are cutting back their work forces and reducing capital outlays in order to stay competitive in the market, water treatment equipment manufacturing companies are aggressively seeking innovative and cost effective solutions to meet the environmental requirements. Necessity drives advancements in technology, so Monosep Corporation has accepted the challenge to improve induced gas flotation technology and to develop enhanced gravity separation. This system of improved gas flotation and enhanced gravity separation can be used to consistently meet the proposed new guideline of an ''oil and grease'' maximum monthly average of 29 mg/l (milligrams per liter) in the discharged water from offshore platforms. The results demonstrated in the field suggest that adding enhanced gravity separation upstream of existing gas flotation units can improve performance sufficient to meet the Proposed stricter discharge limits. For platforms that do not have efficient gas flotation units, the old units can be replaced or modified to include the new features improved gas flotation technology like the Veirsep. For those few platforms are having difficulty meeting the current discharge requirements, both a new improved gas flotation unit, as well as a more sophisticated upstream gravity separator like the Cyclosep, may need to be installed. Chemical additives are sometimes a required necessity, but must be used sparingly due to the potential for creating soluble oil problems

  15. Selection criteria for wastewater treatment technologies to protect drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water bodies used as sources for drinking water is intimately linked to the adoption of adequate technologies for the treatment of the wastewater generated in the catchment area. The paper presents a general overview of the main technologies used for the treatment of domestic sewage, with a special emphasis on developing countries, and focussing on the main parameters of interest, such as BOD, coliforms and nutrients. A series of tables, figures and charts that can be used for the preliminary selection of treatment technologies is presented. The systems analysed are: stabilisation ponds, activated sludge, trickling filters, anaerobic systems and land disposal. Within each system, the main process variants are covered. Two summary tables are presented, one for quantitative analysis, including easily usable information based on per capita values (US$/cap, Watts/cap, m2 area/cap, m3 sludge/cap), and another for a qualitative comparison among the technologies, based on a one-to-five-star scoring system. The recent trend in tropical countries in the use of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors is also discussed.

  16. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  17. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  18. Facts about Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information » Glaucoma » Facts About Glaucoma Listen Facts About Glaucoma This information was developed by the National Eye ... is the best person to answer specific questions. Glaucoma Defined What is Glaucoma? Glaucoma is a group ...

  19. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  20. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  1. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  2. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanowska Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity. The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.

  3. HydroGrid: Technologies for Global Water Quality and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazarian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have been transforming planet Earth for millennia. We have recently come to understand that the collective impact of our decisions and actions has brought about severe water quality problems, which are likely to worsen in the light of rapid population growth to the projected nine billion by 2050. To sustainably manage our global water resources and possibly reverse these effects requires efforts in real-time monitoring of water contamination, analysis of monitoring data, and control of the state of water contamination. We develop technologies to address all three areas: monitoring, analysis and control. These efforts are carried out in the conceptual framework of the HydroGrid, an interconnected water system, which is (1) firmly rooted in the fundamental understanding of processes that govern microbial dynamics on multiple scales; and (2) used to develop watershed-specific management strategies. In the area of monitoring we are developing mobile autonomous sensors to detect surface water contamination, an effort supported by extensive materials research to provide multifunctional materials. We analyze environmental data within a stochastic modeling paradigm that bridges microscopic particle interactions to macroscopic manifestation of microbial population behavior in time and space in entire watersheds. These models are supported with laboratory and field experiments. Finally, we combine control and graph theories to derive controllability metrics of natural watersheds.

  4. Water Desalination Studies Using Forward Osmosis Technology, A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El-Nour, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water and energy shortage represent a great challenge facing the whole world now. To cover the global water demand, an energy-efficient approach is required to be applied in the suitable technology to achieve the shortage in the fresh water demand. Different techniques are used to solve this problem. A mong the different methods applied to desalinate seawater is the osmosis technologies . Although reversible osmosis (RO) is the most familiar method used for this purpose, forward osmosis (FO) represents a more suitable technique due to several arguments including low energy cost. The present study represents the use of FO technique for water desalination with adsorption regeneration. In this respect, a self-prepared granular active carbon produced from dates is to be used as an adsorbent agent. The physical characteristics of the active carbon are studied such as BET specific surface area, pore size, particle size and the structure using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different advanced apparatus are used for such measurements. In addition, the adsorption is otherms (Langmuier and Freundlich) are established to explain the adsorption mechanism of the process. Accordingly, the review includes essential information and sufficient backgrounds in the field of desalination using FO or simply direct osmosis, which overcome the different difficulties present in reversible RO

  5. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ID Specialist? Facts about ID Pocketcard Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms that penetrate the body’s natural ... from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow ... of contaminated food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes ...

  6. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  7. The role of the IAEA in advanced technologies for water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the IAEA in advanced technologies for water-cooled reactors is described, including the following issues: international collaboration ways through international working group activities; IAEA coordinated research programmes; cooperative research in advanced water-cooled reactor technology

  8. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  9. Sunlight technologies for photochemical deactivation of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acher, A.; Fischer, E.; Tornheim, R. [The Volcani Center, Inst. of Soils and Water, Bet Dagan (Israel); Manor, Y. [Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Lab., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1997-12-31

    Sensitized-photochemical oxidation methods aimed at use in water treatment technologies for deactivation of biotic (microorganisms) and/or of xenobiotic (pesticides) pollutants in water were developed using global solar radiation or concentrated sunlight (up to 250 suns). The solar global radiation was used either for detoxification of industrial waste water from a pesticide factory to allow their discharge into the urban sewer, or for disinfection of domestric effluents to be used in crop irrigation. The disinfection process was eventually carried out in an experimental pilot-scale plant, capable of disinfection up to 50 m{sup 3}/h of effluent supplied by an activated sludge sewage treatment plant located in Tel-Aviv area. The treated effluents did not show any regrowth of the microorganisms during 7 days. The solar concentrated radiation experiments performed using facilities of the Sun Tower of The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot. The concentrated sunlight was provided by different combination of several computer controlled heliostates, up to 8, that track the sun and focus the received sunlight onto the target situated on the roof of the sun-tower. The sunlight intensities measured on the target reached up to 200 kW/m{sup 2}. The experiments were performed either batch- or continuous-wise. The water-samples exposed to disinfection were the above effluent, filtered and supplemented with vaccine strain poliovirus or with different concentrations of an industrial potential pollutant (bromacil), MB 2 mg/L and two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (8.0 or 40.0 mg O{sub 2}/L). An exposure time of 2-3 seconds at 150 kW/m{sup 2} was decreased the microorganisms alive (counts) by five orders of magnitude. A comparison between the two above water treatment technologies is presented. (orig./SR)

  10. Informing water harvesting technology contract design using choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfasa, Solomon; Brouwer, Roy; Sheremet, Oleg; Bouma, Jetske

    2017-10-01

    Introducing water harvesting technology is expected to be more effective and last longer if farm households are involved in their design. The main objective of this study is to inform policymakers in Ethiopia about the most important terms and conditions to incentivize farmers to enter into a contractual agreement to invest in water harvesting on their land. In order to test the influence of the way the specific contractual terms and conditions are communicated to farm households, many of whom are illiterate, a split sample approach is applied with and without visual aids for technical, institutional, and economic contract characteristics. Both samples generate significantly different results, highlighting the importance of how information is conveyed to farm households. This pattern is confirmed when examining the self-reported importance attached to the various contract characteristics. Equality Constrained Latent Class models show that contract characteristics for which visual aids were developed are considered more attentively, emphasizing the importance of adequate communication tools in a developing country context where literacy rates are limited to increase water technology innovation uptake and reduce farm household vulnerability to droughts.

  11. Adoption of voluntary water-pollution reduction technologies and water quality perception among Danish farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of voluntary nutrient reduction technologies among Danish farmers is relatively low despite the introduction of a number of incentives to do so. With data from 267 farmers, this study analyzes the level of adoption of these technologies and the farmers’ perception of water quality......, existing regulatory measures and their implementation strategies. In general, farmers perceive the water quality to be above average and indicate a strong opposition to penalties for non-compliance. Results of two ordered probit models on adoption and perception show a significant importance of farm...... and soil types, farm size and slopes and information availability. These findings point to the need for increased information dissemination on water quality requirements both at national and regional levels and technical and institutional support for the existing and future incentives....

  12. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.

    1999-01-31

    The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely

  13. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) summarizes the activities of the Board and its subgroups during 1988, its sixth year of existence. Included are descriptions of current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1989, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is intended to provide an introduction to the WSTB and summary of its program for the year.

  14. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  15. Advanced technology heavy water monitors offering reduced implementation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.; Hippola, K.B.

    1984-10-01

    The development of second generation heavy water monitors for use at CANDU power stations and heavy water plants has been completed and the instruments brought to the stage of commercial availability. Applications of advanced technology and reduced utilization of custom manufactured components have together resulted in instruments that are less expensive to produce than the original monitors and do not require costly station services. The design has been tested on two prototypes and fully documented, including the inspection and test procedures required for manufacture to the CSA Z299.3 quality verfication program standard. Production of the new monitors by a commercial vendor (Barringer Research Ltd.) has begun and the first instrument is scheduled for delivery to CRNL's NRU reactor in late 1984

  16. Remote Mine Detection Technologies for Land and Water Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Eddie R.

    1999-05-11

    The detection of mines, both during and after hostilities, is a growing international problem. It limits military operations during wartime and unrecovered mines create tragic consequences for civilians. From a purely humanitarian standpoint an estimated 100 million or more unrecovered mines are located in over 60 countries worldwide. This paper presents an overview of some of the technologies currently being investigated by Sandia National Laboratories for the detection and monitoring of minefields in land and water environments. The three technical areas described in this paper are: 1) the development of new mathematical techniques for combining or fusing the data from multiple sources for enhanced decision-making; 2) an environmental fate and transport (EF&T) analysis approach that is central to improving trace chemical sensing technique; and 3) the investigation of an underwater range imaging device to aid in locating and characterizing mines and other obstacles in coastal waters.

  17. Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Activities Between Universities and Firms in Switzerland: The Main Facts: an empirical analysis based on firm-level data

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis, Spyridon; Kubli, Ursina; Sydow, Nora; Wörter, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of a large project aiming at the investigation of a) extent and b) economic relevance of knowledge and technology transfer (KTT) between science institutions (universities, universities of a pplied science and other public re search institutions) and private corporations. Under knowledge and technology transfer we understand very broadly any activities targeted at transferring knowledge an d technology that may help a company or a research institution – depending on the dir...

  18. Does Joint Fact-finding work for Water-energy-food Nexus Issues? A Role of Scientific Evidence in Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    A quite famous phrase in risk management "How safe is enough safe?" implies there exists a framing gap among experts, the general public and stakeholders. Scientific evidence that experts provide usually contains uncertainty, while the public tends to have the other type of qualitative local knowledge. As there is no zero-risk society, we have to build consensus on acceptable level of risk and trade-offs of risks based on expert knowledge and local knowledge. Therefore having a dialogue among them in the early stage of the policy process such as problem definition and agenda setting is essential to cultivate trust and to integrate their knowledge. To this end, we especially pay attention to Joint Fact-finding (JFF). The tentative definition of JFF is that a promising strategy for experts, decision makers, and key public rights-holders and stakeholders from opposing sides of an issue to work together to resolve or narrow factual disputes over public policy issues. JFF process usually begins with identifying stakeholders and holding interviews with them to determine their interests. We call this step stakeholder analysis. Then we define the scope of the study including the required scientific evidence and the preliminary list of experts. After that, stakeholders jointly select experts to participate in the study, then they work together on what they would like to clear about scientific evidence. They finally get the common understanding and findings through these collaboration. We applied the stakeholder analysis to the issue of groundwater in Obama City and the issues of hot spring water and geothermal power in Beppu City in Japan. We drew conclusions from these case studies to some extent but at the same time we found that the analysis method has a limitation in applying it to multiple nexus issues because the method based on stakeholders' cognition. For example, in Obama case, we identified a lack of cooperation among stakeholders that especially agricultural

  19. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  20. Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment; Teknologi Biofilter Anaerob-Aerob Tercelup untuk Pengolahan Air Limbah Domestik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusa-Idaman-Said, [The Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2000-02-15

    Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

  1. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  2. The Fabulous Fact Fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Jene P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use and construction of "fact fans," fun and easy-to-make manipulatives that provide elementary school students with the opportunity to explore mathematics operations being studied in the classroom and to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. (BB)

  3. Improvements on heavy water separation technology by isotopic water-hydrogen sulfide exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of possible variance is presented for the heavy water separation technology by isotopic H 2 O-H 2 S exchange at dual temperatures. The critical study of these variants, which are considered as characteristic quantities for the isotopes transport (production) and the extraction level is related to a dual temperature plant fed by liquid and cold column, which is the up-to-date technology employed in all heavy water production plants as variants of following plants are studied: dual temperature plant with double feeding; dual-temperature plant with equilibrium column (booster); dual-temperature-dual-pressure plant. Attention is paid to the variant with equilibration column (booster), executed and tested at the State Committee for Nuclear Energy and to the dual-temperature-dual pressure plant which presents the highest efficiency. (author)

  4. Immersed membrane technology for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkies, J.W. [Zenon Municipal Systems Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The use of membrane technology for both municipal water purification and wastewater/sewage treatment was discussed. Membranes are available in a wide range of forms and configurations. Their primary characteristics are pore size and molecular weight separation which classifies then as either microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis membranes. Ultrafiltration can separate soluble organics and insoluble solids such as bacteria, viruses, colloids and suspended particles. Microfiltration can separate most suspended solids including bacteria, many viruses and other suspended solids. It is not, however a complete barrier to viruses and is best used in conjunction with an ultra-violet disinfecting process. Different membrane configurations currently available were described along with their performance and efficiency. The ZenoGem{sup R} process which operates at high organic loadings, meets surface water discharge criteria. This membrane bioreactor makes wastewater reuse an achievable and cost-effective option, particularly when it is combined with carbon filtration and ultra-violet disinfection. The Cycle-Let{sup R} system produces a treated stream that is suitable for re-use in non-potable applications such as toilet flush water or for irrigation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough point were carried out to determine the influence of these parameters on the adsorption capacity of the arsenic from water. Results: Adsorption capacities of single wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes were about 148 mg/g and 95 mg/g respectively. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and equilibrium data indicate the best fit obtained with Langmuir isotherm model. Conclusions: Carbon nanotubes can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from large volume of aqueous solutions. References: 1. Lomaquahu ES, Smith AH. Feasibility of new epidemiology studies on arsenic exposures at low levels. AWWA Inorganic Contaminants Workshop. San Antonio; 1998. 2. Burkel RS, Stoll RC. Naturally occurring arsenic in sandstone aquifer water supply wells of North Eastern Wisconsin. Ground Water Monit Remediat 1999;19(2:114-21. 3. Mondal P, Majumder CB, Mohanty B. Laboratory based approaches for arsenic remediation from contaminated water: recent developments. J Hazard Mater 2006;137(1: 464-79. 4. Meenakshi RCM. Arsenic removal from water: a review. Asian J Water Environ Pollut 2006;3(1:133-9. 5. Wickramasinghe SR, Binbing H, Zimbron J, Shen Z, Karim MN. Arsenic removal by coagulation and filtration: comparison of ground waters from United States and Bangladesh. Desalination 2004;169:231-44. 6. Hossain MF. Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-an overview. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2006;113(1-4:1-16. 7. USEPA, Arsenic. Final

  6. Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R) : [fact sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The ITS JPO is the U.S. Department of Transportations primary advocate and national leader for ITS research, development, and future deployment of connected vehicle technologies, focusing on intelligent vehicles, intelligent infrastructure, and th...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Management System Pollution Prevention History 60 impacts Diversity Locations Facts & Figures Does Sandia Buy? Opportunities Small Business Procurement Technical Assistance Program (PTAP) Current Technology Partnerships Business, Industry, & Non-Profits Government Universities Center for

  8. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  9. The Role of Water Governance and Irrigation Technologies in Regional-Scale Water Use and Consumption in the US West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Grogan, D. S.; Frolking, S. E.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Zuidema, S.; Fowler, L.; Caccese, R. T.; Peklak, D. L.; Fisher-Vanden, K.

    2017-12-01

    Water management in the Western USA is challenged by the demands of an increased population, ecological needs and changing values for water use, and a broadening of variability in climate, which together have created physical limits on water availability. The management of scarce water resources in this region is strictly constrained by the current legal structure (prior appropriation water rights) on one hand, and on the other assisted by the development of new, efficient water delivery and application technologies. Therefore, critical components for a complete understanding of the hydrological landscape include the institutions governing water rights, the technologies used for the highly water consumptive agricultural sector, and the role institutions and technologies play in altering when and where water is used and consumed by humans or reserved for the environment. To explore the sensitivities of water availability within the human-physical system, we present a method to incorporate water rights allocated under the prior appropriation doctrine for the western U.S. into the University of New Hampshire macro-scale Water Balance Model to capture the essential structure of these rights and their impacts on different economic sectors in Idaho and across the US West. In addition to legal structures, new irrigation technologies also alter the efficiency and timing of water use. We assess the impacts of a variety of technologies for both the delivery of water to the agricultural fields and the application methods for bringing water to the crops on consumptive and non-consumptive agricultural water use. We explore the impacts relative to natural climate variability, investigate the role that return flows from different agricultural technologies have on regional water balance, and examine the sensitivity of the entire system to extremes such as extended drought. These methods are sufficiently generalizable to be used by other hydrological models.

  10. Contemporary pressurized water reactor technology in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1991-01-01

    The recent political events enabled Czechoslovak industrial companies to come into direct contact with leading western companies involved in pressurized water ractor technology. A survey is presented of the present situation at the world market of PWR type nuclear power plant suppliers and suppliers of fuel cycle services. Information is given on the potential bids for the next Czechoslovak nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. Economic aspects of the potential bids are presented including some considerations about the participation of the Czechoslovak nuclear industry as a supplier of the reactor for the future power plants. Main technical parameters are listed of PWR units with an output about 1000 MW supplied by Westinghouse EC, ABB -Combustion Engineering and Siemens AG. At present, the bids for new Czechoslovak nuclear power plants are being evaluated. No information on terms of the bids actually coming from foreign companies is used in the article. (Z.S.). 9 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Tracking air and water: Technology drives oil patch environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, G.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation used in monitoring air and water quality in the oilpatch is discussed. One of these instruments is the oscillating micro-balance, a tool that enables continuous real-time measurement of potentially harmful particulates from gas plants. Similarly, testing for hydrogen sulfides is also done electronically: gas passes by an ultra violet light chamber which uses a calibrated filter to measure wavelengths of light that are specific to hydrogen sulfide. Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), one of the recent technologies to hit the market, enables the identification of a range of gases with one instrument. It also permits measurement from a distance. Still other instruments involve sensors that are fitted with chemical chambers whose contents react with hydrogen sulfide to produce a micro-volt of electricity. Data from this is digitized, and a reading of hydrogen sulfide, measured in parts per million, is obtained from a laptop computer

  12. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe : State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources

  13. Water assessment for the Lower Colorado River region-emerging energy technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Water supply availability for two hypothetical levels of emerging energy technology development are assessed. The water and related land resources implications of such hypothetical developments are evaluated. Water requirement, the effects on water quality, costs of water supplies, costs of disposal of wastewaters, and the environmental, economic and social impacts are determined, providing information for the development of non-nuclear energy research.

  14. Study for improvement of light water reactor technology, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Morita, Terumichi; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Tabata, Hiroaki

    1991-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company has performed some studies, which are referred to as 'some feasibility studies of LWR technology', in order to help improve and up-grade the light water reactor technology. We would like to show the key results of the above studies in an orderly fashion in this document. As the third issue, this paper describes the study of the feasibility of applying a suppression pool system in a 4-loop PWR plant in order to reduce containment volume and evaluates the merits of such a system. The results confirmed the feasibility of such a plant consisting of a 4-loop plant with a suppression pool system. The expected merits of a suppression pool type PWR are as follows: (1) The volume within the containment boundary is half of that for the conventional plant. This reduces the material quantity substantially. (2) A wider layout space is obtained since the operating floor is located outside the containment are. And this improves the maneuverability of plant outage. (3) Low center of gravity of the plant contributes to improving the ability to withstand seismic activity. Although there are some open items left that should be confirmed, we consider that PWR with small CV is an appealing plant in the light of further sales points such as relaxing siting conditions, extending the use of robotics and so on. (author)

  15. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  16. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  17. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... Planner, and tips from experts Let's Be Well: Products to help you thrive with diabetes - lets-be- ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About ...

  1. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  2. Facts about Omphalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Omphalocele Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... hardly ever is open or broken. What is Omphalocele? Omphalocele, also known as exomphalos, is a birth ...

  3. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  4. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing High Cholesterol Cholesterol-lowering Medicine High Cholesterol Statistics and Maps High Cholesterol Facts High Cholesterol Maps ... Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ...

  5. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  6. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  7. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Support Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood ...

  9. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  10. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  11. Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saves Lives Facts & Figures My Blood, Your Blood Blood Donation Types Did you know there is more than one type of blood donation? Learn more about blood donation types here. Blood Safety and Testing The blood supply ...

  12. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    regional water resources; As an evaluation tool for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for reclaiming water; and As an assessment tool for determining the effectiveness of implementing the remediation technologies. We have included a discussion on the appropriate strategy for LLNL to integrate its technical tools into the global business, geopolitical, and academic communities, whereby LLNL can form partnerships with technology proponents in the commercial, industrial, and public sectors.

  13. [Suicide, a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  15. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  16. Technology for Peace - Science for Mankind. Water and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium volume contents articles with the following topics regarding water and energy: water management, energy, water and energy systems and waste water treatment. Environmental aspects are considered and technical solutions are presented. (Suda)

  17. Technology for Peace - Science for Mankind. Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutmann, H [ed.

    1994-12-31

    This symposium volume contents articles with the following topics regarding water and energy: water management, energy, water and energy systems and waste water treatment. Environmental aspects are considered and technical solutions are presented. (Suda).

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share the facts: Quick Facts Prevalence Mortality Caregivers Cost Special Report Alzheimer's in each state Quick Facts Share the facts: Prevalence The number of Americans living with Alzheimer's is growing — and growing fast. An ...

  19. Performance of Fourth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities on Multiplication Facts Comparing Teacher-Mediated and Technology-Mediated Interventions: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Brian R.; Ok, Minwook; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Min Kyung; Lang, Russell; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Pfannestiel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Instructional applications (apps) are educational software programs that can be accessed via mobile technologies (e.g., iPad, smartphone) and used to help students acquire various academic skills, including mathematics. Although research suggests that app-based instruction (AI) can be effective, there is a paucity of research comparing AI, to…

  20. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Moussa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How can the nuclear industry become more efficient? Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  1. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknick, J; Newmark, R; Heath, G; Hallett, K C

    2012-01-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research. (letter)

  2. The research of new type stratified water injection process intelligent measurement technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin

    2017-10-01

    To meet the needs of injection and development of Daqing Oilfield, the injection of oil from the early stage of general water injection to the subdivision of water is the purpose of improving the utilization degree and the qualified rate of water injection, improving the performance of water injection column and the matching process. Sets of suitable for high water content of the effective water injection technology supporting technology. New layered water injection technology intelligent measurement technology will be more information testing and flow control combined into a unified whole, long-term automatic monitoring of the work of the various sections, in the custom The process has the characteristics of "multi-layer synchronous measurement, continuous monitoring of process parameters, centralized admission data", which can meet the requirement of subdivision water injection, but also realize the automatic synchronization measurement of each interval, greatly improve the efficiency of tiered injection wells to provide a new means for the remaining oil potential.

  3. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation or in industry sector for cooling ... The water samples were collected from sewage water treatment .... to be irrigated, soil conditions and the irrigation system.

  4. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  5. Food irradiation: Facts or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is at a political crossroad. In one direction, it is moving forward supported by overwhelming scientific evidence of its safety and benefits to economy and health. In the opposite direction, it threatens to be derailed by misleading claims about its safety and usefulness. Whether people will ultimately benefit from the use of irradiation to help fight serious food problems, or whether they will allow the technology to go to waste, will be determined by how successful people are in separating the facts from the fiction of food irradiation

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Ambient Benzene Vapor Concentrations on Product Water of Condensation Water from Air Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    by a sediment filter; or a combination of 8 water treatment technologies. Water treatment type is chosen by the manufacture and is diverse...the water treatment module was comprised of a sediment , charcoal and ultra-fine membrane and Halo Pure cartridge. Other components such as the... water was calculated. This study used the EPA site assessment calculator for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Method to

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF AQUAFIX AND SAPS PASSIVE MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT SUMMITVILLE MINE SITE, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated two passive water treatment (PWT) technologies for metals removal from acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site in southern Colorado...

  8. DER 86: main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the important facts among the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (E.D.F.): new applications of electric power for customers, protection of environment, classical equipments for power plants and nuclear equipments, monitoring and control of power plants, electrical equipments, development and operation of electrical networks, informatics and office automation [fr

  9. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  10. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  11. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  12. Main facts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  14. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affiliates JDRF Celebrity Ambassadors JDRF Logo Usage Contact Us Donate Events More Type 1 Diabetes Facts Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune ... about Insulin and T1D Learn More What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing ... US CAREERS NEWSROOM FOR RESEARCHERS © JDRF 2018 • Privacy Policy • ...

  15. Facts in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenemann, D.

    1979-07-01

    This compilation of facts has been published on behalf of Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (Society for Nuclear Engineering), as a basis for the discussion between promoters and opponents of nuclear power. It intends to make the nuclear discussion less emotional by providing relevant data material. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Diet myths and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night will make you fat. FACT: People who eat late at night do tend to put on extra weight. One possible reason is that late-night eaters tend to choose high-calorie treats. Some people who snack after dinner do not sleep well, which can lead to ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  19. Homosexuality: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talking to Your Kids About VirginityTalking to Your Kids About Sex Home Family Health Kids and Teens Homosexuality: Facts ... by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Prevention and Wellness, Sex and Birth Control, Sex and SexualityTags: female, Gay ...

  20. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  1. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  2. Main facts 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  3. Nuclear fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V. [comps

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  4. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  5. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  6. SSWR Water Systems Project 2: Next Steps – Technology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for protecting America’s water resources under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and for ensuring that the Nation’s drinking water is safe under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Further, it is the responsibility of EPA to conduct research and analyses t...

  7. FY1995 generic supercritical water technology; 1995 nendo generic technology to shite no chorinkai riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the establishment of the basis of supercritical fluid technology, we perform elucidation of the specific feature of the supercritical fluid as a reaction media and development of some new process. In this study, we first studied the fluid structure of SCF through in-situ spectroscopy and MD simulation. As a result, significant hydrogen bonding amongst water molecules and a solvation structure around the solute were observed in the supercritical state. This fluid structure has new features different from that of high temperature steam or liquid water. We found that this is closely related to the difference of bulk properties of SCF and local one around the solute. On the basis of these fundamental findings and with the better understanding of the specific features of SCF as a reaction media, development of some new process had been conducted more efficiently and successfully. The processes being developed in this study include 1) waste biomass and plastic conversion to recover chemicals, 2) hydrogenation of heavy oil for desulphurization through partial oxidation 1 and 3) hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide fine particles. (NEDO)

  8. Application of BIM Technology in Building Water Supply and Drainage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Junde

    2017-12-01

    Through the application of BIM technology, the idea of building water supply and drainage designers can be related to the model, the various influencing factors to affect water supply and drainage design can be considered more comprehensively. BIM(Building information model) technology assist in improving the design process of building water supply and drainage, promoting the building water supply and drainage planning, enriching the building water supply and drainage design method, improving the water supply and drainage system design level and building quality. Combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the advantages of BIM technology in building water supply and drainage design. Therefore, application prospects of BIM technology are very worthy of promotion.

  9. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Jovanović; Milana Popović

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor...

  10. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  11. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  12. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rodgers, John H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Alley, Bethany [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Beebe, Alex [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Coffey, Ruthanne [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Jurinko, Kristen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Pardue, Michael [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Ritter, Tina [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Spacil, Michael M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  13. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  14. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  15. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...

  16. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  17. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident and its consequences are briefly outlined in order to provide a synthesis of the facts from the most reliable sources. The paper describes in main lines the accident and the measures that were taken to mitigate its effects. The data on the radiation doses received by the population and the effects of the accident on the human health as well as on the environment are summarized. (author) [es

  18. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  19. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staddon, J E R

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is . That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  20. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  1. Economics of Selected Water Control Technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management, water for multiple use systems and all relevant aspects of ... would add to our understanding of adoption decisions (Doss, 2006). ... Methodology .... International Water Management Institute (IWMI) with support from United States.

  2. WEST AFRICAN TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND RECIPROCITY (WATER) FOR BENIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Songhai Center has produced and tested over 300 fully functional point-of-use drinking water filters. The holistic approach of incorporated water treatment, waste reduction, economic development and promoted environmental and health awareness in the community. The ...

  3. Potential measures for emission reduction within the European Water Framework Directive : Illustrated by fact sheets for Cd, Hg, PAHs and TBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen MPM; van Leeuwen LC; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Vos JH; Linders JBJH; SEC; mev

    2012-01-01

    Landen van de Europese Unie zetten verschillende middelen in om te voldoen aan de verplichtingen van de Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW). Volgens de KRW moeten lidstaten onder andere voldoen aan de normen voor chemische stoffen in oppervlaktewater en van zeer gevaarlijke stoffen moeten de emissies tot nul

  4. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water

  5. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief.

  6. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  7. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of Alternative Technologies to Supply Drinking Water to Marines in Forward Deployed Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan.” 2009. http://www.coleparmer.com/techinfo/techinfo.asp?htmlfile= water - afghanistan.htm&ID=964. Christ- wasser . “RO, EDI and optional UF...Cover, Single-Author Thesis EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER TO MARINES IN FORWARD DEPLOYED...AFIT/GES/ENV/10-M02 EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER TO MARINES IN FORWARD DEPLOYED

  9. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  10. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  11. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  12. Water chemistry - one of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Otoha, K.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry, a) better reliability of reactor structures and fuels, b) lower occupational exposure, and c) fewer radwaste sources, should be simultaneously satisfied. The research committee related to water chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has played important roles to enhance improvement in water chemistry control, to share knowledge and experience with water chemistry among plant operators and manufacturers, to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation related to water chemistry. Furthermore, the committee has tried to contribute to arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through road map planning

  13. Re-use of laundry rinsing water by low cost adsorption technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, N.

    2009-01-01

    Shortage of water is a growing global problem. One way of dealing with this problem is the development of technologies for wastewater clean-up and re-use. Laundry accounts often for more than half of the daily domestic water consumption in countries like India. The major part of laundry water is

  14. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, C; Freeman, G [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States); Ballew, B [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Dames and Moore, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  15. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.; Freeman, G.; Ballew, B.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  16. Advanced Materials, Technologies, and Complex Systems Analyses: Emerging Opportunities to Enhance Urban Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Li, Qilin; Buono, Regina M; Chen, Wei; Daigger, Glen; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Elimelech, Menachem; Huang, Xia; Jiang, Guibin; Kim, Jae-Hong; Logan, Bruce E; Sedlak, David L; Westerhoff, Paul; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2017-09-19

    Innovation in urban water systems is required to address the increasing demand for clean water due to population growth and aggravated water stress caused by water pollution, aging infrastructure, and climate change. Advances in materials science, modular water treatment technologies, and complex systems analyses, coupled with the drive to minimize the energy and environmental footprints of cities, provide new opportunities to ensure a resilient and safe water supply. We present a vision for enhancing efficiency and resiliency of urban water systems and discuss approaches and research needs for overcoming associated implementation challenges.

  17. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbridge, R.; Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-01-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author)

  18. Investigation on processing technology for tritiated water in glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Deli; Meng Daqiao

    2002-01-01

    A 0.5 nm molecular sieve absorption column and a hot decomposing magnesium bed was found to be one of the effective means to collect and decompose HTO in glove box atmosphere. The absorption characteristics of the 0.5 nm molecular sieve column and water decomposing characteristics of the hot Mg bed were obtained. The results showed that the column absorbs water vapour from air with efficiency up to 99.99%. Water in tested gases was between 3.4 x 10 3 to 4.2 x 10 3 μg·g -1 and the total water absorbed on the column was up to 162 g, under this condition no water was detected in output gases. Using the hot magnesium bed more than 99.9% desorption water from the column was decomposed

  19. An Integrated Business and Technology Curriculum: Oil and Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Hillary Jean

    2011-01-01

    Technology in every form has become an important part of everyday life. In business, it is a necessity for success and survival. Many authors (Kotrlik & Redmann, 2009; Ma & Runyon (2004), among others) in the arena of higher education have pointed out the need for truly integrated business and technology programs at the graduate level, but…

  20. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  1. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  2. New potentional of high-speed water jet technology for renovating concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnárová, L.; Sitek, L.; Hela, R.; Foldyna, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses the background and results of research focused on the action of a high-speed water jet on concrete with different qualities. The sufficient and careful removal of degraded concrete layers is very important for the renovation of concrete structures. High-speed water jet technology is one of the most common methods used for removing degraded concrete layers. Different types of high-speed water jets were tested in the experimental part. The classical technology of a single continuous water jet generated with one nozzle was tested as well as the technology of revolving water jets generated by multiple nozzles (used mainly for the renovation of larger areas). A continuous flat water jet and pulsating flat water jet were tested the first time, because the connection of a water jet with the acoustic generator of a pulsating jet offers new possibilities for the use of a water jet (see [1] and [2]). A water jet with such a modification is capable of efficient action and can even be used for cutting solid concrete with a relatively low consumption of energy. A flat pulsating water jet which can be newly used for renovation seems to be a promising technology.

  3. Research and Development Roadmap for Water Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Gagne, Claire [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Lutz, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2011-10-01

    Although water heating is an important energy end-use in residential and commercial buildings, efficiency improvements in recent years have been relatively modest. However, significant advancements related to higher efficiency equipment, as well as improved distribution systems, are now viable. DOE support for water heating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) could provide the impetus for commercialization of these advancements.

  4. Technological features of contamination and purification of drilling waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striletskiy, I V

    1981-01-01

    The most efficient solution to the problem of preventing contamination of the reservoirs with waste water is their reuse for water supply of the borehole. Requirements are presented which the purified waste water must meet. As a result of the conducted studies it has been established that in reservoirs, only coarsely dispersed mixture, weighting compounds and floating petroleum products are removed from the water. Finely dispersed suspension and colloid particles have a sedimentation stability and do not settle out under the influence of the gravity force. For drilling waste water there is a characteristic inconsistency in the degree of contamination both at the different boreholes and at one borehole with the passage of time. Physical-chemical characteristics of the waste waters are presented. The greatest degree of contamination of water is observed when such operations are performed as replacement of the drilling fluid, lifting of the drilling tool, cementing as well as the development of emergencies. Studies on the purification of drilling water were conducted on an experimental-industrial unit.

  5. Check experiment of the high pressure water washing technology used to the decommissioning of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jianping; Hou Yongming; Fu Yunshan

    2004-01-01

    High pressure water washing technology has been widely applied in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and it is used to wash the sump for craft conveyance, the craft workshop, the hermetic sump, and some other nuclear equipment as well. The authors have got a set of technical data correlated with high pressure water washing technology by comparing the situations between the test before and after the washing work. At the same time, authors also improve the technique on some special cases, which made the high pressure water washing technology more perfect in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (authors)

  6. Wind energy - The facts. Vol. 1: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, P.; Garrad, A.; Jamieson, P.; Snodin, H.; Tindal, A. (comps.) [Gerrad Hassan and partners (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The politics and economics of wind energy have played an important role in the development of the industry and contributed to its present success. Engineering is, however, pivotal. As the wind industry has become better established, the central place of engineering has become overshadowed by other issues. This is a tribute to the success of the engineers and their turbines. This volume addresses the key engineering Issues: 1) The turbines - their past achievements and future challenges - a remarkable tale of technical endeavour and entrepreneurship. 2) The wind - its characteristics and reliability - how can it be measured, quantified and harnessed? 3) The wind farms - an assembly of individual turbines into wind power stations or wind farms - their optimisation and development. 4) The grid - transporting the energy from remote locations with plentiful wind energy to the loads - the key technical and strategic challenges. This volume provides an historical overview of turbine development, describes the present status and considers future challenges. This is a remarkable story starting in the nineteenth century and then accelerating through the last two decades of the twentieth century on a course very similar to the early days of aeronautics. The story is far from finished but it has certainly started with a vengeance. Wind must be treated with great respect. The speed of the wind on a site has a very powerful effect on the economics of a wind farm; it provides both the fuel to generate electricity and the loads to destroy the turbine. This volume describes how it can be quantified, harnessed and put to work in an economic and predictable manner. The long-term behaviour of the wind is described as well as its short-term behaviour. The latter can be successfully forecast to allow wind energy to participate in electricity markets. In order for wind to live up to its raw potential promise, individual turbines must be assembled into wind farms or wind power stations. The design and operation of the different types of wind farms are discussed and examples provided. Finally, the key strategic issue for the future is addressed: How can the windy parts of Europe, both onshore and offshore, deliver power for the industrial loads and population centres. This goal is achieved through the local, national and international grids. The way in which the grid is used and constrained is a key political and technical issue. The technical and regulatory constraints are described and some challenges for the future are raised. This volume explores how this new, vibrant and rapidly expanding industry exploits one of nature's most copious sources of energy - the wind. (au)

  7. High-level water purifying technology. Kodo josui shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H; Tsukiashi, K [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Research and development have been carried out on a high-level water purifying system using ozone and activated charcoals to supply drinking water free of carcinogenic matters and odors. This system comprises a system to utilize ozone by using silent discharge and oxygen enriching device, and a living organism/activated charcoal treatment system. The latter system utilizes living organisms deposited on activated charcoal surfaces to remove polluting substances including ammonia. The treatment experimenting equipment comprises an ozone generating system, an ozone treating column, an activated charcoal treating column, an ozone/activated charcoal control device, and a water amount and quality measuring system. An experiment was carried out using an experimental plant with a capacity of 20 m[sup 3]/day on water taken from the sedimentation process at an actual water purifying plant. As a result, trihalomethane formation potential was removed at about 40% in the ozone treatment, and at 70% in the whole treatment combining the ozone and living organism/activated charcoal treatments. For parameterization of palatability of water, a method is being studied that utilizes nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate degrees of water cluster. The method is regarded promising. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  8. Facts on Nirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This folder contains twelve two-page leaflets (fact sheets) which answer questions posed about UK NIREX Ltd, its operations and radioactive waste. NIREX (the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) is the organisation responsible for implementing the British Government's policy for the disposal of most low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste produced in the United Kingdom. The questions posed are; what is NIREX. What is radioactivity. What is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste, what are the options. What is a radioactive waste repository. Some aspects of such a repository are then explained - how engineered barriers work, how geological barriers work, how long can concrete last, how is the radioactive waste transported, how are repository sites identified. The last two leaflets consider why do we need research, and look at radioactive waste management worldwide. The answers are in non-technical language and are short. (UK)

  9. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  10. Psychoacoustics Facts and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fastl, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Reviews of previous editions have characterized it as "an essential source of psychoacoustic knowledge," "a major landmark ," and a book that "without doubt will have a long-lasting effect on the standing and future evolution of this scientific domain."

  11. WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE SULPHUROUS WASTEWATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil refining industries there is a high water consumption, which influences the high production costs and impacts the environment due to the discharge of their wastes. It is known that there are no technological conditions for the reuse of industrial water at the oil refineries, based on hydroskimming processes. The objective of this study is to implement the process integration methodology, Water Pinch, to a sour water stripper unit, as a unitary process of an oil refinery, to minimize the amount of sulphurous waste water and reduce contamination of the bay that receives these wastes. The technology is applied to evaluate the volume of sulphurous wastewater generated in the Cienfuegos oil refinery. This technology allows identifying opportunities for recovery and reuse of water, based on concentration ranges of contaminants. To achieve this purpose, a sour water stripper tower was assessed with the help of Water Pinch software, which provided an optimized distribution network, as a proposed technological improvement. This facilitated to recover and reuse 667 757, 28 m3 of water per year, and 1 035 023, 78 CUC were saved, at the same time the amount of polluting effluents decreased in approximately 2 % of non-reusable treated water.

  12. Nuclear water desalination technology as a tool for achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S. O. A.; Ala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Potable water is regarded as one of the essential needs for the attainment of the target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but every year new countries are affected by growing water problems and Climate change is likely to further stress regions already facing dire water shortages. Recent statistics also shown that 2.3 billion people currently live in water-stressed areas and among them 1.7 billion live in water-scarce areas where the water availability per person is less than 1000 m 3 /year. Only large-scale commercially available desalination processes will be a solution to the menace of this water shortage. This paper therefore focuses on the results and applications of results of research and development in water desalination using nuclear technology which is evolving as an important option for safe, economic and sustainable supply of large amounts of portable water to meet the ever-increasing worldwide water demand.

  13. Phytoremediation technologies for Ni ++ by water hyacinth | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water hyacinth) is promising. The study was conducted to compare the phytoremoval of Ni++ from soil and wastewater. For the measurement of phytoremoval from soil, E. crassipes was used in a pot experiment. Results showed the removal of ...

  14. Water cooled reactor technology: Safety research abstracts no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD publish these Nuclear Safety Research Abstracts within the framework of their efforts to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants and to promote the exchange of research information. The abstracts are of nuclear safety related research projects for: pressurized light water cooled and moderated reactors (PWRs); boiling light water cooled and moderated reactors (BWRs); light water cooled and graphite moderated reactors (LWGRs); pressurized heavy water cooled and moderated reactors (PHWRs); gas cooled graphite moderated reactors (GCRs). Abstracts of nuclear safety research projects for fast breeder reactors are published independently by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and are not included in this joint publication. The intention of the collaborating international organizations is to publish such a document biannually. Work has been undertaken to develop a common computerized system with on-line access to the stored information

  15. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  16. Assessment of Suitable Areas for Home Gardens for Irrigation Potential, Water Availability, and Water-Lifting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Assefa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin of Ethiopia to assess potentially irrigable areas for home gardens, water availability, and feasibility of water-lifting technologies. A GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE technique was applied to access the potential of surface and groundwater sources for irrigation. The factors affecting irrigation practice were identified and feasibility of water-lifting technologies was evaluated. Pairwise method and expert’s opinion were used to assign weights for each factor. The result showed that about 345,000 ha and 135,000 ha of land were found suitable for irrigation from the surface and groundwater sources, respectively. The rivers could address about 1–1.2% of the irrigable land during dry season without water storage structure whereas groundwater could address about 2.2–2.4% of the irrigable land, both using conventional irrigation techniques. If the seven major dams within the basin were considered, surface water potential would be increased and satisfy about 21% of the irrigable land. If rainwater harvesting techniques were used, about 76% of the basin would be suitable for irrigation. The potential of surface and groundwater was evaluated with respect to water requirements of dominant crops in the region. On the other hand, rope pump and deep well piston hand pump were found with relatively the most (26% and the least (9% applicable low-cost water-lifting technologies in the basin.

  17. Pilot demonstrations of arsenic treatment technologies in U.S. Department of Energy Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Aragon, Alicia R.; Siegal Malcolm D.; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program is a multi-year program funded by a congressional appropriation through the Department of Energy. The program is designed to move technologies from benchscale tests to field demonstrations. It will enable water utilities, particularly those serving small, rural communities and Indian tribes, to implement the most cost-effective solutions to their arsenic treatment needs. As part of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, Sandia National Laboratories is carrying out field demonstration testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. The scope for this work includes: (1) Selection of sites and identification of technologies for pilot demonstrations; (2) Laboratory studies to develop rapid small-scale test methods; and (3) Pilot-scale studies at community sites involving side-by-side tests of innovative technologies. The goal of site selection is to identify sites that allow examination of treatment processes and systems under conditions that are relevant to different geochemical settings throughout the country. A number of candidate sites have been identified through reviews of groundwater quality databases, conference proceedings and discussions with state and local officials. These include sites in New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Michigan, and California. Candidate technologies for the pilot tests are being reviewed through vendor forums, proof-of-principle benchscale studies managed by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and the WERC design contest. The review considers as many potential technologies as possible and screens out unsuitable ones by considering data from past performance testing, expected costs, complexity of operation and maturity of the technology. The pilot test configurations will depend on the site-specific conditions such as access, power availability

  18. Enhancing the ecological and operational characteristics of water treatment units at TPPs based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Filimonova, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The innovative baromembrane technologies for water demineralization were introduced at Russian TPPs more than 25 years ago. While being used in the power engineering industry of Russia, these technologies demonstrated certain advantages over the traditional ion-exchange and thermal technologies of makeup water treatment for steam boilers. Water treatment units based on the baromembrane technology are compact, easy to operate, and highly automated. The experience gained from the use of these units shows that their reliability depends directly on preliminary water treatment. The popular water pretreatment technology with coagulation by aluminum oxychloride proved to be inefficient during the seasonal changes of source water quality that occurs at some stations. The use of aluminum coagulant at pH 8 and higher does not ensure the stable and qualitative pretreatment regime: soluble aluminum forms slip on membranes of the ultrafiltration unit, thereby causing pollution and intoxication as well as leading to structural damages or worsening of mechanical properties of the membranes. The problem of increased pH and seasonal changes of the source water quality can be solved by substitution of the traditional coagulant into a new one. To find the most successful coagulant for water pretreatment, experiments have been performed on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of natural organic matters in the Volga water and their structure. We have developed a software program and measured the concentrations of soluble aluminum and iron salts at different pH values of the source water. The analysis of the obtained results has indicated that iron sulfate at pH 6.0-10.2, in contrast to aluminum oxychloride, is not characterized by increased solubility. Thus, the basic process diagrams of water pretreatment based on baromembrane technologies with pretreatment through coagulation by iron salts and wastewater amount reducing from 60-40 to 5-2% have been introduced for

  19. Development of design technology for advanced pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Si Hwan; Chang, Moon Hee; Lee, Jong Chul

    1991-08-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of the domestic passive reactor development, the analysis and evaluation on the development status, technical characteristics, and the safety and economy for the overseas passive reactors were carried out based on the vendor's information. Also the domestic nuclear technology basis was surveyed. The analysis and evaluation of the development status and technical characteristics were performed mainly for the AP-600 developed by Westing house and the SIR of UKAEA. The new design concepts and system characteristics have been evaluated by utilizing EPRI Utility Requirement Documents and Lahmeyer evaluation criteria. Based on this evaluation the recommendable design concepts in each major system were selected. The feasibility for the domestic passive reactor development has focused on the safety, technology and economy aspects, and on the applicability of the existing domestic technology to the design of the passive reactor. And the development plan for the domestic passive reactor was recommended in a step by step way. (Author)

  20. How might renewable energy technologies fit in the food-water-energy nexus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Heath, G.; Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Roberts, B.

    2011-12-01

    Feeding the growing population in the U.S. will require additional land for crop and livestock production. Similarly, a growing population will require additional sources of energy. Renewable energy is likely to play an increased role in meeting the new demands of electricity consumers. Renewable energy technologies can differ from conventional technologies in their operation and their siting locations. Many renewable energy technologies have a lower energy density than conventional technologies and can also have large land use requirements. Much of the prime area suitable for renewable energy development in the U.S. has historically been used for agricultural production, and there is some concern that renewable energy installations could displace land currently producing food crops. In addition to requiring vast expanses of land, both agriculture and renewable energy can require water. The agriculture and energy sectors are responsible for the majority of water withdrawals in the U.S. Increases in both agricultural and energy demand can lead to increases in water demands, depending on crop management and energy technologies employed. Water is utilized in the energy industry primarily for power plant cooling, but it is also required for steam cycle processes and cleaning. Recent characterizations of water use by different energy and cooling system technologies demonstrate the choice of fuel and cooling system technologies can greatly impact the withdrawals and the consumptive use of water in the energy industry. While some renewable and conventional technology configurations can utilize more water per unit of land than irrigation-grown crops, other renewable technology configurations utilize no water during operations and could lead to reduced stress on water resources. Additionally, co-locating agriculture and renewable energy production is also possible with many renewable technologies, avoiding many concerns about reductions in domestic food production. Various

  1. Adolescent Literacy. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The nation's workforce is demanding ever more literate workers and citizens. As technology advances and the American economy grows increasingly knowledge based, individuals must be able to read, write, and communicate at higher levels in order to remain economic and social contributors. A student's level of literacy is a critical determinant of…

  2. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  3. EU AND GLOBALIZATION: SOME STYLIZED FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scamuffa Domenico

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people all over the world claim that globalization is a result of dynamic interactions between economic, technological, social and political factors. The aim of this paper is to document some stylized facts on this phenomenon in order to take

  4. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  5. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  6. Satellite Technology Contribution to Water and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of supplies of food, the relationship to food security, the ability of all people to attain sufficient food for an active and healthy life, and the ability to use satellite technology and remote sensing to assist with planning and act as an early warning system.

  7. Remote Water Lance Technology for Cleaning Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, R.M.; Owen, J.R.; Mangold, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of remote water lances for cleaning sludge or solidified heel materials from waste tanks. S.A.Robotics has developed a long arm retrieval system to deploy ultra-high pressure water lances and vacuum recovery systems for tank cleanup operations. This system uses remote-operated telescoping long arms with light weight, high strength materials, innovative high capacity joint designs, and multiple degrees of freedom to deploy tank cleaning heads to all areas within the tanks. Arm designs can be scaled and adjusted to suit even the largest tanks. (authors)

  8. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 2 : a review of emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    This review was conducted to identify candidate treatment technologies for treating oil sands process water. The oil sands industry in Canada uses large volumes of fresh water in order to extract bitumen deposits. The development of process water treatment technologies has become a critical issue for the industry, particularly as oil sand production is expected to triple in the next decade. However, treatment technologies must be adapted to consider the fouling potential of bitumens and fine clays as well as the effect of alkaline process water on treatment performance. The review included developments in chemical modifications to membranes and adsorbents designed to improve pollutant removal and reduce fouling; hybridization technologies designed to enhance the biological treatment of toxic feedwaters; recent advances in photocatalytic oxidation technologies for organic compounds; and new designs for large-scale treatment wetlands for polluted waste waters. It was concluded that major knowledge gaps must be optimized and preliminary studies must be conducted in order to understand how the treatment technologies will be affected by the chemical and physical characteristics of oil sands process water. 188 refs., 8 tabs

  9. Facts, values, and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Susan

    2017-03-01

    At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism. An editorial in Nature called for scientists to engage directly with citizens in debates over climate change and genome editing, noting that "the ethical issues can be critically dependent on the science, for example, in understanding where the boundaries between non-heritable and heritable genome modifications might be." We're here to help. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. Arsenic removal methods for drinking water in the developing countries: technological developments and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Fayzul; Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2017-11-01

    Arsenic pollution of drinking water is a concern, particularly in the developing countries. Removal of arsenic from drinking water is strongly recommended. Despite the availability of efficient technologies for arsenic removal, the small and rural communities in the developing countries are not capable of employing most of these technologies due to their high cost and technical complexity. There is a need for the "low-cost" and "easy to use" technologies to protect the humans in the arsenic affected developing countries. In this study, arsenic removal technologies were summarized and the low-cost technologies were reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies were identified and their scopes of applications and improvements were investigated. The costs were compared in context to the capacity of the low-income populations in the developing countries. Finally, future research directions were proposed to protect the low-income populations in the developing countries.

  11. Facts about Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia Listen Facts About Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia This information was developed by the ... is the best person to answer specific questions. Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia Defined What are anophthalmia and microphthalmia? ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  13. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  15. Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download EPA's The Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT). FACT is intended to help auditors perform field audits, to easily view monitoring plan, quality assurance and emissions data and provides access to data collected under MATS.

  16. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report ... on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the ...

  17. Problems of reliability and economy work of thermal power plants water treatment based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-11-01

    The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.

  18. Application of gis - technology for modelling motion water in the open channels

    OpenAIRE

    Venherskyi, Petro; Kokovska, Yaryna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper technology that would be allowed to use ArcGIS-Extension, that is GIS-components for Webapplications based on ArcGIS Server'a. Such technologies provide simple and easy integration and use of GIS-component on the WEB-site, where a separate layer provided opportunities modeling and solving applied problems of moving water flow in rivers.

  19. A critical evaluation of two point-of-use water treatment technologies: can they provide water that meets WHO drinking water guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    Point-of-use (POU) technologies have been proposed as solutions for meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe water. They reduce the risk of contamination between the water source and the home, by providing treatment at the household level. This study examined two POU technologies commonly used around the world: BioSand and ceramic filters. While the health benefits in terms of diarrhoeal disease reduction have been fairly well documented for both technologies, little research has focused on the ability of these technologies to treat other contaminants that pose health concerns, including the potential for formation of contaminants as a result of POU treatment. These technologies have not been rigorously tested to see if they meet World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines. A study was developed to evaluate POU BioSand and ceramic filters in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The following parameters were monitored on filters in rural Cambodia over a six-month period: iron, manganese, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that these technologies are not capable of consistently meeting all of the WHO drinking water guidelines for these parameters.

  20. Safety of light water reactors. Risks of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veser, Anke; Schlueter, Franz-Hermann; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Paesler-Sauer, Juergen; Kessler, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    The book on the safety of light-water reactors includes the following chapters: Part I: Physical and technical safety concept of actual German and future European light-water reactors: (1) Worldwide operated nuclear power plants in 2011, (2) Some reactor physical fundamentals. (3) Nuclear power plants in Germany. (4) Radioactive exposure due to nuclear power plants. (5) Safety concept of light-water reactors. (6) Probabilistic analyses and risk studies. (7) Design of light-water reactors against external incidents. (8) Risk comparison of nuclear power plants and other energy systems. (9) Evaluation of risk studies using the improved (new) safety concept for LWR. (19) The severe reactor accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Part II: Safety of German LWR in case of a postulated aircraft impact. (11) Literature. (12) Review of requirements and actual design. (13) Incident scenarios. (14) Load approach for aircraft impact. (15) Demonstration of the structural behavior in case of aircraft impact. (16) Special considerations. (17) Evaluation of the safety state of German and foreign nuclear power plants. Part III: ROSOS as example for a computer-based decision making support system for the severe accident management. (19) Literature. (20) Radiological fundamentals, accident management, modeling of the radiological situation. (21) The decision making support system RODOS. (22) RODOS and the Fukushima accident. (23) Recent developments in the radiological emergency management in the European frame.

  1. Immunoscintigraphy : facts and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.L.; Emrich, D.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of this volume the fundamentals of immuno-scintigraphy including immunological and technological basics, radio-labelling, biokinetics, dosimetry, adverse reactions, and legislation concerning approval of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies as radio-pharmaceuticals are dealt with. In the second part, clinical experience in using monoclonal antibodies in the most relevant oncologic and non-neoplastic diseases is presented both from a diagnostic and a therapeutic point of view. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  3. Preparation of Water-Selective Polybutadiene Membranes and Their Use in Drying Alcohols by Pervaporation and Vapor Permeation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separating azeotrope-forming solvent-water mixtures by conventional distillation poses technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Membrane technology using water-permselective membranes provides an efficient alternative for water removal from solvents. We present here a n...

  4. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  5. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung; Li, Xue; Ong, Rui Chin; Ge, Qingchun; Wang, Honglei; Han, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing Extension Programs by Discussing Water Conservation Technology Adoption with Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Warner, Laura A.; Martin, Emmett T.; White, Sarah A.; Fisher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Nursery growers are one of the largest agricultural users of water. Researchers have been developing new water treatment techniques and technologies for nursery growers to assist in preserving this precious resource, yet adoption within the industry has been limited. Extension professionals need to work closely with nursery growers to encourage…

  8. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  9. Discussion on Construction Technology of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Pipeline of Municipal Water Supply and Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    Prestressed reinforced concrete pipe has the advantages of good bending resistance, good anti-corrosion, anti-seepage, low price and so on. It is very common in municipal water supply and drainage engineering. This paper mainly explore the analyze the construction technology of the prestressed reinforced concrete pipe in municipal water supply and drainage engineering.

  10. Sino-US cooperation in water saving technologies: essential international problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and China share many agricultural problems, but one of great importance is the need to produce more crop yield in the face of water scarcity. Common recognition of this problem led to the development of a joint Sino-US Water Saving Technologies Flagship project within the larger US...

  11. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  12. Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Zhao, R.; Wal, van der A.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon electrodes have significant potential for energy-efficient water desalination using a promising technology called Capacitive Deionization (CDI). In CDI, salt ions are removed from brackish water upon applying an electrical voltage difference between two porous electrodes, in which the

  13. [Complex technology for water and wastewater disinfection and its industrial realization in prototype unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, E N; Brunman, V E; Brunman, M V; Konyashin, A V; Dyachenko, V A; Petkova, A P

    Usage of complex automated electrolysis unit for drinking water disinfection and wastewater oxidation and coagulation is scoped, its ecological and energy efficiency is shown. Properties of technological process of anolyte production using membrane electrolysis of brine for water disinfection in municipal pipelines and potassium ferrate production using electrochemical dissolution of iron anode in NaOH solution for usage in purification plants are listed. Construction of modules of industrial prototype for anolyte and ferrate production and applied aspects of automation of complex electrolysis unit are proved. Results of approbation of electrolytic potassium ferrate for drinking water disinfection and wastewater, rain water and environmental water oxidation and coagulation are shown.

  14. New Water Disinfection Technology for Earth and Space Applications as Part of the NPP Fellowship Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    SilvestryRodriquez, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    There is the need for a safe, low energy consuming and compact water disinfection technology to maintain water quality for human consumption. The design of the reactor should present no overheating and a constant temperature, with good electrical and optical performance for a UV water treatment system. The study assessed the use of UVA-LEDs to disinfectant water for MS2 Bacteriophage. The log reduction was sufficient to meet US EPA standards as a secondary disinfectant for maintaining water quality control. The study also explored possible inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli.

  15. Reducing Volatile Disinfection By-Products in Treated Drinking Water Using Aeration Technologies (WaterRF Report 4441)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  16. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the selection of an appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water which depends primarily upon percent removal; capital and operating and maintenance costs; safety; raw water quality with respect to parameters such as Fe, Mn, bacteria, and organics. The radon removal efficiency of the diffused bubble and packed tower aeration exceeded 99% at A:W ratios of 15:1 and 5:1, respectively; the GAC system averaged 81 ± 7.7%. Though our field evaluations indicated that GAC systems may not be as efficient as aeration systems, the system tested was operated above design requirements for most of the study period. Other researchers have found removals of greater than 99% with GAC point-of-entry applications. Therefore, each of these processes has the potential to consistently remove 99% of the radon applied. However, even this percent removal may not be sufficient to meet an MCL in the range of 200 to 1000 pCi/L if the raw water contained more than 20,000 to 100,000 pCi/L, respectively

  17. The importance of heavy water in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to similarities of chemical and almost physical properties in H 2 O and D 2 O but differences in nuclear and particle peculiarities provide valuable application for D 2 O. To sustain a controlled chain reaction, the energy of neutrons produced by fission must be reduced through collisions with other nuclei, a process called moderation. A good moderator has a mass close to that of the neutron to maximize energy loss per collision and a very small neutron capture cross section to minimize unwanted nuclear reactions. Deuterium is far the best moderator, more than 80 times better than hydrogen and 30 times better than 12 C ir 18 O. Heavy water is almost as good as deuterium and has the distinct advantage of being a nonflammable liquid. Heavy water is also an excellent neutron reflector, and thus decreases the number of neutrons that escape the reactor core without participating in fission reactions. For this reason a feasibility study and subsequently a technical survey was carried out on engineering of a pilot scale plant. As the result of this studies, the know-how of heavy water production on basis of selected method including dual temperature isotopic exchange and distillation techniques developed. Subsequently the primary and almost detail engineering documents prepared on best knowledge of our own engineers without external contribution

  18. Facts About XLDB-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becla, Jacek; Lim, Kian-Tat; Wang, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    This note provides details of the 5th Extremely Large Databases Conference and Invitational Workshop that were held in 2011 on 18-19 October and 20 October, respectively, at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California. The main goals of the conference were: (1) Encourage and accelerate the exchange of ideas between users trying to build extremely large databases worldwide and database solution providers; (2) Share lessons, trends, innovations, and challenges related to building extremely large databases; (3) Facilitate the development and growth of practical technologies for extremely large databases; and (4) Strengthen, expand, and engage the XLDB community.

  19. Facts About XLDB-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becla, Jacek; Lim, Kian-Tat; Wang, Daniel L.; /SLAC

    2012-02-22

    This note provides details of the 5th Extremely Large Databases Conference and Invitational Workshop that were held in 2011 on 18-19 October and 20 October, respectively, at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California. The main goals of the conference were: (1) Encourage and accelerate the exchange of ideas between users trying to build extremely large databases worldwide and database solution providers; (2) Share lessons, trends, innovations, and challenges related to building extremely large databases; (3) Facilitate the development and growth of practical technologies for extremely large databases; and (4) Strengthen, expand, and engage the XLDB community.

  20. Waste water processing technology for Space Station Freedom - Comparative test data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Shah, Burt H.; Mcgriff, Cindy F.

    1991-01-01

    Comparative tests were conducted to choose the optimum technology for waste water processing on SSF. A thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation (TIMES) subsystem and a vapor compression distillation subsystem (VCD) were built and tested to compare urine processing capability. Water quality, performance, and specific energy were compared for conceptual designs intended to function as part of the water recovery and management system of SSF. The VCD is considered the most mature and efficient technology and was selected to replace the TIMES as the baseline urine processor for SSF.

  1. Overview of technologies for removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Irina; Bhatnagar, Amit; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-04-01

    Wide use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as fuel oxygenates leads to worldwide environment contamination with this compound basically due to fuel leaks from storage or pipelines. Presence of MTBE in drinking water is of high environmental and social concern. Existing methods for MTBE removal from water have a number of limitations which can be possibly overcome in the future with use of emerging technologies. This work aims to provide an updated overview of recent developments in technologies for MTBE removal from water. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Development of water demand coefficients for power generation from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for renewable power generation were developed. • Six renewable energy sources (biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal) were studied. • Life cycle water footprints for 60 electricity generation pathways were considered. • Impact of cooling systems for some power generation pathways was assessed. - Abstract: Renewable energy technology-based power generation is considered to be environmentally friendly and to have a low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions footprint. However, the life cycle water footprint of renewable energy technology-based power generation needs to be assessed. The objective of this study is to develop life cycle water footprints for renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways. Water demand is evaluated through consumption and withdrawals coefficients developed in this study. Sixty renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways were developed for a comprehensive comparative assessment of water footprints. The pathways were based on the use of biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal as the source of energy. During the complete life cycle, power generation from bio-oil extracted from wood chips, a biomass source, was found to have the highest water demand footprint and wind power the lowest. During the complete life cycle, the water demand coefficients for biomass-based power generation pathways range from 260 to 1289 l of water per kilowatt hour and for nuclear energy pathways from 0.48 to 179 l of water per kilowatt hour. The water demand for power generation from solar energy-based pathways ranges from 0.02 to 4.39 l of water per kilowatt hour, for geothermal pathways from 0.04 to 1.94 l of water per kilowatt hour, and for wind from 0.005 to 0.104 l of water per kilowatt hour. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with varying conversion efficiencies to evaluate the impact of power plant performance on

  3. Potential of Solar-driven CDI Technology for Water Desalination in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Seleym

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity is one of the most challenging problems facing the world today. Rivers, lakes, and surface ice represent only 1.2% of the fresh water sources on earth, while ground water represent over 30% of the potential fresh water. The Egyptian quota from the Nile River is limited to 55 billion m3/yr, and expected to decrease due to increasing demand of water by other Nile basin countries. According to an Egyptian government report, the total population of Egypt increased from 22 million in 1950 to around 85 million in 2010. This increase in population growth will continue for decades and it is likely to increase to between 120-150 million by 2050. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national economic development.  As indication of water scarcity, Egypt passed the international threshold value of 1000 m3/capita/year in the nineties, and it is expected to cross the threshold of absolute water scarcity of 500 m3/capita/yr by 2025. Capacitive de-ionization (CDI is a relatively new technology that was developed as recently as the late 1960s. In CDI systems, saline water is made to pass between a pair of electrodes connected to a voltage source. Ions are stored inside the pores of electrodes in CDI via the applied electric field strength. CDI is a membrane less technology, and the problems of membrane fouling in the Reverse Osmosis technology is not present in CDI. It has the potential to be energy efficient compared with other related techniques, robust technology for water desalination. This paper explores low cost and efficient desalination technologies for brackish water for irrigation and drinking purposes using the abundant solar energy in Egypt.

  4. Potential of Solar-driven CDI Technology for Water Desalination in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El Shafei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity is one of the most challenging problems facing the world today. Rivers, lakes, and surface ice represent only 1.2% of the fresh water sources on earth, while ground water represents over 30% of the potential fresh water. The Egyptian quota from the River Nile is limited to 55 billion m/yr, and expected to decrease due to increasing demand of water by other Nile basin countries. According to an Egyptian government report, the total population of Egypt increased from 22 million in 1950 to around 85 million in 2010. This increase in population will continue for decades and it is likely to increase to between 120-150 million by 2050. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national economic development. As indication of water scarcity, Egypt passed the international threshold value of 1000 m3/capita/year in the nineties, and it is expected to cross the threshold of absolute water scarcity of 500 m3/capita/yr by 2025. Capacitive deionization (CDI is a relatively new technology that was developed as recently as the late 1960s. In CDI systems, saline water is made to pass between a pair of electrodes connected to a voltage source. Ions are stored inside the pores of electrodes in CDI via the applied electric field strength. CDI is a membrane less technology and the problems of membrane fouling in the Reverse Osmosis technology are not present in CDI. It has the potential to be energy efficient compared with other related techniques and robust technology for water desalination. This paper explores low cost and efficient desalination technologies for brackish water for irrigation and drinking purposes using the abundant solar energy in Egypt.

  5. A Review of Water Mist Technology for Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    TATEM Navy Technology Center for Safeny and Survivability Chemistry Division C. L. BEYLER P. J. DINENNO E. K. BUDNICK G. G. BACK S.E. YOUNIS Hughes ...Institute, Boris, Sweden, 91 R30189A, April 30, 1992. 32. Jackman , L.A., "Mathematical Model of the Interact’i- of Sprinkler Spray Drops with Fire Gases...of Phase II Energy Fields for Fire Extinguishment," prepared for the U.S. Air Force, Hughes Associates, Irc., Columbia, MD, January 1993. 53. Evans

  6. [Research of aeration with bio-film technology to treat urban landscape water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying-Wei; Nie, Zhi-Dan; Nian, Yue-Gang; Huang, Min-Sheng; Huang, Jian-Jun; Yan, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Research of the aeration with bio-film technology was carried out to treat scenic water of a sanatorium in Beijing. The aim of the research was improving the water habitat by increasing the transparency and reducing the concentration of N and P. The equipments were set in a 5,000 m2 water area, which combined the plug flow jet aerator with the elastic biological filler. The research indicated that the transparency increased from 25 cm to 120 cm by the technology. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and TP were 86.6% , 90% and 73.3%, but there was only 22.4% for TN. The concentration of DO increased from 4.3 mg/L to 7 mg/L. In a word, the aeration with bio-film technology was an effective measure to improve the water habitat by increasing the transparency.

  7. FLASH Technology: Full-Scale Hospital Waste Water Treatments Adopted in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame; Tridecima, Adeodata; Pranoto, Hadi; Moesliem; Miftahuddin

    2018-02-01

    A Hospital waste water contains a complex mixture of hazardous chemicals and harmful microbes, which can pose a threat to the environment and public health. Some efforts have been carried out in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh), Indonesia with the objective of treating hospital waste water effluents on-site before its discharge. Flash technology uses physical and biological pre-treatment, followed by advanced oxidation process based on catalytic ozonation and followed by GAC and PAC filtration. Flash Full-Scale Hospital waste water Treatments in Aceh from different district have been adopted and investigated. Referring to the removal efficiency of macro-pollutants, the collected data demonstrate good removal efficiency of macro-pollutants using Flash technologies. In general, Flash technologies could be considered a solution to the problem of managing hospital waste water.

  8. Demonstration test on decontamination of contaminated pool water using liquid-solid settling technology with flocculants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Tagawa, Akihiro; Hosobuchi, Shigeki; Takanashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying agricultural water, a stationary purification system for contaminated water had been developed on the basis of the liquid-solid settling technology using flocculants. Two kinds of flocculants had been developed on the basis of preliminary tests: one that compounds iron ferrocyanide and the other that does not. With the use of this system and flocculants, a demonstration test was conducted to apply the decontamination technology on contaminated water in two swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is proved from the results that both the developed purification system and the flocculants can be established as a practicable decontamination technology for contaminated water: the treatment rate was 10 m 3 /hour and the elimination factor of radioactive materials was higher than 99%. (author)

  9. α spectrum analysis technology research on uranium in environmental water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yongmei; Yang, Yong; Ma, Junge

    2009-04-01

    In order to measure the nuclide abundance ratio of uranium in environmental water, the method of '717 anion exchanging resin' is discussed. The dis- traction circuit is determined by 717 anion exchange leaching curve, recovery ratio of anion exchaging, recovery ratio of former disposal and recovery ratio of electrodeposit. The circuit has good result in distracting and enriching uranium by using '717 anion exchanging resin', the resolution of uranium in the spectrum is perfect. The activities and the nuclide abundance ratios of 238 U, 235 U, 234 U in the different reach of some location of INPC have been gained. (authors)

  10. Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Tellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF.

  11. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  12. Generic supercritical water technology; Generic technology to shite no chorinkaisui riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K; Ajiri, M; Inomata, H; Smith, R; Hakuta, Y [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokoyama, C [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). The Institute forChemical Reaction Science; Chin, L [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the measurement and analysis for clarifying solution structure of supercritical water and exhibition mechanism of solvent functions. It also describes the development of new processes using supercritical water as reaction solvent. The PVT measurements were conducted in the supercritical region using pure water and NaCl aqueous solution, to confirm the reduction of molar volume of the electrolyte solution. The hydration structure was examined in the supercritical aqueous solution by the molecular dynamic simulation. As a result, presence of hydrogen bond structure, where the contribution of two branching hydrogen bond can not be ignored, was suggested under the supercritical condition. Characteristics of supercritical aqueous solutions are analyzed through in-situ Raman and scattered X-ray spectral measurements. Moreover, this paper introduces developments of some processes in the supercritical water, such as decomposition of wasted polymers, recovery of chemical materials, reforming of heavy hydrocarbons by contact hydrogenation, and synthesis of fine powders of metal oxide by reaction crystallization.

  13. Biochar-based water treatment systems as a potential low-cost and sustainable technology for clean water provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chaukura, Nhamo; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Mukome, Fungai N D

    2017-07-15

    Approximately 600 million people lack access to safe drinking water, hence achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030) calls for rapid translation of recent research into practical and frugal solutions within the remaining 13 years. Biochars, with excellent capacity to remove several contaminants from aqueous solutions, constitute an untapped technology for drinking water treatment. Biochar water treatment has several potential merits compared to existing low-cost methods (i.e., sand filtration, boiling, solar disinfection, chlorination): (1) biochar is a low-cost and renewable adsorbent made using readily available biomaterials and skills, making it appropriate for low-income communities; (2) existing methods predominantly remove pathogens, but biochars remove chemical, biological and physical contaminants; (3) biochars maintain organoleptic properties of water, while existing methods generate carcinogenic by-products (e.g., chlorination) and/or increase concentrations of chemical contaminants (e.g., boiling). Biochars have co-benefits including provision of clean energy for household heating and cooking, and soil application of spent biochar improves soil quality and crop yields. Integrating biochar into the water and sanitation system transforms linear material flows into looped material cycles, consistent with terra preta sanitation. Lack of design information on biochar water treatment, and environmental and public health risks constrain the biochar technology. Seven hypotheses for future research are highlighted under three themes: (1) design and optimization of biochar water treatment; (2) ecotoxicology and human health risks associated with contaminant transfer along the biochar-soil-food-human pathway, and (3) life cycle analyses of carbon and energy footprints of biochar water treatment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  15. Proposal and technological breakthrough of an integrated system for the complete usage of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakao, Shin-ichi; Kato, Shigeru; Tsuji, Masamichi; Sugi, Jiro.

    1996-01-01

    Serious troubles regarding scale formation may occur when the amount of recovered water from sea water increases. The main constituents of the scale are CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, all of which are salts of alkaline earth metals. Therefore, if a key technology is developed with which the main constituents of the scale, alkaline earth metal ions such as CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, can be removed and/or separated from sea water the recovery of desalted water from raw sea water using high-pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) can be increased up to 75-80%, the solubility limit of the remaining scale components. Then it will be possible to make use of all valuable materials that exist in sea water, using an integrated system that combines conventional recovery technologies with a set of the proposed technologies such as HPRO, an alkaline earth metal ions removal process, inorganic ion exchangers for recovering trace elements and so on. Furthermore, almost complete utilization of sea water may be accomplished by using of the brackish water by product for salt-resistant plants such as mangrove, salt bush and, if possible, gene-recombinated plants. (author)

  16. Operational Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Electricity Generation Technology in China—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As two indispensable resources for human development, energy and water are closely related. China, as the world’s largest consumer of electricity, is also experiencing very serious water shortages. Understanding the water consumption intensity in various types of electric power production technologies according to China’s national conditions is a prerequisite for understanding the potential impact of electrical power production on water resources. Therefore, following the steps of a meta-analysis, this paper provides a literature review on operational water withdrawal and consumption factors for electricity generation technology in China. We observed that 50% of water consumption for electricity generation was for coal power, whereas there was no research on the water consumption intensity of natural gas power generation, and a shortage of studies on water intake during electrical power production. The average water consumption intensity of hydropower is the largest. The results indicate that compared with other fuel types, hydropower is not a sustainable energy with respect to water conservation, and the study of hydropower applications should be improved in China.

  17. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  18. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descour, J.

    2001-01-01

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment

  19. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  20. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  1. Chemical evaluation and treatment of ground water for university town Peshawar, Pakistan by reverse osmosis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddique, M.; Gilani, S.N.; Ishaq, M.; Gul, F.

    2012-01-01

    Present study is focused on the ground water treatment for the University Town Peshawar by reverse osmosis technology, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis pure water and ultra pure water filtration. Water collected from three locations was analyzed. The results showed that the first two water samples were neutral having pH 7.09 and 7.16 comparable with the range (6.50-8.50), while the pH for the water sample getting purified and passed from RO process was 5.33 i.e. slightly acidic. The ionic content of the water sample was low, whereas the conductivity ranged from 624-634 micro S/cm for the first two samples and reduced to 1.37 muS/cm. The parameters investigated are below the safety baseline levels of the national and international standards with the exception of Pb. (author)

  2. The Use of Irradiation Technology in Improving Water and Wastewater Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amro, H.; Tuffaha, R.; Zinati, S.; Juneidi, M.; Masaadeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the use of irradiation technology in improving the water quality. A Cobalt- 60 gamma radiation source was used in studying the removal of trihalo methane (THM) compounds from drinking water, which forms as a result of using chlorine for water disinfection. The study also includes the use of irradiation processing for water disinfection as a substitute of water chlorination. The results show that a dose of 1000 Gy is efficient in removing 100 μg/l of THM compounds from drinking water. The same dose is also found efficient for disinfecting and controlling the microbiological content of contaminated surface water. The highly contaminated raw municipal wastewater found to require a radiation dose in the range of 1000 to 5000 Gy. (authors)

  3. In-situ remediation of contaminated ground water using the MAG*SEPSM technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading a project for demonstration of in-situ remediation of contaminated ground water utilizing MAG*SEP SM technology developed by Bradtec. This technology is being considered for eventual application at sites involving groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and/or radionuclides, such as the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Berkeley Pit. The MAG*SEP SM technology uses specially coated magnetic particles to selectively adsorb contaminants from ground water. Particles are mixed with ground water, contaminants are adsorbed onto the particles, and the particles are removed by magnetic filtration. The technology can recover low levels of radioactive and/or inorganic hazardous contamination (in the ppm range), leaving nonradioactive/nonhazardous species essentially unaffected. The first phase of this project has involved the optimization of MAG*SEP SM process chemistry for a selected site at SRS. To date this work has identified a candidate adsorber material (the amino form of iminodicarboxylic acid) for selective removal of lead, cadmium, and mercury from this site's ground water. Decontamination factors of 170, 270, and 235, respective, for each contaminant have been achieved. Further process chemistry optimization work for this adsorber material is planned. The project will eventually lead to an in-situ demonstration of the MAG*SEP SM technology, integrated with the EnviroWall trademark barrier technology developed by Barrier Member Containment Corporation (BMC)

  4. Facts and figures 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report provides an outline of the development of research policy since 1988 - and, in addition, provides comprehensive information on the resources for science, research and development and on the major research organizations. It highlights further positive developments in the research policy of the Federal Government: With the proportion of the gross domestic product spent on R and D having risen to 2.9%, the Federal Republic of Germany belongs to the leading countries - together with Japan and the USA. Modern key technologies have continued to gain in importance. In particular the growth of the contribution of industry to the total research and development budget of the Federal Republic of Germany from 55% in 1981 to 64% today reflects both the increased dynamism of industry and the importance of R and D for maintaining industrial competitiveness. Government provision for the future has gained more weight through intensified environmental, climate, health and geriatric research. Transfrontier cooperation in R and D has continued to gain in significance within the European Community and the EUREKA initiative; it has become especially important due to the new developments in Eastern Europe. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Evaluation of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) monitor well sampling technology at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the complex issues surrounding Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at SRS, the Environmental Restoration Division has been exploring new technologies to deal with the purge water generated during monitoring well sampling. Standard procedures for sampling generates copious amounts of purge water that must be managed as hazardous waste, when containing hazardous and/or radiological contaminants exceeding certain threshold levels. SRS has obtained Regulator approval to field test an innovative surface release prevention mechanism to manage purge water. This mechanism is referred to as the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) and consists of a collapsible bladder situated within a rigid metal tank

  6. Water Chemistry Control Technology to Improve the Performance of Nuclear Power Plants for Extended Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Na, J. W.; Lee, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Ο To Develop the technology to manage the problems of AOA and radiation, corrosion as long term PWR operation. Ο To Establish the advanced water chemical operating systems. - Development of the proper water chemistry guidelines for long term PWR operation. AOA(Axial Offest Anomaly) has been reported in many PWR plants in the world, including Korea, especially in the plants of higher burn-up and longer cycle operation or power up-rate. A test loop has been designed and made by KAERI, in order to investigate and mitigate AOA problems in Korea. This project included the study of hydrodynamic simulation and the modeling about AOA. The analysis of radioactive crud was performed to investigate of NPPs primary water chemical effect on AOA and to reduce the radioactive dose rate. The high temperature measurement system was developed to on-line monitor of water chemistry in nuclear power plants. The effects of various environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate on YSZ-based pH electrode were evaluated for ensuring the accuracy of high-temperature pH measurement. The inhibition technology for fouling and SCC of SG tube was evaluated to establish the water chemistry technology of corrosion control of nuclear system. The high temperature and high pressure crevice chemistry analysis test loop was manufactured to develop the water chemistry technology of crevice chemistry control

  7. Combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE) technology - an economical alternative for heavy water upgraders using water distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryland, D.K.; Sadhankar, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Heavy water upgrading is a unique and crucial part of a CANDU power station. Water distillation (DW) systems are used for heavy water upgrading in all CANDU stations. The DW upgrader is designed to take advantage of the difference in relative volatility (a measure of separation of isotopes) between H 2 O and D 2 O. However, the low relative volatility of the H 2 O/D 2 O system requires large number of stages (long columns) and large reflux ratios (large reboiler loads) - thus resulting in significant capital and operating costs. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) technology as an economical alternative to the DW system. CECE-based upgraders have been demonstrated in pilot scale facilities at AECL Chalk River Laboratories and in Hamilton, Ontario. This design is based on catalytic hydrogen isotope exchange between water and hydrogen gas. (author)

  8. Development of design technology for an advanced pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Chang, Won Pyo; Park, Koon Chul

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the project is to localize technology for the improvement of the reactor coolant system through a multidimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis for the steam generator and the pressurizer. Flow distribution analysis has been done for the YGN 3/4 steam generators when steady-state output conditions were varied in the ranges such as 100, 75, 50, and 25 using three-dimensional ATHOS 3 code. The results of the thermal-hydraulic analysis have been used for flow-induced vibration analysis for the YGN 3/4 steam generators. ATHOS 3 code has been modified for YGN 3/4 steam generator tube lane region using the cartesian geometry and the local porosity in the boundaries of the two adjacent cells. Stability ratio for the tube vibration has been calculated the modified ATHOS 3 and ANSYS code. A sensitivity study for the pressurizer volume change has been analyzed using LTC code which is for the performance analysis to predict an optimistic pressurizer volume. (Author)

  9. Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Khor Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-ε Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

  10. Facts about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1980-01-01

    The argument concerning the introduction and the further expansion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has been existing for several years in differing intensities and most different forms. The arguments and theses of the discussion deal with the various aspects of the reciprocity between nuclear energy and environment. This is the key-note for the scientists to treat the relevant problems and questions in the discussion about nuclear energy. The controversy in which often emotional theses are stated instead of reasonably deliberating the pros and contras includes civil initiatives, societies, and environment protection organisations on the one hand and authorities, producers, and operators of nuclear-technical plants on the other. And the scale of the different opinions reaches from real agreement to deep condemnation of a technology which represents an option to meet the energy need in the future. In this situation, this book is an attempt to de-emotionalize the whole discussion. Most of the authors of the articles come from research centres and have been working on the problems they deal with for years. The spectrum of the topics includes the energy-political coherences of nuclear energy, the technical fundaments of the individual reactor types, safety and security of nuclear-technical plants the fuel cycle, especially the waste management in nuclear power plants, environmental aspects of energy generation in general and nuclear energy in special, the question of Plutonium and the presentation of alternative energy sources including nuclear fusion. The arrangement of these topics is meant to help to clarify the complex coherences of nuclear energy and to help those interested in problems of energy policy to make their own personal decisions. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  12. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in the chemical factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dyecollection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind, and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind, and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, thepolluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits.

  13. Development of Technology for Effective Removal of Arsenic and Cyanides from Drinking Water and Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jae

    2008-02-09

    The purpose of the project was to perform a joint research and development effort focused upon the development of methods and the prototype facility for effective removal of arsenic and cyanides from drinking water and wastewater, based on the UPEC patented technology. The goals of this project were to validate UPEC technology, to manufacture a prototype facility meeting the market requirements, and to introduce it to both industry and municipalities which deal with the water quality. The project involved design and fabrication of one experimental unit and one prototypical industrial unit, and tests at industrial and mining sites. The project used sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) as the media to remove arsenic in drinking water and convert arsenic into non-hazardous form. The work consisted of distinct phases ending with specific deliverables in development, design, fabrication and testing of prototype systems and eventually producing validation data to support commercial introduction of technology and its successful implementation.

  14. Seeking parsimony in hydrology and water resources technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-04-01

    systems to single numbers (a probability or an expected value), and statistics provides the empirical basis of summarizing data, making inference from them, and supporting decision making in water resource management. Unfortunately, the current state of the art in probability, statistics and their union, often called stochastics, is not fully satisfactory for the needs of modelling of hydrological and water resource systems. A first problem is that stochastic modelling has traditionally relied on classical statistics, which is based on the independent "coin-tossing" prototype, rather than on the study of real-world systems whose behaviour is very different from the classical prototype. A second problem is that the stochastic models (particularly the multivariate ones) are often not parsimonious themselves. Therefore, substantial advancement of stochastics is necessary in a new paradigm of parsimonious hydrological modelling. These ideas are illustrated using several examples, namely: (a) hydrological modelling of a karst system in Bosnia and Herzegovina using three different approaches ranging from parsimonious to detailed "physically-based"; (b) parsimonious modelling of a peculiar modified catchment in Greece; (c) a stochastic approach that can replace parameter-excessive ARMA-type models with a generalized algorithm that produces any shape of autocorrelation function (consistent with the accuracy provided by the data) using a couple of parameters; (d) a multivariate stochastic approach which replaces a huge number of parameters estimated from data with coefficients estimated by the principle of maximum entropy; and (e) a parsimonious approach for decision making in multi-reservoir systems using a handful of parameters instead of thousands of decision variables.

  15. Highly purified water production technology. The influence of water purity on steam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, J.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental question related to high-pressure steam generation, intended for powering steam turbines, concerns steam production conditions based on constant quality standards. The characteristics of water (salinity, silica concentration) are indicated for a given steam quality as a function of the pressure. Two processes for the purification of feedwater for high pressure boilers are described: a treatment using precoated cellulose or resin filters and a treatment using mixed-bed ion exchangers. When ultrapure water is required, the demineralized water is filtred using microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes [fr

  16. Candidate for solar power: a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Allan; Hanley, Charles; Hightower, Michael; Wright, Emily; Wallace, Sam; Pohl, Phillip; Donahe, Ryan; Andelman, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U>S> as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared Figure 1: Candidate remote well sites for planned field implementation of new PV-powered desalination process: (a) Raton Basin and (b) San Juan Basin, New Mexico to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness of this technology and of the attender energy requirements of this technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to drive the design of integrated PV-powered desalination systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Earlier laboratory (and very recent laboratory) studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise at common CBM salinity levels. The technology may require less energy. be less susceptible to fouling and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduced the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the

  17. Legislation and regulations for prevention of legionella in drinking and hot water. Explanation of care obligation, alternate techniques and risk assessment. Fact sheet; Wet- en regelgeving Legionellapreventie in drink- en warmtapwater. Uitleg over zorgplicht, alternatieve technieken en risico-analyse. Informatieblad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The reason for this fact sheet is the revision of the drinking water regulations, including the regulations for the prevention of legionella, July 1, 2011. Many market parties consider the regulations as complex, even after the revision. This fact sheet provides more clarity [Dutch] Aanleiding voor dit informatieblad is de op 1 juli 2011 herziene drinkwaterregelgeving, inclusief de voor legionellapreventie relevante bepalingen. Veel marktpartijen ervaren deze regelgeving, ook na herziening, als complex. Dit informatieblad verschaft meer duidelijkheid.

  18. Subsea innovative boosting technologies on deep water scenarios -- Impacts and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano, E.F.; Mendonca, J.E.; Pagot, P.R.; Cotrim, M.L.; Camargo, R.M.T.; Assayag, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the importance of deep water scenario for Brazil, the PETROBRAS Deep and Ultra-Deep Water R and D Program (PROCAP-2000) and the candidate fields for the deployment of subsea innovative boosting technologies (ESPS -- electrical submersible pump in subsea wells, SSS -- subsea separation systems and SBMS -- subsea multiphase flow pumping system) as well as the problems associated with the flow assurance in such conditions. The impact of those innovative systems, their technological stage and remaining demands to make them available for deployment in offshore subsea areas, mainly in giant deepwater fields, are discussed and predicted

  19. Methods and technologies for cost reduction in the design of water cooled reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Specialists Meeting was organized in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors. Its purpose was to provide an international forum for review and discussion on recent results in research and development on different methods and technologies of current and advanced water-cooled reactor power plants, which can lead to reduced investment and operation, maintenance and fuel-cycle costs of the plants. 27 specialists representing 10 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting. 10 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  1. Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.; Deng, Shuguang; Mitchell, Martha C.; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) adsorption technology has the potential to support point of use (POU) based treatment approach for removal of bacterial pathogens, natural organic matter (NOM), and cyanobacterial toxins from water systems. Unlike many microporous adsorbents, CNTs possess fibrous shape with high aspect ratio, large accessible external surface area, and well developed mesopores, all contribute to the superior removal capacities of these macromolecular biomolecules and microorganisms. This article provides a comprehensive review on application of CNTs as adsorbent media to concentrate and remove pathogens, NOM, and cyanobacterial (microcystin derivatives) toxins from water systems. The paper also surveys on consideration of CNT based adsorption filters for removal of these contaminants from cost, operational and safety standpoint. Based on the studied literature it appears that POU based CNT technology looks promising, that can possibly avoid difficulties of treating biological contaminants in conventional water treatment plants, and thereby remove the burden of maintaining the biostability of treated water in the distribution systems.

  2. Groups of Fact in Computer Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cereser Pezzella

    2015-12-01

    groups and the fact groups, presenting these as subjects, although without constituting a society. Technological changes led to the formation of so-called cyberspace, which enabled a change in the own way of understanding the reality through faster diffusion of the most varied content information, thus allowing not only a quicker movement of goods and messages, as well as the modification of habits and even the conversion of practically any cultural product in assets to be profitable exploitation, aimed at consumption.

  3. Facts controllers in power transmission and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Padiyar, KR

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: The emerging technology of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) enables planning and operation of power systems at minimum costs, without compromising security. This is based on modern high power electronic systems that provide fast controllability to ensure ''flexible'' operation under changing system conditions. This book presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject by discussing the operating principles, mathematical models, control design and issues that affect the applications. The concepts are explained often with illustrative examples and case studies. In partic

  4. Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ricci Nicomel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested.

  5. Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicomel, Nina Ricci; Leus, Karen; Folens, Karel; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Du Laing, Gijs

    2015-12-22

    This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested.

  6. Choosing and Using Safe Water Technologies: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Luoto, Jill Emily

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the decision-making of poor rural Kenyan households with respect to the adoption of point-of-use (POU) safe water technologies designed to expand access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Low-cost POU products such as chlorine and filters substantially reduce diarrhea, which kills two million children in poor countries each year. Nevertheless, POU products remain little used in many parts of the developing world, even when they are widely available at s...

  7. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  8. Fact Book on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  9. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  10. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2011-02-01

    Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil sands production, explaining the evolving regulatory framework associated with produced water, Utah water law and produced water regulation

  11. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  12. The Role of Technology Spillovers in the Process of Water Pollution Abatement for Large International Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aldieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of technology externalities stemming from different technological sectors for international firms engaged both in water pollution abatement and in dirty activities. We present a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis based upon a dataset composed of worldwide R&D-intensive firms. In order to identify the technological proximity between the firms, we construct an original Mahalanobis environmental industry weight matrix, based on the construction of technological vectors for each firm, with European ecological patents distributed across more technology classes. Opportune econometric techniques that deal with the firms’ unobserved heterogeneity and the weak exogeneity of the explanatory variables are implemented. The findings show significant spillover effects on the productivity and environmental performance of the firms.

  13. Digital Learning in California's K-12 Schools. Just the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Niu

    2015-01-01

    This fact page briefly discusses the following facts on digital learning in California's K-12: (1) As California implements new tests in its K-12 schools, technology infrastructure is a key concern; (2) Many districts are confident that they had enough bandwidth for online field tests; (3) Digital learning will require significantly greater…

  14. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  15. Political Economy and Irrigation Technology Adoption Implications of Water Pricing under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dridi, Chokri; Khanna, Madhu

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the design of water pricing rules emerging from farmers' lobbying and their implications for the size of the lobby, water use, profits and social welfare. The lobbying groups are the adopters of modern irrigation technology and the non-adopters. The pricing rules are designed to meet budget balance of water provision; we considered (i) a two-part tariff composed of a mandatory per-acre fee plus a volumetric charge and (ii) a nonlinear pricing schedule. Our results show that under e...

  16. A prototype for communitising technology: Development of a smart salt water desalination device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharuddin, F. M.; Fatchurrohman, N.; Puteh, S.; Puteri, H. M. A. R.

    2018-04-01

    Desalination is defined as the process that removes minerals from saline water or commonly known as salt water. Seawater desalination is becoming an attractive source of drinking water in coastal states as the costs for desalination declines. The purpose of this study is to develop a small scale desalination device and able to do an analysis of the process flow by using suitable sensors. Thermal technology was used to aid the desalination process. A graphical user interface (GUI) for the interface was made to enable the real time data analysis of the desalination device. ArduinoTM microcontroller was used in this device in order to develop an automatic device.

  17. ICEMENERG technologies of water treatment applied at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanca, Angela; Bolma, Aurelia; Serbanescu, Agnes; Raducanu, Alice

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the ICEMENERG technologies for water treatment applied at Cernavoda Unit 1, the treatment of the additional water for power steam generators and the chemical treatment of cooling system water. The requirements for quality of water totally demineralized as imposed by the AECL-ANSALDO consortium are as following: electrical conductivity, < 0.2 mS/cm; total silicon, <0.02 mg/L; ionic silicon, <0.01 mg/L; sodium, < 0.05 mg/L; TOC, <0.300 mg/L. These requirements raise rather difficult problems to be solved because the raw water source in case of Cernavoda NPP is Danube River which presents a raising trend of organic and inorganic contamination. Accordingly, experiments at laboratory scale reproducing the entire technological flow were conducted. The following operations were studied: pretreatment with limewash, ferric chloride (with and without coagulation additives); demineralization with ion exchangers of Purolite and Amberlite types. The system consisted of a cationic stage, formed of an strongly acid step with countercurrent recovery and an anionic stage formed of two steps, namely, a weakly basic step and a strongly basic step with recovery inserted; finishing on mixed bed. The paper presents also the chemical treatment/conditioning of the cooling loop of turbine condenser. The Cernavoda NPP cooling system is an open system with a single flow of cooling water comprising two systems, namely, the circulation water system ensuring the steam condenser cooling and the servicing water system ensuring the cooling of heat exchangers in the recirculated water circuit (RCWS), the turbine oil coolants, the coolants of auxiliary steam as well as the emergency core cooling system. Studies were conducted to ensure the chemical conditioning of the raw water from Danube River, particularly, to destroy and remove the shells, the algae and other components. Finally, the following four steps of conditioning the water of the cooling system are summarized: 1

  18. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  19. Factors Affecting Chinese Farmers' Decisions to Adopt a Water-Saving Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, B.

    2008-01-01

    Chinese farm households (N = 240) were interviewed to understand some of the factors affecting their adoption of a water-saving technology called the Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). A logit model was established on the basis of a survey to estimate the determinants of adoption and to

  20. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  1. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) of paddy fields: A water-saving technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M.; Shehzad, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rice productivity in Pakistan is lower than in various rice-producing countries of the World. One of the major reasons of low productivity is the shortage of water. It is, therefore, imperative to increase water-use efficiency. Various studies in China and elsewhere have revealed that continuous flooding is not necessary for getting high yield of rice. In China, lot of effort has been made to develop water- saving rice-production technologies. The most important of these is alternate wetting and drying (AWD) of rice-fields, instead of keeping them continuously flooded or submerged. In the present article, salient advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. The advantages include less water-use for paddy-production, high paddy-productivity, and improvement in the environment, with enhanced efficiency of nutrient-use, better utilization of rainwater, less infestation/ population of insect pests. The technology may affect the grain-quality of Basmati rice in Pakistan. It is suggested that studies. on various aspects of the technology should be carried out, in various ecological zones and in different soil-types. The adoption of the technology may prove helpful to enhance rice-productivity and improve the rural economy in Pakistan. (author)

  2. TRENDS IN THE U.S. WATER MARKET SHAPING TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US water market—and the new technologies that will increasingly define its growth—are entering a new era. Increased scarcity, new regulatory imperatives, public discontent over caustic treatments and practices, and the decline of the design-bid-build model (through which maj...

  3. Water recycling from mixed chromic acid waste effluents by membrane technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, I.; Frenzel, I.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Approaching zero discharge waste on site requires economical treatment technologies for the plating industry, recovering high quality rinse water for reuse. The combination of membranes and evaporation could be an efficient way to downsize the cost and the energy intensive evaporation equipment. In

  4. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  5. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  6. Limitations to postfire seedling establishment: The role of seeding technology, water availability, and invasive plant abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony Svejcar

    2010-01-01

    Seeding rangeland following wildfire is a central tool managers use to stabilize soils and inhibit the spread of invasive plants. Rates of successful seeding on arid rangeland, however, are low. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which water availability, invasive plant abundance, and seeding technology influence postfire seedling establishment...

  7. Building a Database for Life Cycle Performance Assessment of Water and Wastewater Rehabilitation Technologies - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe rehabilitation and trenchless pipe replacement technologies have seen a steady increase in use over the past 30 to 40 years and represent an increasing proportion of the approximately $25 billion annual expenditure on operations and maintenance of the nation’s water and wast...

  8. Building a Database for Life Cycle Performance Assessment of Water and Wastewater Rehabilitation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deployment of trenchless pipe rehabilitation technologies steadily increased over the past 30 to 40 years and continue to represent a growing proportion of the approximately $25 billion annual expenditure on operations and maintenance of the nation’s water and wastewater infr...

  9. Empty pockets, empty ponds? Disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia where the average disadiption rate in the sample areas is as high as 42%. Given that Ethiopia is a drought-prone country with 95% of its crop production being rain-fed, such a high disadoption rate for irrigation

  10. Applicability of water-jet cutting technology to nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tadashi; Nisizaki, Tadashi; Matumura, Hiroyuki; Ikemoto, Yosikazu; Simizu, Hideki

    1991-01-01

    In nuclear facilities there exist, besides relatively simple components, such as vessels and piping, numerous complex components including the multilayered plate with water layer in between, a bunch of thin tubes and composite lamination of dissimilar materials like metal/non-metal. In conventional development of reactor dismantling technology, the technology development has been made mainly for remote cutting of thick-walled structures like the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor internals. These techniques, however, are not always suitable in cutting the above-mentioned structures. As means of cutting such structures efficiently, these is available the abrasion water-jet cutting technology. This technology is now drawing attention for cutting or shaping new materials like composite material and ceramics in high precision and high efficiency. In the present report by way of its feasibility in nuclear facilities decommissioning the following are described. Principle and features of the water-jet cutting technology, system con-figuration, cutting or shaping performance, and some examples of the cutting and shaping. (author)

  11. Controlling Bacterial Pathogens in Water for Reuse: Treatment Technologies for Water Recirculation in the Blue Diversion Autarky Toilet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi T. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HighlightBacterial growth in fecally-contaminated water is highly variable and dependent on several factors.Regrowth occurs after chlorination (low doses, no residual.Indigenous microbial communities variably impact bacterial growth.A combination of treatments can both inactivate and inhibit growth.The Blue Diversion AUTARKY Toilet is a urine-diverting toilet with on-site treatment. The toilet is being developed to provide a safe and affordable sanitation technology for people who lack access to sewer-based sanitation. Water used for personal hygiene, hand washing, and flushing to rinse urine- and feces-collection bowls is treated, stored, and recycled for reuse to reduce reliance on external water supplies. The system provides an opportunity to investigate hygiene of water for reuse following treatment. Treatment in the toilet includes a Biologically Activated Membrane Bioreactor (BAMBi followed by a secondary treatment technology. To identify effective secondary treatment, three options, including granular activated carbon (GAC only, GAC+chlorine (sodium hypochlorite, and GAC+electrolysis are considered based on the bacterial inactivation and growth inhibition efficiency. Four different hygiene-relevant bacteria are tested: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium. Our evaluation demonstrates that—despite treatment of water with the BAMBi—E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhimurium have the potential to grow during storage in the absence of microbial competition. Including the indigenous microbial community influences bacterial growth in different ways: E. coli growth decreases but P. aeruginosa growth increases relative to no competition. The addition of the secondary treatment options considerably improves water quality. A column of GAC after the BAMBi reduces E. coli growth potential by 2 log10, likely due to the reduction of carbon sources. Additional treatments including chlorination

  12. Study on the integration of layered water injection technology and subdivision adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancui

    2018-06-01

    With oil many infillings, thin and poor reservoir exploitation changes gradually to low permeability, thin and poor reservoir development characteristics of multiple layers thickness, low permeability, in the actual development process, the General Department of oil layers of encryption perforation long thin and poor mining, interlayer contradiction more prominent, by conventional layered water injection that can alleviate the contradiction between layers to a certain extent, by the injection interval and other factors can not fundamentally solve the problem, leading to the potential well area key strata or layers is difficult to determine, the layering test and slicing technology is difficult to adapt to the need of tap water control block. This paper through numerical simulation using the conceptual model and the actual block, it has a great influence on the low permeability reservoir of different stratified water permeability combination of permeability technology and application limits, profit and loss balance principle, low oil prices on the lower series of subdivision technical and economic limit, so the reservoir subdivision reorganization, narrow wells mining, reduce the interference between layers, from the maximum fundamental improvement of layered water injection efficiency. At the same time, in order to meet the needs of reservoir subdivision adjustment, subdividing distance with water, a small interlayer wells subdivision technology for further research in the pickup, solved using two ordinary bridge eccentric water regulator with injection of two layers, by throwing exercise distance limit card from the larger problem, the water distribution card size from 7.0m to 1.0m, and the testing efficiency is improved, and provide technical support for further subdivision water injection wells.

  13. Development of technological modes for preparation of mineral water for sports drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kovalenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Conducted research study is devoted to development of technological modes of desalination of natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water for water treatment technologies in the production of beverages for athletes. Materials and methods. Samples of initial water and water that has been desalinated using the experimental installation with different modes were investigated. Measuring of temperature mode of crystallizer was carried out using temperature sensors and digital thermometer. Quality indicators of the water samples using Photometer Palintest 7500 and standard techniques weredetermined. Resultsand discussion.The influence of different factors of the process of freezing on the quality of desalinated natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water "Kuyalnik" was investigated. The patterns of distribution of components of initial water between the frozen solid phase, and a concentrated solution in the process of freezing are identified. For the majority of the investigated factors order of traffic was such: Ca 2+ >HCO -3 >(Na+>Cl- >(Mg2+>SO2-4 >K+, and with a decrease in water salinity so: Ca2+>SO2-4 >(Na+>Cl- >(HCO-3 >Mg2+>K+. Summary of the study results allowed to recommend the following technological parameters of the carrying out the process of desalination of natural mineral sodium chloride water by freeze: operating temperature mode of crystallizer, which is changing in the process from -2 to -4 ° C, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water at the beginning of the process of freezing - 3,7 g/dm 3, duration of the desalination process (process without cooling - 60 minutes, one step of freezing, melting of solid phase under ambient conditions without prior separation of the frozen solid phase. With such technological modes of the carrying out the process of freezing it is possible to obtain water with mineral composition, mainly with existing relevant recommendations to the mineral composition of

  14. IAEA activities in technology development for advanced water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, Poong Eil; Kupitz, Juergen; Cleveland, John; Lyon, Robert; Park, Je Won

    2003-01-01

    As part of its Nuclear Power Programme, the IAEA conducts activities that support international information exchange, co-operative research and technology assessments and advancements with the goal of improving the reliability, safety and economics of advanced water-cooled nuclear power plants. These activities are conducted based on the advice, and with the support, of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs). Assessments of projected electricity generation costs for new nuclear plants have shown that design organizations are challenged to develop advanced designs with lower capital costs and short construction times, and sizes, including not only large evolutionary plants but also small and medium size plants, appropriate to grid capacity and owner financial investment capability. To achieve competitive costs, both proven means and new approaches should be implemented. The IAEA conducts activities in technology development that support achievement of improved economics of water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPPs). These include fostering information sharing and cooperative research in thermo-hydraulics code validation; examination of natural circulation phenomena, modelling and the reliability of passive systems that utilize natural circulation; establishment of a thermo-physical properties data base; improved inspection and diagnostic techniques for pressure tubes of HWRs; and collection and balanced reporting from recent construction and commissioning experiences with evolutionary water-cooled NPPs. The IAEA also periodically publishes Status Reports on global development of advanced designs. (author)

  15. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  16. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  17. Method and equipment for treating waste water resulting from the technological testing processes of NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M. C.; Valeca, S.; Iorga, C.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods and technologies coupled together with advanced equipment for treating residual substances resulted from technological processes are mandatory measures for all industrial facilities. The correct management of the used working agents and of the all wastes resulted from the different technological process (preparation, use, collection, neutralization, discharge) is intended to reduce up to removal of their potential negative impact on the environment. The high pressure and temperature testing stands from INR intended for functional testing of nuclear components (fuel bundles, fuelling machines, etc.) were included in these measures since the use of oils, demineralized water chemically treated, greases, etc. This paper is focused on the method and equipment used at INR Pitesti in the chemical treatment of demineralized waters, as well as the equipment for collecting, neutralizing and discharging them after use. (authors)

  18. Experience with water treatment and restoration technologies during and after uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, V.; Mitas, J.; Rihak, I.

    2002-01-01

    DIAMO, state owned enterprise, has a wide experience in uranium mining with the use of classical deep mining, acid in situ leaching and uranium ore processing. The sandstone deposits in Straz block have been exploited since 1968. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the deposits and the short distance between the deep mine and ISL wellfields requires pumping huge amounts of fresh and/or acid mine water, their treatment and subsequent discharge into streams. DIAMO developed and applied several technologies for different types of wastewater treatment from the start of mining. Practically all of these technologies are used in the current phase of uranium deposit restoration after mining. It is possible to apply these technologies both in the production phase and during the restoration of underground water. In some cases, it is very desirable to combine two or several of them. (author)

  19. Application of information technologies to water monitoring: Features and sectoral trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, E; Pesaro, G [Bocconi Univ., Milan (Italy). Ist. di Economia delle Fonti di Energia

    1991-04-01

    Social attention to water pollution is increasing. Because of the complexity of the natural, institutional, technological and economical aspects involved, an efficient policy for prevention and intervention needs to consider many variables. A good knowledge of the environmental situation and evolution is the basis for any action by both public and private acting agencies. Water monitoring allows the collection and elaboration of information through a process which goes from raw environmental data to public decisions. Monitoring can also present business opportunities for firms. The large Italian and multinational companies are entering the market and making agreements with small engineering firms with strong technological capabilities. In particular, the elaboration and automation of monitoring procedures represent important tendencies towards the improvement of environmental services. The institutional framework is very relevant in the definition of public and private choices, links and opportunities. A systematic approach to water monitoring can provide a better support to public decision makers.

  20. Discussion on runoff purification technology of highway bridge deck based on water quality safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sheng-guang; Liu, Xue-xin; Zou, Guo-ping; Xiong, Xin-zhu; Tao, Shuang-cheng

    2018-06-01

    Aiming at the actual problems existing, including a poor purification effect of highway bridge runoff collection and treatment system across sensitive water and necessary manual emergency operation, three kinds of technology, three pools system of bridge runoff purification, the integral pool of bridge runoff purification and ecological planting tank, are put forward by optimizing the structure of purification unit and system setting. At the same time, we come up with an emergency strategy for hazardous material leakage basing on automatic identification and remote control of traffic accidents. On the basis of combining these with the optimized pool structure, sensitive water safety can be guaranteed and water pollution, from directly discharging of bridge runoff, can be decreased. For making up for the shortages of green highway construction technology, the technique has important reference value.

  1. Contribution of Heavy Water Board in nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Contributed Paper IT-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    The three stage Indian nuclear power programme envisages use of closed nuclear fuel cycle and thorium utilization as its mainstay for long term energy security on sustainable basis. India is committed to realize this objective through the development and deployment of frontier technologies pertaining to all aspects of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Comprehensive indigenous capabilities have been developed in all aspects of nuclear power and associated fuel cycles. Heavy Water Board (HWB), with its abiding objective of fulfilling demand of heavy water for India's flourishing nuclear power program, is one of the frontrunner in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology. HWB is now engaged in wide spectrum of activities in various facets of fuel cycle covering all the three stages of Indian Nuclear Power Programme. HWB is contributing to Nuclear Fuel Cycle through large scale production and sustained supply of key input materials including heavy water, solvents for nuclear hydrometallurgy, 10 B enriched boron etc

  2. Technological processing waste water using the dressing the ejector system for pretreament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter industry produces large amounts of waste water, which endanger and degrade the natural recipients - recipients, given that the waste vode najčešće discharged without any form of treatment or purification. Wastewater slaughter industry carry faeces, straw, unprocessed animal feed, various stomach secretions, blood, fat, a variety of solid waste and other organic matter present. Many applied technical and technological solutions in order to prevent harming the recipients are not given adequate results from the ecological aspect. The reconstruction of a system for pre-treatment and slaughter waste water by applying technological solutions ejector - pump, not only have obtained good results required by the project, but also pointed to the possibility of their use in many types of agro-industrial waste water, especially with the growing number of small agro-industrial drive .

  3. Modelling the impact of Water Sensitive Urban Design technologies on the urban water cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca

    Alternative stormwater management approaches for urban developments, also called Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), are increasingly being adopted with the aims of providing flood control, flow management, water quality improvements and opportunities to harvest stormwater for non-potable uses....... To model the interaction of infiltration based WSUDs with groundwater. 4. To assess a new combination of different WSUD techniques for improved stormwater management. 5. To model the impact of a widespread implementation of multiple soakaway systems at the catchment scale. 6. Test the models by simulating...... the hydrological performance of single devices relevant for urban drainage applications. Moreover, the coupling of soakaway and detention storages is also modeled to analyze the benefits of combining different local stormwater management systems. These models are then integrated into urban drainage network models...

  4. 2008 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This Public Transportation Fact Book presents statistics describing the entire United States transit industry for 1995 : through 2006 with additional detail and overview presentations for 2006. Also included are definitions of reported data : items.

  5. 2010 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Public Transportation Fact Book, published annually, contains national aggregate statistical data covering all aspects of the transit industry in the United States and Canada. Two appendices, also available, provide additional in-depth informatio...

  6. Back Pain Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Patient Fact Sheets Contact the ACA State Licensing Boards Research JMPT Abstracts Latest Issue Evidence in ... Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby Gardening Chronic ...

  7. Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Jaundice & Kernicterus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  8. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every ... with third parties. Please read our security and privacy policy . Plan ahead Get help and support I ...

  10. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  11. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Health THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Kim, diagnosed in 1986 People with a chronic disease may neglect their general health and wellness, research shows. Dental care is no exception. A tendency to focus ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health and long-term care costs. worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts ... Copyright © 2018 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, ...

  13. Filtering Dialysis Myths from Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to work. Fact: Many dialysis patients continue to work, go to school, or volunteer . Some take time off when they first start dialysis treatment and back to work or school after they have gotten used to ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join the Cause alz.org >> Alzheimer's & Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download the Infographic: English Spanish Share the ...

  15. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  16. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Constipation What is constipation? Constipation is ... and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media; 2014. May 2018 Share Previous: Constipation Next: ...

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT: FINANCIAL AND PERSONAL BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS Early ... State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 272.3900 Donate Alzheimer's & Dementia What Is Alzheimer's? Brain Tour Younger/Early Onset Risk Factors Genetics Myths ... Dementia Korsakoff Syndrome Related Conditions CTE MCI Traumatic Brain Injury Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs ...

  19. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...