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Sample records for water systems analisis

  1. Analysis of pumping systems to large flows of cooling water in power plants; Analisis de sistemas de bombeo para grandes flujos de agua de enfriamiento en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Herrera Velarde, Jose Ramon; Gonzalez Sanchez, Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rsanchez@iie.org.mx; jrhv@iie.org.mx; ags@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    Accurate measurement of large water flows remains being a challenge in the problems of implementation of circulating water systems of power plants and other applications. This paper, presents a methodology for the analysis in pumping systems with high rates of water in power plants, as well as their practical application and results in pipelines water flow of a thermoelectrical power plant of 350 MW. In this power plant, the water flow per pipeline for a half of condenser oscillates around 7 m{sup 3}/s (14 m{sup 3}/s per power generating unit). In this analysis, we present the techniques used to measure large flows of water with high accurately, as well as the computational model for water circulating system using PIPE FLO and the results of practical application techniques. [Spanish] La medicion precisa de grandes flujos de agua, sigue siendo un reto en los problemas de aplicacion de sistemas de agua de circulacion de centrales termoelectricas, entre otras aplicaciones. En este articulo, se presenta una metodologia para el analisis de sistemas de bombeo con grandes flujos de agua en centrales termoelectricas, asi como, su aplicacion practica y los resultados obtenidos en los ductos de agua de circulacion de una central generadora con unidades de 350 MW. En esta central, los flujos por caja de agua oscilan alrededor de los 7 m{sup 3}/s (14 m{sup 3}/s por unidad generadora). En el analisis, se presentan las tecnicas utilizadas para medir con precision grandes flujos de agua (tubo de Pitot), asi como, el modelado del sistema de agua de circulacion por medio de un paquete computacional (PIPE FLO) y resultados obtenidos de la aplicacion de dichas tecnicas.

  2. Thermal analysis for energy consumption reduction in cooling water systems; Analisis termico para la reduccion del consumo de energia en sistemas de agua de enfriamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Quillares Vargas, Luis [Tecnopinch, S. A. de C. V., (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the fundamental principles for the thermal analysis of cooling water systems in processing plants. In existing heat dissipating networks this methodology application allows the identification of opportunities for reducing the energy consumption used for cooling water pumping. The methodology is based on the determination of the minimum cooling water flow as a function of the installed heat exchange capacity, subjected to the restrictions of the maximum allowed temperature elevation. The methodology application to real systems, has resulted in saving 20% of the total energy consumed in cooling water pumping. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principios fundamentales para el analisis termico de sistemas de enfriamiento en plantas de proceso. En redes de eliminacion de calor existentes, la aplicacion de esta metodologia permite identificar oportunidades para reducir el consumo de energia utilizada para el bombeo del fluido enfriante. La metodologia se basa en la determinacion del flujo minimo de agua de enfriamiento en funcion de la capacidad de transferencia de calor instalada, sujeta a las restricciones de maximo incremento de temperatura permitido. La aplicacion de la metodologia a sistemas reales, ha resultado en ahorros del 20% del total de la energia que se consume en el bombeo del agua de enfriamiento.

  3. ANALISIS DAN PERANCANGAN APPLICANT TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Soni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to design a web-based applicant tracking system to support Human ResourcesManagement system. Research methods were library study and system design. It can be concluded that the applicanttracking system is able to help HRD staff to chose staff candidates, manage recruitment time, create an applicantdatabase, and it can be function as a web bursa kerja site (EE.Keywords: applicant tracking system, candidate selection, employee recruitment

  4. PENERAPAN ANALISIS DU PONT PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTY DAN REAL ESTATE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novita Ratna Satiti

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana analisis Du Pont System menilai kinerja keuangan industry property dan real estate, apakah analisis tersebut dapat mengetahui perusahaan mana yang...

  5. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  6. New methodologies for the integrated analysis of groundwater management. Altiplano water system case study (Murcia, SE Spain); Nuevas metodologias para el analisis integrado de la gestion del agua subterranea. Aplicacion al caso de estudio del Altiplano (Murcia, SE Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J. L.; Garcia Arostegui, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Integrated analysis of water management incorporates a great range of dimensions and aspects involved in the management of a water system. Lately, these kind of studies have become numerous because they allow getting a holistic knowledge and they also help managers with the decision making process. Nevertheless, there is not yet a general methodology for tackling this type of studies and there is a big opened field concerning the tools and techniques application. This paper establishes a methodology, which can be extrapolated to other case studies, and a practical procedure for the integrated analysis of groundwater management. This analysis starts with the identification and conceptualization of the hydric problematic. Then, a second phase is focused on the development of sectorial and detailed studies. The third phase is the building of the Decision Support System (DSS) based on the results from the sectorial studies. This research develops and proposes the application of a stochastic DSS based on Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBNs) that allows incorporating a huge range of aspects such as hydrogeological, socioeconomic and environmental, among others. The last phase of the procedure is the simulation of water management scenarios through the DSS. This allows comparing and quantifying the impacts generated by three water management interventions which have been proposed previously. The first scenario establishes the continuation of the current situation, the second scenario is made up of for several water management interventions which are the incoming of external water resources, the purchase of water rights and a reduction of the water demand; finally, the third scenario implies to reach the equilibrium in the aquifer water budgets. (Author) 19 refs.

  7. Expert system for failure analysis of shafts; Sistema experto para analisis de falla de ejes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo Armendariz, V.H.; Cerrud Sanchez, S.M.; Ramirez Rodriguez, M.A.; Ortiz Prado, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    An expert system for the failure analysis in metallic mechanical devices is being Developer at the Mechanical Engineering departments of the Faculty of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) to provide a solution for the failure analysis in cases where considerable experience in needed. The system pretends to resolve the scarceness of experts in the field of failure analysis and is oriented toward the metal-mechanics industry and will also have didactic applications. The main complication in the development of the system is the broad range of applications envisioned, like gears, shafts, bolts and springs between others. Therefore, it was decided to develop the system in a modular way, using the experience obtained in a first module to proceed faster in the others. The present paper presents the elaboration of the module that analyses shafts. This will serve as the base to expand the system toward other components. It uses the general structure of the global system, including an auxiliary software for the determination of maximum stresses in the corresponding parts. [Spanish] Con el fin de contar con un medio eficaz para la solucion de problemas relacionados con el analisis de falla, en donde la experiencia juega un papel fundamental, el Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica de la Facultad de ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) , esta desarrollando el proyecto Sistema experto para analisis de falla de elementos mecanicos, dicho sistema busca resolver el inconveniente de la escasez de expertos y se orienta, tanto a la necesidad de la industria metalmecanica como a la de la docencia. Presenta tambien complicaciones en su desarrollo, ya que se pretende la posibilidad de realizar analisis de falla de elementos como ejes, engranes, pernos, bielas, resortes, tornillos etc. Por lo anterior, se establecio como estrategia el desarrollo del sistema por modulos, ya que teniendo la experiencia de elaboracion de un primer

  8. Analisis Safety System dan Manajemen Risiko pada Steam Boiler PLTU di Unit 5 Pembangkitan Paiton, PT. YTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Kristianingsih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pembangkit listrik tenaga uap (PLTU merupakan pembangkit listrik yang banyak digunakan di Indonesia. Salah satu bagian dari sistem PLTU yang memiliki risiko bahaya tinggi adalah boiler, oleh karena itu diperlukan adanya analisis bahaya dan safety system sebagai langkah pencegahan bahaya pada boiler. Analisis bahaya dalam penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan metode HAZOP. Node yang dipakai adalah economizer, steam drum, superheater, dan reheater yang merupakan komponen utama penyusun boiler. Guide word dan deviasi ditentukan berdasarkan control chart yang dibentuk oleh data proses masing-masing komponen selama bulan Maret 2013. Estimasi likelihood dilakukan berdasarkan data maintenance dari work order PT YTL selama 5 tahun, sedangkan estimasi consequences dilakukan berdasarkan kriteria risiko yang ditimbulkan serta berdasarkan control chart. Hasil perkalian likelihood dan consequences dengan risk matrix menghasilkan kriteria risiko dari komponen. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, diperoleh hasil bahwa komponen yang memiliki risiko bahaya paling besar adalah level transmitter steam drum dengan deviasi berupa less level, yaitu dengan kriteria likelihood adalah A dan consequences 4, sehingga risiko bernilai extreme. Selain itu, risiko extreme juga terdapat pada pressure transmitter outlet superheater, dengan likelihood B dan consequences 4. Untuk menurunkan risiko, maka dilakukan perawatan dan kalibrasi secara rutin, serta penambahan redundant transmitter. Bahaya paling besar pada seluruh node adalah adanya kebakaran. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan analisis emergency response plan untuk kebakaran yang mencakup peta evakuasi, tugas dan tanggungjawab tiap personel, langkah pencegahan, serta langkah penanganan.

  9. Evaluasi Knowledge Management System di Kompas Gramedia Menggunakan Analisis Faktor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Maya Kristin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of Knowledge Management System (KMS is performed to determine the state of KM Portal and provide suggestions to improve the benefits and usability for employee and the company. The evaluation analysis of KMS uses factor analysis to determine the factors that influence user awareness in using KM Portal of Kompas Gramedia. The analysis shows three factors: the quality of KM Portal and user support; user participation; processes and procedures. All factors produced a model that can be used for the control of KM Portal. In accordance with the data processing, the current state of KM Portal is enough. This situation has not yet met the standards that company desires so the company needs further development to obtain a perfect score. 

  10. Berpikir Sistemik Menggunakan Analisis Soft Systems Methodology dalam Manajemen Data dan Information Governance Pemerintah Daerah DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADEN MUHAMMAD AGUNG HARIMURTI PURNOMOJATI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berjudul “Berpikir Sistemik menggunakan analisis Soft Systems Methodology dalam manajemen data dan tata kelola informasi Pemda DIY”. Penelitian ini bertujuan membuat model konseptual manajemen data dan tatakelola informasi Pemda DIY yang terkoneksi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Metode Sistem Lunak. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Sementara teknik pengumpulan data yang dipakai adalah wawancara, FGD, dan observasi lapangan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan manajemen data dan tata kelola informasi di Pemda DIY menunjukkan ciri-ciri tidak sistemik dan ciri-ciri organisasi yang mengalami ketidak mampuan belajar. Untuk itu perlu perubahan cara berpikir lama (old mindset stakeholder ke cara berpikir baru (new mindset dalam manajemen  data dan tata kelola informasi Pemda DIY

  11. Analysis system and remote monitoring of atmospheric discharges; Sistema de analisis y monitoreo remoto de descargas atmosfericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabre Borgaro, Eric; Rodriguez Padilla, Ma. Consuelo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A system for analysis and monitoring of atmospheric discharges (SAMDA (Sistema de Analisis y Monitoreo de Descargas Atmosfericas) (lightnings)) in an electronic device that subsequently transmits these data as automatic processing or by request of a user from a computer operating as a remote station, is described. Also, the characteristics of the SAMDA, its evolution, and the challenges encountered along the development of this project and comments on possible improvements to the equipment and data recordings of this nature, are described. [Espanol] Se presenta el sistema de analisis y monitoreo de descargas atmosfericas (SAMDA) utilizado en la deteccion y registro de descargas atmosfericas (rayos) en un equipo electronico que posteriormente transmite estos datos como procesamiento automatico o por peticion de un usuario desde una computadora, operando como estacion remota. Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas del SAMDA, su evolucion, los retos encontrados a lo largo del desarrollo de este proyecto y comentarios sobre posibles mejoras a equipos y registros de datos de esta naturaleza.

  12. ANALISIS PENGOLAHAN AIR TERPRODUKSI DI WATER TREATING PLANT PERUSAHAAN EKSPLOITASI MINYAK BUMI (STUDI KASUS: PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertiwi Andaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and production process of oil and its supporting operations always generates waste as by-product. If they are uncontrolled, it might decrease the environmental quality. Thus, it is necessary to manage and treat the waste in order to meet the regulation standard of quality and quantity. PT XYZ is an energy company, particularly oil and gas production, which its production activity generate a large amount of waste as well as produced water. Thus, PT XYZ must have facilities or produced water handling plant which could minimize pollution caused by produced water. PT XYZ already has a system of produced water handling with recycling principle. After oil and water separation including water treating at Water Treating Plant (WTP, produced water will be used for steam injection. This is the part of enhanced oil recovery by steam flooding in Duri Field. Besides, produced water could be used as backwash water at WTP, that is Oil Removal Filter (ORF and Water Softener, which is called brine water. If the produced water and brine water is over load the capacity of oil enhanced recovery injection, it might be disposed through injection to Disposal Well and there are certain condition that produced water should be discharged into canal. The objective f this study is to analyze the performance of a water treating plant in PT XYZ. Water Treating Plant is a facility for treating produced water. Basically, WTP is on good condition and each unit has high efficiency for separating oil and water (60-99%. Horizontal velocity at pit #A of API Separator was larger than the design criteria. In addition, Water Softeners have efficiency until 99% for the hardness.

  13. Modal analysis of electromechanical oscillations in electrical power systems; Analisis modal de oscilaciones electromecanicas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jgcg@iie.org.mx

    2008-10-15

    The presence of electromechanical oscillations in any electrical power system is a typical characteristic of this kind of systems. Provided the damping associated with these oscillations lies above of a minimum specified value, the occurrence of these oscillations is not considered as a threat to the system operation. This paper focuses the attention on the application of modal analysis for assessing the dynamical behavior of a power system subjected to small disturbances for different operating conditions and transmission system topologies, as well. The reported results indicate, that modal analysis enables a straight identification of the causes that contribute negatively to the damping of the electromechanical modes. [Spanish] La presencia de oscilaciones electromecanicas en cualquier Sistema Electrico de Potencia (SEP) es una caracteristica propia de estos sistemas. Mientras el amortiguamiento asociado con este tipo de oscilaciones se encuentre dentro de los limites considerados como aceptables para la operacion continua de este tipo de sistemas, el surgimiento de estas no se considera una amenaza para la operacion segura del SEP. El presente articulo, centra su atencion en la aplicacion del analisis modal para evaluar el comportamiento dinamico de un SEP ante la ocurrencia de disturbios de magnitud pequena para diferentes topologias y condiciones de operacion. Los resultados reportados indican, que la aplicacion del analisis modal permite la identificacion directa de las causas que contribuyen en forma negativa al amortiguamiento asociado con los modos electromecanicos, asi como la ubicacion mas adecuada de controles que contribuyan a mejorar el amortiguamiento de los mismos.

  14. Analisi matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Il presente testo intende essere di supporto ad un secondo insegnamento di Analisi Matematica in quei corsi di studio (quali ad esempio Ingegneria, Informatica, Fisica) in cui lo strumento matematico parte significativa della formazione dell'allievo. I concetti e i metodi fondamentali del calcolo differenziale ed integrale in più variabili, le serie di funzioni e le equazioni differenziali ordinarie sono presentati con l'obiettivo primario di addestrare lo studente ad un loro uso operativo, ma critico. L'impostazione didattica dell'opera ricalca quella usata nel testo parallelo di Analisi Matematica I. La modalità di presentazione degli argomenti ne permette un uso flessibile e modulare. Lo stile adottato privilegia la chiarezza e la linearità dell'esposizione. Il testo organizzato su due livelli di lettura. Uno, più essenziale, permette allo studente di cogliere i concetti indispensabili della materia, di familiarizzarsi con le relative tecniche di calcolo e di trovare le giustificazioni dei principali r...

  15. Analysis tools for simulation of hybrid systems; Herramientas de analisis para simulacion de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen S, Omar; Mejia N, Fortino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In order to facilitate and to simplify the development and analysis of a Hybrid System in reference to its design, construction, operation and maintenance, it turns out optimal to carry out the simulation of this one by means of software, with which a significant reduction in the investment costs is obtained. Given the mix of technology of electrical generation which is involved in a hybrid system, it is very important to have a tool integrated with specialized packages of calculation (software), that allow to carry out the simulation tasks of the operational functioning of these systems. Combined with the former, one must not fail to consider the operation characteristics, the facilities of the user, the clarity in the obtained results and the possibility of its validation with respect to prototypes orchestrated in field. Equally, it is necessary to consider the identification of tasks involved in relation to the place of installation of this electrification technology. At the moment, the hybrid systems technology still is in a stage of development in the international level, and exist important limitations as far as the methodology availability and engineering tools for the optimum design of these systems. With the development of this paper, it is intended to contribute to the advance of the technology and to count on own tools to solve the described series of problems. In this article are described the activities that more impact have in the design and development of hybrid systems, as well as the identification of variables, basic characteristics and form of validation of tools in the integration of a methodology for the simulation of these systems, facilitating their design and development. [Spanish] Para facilitar y simplificar el desarrollo y analisis de un Sistema Hibrido en lo que refiere a su diseno, construccion, operacion y mantenimiento, resulta optimo efectuar la simulacion de este por medio de un software, con lo que se obtiene una reduccien

  16. PENERAPAN ANALISIS DU PONT PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTY DAN REAL ESTATE

    OpenAIRE

    Novita Ratna Satiti

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana analisis Du Pont System menilai kinerja keuangan industry property dan real estate, apakah analisis tersebut dapat mengetahui perusahaan mana yang memiliki kinerja keuangan yang paling baik. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menentuan ROI yang diperoleh dari penggabungan rasio aktivitas dan rasio profitabilitas. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Time Series dan Cross Section.Berdasarkan hasi...

  17. ANALISIS EFEK KECELAKAAN WATER INGRESS TERHADAP REAKTIVITAS DOPPLER TERAS RGTT200K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Zuhair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam high temperature reactor, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur yang didesain negatif menjamin reaksi fisi dalam teras tetap berada di bawah kendali dan panas peluruhan tidak akan pernah melelehkan bahan bakar yang menyebabkan terlepasnya zat radioaktif ke lingkungan. Namun masuknya air (water ingress ke dalam teras reaktor akibat pecahnya tabung penukar panas generator uap, yang dikenal sebagai salah satu kecelakaan dasar desain, dapat mengintroduksi reaktivitas positif dengan potensi bahaya lainnya seperti korosi grafit dan kerusakan material struktur reflektor. Makalah ini akan menganalisis efek kecelakaan water ingress terhadap reaktivitas Doppler teras RGTT200K. Kapabilitas koefisien reaktivitas Doppler untuk mengkompensasi reaktivitas positif yang timbul selama kecelakaan water ingress akan diuji melalui serangkaian perhitungan dengan program MCNPX dan pustaka ENDF/B-VII untuk perubahan temperatur bahan bakar dari 800K hingga 1800K. Tiga opsi kernel bahan bakar UO2, ThO2/UO2 dan PuO2 dengan tiga model kisi bahan bakar pebble di teras reaktor diterapkan untuk kondisi water ingress dengan densitas air dari 0 hingga 1.000 kg/m3. Hasil perhitungan memperlihatkan koefisien reaktivitas Doppler tetap negatif untuk seluruh opsi bahan bakar yang dipertimbangkan bahkan untuk posibilitas water ingress yang besar. Efek water ingress lebih kuat pada model kisi dengan fraksi packing lebih rendah karena lebih banyak volume yang tersedia untuk air yang memasuki teras reaktor. Efek water ingress juga lebih kuat di teras uranium dibandingkan teras thorium dan plutonium sebagai konsekuensi dari fenomena Doppler dimana absorpsi neutron di daerah resonansi 238U lebih besar daripada 232Th dan 240Pu. Secara keseluruhan dapat disimpulkan bahwa, koefisien Doppler teras RGTT200K mampu mengkompensasi insersi reaktivitas yang diintroduksi oleh kecelakaan water ingress. Teras RGTT200K dengan bahan bakar UO2, ThO2/UO2 dan PuO2 dapat mempertahankan fitur keselamatan

  18. Energy analysis of a solar advanced refrigeration system; Analisis energetico de un sistema de refrigeracion solar avanzado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Limon, Nicolas [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (Mexico); Best y Brown, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this article is presented a solar refrigeration system that integrates the more recent and important technological advances of the training solar systems (SCS) and of the advanced absorption units. An analysis and evaluation is made of the energy behavior of the absorption system with heat exchanger absorber-generator (GAX), air cooled and assisted by a hybrid power plant natural gas-solar. Given the characteristic of high not-linearity of the resulting system of occupations, the proposed methodology contemplates a calculation sequence for the external currents and an iterative procedure for the internal currents. The unit was designed with a capacity of 10.6 kw (3 tons.) of cooling and uses ammonia-water as working fluid. Giving priority to internal energy integration, an arrangement of the GAX cycle is proposed, that allows 19% of solar contribution at full load, being able to be greater at partial loads. In spite of using as cooling means air at 40 Celsius degrees with a relative humidity of 24%, a COP of 0.86 in the cooling mode was obtained and 1.86 in the heating mode, with an internal energy integration of 1013 kJ/min, 37% more of the energy that is supplied in the generator. The massic flow rates of the GAX cycle were compared with those of a basic cycle, resulting 73% and 62% lower for the circulation rate and for the flow rate, respectively. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un sistema de refrigeracion solar que integra los avances tecnologicos mas recientes e importantes de los sistemas de capacitacion solar (SCS) y de las unidades de absorcion avanzadas. Se realiza un analisis y evaluacion del comportamiento energetico del sistema de absorcion con intercambio de calor absorbedor-generador (GAX), enfriado por aire y asistido por una fuente de energia hibrida gas natural-solar. Dada la caracteristica de alta no-linealidad del sistema de ocupaciones resultante, la metodologia propuesta contempla una secuencia de calculo para las corrientes externas

  19. ANALISIS SISTEM PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERPADU BERWAWASAN LINGKUNGAN: STUDI KASUS DI PT. KAWASAN INDUSTRI MEDAN (Analysis System of Integrated Industrial Estate Ecodevelopment Case Study: At PT. Medan Industrial Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Febrina Kodrat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan utama penelitian adalah menganalisis kinerja pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan. Cakupan aspek penelitian disinkronkan dengan konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan sekaligus dijadikan sebagai batasan kajian, yakni mempersekutukan aspek ekonomi, ekologi dan sosial. Data diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode survei melalui observasi, wawancara mendalam, dan pendapat pakar. Metodologi penelitian menggunakan metode survei dengan menggunakan perpaduan antara hard system (analisis sistem dinamis dan soft system (analisis prospektif. Dari hasil uji statistik chi square (α = 0,01 diperoleh bahwa kelompok masyarakat yang bekerja di dalam PT. KIM mempunyai hubungan yang sangat signifikan dengan kelompok masyarakat yang bekerja di luat PT. KIM terhadap tingkat pendapatan, tingkat pendidikan dan faktor usia. Berdasarkan hasil analisis kualitas limbah cair unit IPAL PT. KIM terdapat 5 parameter yang masih berada diatas nilai baku mutu KepMenLHNo.51/1997, yaitu: BOD, COD, TSS, klorida dan amoniak. Tingkat efisiensi pengolahan limbah cair unit IPAL PT. KIM rata-rata 53,07%. Hasil analisis ketergantungan antar faktor dengan menggunakan Analisis Prospektif diperoleh sebanyak 5 faktor strategis masa depan yang mempengaruhi pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan, yaitu: jumlah industri, permintaan lahan, kebijakan pemerintah, model pengembangan, dan iklim investasi yang kondusif. Pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan dapat dilakukan dengan strategi moderat dengan kebijakan mencakup jumlah industri bertambah secara bertahap dengan meningkatnya permintaan lahan serta kebijakan pemerintah yang memfasilitasi peningkatan modal pengembangan dan didukung oleh iklim investasi yang kondusif. ABSTRACT The main purpose of the research is to study environmental aspect of industrial estate development. The scope of the research aspects is synchronized with sustainable development concepts, namely

  20. Analytical methods for drinking water; Metodi di analisi per le acque destinate al consumo umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, Massimo; Bonadonna, Lucia [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    These analytical methods for drinking water were elaborated by the second Sub-commission of the Permanent study committee ex-article 9 of Italian Ministerial Decree (DM) of March 26, 1991, established at the Ministry of Health. The methods concern the chemical and microbiological parameters included in the C1, C2 and C3 controls of the Annex II of the Decree of the President of the Republic (DPR) 236/88.

  1. ANALISIS PENGOLAHAN AIR TERPRODUKSI DI WATER TREATING PLANT PERUSAHAAN EKSPLOITASI MINYAK BUMI (STUDI KASUS: PT XYZ)

    OpenAIRE

    Pertiwi Andaran; Arya Rezagama

    2015-01-01

    The exploration and production process of oil and its supporting operations always generates waste as by-product. If they are uncontrolled, it might decrease the environmental quality. Thus, it is necessary to manage and treat the waste in order to meet the regulation standard of quality and quantity. PT XYZ is an energy company, particularly oil and gas production, which its production activity generate a large amount of waste as well as produced water. Thus, PT XYZ must have facilities o...

  2. Strategic environmental assessment of water planning: analisis of five experiences; La Evaluacion Ambiental Estrategica de la planificacion hidrologica: analisis de cinco experiencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachon de Mesa, J. [Ministerio de Fomento. Madrid (Spain); Espaol Echaniz, I. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    This article presents the conclusions drawn out of a review of five cases of environmental assessment of water planning in Europe. These conclusions are the starting point for the development of proposals. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Development of a computer system for the thermodynamic analysis; Desarrollo de un sistema de computo para el analisis termodinamico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, Aurelio; Romero S, Antonio; Gomez G, Herminia [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to explain the programs that are contained in a Thermodynamic Computer System. Students can use this Computer System to make complicated calculations that are required in Thermodynamic Analysis. One of this programs is used to obtain the expression of heat capacity of pure substances in terms of temperature, at constant pressure. A database of pure substances has been created which retrieves the thermodynamic properties (enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy) in such a format that it is very easy to understand. The changes of state functions for chemical reactions can also be calculated. Another program is used to estimate the equilibrium conditions in multicomponent and multiphase systems. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los programas de computo que conforman un Sistema de Analisis Termodinamico desarrollado con el fin de facilitar los calculos y la comprension de algunos principios de la Termodinamica. Este sistema permite obtener la funcionalidad de la capacidad calorifica con la temperatura de sustancias puras, a presion constante; obtener de manera rapida y concisa las propiedades termodinamicas (entalpia, entropia y energia libre de Gibbs) de elementos y compuestos puros almacenados en una base de datos; determinar los cambios en las funciones de estado de reacciones quimicas entre sustancias puras; determinar el equilibrio en sistemas multicomponentes y multifasicos. Se indican los alcances de este grupo de programas de computo asi como su aplicacion a procesos practicos.

  4. Analysis of the breaks in the net of water distribution in Ferrara town; Analisi delle fallanze nella rete di distribuzione idrica della citta' di Ferrara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Federico, V. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria delle Strutture, dei Trasporti, delle Acque, del Rilevamento e del Territorio; Mazzacane, S.; Panzacchi, C. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Dipt. di Architettura

    1999-12-01

    In the framework of a research planned by the Emilia Romagna region (Italy), the article presents the results of an analysis of the Ferrara urban water distribution network in the years 1995-1998, analyses the network structure and the characteristics, describes the methodology adopted to analyse break data and examines their distribution in time and space. Trends and anomalies in data are also discussed. [Italian] Nella presente nota viene presentato uno studio effettuato sulla rete di distribuzione idrica a Ferrara nel periodo 1995-1998, all'interno di una piu' ampia ricerca della regione Emilia Romagna. Vengono analizzate le strutture di rete, descritta la metodologia adottata per l'analisi delle fallanze, ed esaminata la loro distribuzione spazio-temporale. Emergono significative linee di tendenza e i limiti attualmente esistenti nel reperimento delle informazioni e le modalita' piu' efficaci per la predispospozione di banche dati.

  5. ANALISIS PENILAIAN PRESTASI KERJA PEGAWAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Rokhmawati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan analisis ini untuk mengetahui sistem, evaluasi dan perubahan penilaian prestasi kerja pegawai UPT Balai Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya Cibodas -LIPI. Pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini dilakukan secara acak dengan metode yang digunakan terdiri dari beberapa bagian, yaitu studi pustaka, studi lapangan dan metode analisis. Metode yang digunakan adalah Metode Analisis SWOT. Hasil analisis menunjukkan banyak kelemahan yang muncul daripada kekuatan yang dimiliki. Peluang dan ancaman yang ada pun tidak memotivasi dalam mengimplementasi ke sistem penilaian prestasi kerja. Oleh karena itu perlu upaya mengevaluasi dan mengubah sistem penilaian prestasi kerja pegawai. Pemberian umpan balik akan mendorong kearah kemajuan dan kemungkinan meningkatkan kualitas kerja pegawai. Maka penilaian harus dibuat seobjektif dan seteliti mungkin berdasarkan data yang tersedia.The purpose of this study is  to determine the system, the  evaluation and the assessment of employees’ job performance in UPT Botanical Gardens Plant Conservation Center Cibodas - LIPI. UPT Botanical Gardens Plant Conservation Center Cibodas - LIPI has not carry out  an optimal job performance assessment. There are indications that the condition relate to the presence of subjectivity in the assessment so depth analysis is needed to find out the solution. Sampling technique uses random sampling. SWOT analysis is used to analyze the data along with study of literature and field study. The result shows that more weaknesses reveale in job performance assessment system than strengths.Opportunities and treats are ignored in implementing the job performance assessment system. Evaluation and modification are needed to improve employees’ job quality.

  6. Design and analysis of an intelligent public FV lighting system; Diseno y analisis de un alumbrado publico FV inteligente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanessian D, Ana V.; Gordon, Manuel [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In the Mexico's National Energy Balance of 2008, it is considered that of the total of the electrical power consumption in our country, 18% is dedicated to lighting. Conscious of the necessity of saving energy in public lighting in this article is presented the design, construction and analysis of the power consumption of a public light fed with electricity of photovoltaic cells and the control of intensity on the light in inverse way of the natural light. A lamp constructed based in light emitting diodes (LEDs) is used. This has the quality of consuming very little energy that could be provided by the sun and be stored to use it at night. With this system, proven at scale, energy savings are obtained superior to 50% of the conventional one and, in relation to the commercial photovoltaic (FV) luminaries up to 30%. [Spanish] Del Balance Nacional de Energia, de Mexico, de 2008, se considera que del total del consumo de energia electrica en nuestro pais, el 18% esta dedicado a la iluminacion. Conscientes de la necesidad de ahorrar energia en alumbrado publico, en este articulo se presenta el diseno de construccion y analisis del consumo energetico de una luminaria publica alimentada con electricidad de celdas fotovoltaicas y el control de intensidad de la luz de manera inversa a la luz natural. Se utiliza un foco construido a base a los diodos emisores de luz (LEDs, por sus siglas en ingles). Estos tienen la cualidad de consumir muy poca energia que podra ser suministrada por el sol y almacenada para utilizarla en la noche. Con este sistema, probado a escala, se logran ahorros de energia superiores al 50% del convencional y, en relacion a las luminarias fotovoltaicas (FV) comerciales, hasa el 30%.

  7. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  8. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  9. Analysis of turbomachineries by means of the application of the SMDTurbo system; Analisis de turbomaquinas mediante la aplicacion del sistema SMDTurbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga, Helen; Garcia, Ernesto; Bernabe, Jose; Aboites, Fernando [CIATEQ, A.C., Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper is presented an integral system in experimental phase developed by CIATEQ for the monitoring and acquisition of involved physical variables in the turbo-machinery analysis. The system has been denominated SMDTurbo (System of Monitoring and Diagnosis for Turbo machinery) and its purpose is to realize a diagnosis (on the basis of mathematical and graphical tools) of the performance of the turbo machinery through the measurement of variables such as pressure, temperature and vibration. The obtained data from these elements is used for its later processing of analysis and diagnosis by means of specialized software with which the performance of the turbo machinery will be able to be performed (TM). Preliminary results of the proposal are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema integral en fase experimental desarrollado por CIATEQ para el monitoreo y adquisicion de variables fisicas involucradas en el analisis de turbomaquinaria. El sistema se ha denominado SMDTuro (Sistema de Monitoreo y Diagnostico para Turbomaquinaria) y tiene como proposito realizar un diagnostico (en base a herramientas matematicas y graficas) del rendimiento de la turbomaquina a traves de la medicion de variables como presion, tempreratura y vibracion. La informacion obtenida de estos elementos se utiliza para su posterior proceso de analisis y diagnostico mediante un software especializado con el cual se podra realizar el rendimiento de la turbomaquinaria (TM). Se presentan resultados preliminares de la propuesta.

  10. Application of GIS-based models for the evaluation of water resources; Analisi GIS-based dei fenomeni idrologici per la pianificazione territoriale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistocchi, A.; Neri, D. [Studio di Ingegneria per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Cesena, FO (Italy)

    2000-08-01

    The paper illustrates the application of GIS-based models for the evaluation of water resources in a hilly area for land use planning at the municipality level. The method, suitable for integration with more detailed analyses for specialistic purposes, provides the fundamental elements for decision in areas of the kind hereby considered, by describing the terms of water budget, diffuse pollution and soil erosion at a regional level. [Italian] Il presente lavoro illustra l'applicazione di tecniche di cartografia modellistica per la caratterizzazione degli aspetti idrologici rilevanti ai fini della pianificazione territoriale di un comune collinare in Emilia Romagna. La metodologia viene proposta in senso generale per la valutazione preliminare delle risorse idriche e dei fattori che limitano la qualita' e gli usi, attraverso la descrizione regionalizzata dei termini del bilancio idrologico, dell'inquinamento diffuso e dell'erosione dei suoli. Pur non sostituendo analisi di maggiore dettaglio a fini specifici, si ritiene che la valutazione fornisca gli elementi fondamentali per le decisioni sull'uso del suolo in aree del tipo considerato.

  11. Hydraulic Analysis of the Contribution of Emergency Water to C. N. Almaraz Systems Affected as a Result of the Complementary Technical Instructions issued by the CSN after Fukushima; Analisis Hidraulico del aporte de agua de emergencia a los sistemas de C. N. Almaraz afectados como consecuencia de las instrucciones tecnicas complementarias emitidas por el CSN tras Fukusima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar Carmona, G.; Puertas Munoz, S.; Arguello Tara, A.; Sanz Roman, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the study and hydraulic analysis of the capacity required contribution of emergency water to the Almaraz NPP to power systems deal with the accidental events outside the bases of design defined in the Complementary technical instructions generated by the CSN after Fukushima. Through the program of balanced hydraulic SBAL, developed by entrepreneurs Grouped (EE.AA) and used in multiple security systems analysis, and based on designs and requirements to be fulfilled by the Almaraz NPP of the different strategies are set, have developed a series of hydraulic models that they have allowed the definition and dimensioning of the portable media and the new connections required in the central systems.

  12. Analysis and application of equivalents in power systems; Analisis y aplicacion de equivalentes en sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas Barrera, Humberto

    1987-09-01

    proven exhaustively with models of the Electric Power System of the Comision Federal de Electricidad with: 405 nodes, 111 generators and 613 branches, giving precise results even in the most extreme conditions, the savings of computational time go from 30 to a 50% according to the type of study made. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de esta tesis es el de presentar un modelo de reduccion de redes que pueda ser utilizado en la simulacion de diversos fenomenos que ocurren en la operacion de los Sistemas Electricos de Potencia (SEP). El trabajo muestra el desarrollo y aplicacion del equivalente en estudios de: Flujos de potencia en estado estable, estabilidad transitoria, comportamiento dinamico generalizado y comportamiento de la frecuencia simplificado. Este modelo surge como resultado de la observacion y analisis del comportamiento del SEP, separando efectos de: cargas, generaciones, red electrica y sus elementos en derivacion. El algoritmo utiliza un enfoque alterno a la presentacion tradicional de equivalentes, donde las cargas se ponderan en el proceso de eliminacion a sus nodos vecinos, basados en una reduccion vectorial de las lineas o transformadores que se involucran al nodo eliminado. De igual forma se transfieren los efectos de los elementos en derivacion. Los resultados asi obtenidos tienen un desajuste pequeno en potencia reactiva por lo que es necesario compensar el caso base reducido. La compensacion solo es necesaria en los nodos que fueron vecinos a uno eliminado durante el proceso y esta compensacion se hace considerando las ramas que finalmente resultaron conectadas a dicho nodo. El algoritmo utiliza los voltajes obtenidos en el caso base original para calcular las potencias complejas de salida de cada una de las ramas que conectan al nodo que se compensa. Las sumatorias de potencias resultantes son los ajustes al caso base reducido. El modelo de equivalentes propuesto permite el analisis de contingencias en puntos donde los equivalentes tradicionales no

  13. ANALISIS PENGARUH KESUKSESAN IMPLEMENTASI CORE BANKING SYSTEM (CBS DENGAN BERBASIS MODEL DELONE DAN MCLEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Andarwati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCore Banking System (CBS is banking application system implementation to improve service customers, but whether the bank knew that CBS was categorized applied successfully or not.The purpose of theseresearch are determine the successful implementation of CBS using models DeLone and Mclean IS Success consisting of six variables are system quality , information quality, usage , user satisfaction , individual impact , and impact organizations. Test the hypothesis using the Partial Least Suare (PLS.The results of this study are the quality of the system on the intensity of use and user satisfaction are positive and significant,the quality of information on the intensity of use is positive and significant and then user satisfaction isnegative and not significant, the influence of the intensity of use of the employment impacts of individual positive and significant, user satisfaction to the impact of individual positivel and significant, the intensity of use of the user satisfaction the positive and significant, and the impact individual on the impact of the organizationis positive and significant. So, as to impact individual the best relationship of the impact organization 

  14. Purge water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  15. Coastal morphodynamic features/patterns analisys through a video-based system and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fábio; Pais-Barbosa, Joaquim; Teodoro, Ana C.; Gonçalves, Hernâni; Baptista, Paolo; Moreira, António; Veloso-Gomes, Fernando; Taveira-Pinto, Francisco; Gomes-Costa, Paulo; Lopes, Vítor; Neves-Santos, Filipe

    2012-10-01

    The Portuguese coastline, like many other worldwide coastlines, is often submitted to several types of extreme events resulting in erosion, thus, acquisition of high quality field measurements has become a common concern. The nearshore survey systems have been traditionally based on in situ measurements or in the use of satellite or aircraft mounted remote sensing systems. As an alternative, video-monitoring systems proved to be an economic and efficient way to collect useful and continuous data, and to document extreme events. In this context, is under development the project MoZCo (Advanced Methodologies and Techniques Development for Coastal Zone Monitoring), which intends to develop and implement monitoring techniques for the coastal zone based on a low cost video monitoring system. The pilot study area is Ofir beach (north of Portugal), a critical coastal area. In the beginning of this project (2010) a monitoring video station was developed, collecting snapshots and 10 minutes videos every hour. In order to process the data, several video image processing algorithms were implemented in Matlab®, allowing achieve the main video-monitoring system products, such as, the shoreline detection. An algorithm based on image processing techniques was developed, using the HSV color space, the idea is to select a study and a sample area, containing pixels associated with dry and wet regions, over which a thresholding and some morphological operators are applied. After comparing the results with manual digitalization, promising results were achieved despite the method's simplicity, which is in continuous development in order to optimize the results.

  16. Solvability and asymptotic analisys of a generalization of the Caginalp phase field system

    CERN Document Server

    Canevari, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    We study a diffusion model of phase field type, which consists of a system of two partial differential equations involving as variables the thermal displacement, that is basically the time integration of temperature, and the order parameter. Our analysis covers the case of a non-smooth (maximal monotone) graph along with a smooth anti-monotone function in the phase equation. Thus, the system turns out a generalization of the well-known Caginalp phase field model for phase transitions when including a diffusive term for the thermal displacement in the balance equation. Systems of this kind have been extensively studied by Miranville and Quintanilla. We prove existence and uniqueness of a weak solution to the initial-boundary value problem, as well as various regularity results ensuring that the solution is strong and with bounded components. Then we investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions as the coefficient of the diffusive term for the thermal displacement tends to 0 and prove convergence to the...

  17. Vibration analysis of fan-foundation systems; Analisis de vibraciones de sistemas ventilador-cimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviles Lopez, Javier; Trueba Lopez, Venancio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-07-01

    A model is presented of interaction among fan, foundation and ground, formed with key elements of the systems i.e. rotor, bearings, steel tie plate; concrete pedestals; foundation and ground. The system components are idealized as discrete elements mass-shock absorber-spring. The springs and the shock absorbers that represent the ground are considered dependant of the excitation frequency, through the use of impedance functions representative of the couple ground-foundation. The system solution is obtained employing the complex response technique in the frequency. For foundation design purposes are proposed the concepts of critical frequencies contours and sensibility contours in operation and resonance, which allow to evaluate the influence in the system response of two critical components, which are: a) the tie plates as joining element between the fan and the foundation and b) the ground as supporting element of the couple fan-foundation. Departing from these contours critical velocity maps and sensibility maps in operation and resonance, for any rigidity condition of the tie plates as well as from the ground, can be obtained. With base on these maps it is possible to establish the rigidity that is required from such elements to satisfy the design recommendations specified by the fan industry, in terms of frequency and amplitude criteria. Through he application of the model, the critical frequencies and sensibility contours calculation for a system fan-ground is illustrated, as well as its utilization, in order to guarantee that, on one hand, the system does not get into the resonance influence zone, and on the other, that the foundation be relatively insensible to the unbalanced forces due to the fan normal operation. [Espanol] Se presenta un modelo de interaccion entre ventilador, cimentacion y suelo, formado con los elementos claves del sistema como son el rotor, las chumaceras, las silletas de acero, los pedestales de concreto, la cimentacion y el suelo. Los

  18. Analisys of Hamiltonian Boundary Value Methods (HBVMs) for the numerical solution of polynomial Hamiltonian dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brugnano, Luigi; Trigiante, Donato

    2009-01-01

    One main issue, when numerically integrating autonomous Hamiltonian systems, is the long-term conservation of some of its invariants, among which the Hamiltonian function itself. For example, it is well known that standard (even symplectic) methods can only exactly preserve quadratic Hamiltonians. In this paper, a new family of methods, called Hamiltonian Boundary Value Methods (HBVMs), is introduced and analyzed. HBVMs are able to exactly preserve, in the discrete solution, Hamiltonian functions of polynomial type of arbitrarily high degree. These methods turn out to be symmetric, perfectly $A$-stable, and can have arbitrarily high order. A few numerical tests confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Analyses of the ferro resonance phenomenon in electric power systems; Analisis del fenomeno de ferrorresonancia en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledezma Lambarque, Enrique

    1987-12-01

    The country's electric supplying networks, as well as the power equipment that conforms them, are designed in accordance with standards that contemplate steady state operation situations of the system and in occasions in transient state; this gives rise to the fact that a reliable operation is obtained. Nevertheless, the inherent the capacitive effects of the network, under certain conditions, can produce a phenomenon known as ferro resonance, which brings about the transformers ferromagnetic material saturation, which in time produces the appearance of overvoltage and high excitation currents in the form of high enough distorted oscillations that more than transient, take a truly stable state, being understood by this, that the reached amplitudes stay until a corrective measurement is taken; such situation will bring about, as a consequence, the electric equipment irremediable damage. This paper is addressed to present to the engineering field the susceptibility to the ferro resonance problem of the electrical power systems. For this purpose the methodology followed for the analysis is clearly settled down. As the problem is of nonlinear character, models that involve the dynamics of the system and the phenomenon of saturation of the transformers are used. The computer techniques for the simulation of the ferro-oscillations are provided, as well as a completely developed in the laboratory study. A series of recommendations is made to the electrical power networks and to the country's transformer manufacturers, with the purpose of preventing the occurrence of the problem, taking due account to this, mainly in the design phase. [Spanish] Tanto las redes de suministro de energia electrica del pais, como el equipo de potencia que las conforma, son disenadas de acuerdo con estandares que contemplan situaciones de operacion del sistema en estado estable y en ocasiones, en estado transitorio; esto da lugar a que se logre una operacion confiable. Sin embargo

  20. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  1. Dental Wings CAD/CAM system precision: an internal and marginal fit sperimental analisys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, G; Gloria, F; Schiavetti, R; Ottria, L; Barlattani, A

    2009-07-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.: The CAD-CAM technology has been developed to design and manufacture prosthetic structures with constant quality characteristics; in fact procedures are codified, manageable and repeatable. PURPOSE.: The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate the internal and marginal gap of zirconia casts made with a new CAD-CAM systematic that use Dental Wings laser scanner and Yenamak milling machine. MATERIAL AND METHODS.: 6 analogs of solid abutments of Straumann implants were used, fixed in plexiglass bases. The samples were scanned by Dental Wings laser; the file obtained by scanning of each probe was sent to the Yenamak D40 milling machine, then the casts were sintered in Protherm furnace. Then 6 samples were cemented with resin luting agent capsules (Relyx Unicem, 3M ESPE). The samples were incorporated in transparent epoxy resin. After resin hardening, the cylinders obtained were cut with a microtomes. These slices thus obtained were then polished with a Polisher sander with alumina dust decreasing grain. Each section was observed and photographed in reflected light with the aid of an optic microscope type, first at low magnification and then at higher magnification. RESULTS.: The overall average fitting of copings on the abutments was 32,87 μ. No differences were found in marginal fit on buccal and lingual sides, it was easily predictable because of the standard form of the used stumps. The recorded values for the marginal fit were lower than those of axial walls. The accuracy of adaptation was always achieved within the limits of clinical acceptability. CONCLUSIONS.: Within the limitations of this study, the system evaluated represents a valuable alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation techniques.

  2. Micro-contaminants, definition, analysis. Their influence on water quality. Microcontaminates, definicion, analisis. Influencia en la calidad de las aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicote Ayuso, A. (CEDEX. MOPT (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    Many of the guidelines concerning water quality protection issued by the EC deal with the need to determine the presence and concentration of a wide variety of toxic organic compounds. As many of these compounds are present in the water in small quantities <1 mg/l, one has to be especially rigorous at all stages which lead to the final result, sampling and isolation of the organic compounds from the water, as well as their separation and identification. (Author)

  3. ANALISIS PERMEASI AIR PADA DEHIDRASI OSMOSIS PEPAYA (Carica papaya) Water Permeation Analysis on Osmotic Dehydration of Papaya (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan; Natalia Anasta

    2013-01-01

    Fruit preservation using low temperature drying is commonly initiated by osmotic dehydration process. The osmotic time is strongly influenced by the water permeation from the fruit to the osmotic solution. This research aimed to study the osmotic dehydration process of papaya by finding out the permeation rate of water to the osmotic solution across a semi permeable membrane. The effect of temperature and osmotic solution concentration on the permeation rate were also observed. The osmotic te...

  4. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  5. ANALISIS PERMEASI AIR PADA DEHIDRASI OSMOSIS PEPAYA (Carica papaya Water Permeation Analysis on Osmotic Dehydration of Papaya (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit preservation using low temperature drying is commonly initiated by osmotic dehydration process. The osmotic time is strongly influenced by the water permeation from the fruit to the osmotic solution. This research aimed to study the osmotic dehydration process of papaya by finding out the permeation rate of water to the osmotic solution across a semi permeable membrane. The effect of temperature and osmotic solution concentration on the permeation rate were also observed. The osmotic temperatures were 30, 40, 50, and 60oC, and the osmotic solution concentration were 55, 60, 65, and 70%. In order to study the water permeation through the semi permeable membrane, a simple mass transfer mathematical models based on Fick’s and Van’t Hoff laws were applied. Generally, higher temperature and osmotic solution concentration, higher water permeation rate was achieved. The results also showed that osmotic dehydration has the same identity or characteristic as drying process at high temperature. The water removal from product slices into the osmotic solution increased by the increase of osmotic period. The mass transfer coefficient and effective diffusivity of water increased when temperature and osmotic solution concentration were increased. However, the membrane permeability has a special characteristic at the ranges conditions studied. Keywords: Osmotic, permeation, dehydration, permeable, membrane ABSTRAK Pengawetan buah dengan pengeringan suhu rendah pada umumnya diawali dengan proses dehidrasi osmosis. Lama waktu osmosis sangat dipengaruhi oleh permeasi air dari bahan ke larutan osmosis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses dehidrasi osmosis dan kecepatan permeasi air dari pepaya ke larutan gula sebagai larutan osmosis melalui membran semipermeabel. Pengaruh suhu dan konsentrasi larutan osmosis terhadap kecepatan permeasi air juga diamati. Suhu osmosis adalah 30, 40, 50, dan 60oC, sedangkan konsentrasi larutan osmosis 55, 60

  6. Trends in the analytical methods for water analysis; Tendencias de los metodos analiticos para el analisis del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortajada-Genero, L. A.; Campins-Falco, P. [Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The technological and methodological advances have provided and evolution of analytical chemistry, specially in the area of water analysis. There area wide variety of problems for this kind of analysis, as result of the high number of possible objectives. They involve from complex environmental studies to routine control of a physical-chemical parameter. Additionally, the variety of analysis to analyse is increasing as in total number as in complexity terms. The response has been the appearance of a high number of analytical methods. Some guidelines and recommendations have been described together with different strategies for quality assurance. In this paper, a review of the last analytical methods described in the scientific references for determinations in water was realised. The evolution and future perspectives were also studied. (Author) 16 refs.

  7. Water Powered Bioassay System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    capillary micropump 27 Figure 30: Slow dripping/separation of a droplet from a capillary 4.1.5 Micro Osmotic Pumping Nano Droplet...stored and delivered fluidic pressure and, with a combination of pumps and valves, formed the basic micro fluidic processing unit. The addition of...System, Microvalve, Micro -Accumulator, Micro Dialysis Needle, Bioassay System, Water Activated, Micro Osmotic Pump 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  8. Quantitative analysis of water heavy by NMR spectroscopy; aplicacion de la resonancia magnetica nuclear al analisis cuantitativo de agua pesada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gil, V.

    1975-07-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has been applied to a wide variety of quantitative problems. A typical example has been the determination of isotopic composition. In this paper two different analytical methods for the determination of water in deuterium oxide are described. The first one, employs acetonitril as an internal standard compound and in the second one calibration curve of signal integral curve versus amount of D{sub 2}O is constructed. Both methods give results comparable to those of mass spectrometry of IR spectroscopy. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Life cycle analysis as a tool for assessing new waste water treatment systems. A case study of textile industry effluent; Analisis del ciclo de vida como herramienta de evaluacion de nuevos sistemas de depuracion de aguas residulaes. Caso practico: efluentes de la industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, A.; Novo, E.; Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.

    2001-07-01

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a technique that analyses the life cycle of a product process or activity in an attempt to identify its overall environmental impact. This approach can be of great help in strategic or operational decision-making in industry or business. This article takes as an example a comparative study of systems for treating strongly coloured industrial effluent. To this end, two well established technologies for dealing with industrial waste were examined: a) the physico-chemical treatment of effluents by coagulation-flocculation: b) a process combining physico-chemical treatment and biological aerobic activated sludge treatment. In addition, the viability of an emerging technology based on the decolouring of effluents with ligninolytic fungi was considered, although this process is still at the study stage. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  11. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  12. Choice and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar system of renewable energy for the Tepozan Park; Seleccion y analisis costo-beneficio de un sistema de energia renovable para el parque Tepozan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A; Sheinbaum P, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This article is about the choice process and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar photovoltaic system for the Tepozan Park, which is a space of ecoturism and ecological education, it is at the Tlalpan District in Mexico, D.F. According to this objective, we start with an introduction related to general conditions in the Park and we talk about the energy requirement. Next, the method for the better option choice is shown, this is based on decision analysis of Kepner and Tregoe. The choice option is evaluated according to the main financial tools of the Cost and Benefit Analysis private evaluation. This shows the decision analysis including issued about ecology. Finally, we add a point for the result synthesis, so we can have a complete approach in order to choice a renewable energy. As conclusion is shown the most important costs and benefits, thinking on future decisions about operation and maintenance of the system. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el proceso de seleccion y analisis Costo-Beneficio de un sistema de energia solar fotovoltaica para las instalaciones del Parque Tepozan, un espacio de ecoturismo y educacion ambiental, ubicado en la delegacion Tlalpan de Mexico, D.F. Para ello, se da una introduccion de las condiciones generales del parque y de los requerimientos de energia. Posteriormente se presenta un apartado del metodo para la seleccion de la alternativa mas adecuada, sustentado en un analisis de decisiones. La alternativa seleccionada, se somete a una evaluacion de los principales criterios de la evaluacion privada derivada del Analisis Costo Beneficio, con lo que se ilustra el proceso de toma de decision, incluyendo los factores de impacto ambiental. Finalmente, se incorpora un apartado de sintesis de resultados, para aportar un panorama completo en cuanto a la operacion y mantenimiento del sistema dentro del parque.

  13. Analisis Sektor/Sub Sektor Unggulan di Kabupaten Bungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafur Gafur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to analyze the leading sectors in Bungo. The method used is Location Quotient (LQ, Dynamic Location Quotient (DLQ, specialization index, Growth Ratio Model (MRP. Based on analysis of LQ and DLQ, there are only two basis sectors at present and in the future, namely the construction sector and trade, hotels and restaurants. Based on the analysis of Specialization Index, in Bungo Regency has a concentration of the economy in the agricultural sector and the manufacturing sector. Based on MRP analysis also showed that prominent sector growth at the level of Bungo and Jambi Province, namely electricity, gas and water supply; the building sector; and trade, hotels and restaurants. Keywords : Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, Specialization Index, Growth Ratio Model   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sektor unggulan di Kabupaten Bungo. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, indeks spesialisasi, Model Rasio Pertumbuhan (MRP. Berdasarkan analisis LQ dan DLQ,  hanya ada 2 sektor yang menjadi sektor basis pada saat ini dan pada masa yang akan datang yaitu sektor bangunan dan sektor perdagangan, hotel dan restoran. Berdasarkan analisis Indeks Spesialisasi, di Kabupaten Bungo telah terjadi konsentrasi ekonomi pada sektor pertanian dan sektor industri pengolahan. Berdasarkan analisis MRP juga dapat diketahui bahwa sektor yang menonjol pertumbuhannya pada tingkat Kabupaten Bungo dan Provinsi Jambi yaitu sektor listrik, gas dan air bersih; sektor bangunan; serta sektor perdagangan, hotel dan restoran. Kata Kunci : Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, indeks spesialisasi, Model Rasio Pertumbuhan

  14. Automated Water-Purification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  15. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  16. ANALISIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI LAHAN PASANG SURUT UNTUK MENDUKUNG PENGEMBANGAN AGROINDUSTRI WILAYAH (An Analysis Integrated Farming System in Tidal Swamp Land to Support Regional Agroindustrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed to the efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing the use of agriculture and livestock by-products. Each chain of cycle resulted a new product that has high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize the empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The objective of this research was to analyze integrated farming system in tidal swamp land to support agroindustry development in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. This research was done with survey and interview method in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. Primary data was collected from May 2011 to December 2011. The results showed that the management of agro-based enterprises integrated farming (rice, coffee and cattle obtained by the BC Ratio = 1.09, (greater than 1, IRR = 16,7% greater than the rate bank interest rate (12% and NPV values obtained for Rp 37,349,080 is positive (+, then the utilization of integrated agro-based farming in tidal land eligible to be developed. Agro-industry development opportunities based integrated farming in tidal land in the future have a chance to be applied in other areas, it can anticipate the growing number of people who have added each year. Keywords: Integrated farming system analysis, tidal swamp land, agroindustry   ABSTRAK Sistem pertanian terpadu diarahkan pada upaya memperpanjang siklus biologis dengan mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan hasil samping pertanian dan peternakan. Setiap mata rantai siklus menghasilkan produk baru yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi, sehingga dengan sistem ini diharapkan pemberdayaan dan pemanfaatan lahan marginal di seluruh daerah dapat lebih dioptimalkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sistem usahatani terpadu (Integrated Farming System di lahan pasang surut untuk mendukung pengembangan agroindustri di Kabupaten Pulang Pisau Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan metode survei dan wawancara

  17. Monitoring systems for the analysis of vibrations and balance of rotary machines; Sistemas de monitorizacion para el analisis de vibraciones y balanceo de maquinas rotatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, Luis E; Ramirez Solis, J. Antonio; Munoz Q, Rodolfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Often, the rotary equipment faults appear as an abnormal vibration or a change in the characteristic vibration pattern of each machine. From here the importance of counting on tools that allow to acquire and to analyze the vibration signals of the equipment while it is in operation. The Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria has worked in this field since the end of the Seventies, developing diagnosis systems based on personal computers that allow the monitoring of the dynamic behavior of the rotary equipment. The main system of this type that the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), nowadays offers, is the Computerized System for Dynamic Analysis, also known by its abbreviation in Spanish as: SICAD II. This was designed under the requirements of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) to collect, measure and analyze vibration data of rotary equipment. It is also used in the balance, fault diagnosis and the solution of problems in rotary equipment. The system SICAD II is portable and versatile system with which vibrations are acquired, measured and analyzed by means of the presentation of the data in graphical formats of different type and application. [Spanish] A menudo, las fallas en los equipos rotatorios se manifiestan como una vibracion anormal o como un cambio en el patron de vibraciones caracteristico de cada maquina. De ahi la importancia de contar con herramientas que permitan adquirir y analizar las senales de vibracion de los equipos mientras estan en operacion. La Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria ha trabajado en este campo desde finales de la decada de los setenta, desarrollando sistemas de diagnostico basados en computadoras personales que permiten monitorear el comportamiento dinamico de los equipos rotatorios. El principal sistema de este tipo que ofrece, actualmente, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) es el Sistema Computarizado para Analisis Dinamico, conocido tambien por su abreviacion como: Sicad II. Este fue disenado bajo los

  18. ANALISIS LITERASI EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garlans Sina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of Economic Literacy. The aim of this research is as an effort to increase economic literacy for individuals and households who want to achieve prosperity. Therefore, the obligation of improving the economic literacy needs to be done in a well-planned manner and come from the strong intention to learn in order to improve the economic literacy. It could have an effect on the assets accumulation, a better debt management, as a protection, as well as to increase savings and managing spending intelligently.   Keyword: economic literacy, asset, debt, protection, saving, spending   Abstrak: Analisis Literasi Ekonomi. Tulisan ini bertujuan sebagai upaya meningkatkan literasi ekonomi bagi individu maupun rumah tangga yang menginginkan mencapai kesejahteraan. Oleh karena itu, kewajiban meningkatkan literasi ekonomi perlu dilakukan secara terencana dan diawali dari niat untuk belajar meningkatkan literasi ekonomi karena dapat berefek pada akumulasi aset, pengelolaan utang yang tepat, proteksi, meningkatkan tabungan dan cerdas mengelola pengeluaran.   Kata kunci: literasi ekonomi, aset, utang, proteksi, menabung, pengeluaran

  19. Water quality management system; Suishitsu kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H.; Hanawa, T.; Hatano, K.; Fujiu, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-19

    Water quality management system designed in consideration of compliance with the environmental ISO is outlined. The water quality management system is positioned at the center, connected to water quality monitors that are deployed at various parts of the water supply facility, and performs the real-time display of information about water quality and the operating status of the water quality monitors for every one of the monitoring locations. The communication software run on this system supports 30 water quality monitors and performs uninterrupted surveillance using dedicated lines. It can also use public lines for periodic surveillance. Errors in communication if any are remedied automatically. A pipeline diagnosing/estimating function is provided, which utilizes water quality signals from received water quality monitors for estimating the degree of corrosion of pipelines in the pipeline network. Another function is provided of estimating water quality distribution throughout the pipeline network, which determines the residual chlorine concentration, conductivity, pH level, water temperature, etc., for every node in the pipeline network. A third function estimates water quality indexes, evaluating the trihalomethane forming power through measuring the amounts of low-concentration organic matters and utilizing signals from low-concentration UV meters in the water purification process. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Application of the Pinch analysis for the design of a cogeneration system in a paper mill; Aplicacion del analisis Pinch para el diseno de un sistema de cogeneracion en una industria papelera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani Gonzalez, A. G.; Arriola Medellin, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Pinch Analysis is a set of principles, tools and rules for the design that allow the engineer find the best way to configure the elements of a process. In the last ten years it has been utilized for the design of new processes as well as in the energy optimization of existing processes. In this paper the tools utilized for the integration of a cogeneration system in a process for the production of paper is presented. It is also presented how the combined treatment of the Pinch Analysis and the exergy concept allows to define, before the detailed design, the cogeneration potential, the fuel consumption and the amount of pollutant emissions for different cogeneration schemes. [Espanol] El analisis Pinch es un conjunto de principios, herramientas y reglas de diseno que permiten al ingeniero encontrar la mejor manera de configurar los elementos de un proceso. En los ultimos diez anos se ha utilizado para el diseno de procesos nuevos asi como en la optimacion energetica de procesos existentes. En el presente articulo se presentan las herramientas utilizadas para la integracion de un sistema de cogeneracion en un proceso de produccion de papel. Se muestra tambien como el tratamiento combinado del analisis Pinch y el concepto de energia permite definir, antes del diseno detallado, el potencial de cogeneracion, el consumo de combustible y la cantidad de emisiones contaminantes para diferentes esquemas de cogeneracion.

  1. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  4. A structure-preserving approach to normal form analysis of power systems; Una propuesta de preservacion de estructura al analisis de su forma normal en sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Carrillo, Irma

    2008-01-15

    Power system dynamic behavior is inherently nonlinear and is driven by different processes at different time scales. The size and complexity of these mechanisms has stimulated the search for methods that reduce the original dimension but retain a certain degree of accuracy. In this dissertation, a novel nonlinear dynamical analysis method for the analysis of large amplitude oscillations that embraces ideas from normal form theory and singular perturbation techniques is proposed. This approach allows the full potential of the normal form method to be reached, and is suitably general for application to a wide variety of nonlinear systems. Drawing on the formal theory of dynamical systems, a structure-preserving model of the system is developed that preservers network and load characteristics. By exploiting the separation of fast and slow time scales of the model, an efficient approach based on singular perturbation techniques, is then derived for constructing a nonlinear power system representation that accurately preserves network structure. The method requires no reduction of the constraint equations and gives therefore, information about the effect of network and load characteristics on system behavior. Analytical expressions are then developed that provide approximate solutions to system performance near a singularity and techniques for interpreting these solutions in terms of modal functions are given. New insights into the nature of nonlinear oscillations are also offered and criteria for characterizing network effects on nonlinear system behavior are proposed. Theoretical insight into the behavior of dynamic coupling of differential-algebraic equations and the origin of nonlinearity is given, and implications for analyzing for design and placement of power system controllers in complex nonlinear systems are discussed. The extent of applicability of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by analyzing nonlinear behavior in two realistic test power systems

  5. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  6. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  7. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on-going...

  8. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  9. Water in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Thérèse

    2008-09-01

    Water is ubiquitous in the Universe, and also in the Solar System. By setting the snow line at its condensation level in the protosolar disk, water was responsible for separating the planets into the terrestrial and the giant ones. Water ice is a major constituent of the comets and the small bodies of the outer Solar System, and water vapor is found in the giant planets, both in their interiors and in the stratospheres. Water is a trace element in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars today. It is very abundant on Earth, mostly in liquid form, but it was probably also abundant in the primitive atmospheres of Venus and Mars. Water is found in different states on the three planets, as vapor on Venus and ice (or permafrost) on Mars. Most likely, this difference has played a major role in the diverging destinies of the three planets.

  10. ECONOMIC ANALISYS OF A COFFEE-BANANA SYSTEM OF A FAMILY-BASED AGRICULTURE AT THE ATLANTIC FOREST ZONE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ponciano Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems can reduce the risks of investing in just one crop. However, there are uncertainties like other agricultural and forestry activities. Therefore, there is the need for economic studies under conditions of economic risk of agroforestry systems. This work reports an analysis of the main components of costs and revenues of an agroforestry system with coffee and banana, as well as an analysis of its economic performance through indicators: net present value, equivalent period benefit (or cost, family labor revenue and a sensitivity analysis of net present value. The main cost components in the system are the human labor and mineral and organic fertilizers applied in coffee, and the costs for the production of coffee outweigh the costs of banana production. The monthly income from the production of bananas balances the costs of coffee production, generating a positive cash flow in the studied period. Financial indicators showed positive values, demonstrating the economic viability of the system with coffee and banana. The agroforestry system is economically feasible, even with variations of ± 20% in production costs and selling prices of their products. Variables that showed greater sensitivity on the net present value were the selling price of coffee and bananas, and the cost of coffee production.

  11. Analisis Cadangan Devisa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusia Bunga Uli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to determine the relationship between variables export, import, and exchange rate against Foreign Exchange Reserves in Indonesia. The data used in the empirical study of a sequence of data monthly time of year 2011.01 through 2014.12 from Bank Indonesia and the Central Statistics Agency (BPS. The analysis tool used is Auto Regression Vector Model (VAR. The results of this study indicate that the one-way relationship between the variables of foreign reserves and export. Then one-way relationship between exchange rate and exports. Lastly, there is a two-way relationship between imports and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between exchange rate and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between imports and exports, two-way relationship between the exchange rate and imports. The results also showed foreign exchange reserves are significantly influenced by the movement itself at a probability of 1 %. Export variable negative and not significantly affect the foreign exchange reserves. While imports of positive and not significant to the foreign exchange reserves. Foreign Exchange Reserves Indonesia is positively influenced by the exchange rate and not significant. Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves, exports, imports, exchange rate   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa keterkaitan antar variabel ekspor, impor, dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap Cadangan Devisa Indonesia. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian empiris ini merupakan data runtutaan waktu bulanan dari tahun 2011.01 sampai 2014. 12 yang berasal dari Bank Indonesia dan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Alat analisis yang digunakan yaitu Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hubungan searah antara variabel cadangan devisa ke ekspor. Lalu hubungan searah antara kurs terhadap ekspor Terakhir, terdapat hubungan dua arah antara impor dan cadangan devisa, hubungan dua arah antara kurs dan cadangan

  12. Calibration of a PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols; Calibracion de un sistema PIXE para analisis de aerosoles ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Anguiano, G.; Flores M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-04-15

    The results of the calibration of the PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols in the CNM is presented. The system was calibrated in order to lead to the project study of environmental aerosols using PIXE from the qualitative dimension to the quantitative one. Part of this work it was carried out in collaboration with the expert of the IAEA Dr. D. Crumpton. The calibration of the system it was achieved bombarding thin targets of well-known composition with protons of 2.5 MeV. Using this technique it was determined the absolute elementary concentration in samples of atmospheric aerosols. As an example the calculation of the lead concentration in one of them whose result was of 662 {+-} 49 ng m{sup -3} is presented. This value agrees with the measurements made in the Crocker Nuclear Lab of the UCD. Its are also discussed the reproducibility and precision of the used technique. (Author)

  13. Transient analysis for grounding systems considering the ground ionization; Analisis transitorio de sistemas de puesta a tierra considerando la ionizacion del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado Salgado, Luis Alberto

    2008-06-15

    All electrical installation must have an effective grounding system. The purpose of this grounding system is to provide a low impedance path for draining electric currents generated by faults, switching operations or atmospheric discharges to earth, avoiding damage to people, equipment or installations. High currents drained to ground leads to an electric field which can be capable of breaking down the dielectric strength of the ground. When this happens, the ionization phenomena takes place, which reduce the grounding system impedance and modify its performance. In this thesis, a computational model for evaluating the transient performance of grounding systems subjected to high magnitude and frequency currents is presented. The model is based in a transmission line approach and the grounding system transient analysis is carried out in the frequency domain. The time domain translation is performed by means of the Fast Fourier Inverse Transform (FFIT). The computer model is capable of simulating soil ionization. The computer model developed is used to study the performance of vertical rods and grounding grids of different sizes. In every case, different electric field magnitudes and soil's resistivity were used, currents of different frequency components and magnitude values where used as well. The obtained results presented were compared and validated with other computer model results and measurements published in the literature. [Spanish] Toda instalacion electrica debe contar con un sistema de puesta a tierra efectivo. La finalidad de este sistema es proporcionar un camino de baja impedancia para drenar a tierra las corrientes generadas por fallas, maniobras o fenomenos naturales como las descargas atmosfericas, evitando de esta manera danos a las personas, equipos o instalaciones. Cuando las corrientes drenadas a tierra son de gran magnitud se origina un campo electrico critico capaz de romper la rigidez dielectrica del suelo que rodea los conductores del

  14. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  15. ANALISIS PENDAPATAN USAHATANI PADI SAWAH DENGAN METODE SRI (System of Rice Intensification DI DESA EMPAT BALAI KECAMATAN KUOK KABUPATEN KAMPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Francisco Tamba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Paddy is one of main farming commodity since rice is one of main food in Indonesia. Innovation adoption about paddy farming was meaningful, because there were land conversion from food farming to industrial land or plantation. This study aimed to know about the adoption of farming technical was used by farmers, then aimed to know the efficiency of farming. This study took place in Empat Balai Village Kuok Sub-district Kampar Municipality. The results of this study showed there were differences about faming technical between faming technical with SRI and conventional faming technical that was used for a long time. The differences between SRI paddy farming and conventional farming were the amount of seeds per planted hole and the use of fertilizers. The amount of seeds on SRI method was only 1 seed per planted hole, meanwhile the use of fertilizers was more prioritize on using the organic materials i.e. golden snail, rice water, and brown sugar. On the other hand, there was an increasing of paddy production from SRI method which reached the production of 3.014,51 kg per ha. The increase of production caused the increase of total net income by SRI method Rp.14.953.667,01 per ha. RCR value of this farming was 1,76 per ha, which the value of RCR > 1 then this farming was profitable categorized.Keywords: Farming, Paddy, SRI, Income, Efficiency

  16. Water hammer analysis. Dynamic simulation model check valve piston; Analisis del golpe de airete. Modelo de simulacion dinamica de valvula de retencion piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royo, B.; Valdes, R.

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the description and the results of the dynamic simulation model that has been developed to predict the behaviour of one of our lift check valve design. The aim of the model is not only to simulate the closing process of the valve and to product the magnitude of the water hammer effect that may appear immediately after the valve closing, but also to simulate several design version until obtain the optimum which further minimizes such effect. the input data used for this study ensure reliable results since they represent a real system. (Author)

  17. Analysis of the retention of water vapor on silica gel; Analisis de la retencion del vapor de agua en silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M.; Pinilla, J. L.; Alegria, N.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2011-07-01

    Among the various sampling systems tritium content in the atmosphere as water vapor, one of the most basic and, therefore, of widespread use in the environmental field, is the retention on silica gel. However, the behavior of the collection efficiency of silica gel under varying conditions of air temperature and relative humidity makes it difficult to define the amount of this necessary for proper completion of sampling, especially in situations of prolonged sampling. This paper presents partial results obtained in a study on the analysis of these efficiencies under normal conditions of sampling. (Author)

  18. Analisis dan Desain BI-Dashboard Monitoring Realisasi Daftar Isian Pelaksanaan Anggaran (DIPA pada Kantor Pelayanan Perbendaharaan Negara (KPPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestina Rahmanasari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transaksi keuangan badan pemerintahan tingkat daerah dipertanggungjawabkan kepada Kementrian Keuangan melalui Kantor Pelayanan Perbendaharaan Negara (KPPNsetiap bulan dalam bentuk Laporan Keuangan Pemerintah Pusat (LKPP. Laporan Keuangan, didukung dengan teknologi Business Intelligence(BI dashboarddapat dimanfaatkan sebagai data-driven decision support system yang mendorong performa kinerja. Analisis dan desainterhadap pembuatan BI dashboard menunjukkanbagaimana Laporan Keuangan dapat digunakan untuk monitoring realisasi penyerapan dana DIPA dan kinerja instansi secara tepat waktu dan interaktif.Analisis terdiri dari analisis Indikator Kinerja Utama (IKU dan analisis Laporan Keuangan. IKUpada analisis dan desain ini mencakup ketercapaian estimasi dengan penerimaan, ketercapaian pagu dengan belanja, ketepatan waktu pengiriman rekonsiliasi oleh instansi, validasi, akurasi, dan ketepatan data. Desain terdiri dari katalog dashboard, alur analisis, sumber data, desain User-Interface, dan desain objek dashboard. Sedangkan dashboard yang dirancang menggunakan aplikasi Vera sebagai Enterprise System, mengakses basis data MySQL, dan menampilkan data dengan teknologi data-driven business-intelligence Qlikview. Desain aplikasi yang telah dibuat akan menampilkan 4 (empat Tab yaitu: Dashboard utama, Analisis, Monitoring, dan Laporan

  19. ANALISIS KESESUAIAN LAHAN TINGKAT SATUAN PEMUKIMAN MENGGUNAKAN AUTOMATED LAND EVALUATION SYSTEM (ALES: STUDI KASUS RANTAU PANDAN SP-1, PROVINSI JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka Widiatmaka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Landuse planning according to biophysical and economical land suitability as well as basic allocation for transmigration should be done in order to improve the well-being of transmigrants. Suitability should be analyzed for the selection of commodities which are the most appropriate biophysically and profitable economically. The study was done in the settlements unit of Rantau Pandan SP-1, Jambi Province. The study was conducted to determine the suitability of each part of land for cultivation of food crops, vegetables and perennial crops and to see the biophysical suitability and economical feasibility. The goal is to recommend the most appropriate type of cultivation. This study integrate the Arc-View GIS and Automated Land Evaluation System (ALES in the analysis of land suitability. The results showed that four agricultural commodities were observed showing land suitability class domination of S3 (marginally suitable with the most dominant limiting factors were erosion and nutrient retention. The results of the analysis have been used for the determination of land use recommendations in the transmigration sites, presented spatially. Recommendations given based on the results of the analysis were not always in line with the land use recomended by government on dry land transmigration. Nonetheless, these results was suggested to be applied, either by considerations of conservation land and the consideration of economic benefit and farmers welfare. Key words: Land evaluation, transmigration, dry land farming, geographic information system

  20. Methodology for the energy analysis of compressed air systems; Metodologia para analisis energetico de sistemas de aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, T.; Ambriz, J. J.; Romero, H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper a methodology for the diagnosis of compressed air systems, for the identification of the potential energy saving is presented. The methodology consists in detecting the largest number of possible ways of energy saving. For this purpose it is divided into three parts: 1. Compressed air generation. 2. Compressed air distribution. 3. Compressed air users. For each one of the parts, the type of information required to perform the diagnosis study, as well as the necessary measuring equipment needed, is indicated. Afterwards, the possible saving ways that can be found and the ones that can be feasible, are analyzed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta una metodologia para diagnosticar sistemas de aire comprimido, para identificar los potenciales de ahorro de energia. La metodologia consiste en detectar el mayor numero de posibles medidas de ahorro, para lo cual se divide en tres partes: 1. Generacion de aire comprimido. 2. Distribucion del aire comprimido. 3 Usuarios de aire comprimido. Para cada una de las partes se indica el tipo de informacion requerida para realizar el estudio de diagnostico, asi como el uso de equipo necesario de medicion. Despues se analizan las posibles medidas de ahorro que se pueden encontrar y las que pueden ser viables.

  1. Ultrapure Water System for Hemodialysis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    The Change of Biomarkers CRP, CBC With the Use of Ultra Pure Water System for; Hemodialysis.; The Rate of Adverse Events Such as Hypotension During Hemodialysis Therapy With Ultra Pure Water; System as Compared to Conventional Water System.

  2. Energy analysis of a desalination process of sea water with nuclear energy; Analisis energetico de un proceso de desalinizacion de agua de mar con energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez L, G.; Valle H, J., E-mail: julfi_jg@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard acceso a Tolcayuca No. 1009, Ex-hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work, is theoretically proven that the residual heat, removed by the chillers in the stage prior to the compression of the recuperative Brayton cycle with which nuclear power plants operate with high temperature gas reactors (HTGR), can be used to produce stem and desalinate seawater. The desalination process selected for the analysis, based on its operating characteristics, is the Multi-Stage Distillation (Med). The Med process will use as energy source, for the flash evaporation process in the flash trap, the residual heat that the reactor coolant dissipates to the environment in order to increase the compression efficiency of the same; the energy dissipated depends on the operating conditions of the reactor. The Med distillation process requires saturated steam at low pressure which can be obtained by means of a heat exchanger, taking advantage of the residual heat, where the relative low temperatures with which the process operates make the nuclear plants with HTGR reactors ideal for desalination of sea water, because they do not require major modifications to their design of their operation. In this work the energy analysis of a six-stage Med module coupled to the chillers of an HTGR reactor of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor type is presented. Mathematical modeling was obtained by differential equations of mass and energy balances in the system. The results of the analysis are presented in a table for each distillation stage, estimating the pure water obtained as a function of the heat supplied. (Author)

  3. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Santos Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The actions planning to minimize risks and ensure the effectiveness of water supply systems requires the use of appropriate forecasting models. In fact, forecasting the behavior and analysis of future scenarios can be supported with the use of techniques and simulation models. In this article, we propose a procedure to simulate the actions of decision-makers in planning the operation of this system type in order to obtain an operating and financial prognosis that consider dynamic influences. The applicability of the proposed procedure is demonstrated through an urban systems planning problem of water supply. As a result we obtained a system costs distribution odds, which improves decision making in the context of the analyzed system. Additionally, the proposed procedure is applicable to other types of complex systems subject to dynamic influences.

  4. Onsite Waste Water Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public

  5. Assessment on reliability of water quality in water distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍悦滨; 田海; 王龙岩

    2004-01-01

    Water leaving the treatment works is usually of a high quality but its properties change during the transportation stage. Increasing awareness of the quality of the service provided within the water industry today and assessing the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system has become a major significance for decision on system operation based on water quality in distribution networks. Using together a water age model, a chlorine decay model and a model of acceptable maximum water age can assess the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system. First, the nodal water age values in a certain complex distribution system can be calculated by the water age model. Then, the acceptable maximum water age value in the distribution system is obtained based on the chlorine decay model. The nodes at which the water age values are below the maximum value are regarded as reliable nodes. Finally, the reliability index on the percentile weighted by the nodal demands reflects the reliability of the water quality in the distribution system. The approach has been applied in a real water distribution network. The contour plot based on the water age values determines a surface of the reliability of the water quality. At any time, this surface is used to locate high water age but poor reliability areas, which identify parts of the network that may be of poor water quality. As a result, the contour water age provides a valuable aid for a straight insight into the water quality in the distribution system.

  6. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  7. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  9. Internal event analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. System Analysis; Analisis de Eventos Internos para la Unidad 1 de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde. Analisis de sistemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1993-07-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the {sup I}nternal Event Analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant{sup ,} CNSNS-TR-004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the results of the system analysis for the Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. The system analysis involved the development of logical models for all the systems included in the accident sequence event tree headings, and for all the support systems required to operate the front line systems. For the Internal Event analysis for Laguna Verde, 16 front line systems and 5 support systems were included. Detailed fault trees were developed for most of the important systems. Simplified fault trees focusing on major faults were constructed for those systems that can be adequately represent,ed using this kind of modeling. For those systems where fault tree models were not constructed, actual data were used to represent the dominant failures of the systems. The main failures included in the fault trees are hardware failures, test and maintenance unavailabilities, common cause failures, and human errors. The SETS and TEMAC codes were used to perform the qualitative and quantitative fault tree analyses. (Author)

  10. Integrated analysis of hydrological system, use and management. Langueyu stream basin, Tandil, Argentina; Analisis integral del sistema hidrico, uso y gestion. Cuenca del arroyo Langueyu, Tandil, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, V.A.; Banda Noriega, R.B.; Barranquero, R.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Rodriguez, C.I.; Miguel, R.E.

    2010-07-01

    This work is aim to hydrological and environmental characterization of Langueyu stream basin, where Tandil city is located. This basin is developed on northern hillside of Tandilia system, in Buenos Aires province, and it drains to NE. There are two different hydrogeological units: crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments, which correspond with two hydrolithological characters, fissured and clastic porous, respectively. The population is supplied by groundwater sources. Water exploitation and use were analyzed, according to the growing demands from industrial, agricultural and urban uses. The impacts of intense exploitation were evaluated. High levels of nitrate were corroborated in older wells of the city, which nowadays are in use. The hydrodynamic change in a section of the stream, where it converts to influent, was detected. This disturbance of the natural relation could be a potential source of contamination to the aquifer, due to high charges of industrial and urban effluents which the stream receives. Several population sectors, which have neither a drinking water net nor a sewer system, showed microbiological and chemical water contamination. Other water impact is constituted by several abandoned quarries which have historically received wastes, mainly from foundry industries. In conclusion, water management basin does not aim to sustainable development, due to its lack of integration. It demands the knowledge of hydrological system, according with the goal to avoid water quality degradation and to guarantee its protection. (Author).

  11. Water Districts - MO 2010 Active Public Drinking Water Systems (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This point layer represents active public drinking water systems. Each public drinking water system's distribution or service area is represented by a single point.

  12. ANALISIS PERBAIKAN SISTEM PENTANAHAN TELEKOMUNIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Nugraha

    2015-09-01

    Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah perbaikan sistem pentanahan site Kampung Baru dengan menggunakan konfigurasi single point connection window (SPCW, untuk mengamankan sistem telekomunikasi dari kebocoran arus dan petir serta imbasnya.  Perbaikan sistem pentanahan di site Kampung Baru menggunakan banyak elektroda yang membentuk persegi dikarenakan topografi tempat di sana yang memungkinkan dan efektif adalah menggunakan sistem tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dan perhitungan perbaikan sistem di site Kampung Baru, didapatkan nilai perhitungan sistem pentanahan adalah 1.34 Ohm serta pengukurannya 1.21-1.25 Ohm.

  13. ANALISIS PERBAIKAN SISTEM PENTANAHAN TELEKOMUNIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Umar

    2015-04-01

    Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah perbaikan sistem pentanahan site Kampung Baru dengan menggunakan konfigurasi single point connection window (SPCW, untuk mengamankan sistem telekomunikasi dari kebocoran arus dan petir serta imbasnya.  Perbaikan sistem pentanahan di site Kampung Baru menggunakan banyak elektroda yang membentuk persegi dikarenakan topografi tempat di sana yang memungkinkan dan efektif adalah menggunakan sistem tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dan perhitungan perbaikan sistem di site Kampung Baru, didapatkan nilai perhitungan sistem pentanahan adalah 1.34 Ohm serta pengukurannya 1.21-1.25 Ohm.

  14. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  15. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  16. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  17. Measures analysis of inhibition water collection of waste storage structures RBMA; Analisis de medidas de inhibicion de la recogida de agua en estructuras de almacenamiento de residuos RBMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. R.; Ordonez Alvarez, M.; Lopez Diez, I.

    2010-07-01

    In concrete structures storage in closed containers which are located separate from the concrete walls of the walls by an air chamber occurs, periodically, the water collection network seepage control thereof. This phenomenon is caused by the thermal insulating performance of said air chamber, which causes temperature gradients between opposing concrete walls (walls and containers), diffusive flow of water vapor and processes of evaporation / condensation on the concrete.

  18. Mobile surface water filtration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Vatsyayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To design a mobile system for surface water filtrationMethodology: the filtration of surface impurities begins with their retraction to concentrated thickness using non ionising surfactants, then isolation using surface tension property and sedimentation of impurities in process chamber using electrocoagulation. Result:following studies done to determine the rate of spreading of crude oil on water a method for retraction of spread crude oil to concentrated volumes is developed involving addition of non -ionising surfactants in contrast to use of dispersants. Electrocoagulation process involves multiple processes taking place to lead to depositionof impurities such as oil, grease, metals. Studies of experiments conducted reveals parameters necessary for design of electrocoagulation process chamber though a holistic approach towards system designing is still required. Propeller theory is used in determining the required design of propeller and the desired thrust, the overall structure will finally contribute in deciding the choice of propeller.

  19. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  20. Propulsion Systems in Water Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Fujisawa

    1995-01-01

    agreement with the field experiment with prototype craft. Measurements are also made for the losses in the intake and the nozzle. The optimization study of the water jet systems is conducted by simulating the change of the nozzle outlet diameter with the variable nozzle arrangement. It is suggested that the nozzle outlet diameter should be decreased as the craft velocity increases to obtain an optimum propulsive efficiency in a wide range of craft velocity.

  1. Application of the reliability analysis to the wastewater plant. Activated sludge pure oxygen system; Applicazione dell'analisi di affidabilita' alla depurazione delle acque. Impianto a fanghi attivi ad ossigeno puro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corti, A. [Florence Univ., Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica Sergio Stecco; Giagnoni, L. [Florence Univ., Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica Sergio Stecco, Sez. Impianti e Tecnologie Industriali; Sirini, P. [Florence Univ., Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile

    2001-08-01

    The application of the reliability analysis to the wastewater plant is a valid and favorable instrument for the location of able managerial and/or structural participation to improve not only the emergency, but also the activity to obtain a product of optimal characteristics to several regimes (in the specific case the quality of effluent, the recovery of energy form the digestion processes, etc.) Moreover, the analysis techniques allow to indicate and to quantify the probability to create a crisis in to the system to the several steps it is subordinate during the own life utility. The wastewater process cannot be sure considered stationary. This variability can be controlled through one corrected appraisal in project and managerial activity equipping the system of great flexibility. In this way, the reliability analysis widens its range and it searches not only the single event able to produce a damage to the structure, but also that one is able to alter the final product. With this attempt, the classic techniques have been applied. Analysis, (Fault tree Analysis) to Bologna's wastewater treatment (pure oxygen system). [Italian] L'applicazione dell'analisi di affidabilita' agli impianti di depurazione si presenta come un valido e vantaggioso strumento per l'individuazione di interventi gestionali e/o strutturali capaci di migliorare non solo la sicurezza, ma anche l'attivita' depurativa al fine di ottenere un prodotto di caratteristiche ottimali ai vari regimi. Questo equiavale a dire, nel caso specifico, poter valutare la costanza dei termini di qualita' dell'effluente in uscita e del recupero di energia dai processi di digestione dei fanghi. Le tecniche di analisi di affidabilita' permettono di indicare e quantificare la probabilita' di eventi capaci di mettere in crisi l'attivita' stessa dell'impianto alle varie sollecitazioni a cui e' sottoposto durante la propria vita utile. Il

  2. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  3. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  4. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Surface Water Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of surface water intakes. These intake locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  5. Analisis Framing Buku Biografi Chairul Tanjung Si Anak Singkong

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia, Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Analisis Framing merupakan analisis bingkai versi terbaru dan pendekatan analisis wancana, khususnya untuk menganalisis teks media. Gagasan mengenai Framing, pertama kali dilontarkan oleh Beterson tahun 1995. Framing, secara sederhana adalah bingkaian sebuah peristiwa. Framing adalah pendekatan untuk mengetahui bagaimana presektif atau cara pandangan yang digunakan oleh wartawan ketika menulis sebuah berita. Chairul Tanjung Si Anak Singkong karya Tjahja Gunawan Diredja merupakan salah satu...

  6. Cost-benefit and cost-efficiency analysis of the water footprint in Spain; Analisis coste-beneficio y coste-eficiencia de la Huella Hidrica en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Navalpotro, J. A.; Sotelo Perez, M.; Garcia Quiroca, F.

    2011-07-01

    We are increasingly needing ways to secure patterns of development that be sustainable, that is, environmentally, socially and economically appropriate for us and for future generations. Sustainability indicators are a promising tool that would allow us to land the concept, supporting the way in which decisions are made. In Spain there are few experiences on the subject. This paper presents the work carried out to develop sustainability indicators. Throughout the present study shows the importance of analysis of cost-benefit and cost efficiency in the assessment of the water footprint of Spain. (Author)

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  9. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  10. An analysis of bulking at the waste water treatment plant in Muskiz, Biscay; Analisis del fenomeno de bulking en la estacion depuradora de aguas residuales de Muskiz, Vizcaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Aldecoa, I.; Arevalo, L. F.; Romero, F.

    2003-07-01

    A mathematical model employing 30 parameters was used over a period of 30 months to find the origin of bulking at the Muskiz waste water treatment plant. The plant includes a pre-treatment unit, a biological reactor (activated sludge) and clarification. The monitoring parameters (Affluent, mixed liquor, process and sludge recycling) and the statistical techniques (conventional, multivariate) used are listed. The sludge volumetric index was employed as the descriptive parameter. The results include 81 decenal sets of data as well as the evolution of the physico-chemical parameters over time and the frequency and the factors linked to bulking. The correlation of the monitoring parameters with each other and with the SVI was analysed. The multivariate statistic included cluster analysis and multiple linear regression. The regression equations were calculated in four successive stages, which explants the SVI variance of 77.8%. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Analisis of a marine mechanical vapor compression desalination system%船舶机械蒸汽压缩海水淡化装置性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金增; 李光华; 李雁飞

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, by analizing the process of marine mechanical vapor desalination, the mathmatic models were gotten. As an example, the fresh water flowrate and work consumption at different evaporate temperature of a type of 5 t/d desalination system were calculation. The conclusion is that with the increasing of evaporate remperature, the flowrate of fresh water and work consumption are increasing accordingly.%在分析机械蒸汽压缩海水淡化装置工作过程基础上,给出了该型装置的数学模型.以产水量5 t/d的装置为例,分析了装置工作性能随蒸发温度的变化规律.结果表明,随着蒸发温度的提高,产水量增大,压缩机耗功相应增大.

  12. Residential water demand and water consumption: an econometric analysis on municipal panel data; Domanda e stili di consumo dell'acqua domestica: un'analisi econometrica su dati Panel comunali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolesi, Antonio [Ceris-Dse, Milano (Italy); Nosvelli, Mario [CNR, Roma (Italy)

    2005-05-15

    This paper focuses on residential water demand estimation, a rather neglected issue in the Italian environmental economics literature as compared to other European countries and the USA. This may depend on the difficulties in gathering proper data and, most of all, panel data. In some cases statistical information are not suitably collected, while in other cases legal privacy ties put some obstacles to data set transfer. Our panel data set refers to 102 municipalities in Lombardy (Italy) for the period 1998-2002. When estimating the effect of water price, we control for other relevant variables such as: income, households demographical variables - (age structure, number of component for each family) number of firms in tertiary sector, water system length. In the considered period, the data show both an increase in population (1,5 %) and in the number of water consumers (7%) associated, on aggregate, with a slight reduction in water consumption (-1,1 %). Water demand models are estimated both in a static and in a dynamic framework. In the former, the emphasis is set on the sources of endogeneity in the average price by estimating a system of simultaneous equations and relevant variables for assessing consumer behaviour - such as socio demographic ones - are incorporated in the model. In the latter, econometric methods especially designed for endogeneity in panel data models (Arellano e Bond, 1991), are employed in order to estimate the long run elasticity of water demand with respect to average price. We find evidence both that consumers significantly respond to average price only in the long run with an elasticity of about - 0,3-0,4 and that income and demographic variables are crucial in explaining consumers' behaviour. Furthermore, water consumption presents a strong auto-regressive component, showing the emergence of inertia and path dependency in consumption habits. Such results suggest important implications for water policy planning. On one side

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of thermosolar plants; Analisis termodinamico de plantas termosolares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Felipe; Rojas, Armando [UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work we obtained the mathematical expressions to calculate the concentration area for parabolic trough and central tower solar systems in thermosolar plants. Thermodynamic analysis considering 1{sup s}t and 2{sup n}d laws were made for gas and steam energy conversion cycles joined to thermosolar plants. Economical analysis were made too. In this way, higher thermal efficiencies 57.4, 58, 57 y 58.1% and 2{sup n}d law efficiencies 76.6, 77.5, 76, y 77.6% were found with combined cycle and central tower solar system. However, the cheaper configuration (773.5 USD/MWh), found by the economic analysis, was the parabolic trough solar system with steam cycle. [Spanish] En este trabajo se determinan las expresiones matematicas para obtener el area de concentracion requerida en plantas termosolares de canal parabolico y de torre central combinadas con ciclos de generacion convencionales. Se realiza el analisis termodinamico con base en la primera y segunda ley a cada ciclo y asi mismo se efectua el analisis economico de dichos arreglos. Se encuentra que las mayores eficiencias termicas 57.4, 58, 57 y 58.1% y las eficiencias de 2 ley: 76.6, 77.5, 76, y 77.6% se tienen con sistema de torre central y ciclo combinado. El analisis economico expresa que el sistema solar con concentradores de canal parabolico con ciclos de vapor presenta el menor costo total de generacion (773.5 USD/MWh).

  14. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  15. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  16. Water activity in polyol/water systems: new UNIFAC parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2-7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio with water. In aqueous solutions with the same molar concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water activities than those with higher molecular weights. For diols with four or more carbon atoms, the hydrophilicity shows considerable differences between isomers: The 1,2-isomers - consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic part - bind less strongly to water than isomers with a more balanced distribution of the hydroxyl groups. The experimental water activities were compared with the predictions of the group contribution method UNIFAC: the model predictions overestimate the water activity of water/polyol systems of substances with two or more hydroxyl groups and can not describe the decreased binding to water of isomers with hydrophobic tails. To account for the differences between isomers, a modified UNIFAC parameterization was developed, that allows to discriminate between three types of alkyl groups depending on their position in the molecule. These new group interaction parameters were calculated using water activities of alcohol/water mixtures. This leads to a distinctly improved agreement of model predictions with experimental results while largely keeping the simplicity of the functional group approach.

  17. ASPECTS OF OPTIMIZATION OF WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. BEILICCI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Water management system include all activities and works which providing the administration of public domain of water, with local / national interest, and qualitative, quantitative and sustainable management of water resources. Hydrotechnical arrangements, consisting of a set of hydraulic structures, produce both a favorable and unfavorable influences on environment. Their different constructive and exploitation solutions exercise a significantly impact on the environment. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of each solution must be weighed and determined to materialize one or other of them seriously argued.The optimization of water management systems is needed to meet current and future requirements in the field of rational water management in the context of integrated water resources management. Optimization process of complex water management systems includes several components related to environmental protection, technical side and the business side. This paper summarizes the main aspects and possibilities of optimization of existing water management systems and those that are to be achieved.

  18. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  19. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  20. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  1. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  2. Aplikasi Analisis DNA dalam Bidang Forensik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisis DNA dalam bidang forensik merupakan teknik yang relatif baru dan berkembang pesar sesuai dengan peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas kriminalitas disamping dapat digunakan dalam penentuan hubungan keluarga. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana kemampuan analisis DNA ini dalam mengidentifikasi individu pada kasus-kasus tersebut. Dari 3,3 milyar pasang basa yang membentuk genom manusia, terdapat sekitar 3 juta perbedaan di antara setiap dua individu. Untuk tujuan identifikasi DNA dalam bidang forensik, regio yang sangat penting adalah lokus polimorfik DNA termasuk regio ukuran satelit (Satelite sequence pada bagian yang tidak mengkode produk tertentu dari genom manusia. Bila frekuensi folimorfis DNA pada suatu populasi diketahui, probabilitas dari identifikasi, lokus polimorfik dengan frekuensi yang diketahui dalam suatu populasi dapat dipilih sebagai DNA maeker. Analisis DNA merupakan suatu metode yang sangat potensial yang dewasa ini telah diterima secara luas sebagai suatu cara identifikasi dalam bidang forensik, sebab hanya dibutuhkan sedikit sampel saja yang dapat diambil dari semua sel berinti di seluruh tubuh. Penggunaan analisis DNA dan bank data DNA berkembang dengan pesat serta merupakan sarana yang penting sebagai pelengkap terhadap bidang kedokteran dan kedokteran gigi forensik lainnya. Guna efisiensi identifikasi di bidang forensik dianjurkan agar metode-metode yang ada dikombinasi.

  3. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a sm

  4. Water masers in the Saturnian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebenko, S. V.; Gurvits, L. I.; Elitzur, M.; Cosmovici, C. B.; Avruch, I. M.; Montebugnoli, S.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; Maccaferri, G.; Mujunen, A.; Ritakari, J.; Wagner, J.; Molera, G.; Uunila, M.

    2009-02-01

    Context: The presence of water has long been seen as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini spacecraft discovered water vapour in the Saturnian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star. Investigating other possible manifestations of water is essential, one of which, provided physical conditions are suitable, is maser emission. Aims: We report detection of water maser emission at 22 GHz associated with several Kronian satellites using Earth-based radio telescopes. Methods: We searched for water maser emission in the Saturnian system in an observing campaign using the Metsähovi and Medicina radio telescopes. Spectral data were Doppler-corrected over orbital phase for the Saturnian satellites, yielding detections of water maser emission associated with the moons Hyperion, Titan, Enceladus, and Atlas. Results: The detection of Saturnian water molecules by remote astronomical observation can be combined with in situ spacecraft measurements to harmonise the physical model of the Saturnian system.

  5. Service Water System Inspection Locator (SWSIL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, M.L.; Tang, S.S.; Carney, C.E.; Licina, G.J. (Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Inspection and maintenance of a service water system is a key to reliable system operation. As emphasized by NRC Generic Letter 89-13, service water system reliability in nuclear plants must by assured since the SWS may support safety related equipment The diversity of design, water chemistry, and operating regimens, coupled with the tremendous size of these systems (literally miles of piping and hundreds of heat exchangers) makes the selection of locations to be inspected a difficult chore. In cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA), a Service Water System Inspection Locator (SWSIL) has been developed to explore the feasibility of using an expert system to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of the thousands of locations and components associated with nuclear service water systems (SWS). Such an expert system provides utilities with a method for planning and prioritizing inspections. SWSIL, Version 1.0, has been applied to the emergency diesel generator service water cooling loop of the emergency service water (ESW) system of the James A. FitzPatrick plant. The feasibility demonstration described in this report provided a framework for applying SWSIL to a system of any size. The demonstration also showed that refinement of the plant data input interface and flow modeling are required. Applicability of SWSIL in its current configuration to large systems is limited and awaits these improvements.

  6. ANALISIS PEMISAHAN UAP KERING PADA SEPARATOR PEMBANGKIT UAP AP1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmanto Dibyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pembangkit uap merupakan penukar panas, yang bagian atasnya adalah steam drum yang memuat separator uap. Separator ini memisahkan kandungan air yang terbawa oleh uap dari sisi shell. Uap kering yang dihasilkan dari separator digunakan untuk memutar turbin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik pemisahan uap kering pada separator pembangkit uap AP1000, berdasarkan parameter fraksi void dalam kondisi aliran dua fasa dengan menggunakan RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4. Data awal mencakup data dimensi dan parameter temperatur, tekanan, laju alir massa (943,0 kg/s, fraksi void, entalpi cair dan uap saturasi. Untuk memperoleh karakteristik separator maka analisis ini difokuskan pada sistem separator secara terpisah pada kondisi tunak. Nodalisasi untuk RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4, terdiri dari model separator (default, volume, junction dan time-dependent junction dengan time-dependent volume sebagai kondisi batas. Kondisi uap kering terlihat pada parameter fraksi void yang keluar dari separator. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi temperatur uap dari sisi shell pembangkit uap maka cenderung semakin tinggi uap kering yang dihasilkan. Pemisahan uap kering yang keluar dari separator ditunjukkan pada parameter fraksi void sebesar sekitar 0,99. Kata kunci: separator uap, pembangkit uap, RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4, fraksi void A steam generator is heat exchanger in which the top side is steam drum containing steam separator. The separator is used to separate the water content carried by the steam come from The shell side. Dry vapor produced from the separator is used to turn turbines. this paper analyzes the dry Steam separation characteristic In The separator of AP1000 steam generator based on the parameters of void fraction in two phase flow using RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4. The initial data include data dimensions and operating data (temperature, pressure, flow rate (943.0 KG/S, void fraction, enthalpy of water and saturation vapor. To obtain the characteristics of

  7. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater minimization which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling...

  8. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  9. Systems modelling for effective mine water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.M.; Moran, C.J.; Hedemann, C.J.; Koch, C. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Concerns about the difficulties in securing water have led the Australian coal mining industry to seek innovative ways to improve its water management and to adopt novel strategies that will lead to less water being used and more water being reused. Simulation tools are essential to assess current water management performance and to predict the efficiency of potential strategies. As water systems on coal mines are complex and consist of various inter-connected elements, a systems approach was selected, which views mine site water management as a system that obtains water from various sources (surface, groundwater), provides sufficient water of suitable quality to the mining tasks (coal beneficiation, dust suppression, underground operations) and maintains environmental performance. In this paper, the model is described and its calibration is illustrated. The results of applying the model for the comparison of the water balances of 7 coal mines in the northern Bowen Basin (Queensland, Australia) are presented. The model is used to assess the impact of applying specific water management strategies. Results show that a simple systems model is an appropriate tool for assessing site performance, for providing guidance to improve performance through strategic planning, and for guiding adoption of site objectives.

  10. Defect and Innovation of Water Rights System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bin

    2008-01-01

    The rare deposition of water resources conflicts with its limitless demand. This determined the existence of the water rights transaction system. The implementation of the water rights transaction system requires clarifying the definition of water re-source fight above all distinctly. At present, it is a kind of common right system arrangement which needs the Chinese government to dispose of water resources. Though a series of management sys-tems guaranteed the government's supply of water resource, it hindered the development of the water market seriously and caused the utilization of water resources to stay in the inefficient or low efficient state for a long time. Thus, we should change the government's leading role in the resource distribution and really rely on the market to carry on the water rights trade and transac-tion. In this way, the water rights could become a kind of private property right relatively, and circulate freely in the market. As a result of this, we should overcome the defects of common right, make its external performance internalized maximally and achieve the optimized water resource disposition and use it more effec-tively.

  11. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  12. Values Connecting Societies and Water Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko); J.J. Bouma (Jan Jaap); M. Bal (Mansee)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ Water systems such as rivers and lakes have many important values for ecosystems and human societies. Both economical, social-ecological, cultural and political values are met by the water systems, connecting different activities in human society and ecosystem

  13. Analisis psicosocial del consumo de alcohol en adolescentes mexicanos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez Sosa, Juan Carlos; Villarreal Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un analisis psicosocial del consumo de alcohol en adolescentes mexicanos, considerando de forma simultanea las variables personales, familiares, escolares y sociales...

  14. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  15. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. ANALISIS LAJU DOSIS NEUTRON REAKTOR PLTN PWR 1000 MWe MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM MCNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamzah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam rangka menyongsong PLTN pertama di Indonesia, dilakukan kajian dan analisis berbagai aspek teknologi reaktor tersebut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan laju dosis neutron di luar perisai biologik reaktor PLTN PWR 1000 MWe yang merupakan bagian dari kegiatan besar di atas. Data hasil analisis laju dosis radiasi pada posisi tertentu sangat dibutuhkan untuk menunjukkan tingkat paparan radiasi di posisi tersebut. Analisis laju dosis neutron ditentukan berdasarkan hasil analisis fluks dan spektrum neutron. Analisis fluks dan spektrum neutron di teras reaktor daya PWR 1000 Mwe dilakukan menggunakan program MCNP. Model perhitungan yang dilakukan meliputi 9 zona material yaitu, teras, air, selimut, air, tong, air, bejana tekan, beton dan lapisan udara luar. Penentuan distribusi fluks dan spektrum neutron dilakukan ke arah radial hingga di luar perisai beton dengan akurasi antara 10% hingga 30% dalam tiap kelompok energi yang jumlahnya 1 dan 50 kelompok. Hasil analisis laju dosis neutron di permukaan perisai biologik reaktor PLTN PWR 1000 MWe pada kondisi reaktor beroperasi daya penuh sudah di bawah nilai batas keselamatan. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa dari segi paparan radiasi neutron, penggunaan perisai radiasi beton setebal dua meter sudah memenuhi persyaratan keselamatan. Kata kunci: PLTN PWR, fluks neutron, perisai, laju dosis neutron, MCNP.   In order to meet the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia, it has been conducted a study and analysis of various aspects of reactor technology. The purpose of this study was to determine the neutron dose rates at the outside of biological shield of NPP PWR 1000 MWe reactor that is a part of the activities described above. The analysis data of radiation dose rate at a specific position is needed to show the level of radiation exposure in those positions. Analysis neutron dose rate is determined based on the results of the analysis of neutron flux. Analysis of flux and neutron spectrum in

  17. Water hammer analysis in a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twyman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The solution to water hammer in a water distribution system (WDS is shown by applying three hybrid methods (HM based on the Box’s scheme, McCormack's method and Diffusive Scheme. Each HM formulation in conjunction with their relative advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. The analyzed WDS has pipes with different lengths, diameters and wave speeds, being the Courant number different in each pipe according to the adopted discretization. The HM results are compared with the results obtained by the Method of Characteristics (MOC. In reviewing the numerical attenuation, second order schemes based on Box and McCormack are more conservative from a numerical point of view, being recommendable their application in the analysis of water hammer in water distribution systems.

  18. Data processing for water monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L.; Linton, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring data acquisition system is structured about central computer that controls sampling and sensor operation, and analyzes and displays data in real time. Unit is essentially separated into two systems: computer system, and hard wire backup system which may function separately or with computer.

  19. Active Water Explosion Suppression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    efficient in eliminating the heat of detonation , thereby eliminating the heat of combustion and the associated burning of explosive by-products in the...efficiency in eliminating the heat of detonation . In any case, the net effect of the water absorbing the detonation energy of the explosive is a major

  20. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of power systems using normal forms of superior order; Analisis del comportamiento dinamico no lineal de sistemas de potencia usando formas normales de orden superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinez Carrillo, Irma

    2003-08-01

    This thesis investigates the application of parameter disturbance methods of analysis to the nonlinear dynamic systems theory, for the study of the stability of small signal of electric power systems. The work is centered in the determination of two fundamental aspects of interest in the study of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system: the characterization and quantification of the nonlinear interaction degree between the fundamental ways of oscillation of the system and the study of the ways with greater influence in the response of the system in the presence of small disturbances. With these objectives, a general mathematical model, based on the application of the expansion in series of power of the nonlinear model of the power system and the theory of normal forms of vector fields is proposed for the study of the dynamic behavior of the power system. The proposed tool generalizes the existing methods in the literature to consider effects of superior order in the dynamic model of the power system. Starting off of this representation, a methodology is proposed to obtain analytical solutions of loop back and the extension of the existing methods is investigated to identify and quantify the of interaction degree among the fundamental ways of oscillation of the system. The developed tool allows, from analytical expressions of loop backs, the development of analytical measures to evaluate the stress degree in the system, the interaction between the fundamental ways of oscillation and the determination of stability borders. The conceptual development of the proposed method in this thesis offers, on the other hand, a great flexibility to incorporate detailed models of the power system and the evaluation of diverse measures of the nonlinear modal interaction. Finally, the results are presented of the application of the method of analysis proposed for the study of the nonlinear dynamic behavior in a machine-infinite bus system considering different modeled degrees

  1. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  2. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  3. A changing framework for urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Janet G; Waite, T David; Luthy, Richard G; Drewes, Jörg E; Sedlak, David L

    2013-10-01

    Urban water infrastructure and the institutions responsible for its management have gradually evolved over the past two centuries. Today, they are under increasing stress as water scarcity and a growing recognition of the importance of factors other than the cost of service provision are forcing a reexamination of long-held ideas. Research and development that supports new technological approaches and more effective management strategies are needed to ensure that the emerging framework for urban water systems will meet future societal needs.

  4. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  5. Perencanaan dan analisis kehandalan sistem komunikasi radio microwave tampak pandang pada pita frekuensi 12750-13250 MHz [Planning and analysis of the reliability of line of sight microwave radio communication system on 12750-13250 MHz band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasyim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Propagasi gelombang radio dapat diartikan sebagai proses perambatan gelombang radio dari pemancar ke penerima. Gelombang ini akan merambat melalui udara bebas menuju antena penerima dan mengalami redaman di sepanjang lintansannya,  redaman perangkat dan saluran transmisi, sehingga ketika sampai di antena penerima, energi sinyal sudah sangat lemah. Line of sight    (LOS merupakan salah satu jenis propagasi di mana diantara stasiun pengirim dan stasiun penerima  tidak terdapat penghalang. Kendala geografis dan kelengkungan bumi menyebabkan adanya keterbatasan untuk transmisi line of sight, namun masalah ini secara umum dapat dikurangi melalui perencanaan, perhitungan dan penggunaan teknologi tambahan. Dalam perencanaan sistem komunikasi radio, kinerja LOS perlu direncanakan cadangan daya akibat fluktuasi sinyal serta analisis kehandalannya. Sistem radio gelombang mikro digital antar titik yang menggunakan  frekuensi 13 GHz dengan modulasi 16 QAM, bit rate 140 MBps,dan  noise figure 0,7 dB memerlukan daya pancar -4,488 dBm, fading margin sebesar 85,51 dB dan kehandalannya sebesar 99,9999999%.*****Radio wave propagation can be defined as the process of propagation of radio waves from the transmitter to the receiver. These waves will propagate through free air towards the receiver antena with experienced curbs along the tracks, so when it arrive at the receiver antena, the signal energy is very slow. Line of sight (LOS is one kind of propagation where no obstacles found between the transmitter and the receiver station. Geographical constraints and the curvature of the earth bring limitations to the line of sight transmission, but this problem can generally be reduced through planning, calculation and use of additional technologies. In a radio communication system planning, LOS performance needs to be planned caused by signal fluctuations and reliability. Digital microwave point to point radio systems using 13 GHz of spectrum, 16 QAM of

  6. Water masers in the Kronian system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star (Hansen et al. 2006). Prompted by this discovery, we starte

  7. Water masers in the Kronian system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco; Fernández, J. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Prialnik, D.; Schulz, R.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star (Hansen et al. 2006). Prompted by this discovery, we

  8. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  9. Water system microbial check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    A residual iodine microbial check valve (RIMCV) assembly was developed and tested. The assembly is designed to be used in the space shuttle potable water system. The RIMCV is based on an anion exchange resin that is supersaturated with an iodine solution. This system causes a residual to be present in the effluent water which provides continuing bactericidal action. A flight prototype design was finalized and five units were manufactured and delivered.

  10. Study on hydrodynamics associated with quality of water in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 顾大明; 赵洪宾; 袁一星

    2002-01-01

    The quality of water in water distribution system may vary with both location and time. Water quality models were used to predict spatial and temporal variation of water quality throughout the water system. Before analyzing the variations of water quality, it is necessary to determine the hydrodynamics in water distribution system. Analytical methods for the flow path from water sources to the observed point and water age of every observed node are proposed. This paper makes a further study on water supply route of multi-sources water supply network system. These studies have been applied to an actual water distribution system.

  11. Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

    2006-09-01

    Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

  12. An Analisys Of Transitivity Time Megazine A Case Study Of Arts Rubrics

    OpenAIRE

    Winda, Yusta Utami

    2010-01-01

    Skripsi yang berjudul An Analysis of Transitivity Process in Time Magazine: A Case Study of Arts Rubrics. Merupakan suatu kajian Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik pada majalah mingguan Time khususnya pada bidang seni. Untuk mendapatkan proses yang palind dominan digunakan formula yang dikembangkan oleh Bungin (2005,171-172). Analisis proses transitivity didalam skripsi ini menerapkan teori Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik (Systemic Functional Linguistics) yag dipelopori oleh Halliday. Proses ini d...

  13. Establishment of a quality control system of coals; Establecimiento de una Metodologia de Aseguramiento de Calidad en el Analisis de Carbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The pain propose of this project is the establishment of a quality control system in order to assure the feasibility of analytic data used in commercial valorization coals. The programme of quality assurement takes into account the following concepts: - Normalization of analytic methods. - Maintenance and measurements of analysis equipment - Standardization of analysis process. - Quality control inside of laboratory - Standardization of measurement systems between laboratories - External audits of quality process. - Accreditation of alternative systems. - Personnel education necessities. In order to be an useful tool, the programme has been consider under this three aspects: reliableness, rapidness, and simpleness. The process is based in: validation of method, validation of origin, and validation by coherence. All that is integrated in an informatic system. (Author)

  14. Econometrics analysis of consumer behaviour: a linear expenditure system applied to energy; Analisi econometrica delle preferenze dei consumatori: un sistema di spesa lineare applicato all`energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansanti, C.; Ferrari, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-12-01

    In economics literature the expenditure system specification is a well known subject. The problem is to define a coherent representation of consumer behaviour through functional forms easy to calculate. In this work it is used the Stone-Geary Linear Expenditure System and its multi-level decision process version. The Linear Expenditure system is characterized by an easy calculating estimation procedure, and its multi-level specification allows substitution and complementary relations between goods. Moreover, the utility function separability condition on which the Utility Tree Approach is based, justifies to use an estimation procedure in two or more steps. This allows to use an high degree of expenditure categories disaggregation, impossible to reach the Linear Expediture System. The analysis is applied to energy sectors.

  15. Analysis of the acceptance procedure and quality control a virtual simulation system; Analisis del procedimiento de aceptacion y control de calidad de un sistema de simulacion virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Pedrero de Aristizabal, D.; Jimenez Rojas, R.; Garcia Hernandez, M. J.; Ruiz Galan, G.; Ayala Lazaro, R.; Garcia Marcos, R.

    2011-07-01

    Acceptance has been made, determining the reference state, commissioning and implementation of control protocol virtual simulation system consists of an image acquisition unit of computerized tomography (CT), an independent external location laser locator and a simulation module associated with the existing scheduler for clinical dosimetry in radiotherapy. This paper summarizes the path followed in this process, together with the established procedure for periodic monitoring and analysis system of the results obtained in the two years of clinical and control.

  16. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  17. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants; Efecto del proceso de purificacion de agua en el contenido radiactivo: analisis en plantas purificadoras a pequena escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000, Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail: hlopez@uaz.edu.mx

    2009-10-15

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  18. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  19. SICRE: The network simulator for analysis and control of electric power systems; SICRE: Il simulatore di rete per l`analisi ed il controllo del sistema elettrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratella, Paolo; Scarpellini, Pierangelo [ENEL, Centro Ricerca, Cologno Monzese (Italy); Zacheo, Roberto [CESI, Milan (Italy)

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ENEL new power simulator which allows to investigate a wide range of phenomena lasting from tens of ms to several tens of minutes. An efficient handling of dynamic systems characterized by very different time constants has been made possible through the use of a special commutation technique consisting of the automatic adaptation of the component models according to the dynamic evolution of the system. A major requirement for an effective power system simulator is its being easy-to-use. Therefore, special care was devoted to the creation of a dedicated graphic user interface. The performances of the network simulator will be shown through its application on a ENEL network.

  20. Decision analysis in the expansion planning of the Mexican Electrical System; Analisis de decision en la planificacion de la expansion del Sistema Electrico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupiol, S.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Ortega C, R. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: stoupiol@yahoo.fr

    2007-07-01

    In the last years, the planning of the National Interconnected System has been guided mainly to technologies of combined cycle, contributing to the establishment of a generation system little diversified and clerk of the readiness and volatility of the prices of natural gas. On the other hand, the electric system continues expanding without to consider the emissions of gases coming from the electric generation and the significant participation of the renewable and nuclear technologies in the production of electricity like decisive parameters for the long term planning, for what the developed plans are economically attractive but they don't contribute to the respect of the environment, to the sustainable development, neither to the diversification. With base to the above-mentioned intended in this work to develop viable outlines for the long term expansion of the National Interconnected System (period 2005-2024), appealing to the pattern of uni nodal planning that uses the Federal Commission of Electricity at the moment (CFE) that is to say the pattern WASP given by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This way, you fixed as objective to propose two expansion alternatives to the reference plan developed by the CFE in 2005 for the period 2005-2024, with the purpose of not only looking for the good plan of these three plans in terms of the total cost of generation, but also in terms of the risk associated to the price of natural gas, the emissions of dioxide of sulfur and nitrogen oxides generated by the plants of the system and the diversity of the generation park. To compare the three developed plans, you applies an analysis of decision of multiple approaches based on the approach of Savage. Finally, starting from this analysis, he/she intended to determine if the plan of minimum cost represents the long term better option or if it suits but to expand the system being based on a plan that represents the best commitment cost-risk-emission-diversity. (Author)

  1. Biologically-Inspired Water Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Sioma

    2013-01-01

    Most propulsion systems of vehicles travelling in the aquatic environment are equipped with propellers.Observations of nature,however,show that the absolute majority of organisms travel through water using wave motion,paddling or using water jet power.Inspired by these observations of nature,an innovative propulsion system working in aquatic environment was developed.This paper presents the design of the water propulsion system.Particular attention was paid to the use of paddling techniques and water jet power.A group of organisms that use those mechanisms to travel through water was selected and analysed.The results of research were used in the design of a propulsion system modelled simultaneously on two methods of movement in the aquatic environment.A method for modelling a propulsion system using a combination of the two solutions and the result were described.A conceptual design and a prototype constructed based on the solution were presented.With respect to the solution developed,studies and analyses of selected parameters of the prototype were described.

  2. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  3. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  4. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). Reducing potable water demand for landscape irrigation correlates to lower energy costs necessary...irrigation is necessary. Typically, timer-based systems are adjusted higher than needed to account for consecutive hot days that stress turf beyond the...implementation at sports field, parade grounds, and/or landscape near buildings. Appendix C details the life cycle cost for the smart water

  5. Sustainability criteria for water resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Professionals in the water resource industry have an obligation to design and manage water resource systems which can contribute to an improved quality of life for all humans. This book reviews various guidelines that have been suggested for achieving a greater degree of sustainability and the extent to which they have been applied. The authors online some approaches for measuring and modeling sustainability and illustrate ways in which these measures and models might be used when evaluating alternative designs and operating policies.

  6. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, Ivo; Karney, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of water losses are transient phenomena, caused by normal and accidental pump and valve operations. ...

  7. Characteristics of Trihalomethanes in Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Xin-yu; ZHENG Shuang-ying; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in an actual water distribution system using the raw water with high bromide ion concentration, the composition and concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) formed by chlorination of the water in the presence of bromide ion were measured in a city water distribution system during one year. The results show that brominated THMs contributed a great part (83%89%) to the index for additive toxicity (ATI) and resulted in the ATI of most of the samples exceeding WHO guideline standard for total THMs (TTHMs), especially during the summer (rainy season). This indicates that the chlorination of water in the presence of bromide ion leaded to high ratios of brominated THMs to TTHMs. However, a visible increase in the concentration of THMs with increasing residence time in the distribution system was not observed. Additionally, based on alternatives analysis, packed tower aeration method is proposed to reduce THMs level of the finished water leaving the treatment plant.

  8. Analysis of the model of pulmonary lesions of the cyberknife system tracking; Analisis del modelo de seguimiento de lesiones pulmonares del sistema cyberknife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floriano Pardal, A.; Santa-Olalla, I.; Sanchez-Reyes, A.

    2013-07-01

    The CyberKnife VSI system has the ability to carry out treatments for injuries that move with respiration through tracking Synchrony system, compensating for the breathing of the patient through the robotic arm, and thus allowing the reduction of the volume of treatment PTV margins. Tumor tracking is based on a model of correspondence between the positions of internal fiduciales brands previously introduced in the patient, and the external positions of infrared transmitters placed on the patient. This model is associated with a few errors that should be taken into account. The objective of the study is twofold: on the one hand to study the movement of the PTV based on location, and on the other analyze errors associated with this respiratory model. (Author)

  9. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  10. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces; Un sistema analizador de imagenes para el analisis de trazas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuapio O, A

    1990-10-15

    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  11. Comparative Analysis of Inversors for Small PV Systems Grid Connected; Analisis Comparativo de inversores para la conexion a Red de Pequnos Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidrach de Cardona, M.; Ramirez, L.

    2001-07-01

    The energy produced by a grid connected photovoltaic system is a function of weather conditions, mainly available radiation and temperature, photovoltaic array efficiency and inverter characteristics. The results obtained in experimental measurements with four small grid-connected inverters are described in this work. The main goal is to know the inverter performance in real operation conditions. For this purpose a 2 kW{sub p} photovoltaic system has been used. These results allow us to know both the inverter efficiency and its output power quality. The following parameters have been evaluated as a function of but put inverter power efficiency, point of maximum power tracking, intensity and voltage waveform, total harmonic distortion and harmonic values to 31 order, frequency, power factor and reactive power. Other interesting parameters like stand-by energy consumption and daily losses due to the inverter threshold have also been analyzed. the results allow us to know the inverter features as a function of its real work point. In our comparative study it is possible to observe remarkable differences between the inverters; these results show how important it is to have a unique standard for inverters to photovoltaic grid-connected systems. (Author)

  12. AOIPS water resources data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  13. Global resilience analysis of water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Kegong; Sweetapple, Chris; Farmani, Raziyeh; Fu, Guangtao; Ward, Sarah; Butler, David

    2016-12-01

    Evaluating and enhancing resilience in water infrastructure is a crucial step towards more sustainable urban water management. As a prerequisite to enhancing resilience, a detailed understanding is required of the inherent resilience of the underlying system. Differing from traditional risk analysis, here we propose a global resilience analysis (GRA) approach that shifts the objective from analysing multiple and unknown threats to analysing the more identifiable and measurable system responses to extreme conditions, i.e. potential failure modes. GRA aims to evaluate a system's resilience to a possible failure mode regardless of the causal threat(s) (known or unknown, external or internal). The method is applied to test the resilience of four water distribution systems (WDSs) with various features to three typical failure modes (pipe failure, excess demand, and substance intrusion). The study reveals GRA provides an overview of a water system's resilience to various failure modes. For each failure mode, it identifies the range of corresponding failure impacts and reveals extreme scenarios (e.g. the complete loss of water supply with only 5% pipe failure, or still meeting 80% of demand despite over 70% of pipes failing). GRA also reveals that increased resilience to one failure mode may decrease resilience to another and increasing system capacity may delay the system's recovery in some situations. It is also shown that selecting an appropriate level of detail for hydraulic models is of great importance in resilience analysis. The method can be used as a comprehensive diagnostic framework to evaluate a range of interventions for improving system resilience in future studies.

  14. Piping design, analysis and support in an integrated data system; Diseno, analisis y soprotado de tuberias en un entorno de informacion integrada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnicero Iniguez, E. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain); Fujikawa, K.; Herzog, M.

    2000-07-01

    In a nuclear power plant, the area of piping design, analysis and support represents a massive volume of information necessary to the proper execution of the different engineering and design tasks carried out in said area. Such information includes input data that must be made available regarding process engineering and plant design (civil, mechanical, electrical, others), as well as data generated from the activities that are specific to the area of piping and piping support design, analysis and calculation. A significant part of the aforementioned information is shared by different organisations, each responsible for different tasks within the area, and must be made available for use by other areas, in addition to constituting the basis for piping and pipping supports fabrication and erection. The progresses achieved in information technologies, applied to the area of piping design, analysis and support of General Electric's advanced reactors, has led to designing an integrated data system in combination with the development of a now proven and mature work methodology. This system is satisfactorily used today in the advanced reactor project for Taipower (lungmen NPP. General Electric, 1300 MWe). The paper details the different technical and organisational aspects of the solution adopted, and defines integrated and distributed databases; it also describes the various design, analysis and calculation processes from the standpoint of the integration, computerization and control of the different processes, and established the solutions chosen to document them. (Author)

  15. Analysis of the thermoluminescent properties of the ZrO{sub 2}-Eu system; Analisis de las propiedades termoluminiscentes del sistema ZrO{sub 2}-Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma P, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    The zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) is one of the ceramic materials more important to industrial and scientific level due to its refractory nature, good mechanical properties, resistance to the heat and oxidation. An application of the ZrO{sub 2} is given in the radiation physics, where has been observed that it presents an optic response when being exposed to an ionizing radiations field (beta and gamma radiation) and non ionizing (UV). Moreover, the studies have shown that this response can be quantified through the thermoluminescent signal emitted by the material after being exposed to a radiation field. And that is possible to modify the sensibility incorporating it dopants such as Eu, Co, Ag, etc. of controlled way. The objective of the present work was to synthesize the systems: ZrO{sub 2} pure and with Eu impurities in controlled concentrations 0, 05, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 % in weight through the Sol-gel method. After the synthesis these were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy by X-rays energy dispersion and X-rays diffraction, allowing this way to know the micro-structural and crystalline characteristics which will be decisive in the dosimetric properties of these systems. (Author)

  16. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems; Analisis del Mercado Fotovoltaico 2001. Coste de Componentes y Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-07-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national land international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short-term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary/aspect , a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situations is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs.

  17. In situ analysis of historical documents through a portable system of X RF; Analisis In situ de documentos historicos mediante un sistema portatil de FRX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez T, C. [Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, INAH, 11560 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    From the analysis of the documents and ancient books, the chronology of documents, the use of materials (paper, parchment, inks, pigments) and deterioration, among others aspects may be determined. Usually it is difficult to bring the object to the laboratory for analysis and it is not possible to sample (even small portions). Due to the importance of the documents characterization, it is necessary to carry out a diagnostic analysis at the library in order to establish the general nature of the materials (organic or inorganic), the main composition of inks and pigments, actual and possible deterioration. From this point of view, X-ray fluorescence analysis (X RF) with a portable system, may be used for quick non-destructive elemental composition determinations. A X RF system was specially developed at the Physics Institute (UNAM) for these purposes and it may be used out of the laboratory in libraries and museums. In this work, our X RF methodology is described and the study of inks of manuscripts from 15 Th and 16 Th centuries belonging to the National Anthropology and History Library is presented. (Author)

  18. Development for analysis system of rods enrichment of nuclear fuels; Desarrollo de un sistema de analisis de enriquecimiento de barras de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L

    1998-11-01

    Nuclear industry is strongly regulated all over the world and quality assurance is important in every nuclear installation or process related with it. Nuclear fuel manufacture is not the exception. ININ was committed to manufacture four nuclear fuel bundles for the CFE nucleo electric station at Laguna Verde, Veracruz, under General Electric specifications and fulfilling all the requirements of this industry. One of the quality control requisites in nuclear fuel manufacture deals with the enrichment of the pellets inside the fuel bundle rods. To achieve the quality demanded in this aspect, the system described in this work was developed. With this system, developed at ININ it is possible to detect enrichment spikes since 0.4 % in a column of pellets with a 95 % confidence interval and to identify enrichment differences greater than 0.2 % e between homogeneous segments, also with a 95 % confidence interval. ININ delivered the four nuclear fuel bundles to CFE and these were introduced in the core of the nuclear reactor of Unit 1 in the fifth cycle. Nowadays they are producing energy and have shown a correct mechanical performance and neutronic behavior. (Author)

  19. Analysis of the force exercised in pipes by accumulation of water in the head stock of turbine bypass; Analisis de la fuerza ejercida en tuberias por acumulamiento de agua en el cabezal de baipas de turbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecenas F, M.; Ovando C, R.; Campos G, R. M., E-mail: mcf@iie.org.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The head stock and valves of turbine bypass allow canalize the main vapor coming from the reactor toward the condenser, without carrying out work in the turbo-generator. In this work is assumed that is accumulates condensed in the head stock during a time period in which the bypass system does not operate. For operation maneuvers, the opening of the bypass is demanded, for what the accumulated water is suddenly dragged by the vapor to high pressure coming from the reactor toward the condenser, which operates to inferior pressures to the atmospheric. The generated flow produces a mechanical effort in the lines and its supports. By means of the RELAP5 code the bypass system is modeled, the discharge transitory to the condenser is simulated and the speeds of the mixture water/vapor are calculated. Processing the exit of RELAP5 the mechanical effort that is subjected the pipe is calculated, and the study is complemented with a sensibility analysis to the quantity of stored water in the volume of the bypass head stock. (Author)

  20. Analysis and use of OLAP tools in the corporative information system of CFE; Analisis y empleo de herramientas OLAP en el sistema de informacion corporativa de la CFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacome G, Norma E; Argotte R, Liliana P; Mejia L, Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The commercial tools Oracle Express and Oracle the Discoverer are presented, applied and compared. Both of them were applied in the context of the Data Storage that Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) develops, denominated Corporative Information System (SICORP) that involves the handling of large volumes of historical and present information. By the importance and the relevance that at the moment the subject of data storage has, the experiences that are described in the article are very useful for future developments. [Spanish] Se presentan, aplican y comparan las herramientas comerciales Oracle Express y Oracle Discoverer. Ambas fueron aplicadas en el contexto del Almacen de Datos que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) desarrolla, denominado Sistema de Informacion Corporativa (Sicorp), que involucra el manejo de grandes volumenes de informacion historica y actual. Por la importancia y el auge que actualmente tiene el tema de almacenes de datos, las experiencias que se describen en el articulo son de gran utilidad para futuros desarrollos.

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  2. I crimini nelle sette sataniche: un’analisi “sistemica” della scena del crimine / Les sectes sataniques et leurs crimes : une analyse 'systémique' de la scène du crime / Criminal satanic cults: a 'systemic' analysis of crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariconda Laura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le fondamenta di ogni attività investigativa relativa ad un delitto si trovano nell’analisi della scena del crimine ovvero nel sopralluogo. E’ da lì che si parte con le indagini ed è lì che, eccetto casi particolari, si nascondono i dettagli che possono contribuire all’individuazione dell’autore del reato. L’obiettivo di questa trattazione è quello di porre in evidenza la necessità di adottare una prospettiva diversa nell’analisi della scena del crimine, specie per quanto riguarda i crimini di stampo occultista. Bisogna necessariamente abbandonare ogni tipo di analisi che tenda a scomporre gli eventi e gli elementi presenti sulla scena del crimine e adottare una prospettiva che unisca, che guardi al tutto per comprenderne le parti, una prospettiva, dunque, di tipo sistemico.Les bases de chaque enquête criminelle sont dans l’analyse de la scène de crime, c’est-à-dire l’inspection.L’objectif de cet article est de mettre en évidence la nécessité d’adopter une perspective différente pour analyser la scène du crime, en particulier pour des crimes liés aux sectes sataniques. Dans ces cas, il est nécessaire d’abandonner toutes les analyses qui visent à morceler les événements et les éléments de la scène de crime. En revanche, il faut adopter une perspective systémique qui examine le tout et les parties en les considérant dans leur ensemble.The first step in any background investigation related to a crime may be found in crime scene analysis, or rather in the inspection. The goal of this article is to highlight the need to adopt a different approach in crime scene analysis particularly for crimes linked to satanic cults. In these cases, we need to give up any analysis aimed at breaking up all the events and elements of the crime scene; a systemic perspective looking at all parts must be adopted in order to combine them and to understand each of these.

  3. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  4. the systemic approach to teaching and learning: water chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    including tourism, commerce, economy, security, education etc. and after globalization became a reality .... of water & water in our environment, Water cycle, Water pollution , etc. ... The undefined relationships are developed systemically. After.

  5. Methodology for the analysis of electric power systems at harmonic frequencies; Metodologia para el analisis de sistemas electricos a frecuencias armonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Farias, Jose Luis

    1989-07-01

    The presence of harmonics is a problem that has existed for many years in the electric power systems. Nevertheless, at the present time the increase of the generating loads the harmonics have increased considerably as an answer to the industry development and the commodities that modern living demands. In order to carry out this research work the electrical network of an industrial plant, which has three electrical furnaces in arc dedicated to the steel production, is considered. The selection of this system is very important since the arc furnaces are one of the main harmonics source due to the power they handle and to the unpredictable magnitude of their harmonic content. This way, continuity to the research line, initiated in other thesis works, is given. As a result of these works one has, basically, the three following advances: the software and the necessary hardware to acquire signals, the required routines for its processing, and the signals of measured voltage and current in the filter. As one first stage of this investigation, the verification of the infrastructure good operation, whereupon is counted on, is included. The second stage deals with the modeling of the electrical arc, as well as its validation. This represents the fundamental objective of this work. The proposed model is a quasi lineal model and it is based on the approximation of the characteristic V versus I of the signals measured in the arc by means of a series of straight lines. The satisfactory conclusion of this work will allow to count on a methodology for the harmonics analysis in electric systems. This constitutes a basic tool for the adequate selection of the remedies in presence of the resonance problem and in the specification of the capacity of the equipment to be installed. On the other hand, it allows the verification of the elimination mechanisms of existing harmonics. The development of this work is divided into eight chapters which are next briefly described. The first

  6. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  7. Risk analysis in the chemical industry; Analisis de riesgos en la industria quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea Soto, Rogelio; Sandoval Valenzuela, Salvador [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas has a group of risk analysis (GAR), specialized in the most advanced methodologies to apply them in diverse industries of the productive sector, such as the nuclear, the oil and the chemical industries. In this work the integrated methodology that the GAR uses to make risk analysis in the chemical and oil industries is described. These analyses have as an objective to make a meticulous evaluation of the system design, the operation practices, the maintenance and inspection policies and the emergency plans. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas cuenta con un grupo de analisis de riesgo (GAR), especializado en las metodologias mas avanzadas para aplicarlas en diversas industrias del sector productivo, como lo son la nuclear, la petrolera y la quimica. En este trabajo se describe la metodologia integrada que el GAR utiliza para realizar analisis de riesgos en las industrias quimica y petrolera. Estos analisis tienen como objetivo realizar una minuciosa evaluacion del diseno del sistema, las practicas de operacion, las politicas de mantenimiento e inspeccion y los planes de emergencia.

  8. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  9. Dynamic analysis of the condensate and of the feed water in the Laguna Verde nuclear power station; Analisis dinamico del sistema de condensado y agua de alimentacion de la nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Muth, Javier; Sandoval Pena, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article shows a non-lineal mathematical model for the condensate, and feed water systems and for feed water heater drains at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station for its simulation in real time. The model allows the calculation of flows and pressures in all the piping system and equipment that integrate the systems. It was obtained by using the force unbalance in the fluid concept and is capable of reproducing its dynamic behavior through variations induced by the different operation modes and more common failures. The final model objective is to form part of the Laguna Verde simulator that will be used for operator training of this Nuclear Power Plant. [Espanol] En este articulo se muestra un modelo matematico no lineal de los sistemas de condensado, agua de alimentacion y drenes de calentadores de la central nuclear de Laguna Verde para su simulacion en tiempo real. El modelo permite calcular los flujos y las presiones en toda la red de tuberias y equipos que integran los sistemas. Se obtuvo utilizando el concepto de desbalance de fuerzas en el fluido, y es capaz de reproducir su comportamiento dinamico ante variaciones inducidas por los diversos modos de operacion y fallas mas comunes. El objetivo final del modelo es formar parte del simulador de Laguna Verde que se empleara para el adiestramiento de los operadores de dicha central nuclear.

  10. Standing Rock Rural Water System NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit SD-0030996, the Standing Rock Rural Water System is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Corson County, South Dakota, to an unnamed tributary to Fisher Creek, a tributary to Oahe Reservoir on the Missouri R.

  11. Statistical mechanics of the shallow water system

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanis, P H

    2000-01-01

    We extend the formalism of the statistical theory developed for the 2D Euler equation to the case of shallow water system. Relaxation equations towards the maximum entropy state are proposed, which provide a parametrization of sub-grid scale eddies in 2D compressible turbulence.

  12. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...

  13. Probing water motion in heterogeneous systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusschoten, van D.

    1996-01-01

    In this Thesis a practical approach is presented to study water mobility in heterogeneous systems by a number of novel NMR sequences. The major part of this Thesis describes how the reliability of diffusion measurements can be improved using some of the novel NMR sequences. The reliability of the da

  14. Drinking Water Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water utilities in the US using chloramine as disinfectant treatment in their distribution systems have experienced nitrification episodes, which detrimentally impact the water quality. A chloraminated drinking water distribution system (DWDS) simulator was operated throug...

  15. Analisys, processing and validation data from eolic stations of SONDA project (National Organization System of Environmental Data) at Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, A. B.; Nogueira, J. M.; Garcia, S. G.; Andrade, E. S.

    2007-05-01

    degrees 1 Can not vary more than 01 degree for 03 consecutive hours 2 Can not vary more than 10 degrees for 18 consecutive hours 3 - Table 4: Validation levels for TEMPERATURE: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of local data 1 Must vary more than 5 °C with reference to1 hour before 2 Can not vary more than 0, 5°C for 12 consecutive hours 3 - Output code examples according with the validation levels : Table 5: Output code examples Level 0 (Limit) Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 (final output) 0009 0029 0529 0529 0009 0099 0999 ou 0299 0999 ou 0299 0002 0052 0552 0552 6 Bibliographical references Stull, R. B., Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 666 p, 1988. Vickers, D.; Mahrt, L. Quality control and flux sampling problems for tower and aircraft data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, v. 14, n. 3, p. 512-526, June 1997.. 7 Electronical references National Organization System of Environmental Data Site http:www.cptec.inpe.br/~sonda/ The Meteorological Resource Center -Webmet.com Site http:www.webmet.com/

  16. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the strong dynamical interactions in the main belt region around 2 AU can be efficient water transporting vessels. The Hungaria asteroid group is the best example that such scenarios are realistic. Assuming that the gas giants and the terrestrial planets are already formed, we monitor the collisions of scattered small bodies containing water (in the order of a few percent) with the terrestrial planets. Thus we are able to give a first estimate concerning the respective contribution of such bodies to the actual water content i...

  17. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  18. ANALISIS KETERSEDIAAN AIR SUNGAI BAWAH TANAH DAN PEMANFAATAN BERKELANJUTAN DI KAWASAN KARST MAROS SULAWESI SELATAN (Analysis of Underground River Water Availability and Its Sustainable uses at Karst Maros Area in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsyad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kawasan Karst Maros mempunyai tata air yang kondusif, baik yang berada di bawah gua maupun yang muncul sebagai sungai permukaan, seperti DAS Bantimurung. DAS Bantimurung bahagian hulunya dipergunakan sebagai tempat pariwisata, air irigasi bagi pertanian dan air baku PDAM Kabupaten Maros. Untuk itu, perlu dilakukan valuasi ekonomi terhadap sumberdaya air tersebut, berupa nilai total ekonomi. Besarnya debit air yang terdapat di Kawasan Karst Maros selama 20 tahun (1990-2010 cenderung berada pada angka 7,00 m3/s, dengan debit air terendah terjadi bulan September, sekitar 1,00 m3/s dan tertinggi pada bulan Januari mencapai 20 m3/s. Perhitungan nilai guna langsung  (direct use value sebesar Rp.385.479.052.214, nilai guna tidak langsung (indirect use value sebesar Rp.13.251.588.000,  dan nilai bukan guna (non  use value sebesar Rp.20.016.148.000, sehingga nilai ekonomi total (Total Economic Value, TEV dari setiap tahunnya sebesar Rp.418.746.788.214. Untuk keberlanjutan pemanfaatan air sungai bawah tanah Kawasan Karst Maros diperoleh kebutuhan air seluruh irigasi pertanian di Kabupaten Maros adalah 5,32 m3/s dan PDAM sebesar 2.037.943 m3 setiap tahun.  Sedangkan air yang tersedia di Kawasan Karst Maros adalah 220,8 juta m3 setiap tahun, sehingga masih ada surplus air sebesar 15,10 juta m3 setiap tahun.   ABSTRACT The karst region of Maros has water system that is conducive both under the cave and emerge as the river surface, such as watershed Bantimurung. The upstream of DAS Bantimurung is used as a place of tourism , agriculture and irrigation for raw water in Maros PDAM. To that end, economic valuation needed to be done to water resource, in the form of total economic value. The amount of discharge water contained in Maros Karst area for 20 years (1990-2010 tended stands at 7,00 m3/s, with the lowest water discharge occurred in September, approximately 1,00 m3/s and the highest in January at 20 m3/s. Direct use value amounted to Rp 385

  19. ANALISIS PERIKANAN HUHATE DI PERAIRAN LARANTUKA, FLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Adha Akbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Informasi mengenai beberapa aspek perikanan huhate sangat diperlukan sebagai bahan untuk perencanaan pengelolaan perikanan yang berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Larantuka, Flores Timur pada tahun 2014 dengan tujuan untuk menganalisis perikanan huhate sebagai salah satu tulang punggung perikanan TCT. Kegiatan penelitian diprioritaskan pada analisis unit alat tangkap, daerah penangkapan, komposisi hasil tangkapan dan estimasi Total Faktor Produktivitas (TFP perikanan huhate. Basis data pengukuran adalah himpunan  data pendaratan dan observasi lapang. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa karakteristik armada terdiri dari kapal yang terbuat dari fibreglass dengan kisaran bobot kapal 6 - 30 GT. Daerah penangkapan di sekitar perairan Laut Sawu dan Laut Flores. Hasil tangkapan utama didominansi oleh cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis sebanyak 82%, juwana tuna (Thunnus spp. 17% dan tongkol (Auxis spp. 1% serta hasil tangkapan ikutan lemadang (Coryphaena hippurus dan marlin (Makaira spp. < 1%. Hasil analisis tangkapan per unit upaya (CPUE memberikan nilai rata-rata sebesar 1,1 ton/trip (0,4-1,7 ton/trip dengan nilai tertinggi terjadi pada Februari, sedangkan terendah terjadi pada Januari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara tren bulanan CPUE dan nilai TFP.

  20. Analisis Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Indeks Prestasi Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putriaji Hendikawati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengungkap dan menganalisis faktor-faktor yangmempengaruhi perolehan indeks prestasi mahasiswa. Populasi penelitian adalahmahasiswa program studi Pendidikan Matematika FMIPA Unnes dan dipilih sampelsebanyak 3 kelas. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan cara stratified cluster randomsamplingdengan sampel penelitian berjumlah 114 mahasiswa.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Indeks Prestasi (IP mahasiswa dipengaruhioleh beberapa variabel antara lain: variabel suasana hati, membagi waktu, hubungandengan keluarga, penjelasan dosen, suasana tempat tinggal, kegiatan selain kuliah, bakat,adaptasi lingkungan, pantauan orang tua, perhatian orang tua, pergaulan, makan dan gizi,IQ dan EQ, kemampuan sosialisasi, kondisi keuangan, suasana belajar kampus, pancaindera kemampuan menangkap materi, dan olahraga. Setelahdilakukan analisis faktor danproses reduksi diperoleh5 faktor yang mempengaruhi IP mahasiswa. Lima faktor tersebutadalah Faktor Manajemen Diri, Faktor Lingkungan Sekitar, Faktor Kondisi Eksternal,Faktor Kondisi Fisik dan Faktor Olahraga.Hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat bagi mahasiswa serta para dosen khususnyapenentu kebijakan di jurusan Matematika FMIPA Unnes, untuk mengembangkan sertameningkatkan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi IP mahasiswa yang berhubungan dengankebijakan dalam kampus agar dapat memberikan kontribusi positif bagi perolehan IPmahasiswa. Kata kunci: analisis faktor, indeks prestasi, mahasiswa.

  1. Biotreatment of red water with fungal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, TenLin S.; Turner, R.J.; Sanville, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Red water generated during the manufacture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an environmental concern because it contaminates ground surfaces and groundwaters. Past methods for the management of this hazardous waste stream did not meet pollution compliance or were not cost effective. Biodegradation of TNT by bacteria has been reported, but no conclusive evidence supports its biotransformation to harmless products or its complete mineralization. The lignin peroxidase (ligninase) secreted by the white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) has been shown to degrade a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In this study, the efficacy of treating red water with the P. chrysosporium system was investigated.

  2. APLIKASI META-ANALISIS DALAM PENGUJIAN VALIDITAS AITEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helly Prajitno Soetjipto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proses validasi dan penghitungan reliabilitas skala psikologi dianggap sebagai salah satu langkah penting. Anggapan ini bisa dipahami karena penyusunan dan pengujian skala merupakan langkah yang sangat menentukan analisis dan kesimpulan penelitian.

  3. La evaluacion y el analisis de politicas publicas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salazar Vargas, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Dentro del "EPPPAL: Enfoque Propio de Politicas Publicas desde y para America Latina", la distincion entre "evaluacion" y "analisis" es un tema crucial, ya que equilibra, complementa y cuestiona la generosa propuesta...

  4. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  5. The origin of inner Solar System water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M O'D

    2017-05-28

    Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model). To test these models, at present the H isotopes of water are the most promising indicators of formation location because they should have become increasingly D-rich with distance from the Sun. The estimated initial H isotopic compositions of water accreted by the CI, CM, CR and Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrites were much more D-poor than measured outer Solar System objects. A similar pattern is seen for N isotopes. The D-poor compositions reflect incomplete re-equilibration with H2 in the inner Solar System, which is also consistent with the O isotopes of chondritic water. On balance, it seems that the carbonaceous chondrites and their water did not form very far out in the disc, almost certainly not beyond the orbit of Saturn when its moons formed (approx. 3-7 AU in the Grand Tack model) and possibly close to where they are found today.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  7. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  8. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  9. Analisis Perilaku Dan Kepuasan Pelanggan BMI (Bank Muamalat Indonesia) Cabang Surabaya Dengan Menggunakan Analisis Regresi Logistik

    OpenAIRE

    Suparto

    2009-01-01

    Dalam penelitian ini, akan diteliti hubungan antara variabel identitas dan perilaku dan perilaku nasabah yang mempengaruhi tingkat kepuasannya terhadap pelayanan BMI (Bank Muamalat Indonesia). Dari analisis regresi logistik disimpulkan bahwa laki-laki cenderung merasa puas terhadap pelayanan BMI, sebesar 2,503 kali dibandingkan perempuan. Nasabah yang pegawai negeri/ABRI cenderung merasa puas 1,833 kali, yang wiraswasta/pengusaha sebesar 0,288 kali, dan pegawai swasta 0,480 kali bila dibandin...

  10. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, mon

  11. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent,

  12. Biofouling and biocorrosion in industrial water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetser, S E; Cloete, T E

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion associated with microorganisms has been recognized for over 50 years and yet the study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is relatively new. MIC can occur in diverse environments and is not limited to aqueous corrosion under submerged conditions, but also takes place in humid atmospheres. Biofouling of industrial water systems is the phenomenon whereby surfaces in contact with water are colonized by microorganisms, which are ubiquitous in our environment. However, the economic implications of biofouling in industrial water systems are much greater than many people realize. In a survey conducted by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers of the United States ten years ago, it was found that many corrosion engineer did not accept the role of bacteria in corrosion, and many of then that did, could not recognize and mitigate the problem. Biofouling can be described in terms of its effects on processes and products such as material degradation (bio-corossion), product contamination, mechanical blockages, and impedance of heat transfer. Microorganisms distinguish themselves from other industrial water contaminants by their ability to utilize available nutrient sources, reproduce, and generate intra- and extracellular organic and inorganic substances in water. A sound understanding of the molecular and physiological activities of the microorganisms involved is necessary before strategies for the long term control of biofouling can be format. Traditional water treatment strategies however, have largely failed to address those factors that promote biofouling activities and lead to biocorrosion. Some of the major developments in recent years have been a redefinition of biofilm architecture and the realization that MIC of metals can be best understood as biomineralization.

  13. IDENTIFIKASI MISKONSEPSI SISWA SMP PADA KONSEP FOTOSINTESIS MELALUI ANALISIS GAMBAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Ariandini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi miskonsepsi siswa dengan analisis menggambar. Tiga puluh empat siswa di kelas 8 di sekolah menengah pertama digunakan sebagai subyek dalam penelitian ini. Teknik sampel menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Data yang diperlukan untuk penelitian ini dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner, menggambar analisis rubrik, dan wawancara. Identifikasi Kesalahpahaman ditentukan dengan menggambar siswa berdasarkan menggambar kriteria klasifikasi oleh Kose (2008. Siswa diperintahkan untuk menarik tentang konsep fotosintesis setelah proses pembelajaran. Gambar siswa dianalisis dengan rubrik dan setelah itu mereka diwawancarai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak semua tingkat kriteria menggambar dari tingkat 1 sampai 5 diidentifikasi. Dari hasil analisa, gambar paling banyak ditemukan adalah pada tingkat 4. Gambar pada tingkat 4 dikategorikan sebagai gambar lengkap konsep fotosintesis dan tidak ada kesalahpahaman ditemukan. Berdasarkan gambar mereka, ada siswa 2,9% diidentifikasi yang diselenggarakan kesalahpahaman. Ada perbedaan jumlah siswa yang diadakan kesalahpahaman antara gambar hasil analisis dan hasil wawancara. Dari hasil wawancara, ada siswa 35,2% dimiliki kesalahpahaman, lebih dari menggambar hasil analisis. Ini berarti bahwa identifikasi kesalahpahaman melalui analisis gambar tidak efektif. Kesalahpahaman siswa yang paling sering terjadi pada konsep fotosintesis adalah tempat berlangsungnya fotosintesis. Faktor yang membuat kesalahpahaman siswa yaitu karena siswa itu sendiri dan lingkungannya. Kata Kunci: fotosintesis, kesalahpahaman, konsep, menggambar analisis

  14. Water in micro- and nanofluidics systems described using the water potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    This Tutorial Review shows the behaviour of water in micro- and nanofluidic systems. The chemical potential of water (‘water potential’) conveniently describes the energy level of the water at different locations in and around the system, both in the liquid and gaseous state. Since water moves from

  15. Analysis of a natural draught tower in the circulation seawater system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Analisis de una torre de tiro natural en el sistema de agua de circulacion de mar de la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km. 7.5, Veracruz (Mexico)], e-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The analysis of a natural draught tower in open circuit for the cooling system of seawater circulation on the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, it is based on conditions of 2027 MWt and 2317 MWt, where the flows of circulation water system hardly vary and whose purpose will be, to cool the seawater circulation. The circulation water system is used as heat drain in main condenser of turbo generator to condense the nuclear vapor. The annual average temperature in the seawater at present is of 26 C to the entrance to circulation water system and it is vary in accordance with the time of year. The mean temperature of leaving of circulation water system to the sea is of 41 C. Having a cooling tower to reduce the entrance temperature to the circulation water system, it improves the efficiency of thermal transfer in condenser, it improves the vacuum in condenser giving more operative margin to avoid condenser losses by air entrances and nuclear power plant shutdowns, as well as for to improve the efficiency of operative balance of nuclear power plant, also it prevents the impact in thermal transfer efficiency in condenser by the climatic change. (Author)

  16. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  17. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potable water systems. 1250.82 Section 1250.82... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.82 Potable water systems. The following conditions must be met by vessel water systems used for the storage and distribution of water which has...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.86 Protection of pier water system. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall make a connection between its nonpotable water system and any pier potable...

  19. Comparative analysis of different approaches to the computation of long-wave radiation balance of water air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsii, K.; Nourani, Y.; Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    In the present paper, the net long-wave radiation balance of the water-air environmental systems is analysed on the base of several semi-empirical approaches. Various theoretical models of infrared atmospheric radiation are reviewed. Factors, affecting their behavior are considered. Special attention is paid to physical conditions under which those models are applicable. Atmospheric and net infrared radiation fluxes are computed and compared under clear and cloudy sky. Results are presented in graphical form. Conclusions are made on the applicability of models considered for evaluating infrared radiation fluxes in environmental conditions of Central Italy. On the base of present analysis Anderson's model is chosen for future calculations of heat budget of lakes in Central Italy. [Italian] Nel presente rapporto viene analizzato il bilancio della radiazione infrarossa per i sistemi acquatici sulla base di alcune formule semi-empiriche. Vengono esaminati vari modelli della radiazione infrarossa atmosferica e i fattori che la influenzano. I flussi di radiazione infrarossa dall'atmosfera in condizioni di cielo sereno e nuvoloso vengono calcolati e confrontati. L'analisi dell'applicabilita' dei modelli considerati per il calcolo dei flussi di radiazione infrarossa in corrispondenza delle condizioni ambientali dell'Italia centrale suggerisce di scegliere il modello di Anderson per la valutazione del bilancio calorico die laghi vulcanici.

  20. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  1. Water masers in the Kronian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star (Hansen et al. 2006). Prompted by this discovery, we started an observational campaign for search of another manifestation of the water vapour in the Kronian system, its maser emission at the frequency of 22 GHz (1.35 cm wavelength). Observations with the 32 m Medicina radio telescope (INAF-IRA, Italy) started in 2006 using Mk5A data recording and the JIVE-Huygens software correlator. Later on, an on-line spectrometer was used at Medicina. The 14 m Metsähovi radio telescope (TKK-MRO, Finland) joined the observational campaign in 2008 using a locally developed data capture unit and software spectrometer. More than 300 hours of observations were collected in 2006-2008 campaign with the two radio telescopes. The data were analysed at JIVE using the Doppler tracking technique to compensate the observed spectra for the radial Doppler shift for various bodies in the Kronian system (Pogrebenko et al. 2009). Here we report the observational results for Hyperion, Titan, Enceladus and Atlas, and their physical interpretation. Encouraged by these results we started a campaign of follow up observations including other radio telescopes.

  2. Bacteriological problems in water supply systems; Bakteriologische Probleme bei Wassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P.

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at bacteriological problems in hot-water distribution system and, in particular looks at the situation concerning legionella bacteria which thrive in standing water at temperatures often encountered in domestic hot water systems. The article is based on experience gained in the analysis of over 1500 hot-water systems. Diseases caused by the inhalation of water droplets emanating from domestic hot-water systems are discussed and showers are mentioned as being a problem zone. An ecological thermal protective system is described. Problems that can be encountered in ventilation and air-conditioning systems and other potential sources are also mentioned.

  3. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Tammie L., E-mail: Tammie.Gerke@miamioh.edu [Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0013 (United States); Little, Brenda J., E-mail: brenda.little@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 (United States); Barry Maynard, J., E-mail: maynarjb@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0013 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+}) and hollandite (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+}), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+}), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. - Highlights: • Oxidation and deposition of Mn deposits in drinking water distribution pipes • In-situ synchrotron-based μ-XANES and μ-XRF mapping • Toxic metal sorption in Mn deposits.

  4. Analisis Model Manajemen Insiden Berbasis Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggi Sukamto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dukungan teknologi informasi yang diterapkan oleh organisasi membutuhkan suatu manajemen agar penggunaannya dapat memenuhi tujuan penerapan teknologi tersebut. Salah satu kerangka kerja manajemen layanan teknologi informasi yang dapat diadopsi oleh organisasi adalah Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL. Dukungan layanan (service support merupakan bagian dari proses ITIL. Pada umumnya, aktivitas dukungan layanan dilaksanakan dengan penggunaan teknologi yang dapat diakses melalui internet. Kondisi tersebut mengarah pada suatu konsep cloud computing. Cloud computing memungkinkan suatu instansi atau perusahaan untuk bisa mengatur sumber daya melalui jaringan internet. Fokus penelitian ini adalah menganalisis proses dan pelaku yang terlibat dalam dukungan layanan khususnya pada proses manajemen insiden, serta mengidentifikasi potensi penyerahan pelaku ke bentuk layanan cloud computing. Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan maka usulan model manajemen insiden berbasis cloud ini dapat diterapkan dalam suatu organisasi yang telah menggunakan teknologi komputer untuk mendukung kegiatan operasional. Kata Kunci—Cloud computing, ITIL, Manajemen Insiden, Service Support, Service Desk.

  5. Implications of Israeli Agricultural Water Price Sharing System to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan LI; Fusheng LIU

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces Israeli agricultural water price sharing system. According to Israeli agricultural water cost composition,water price sharing by farmers as well as government subsidy and its forms,the financial subsidy-based agricultural water price system has been established on the basis of the farmers’ income in our country and reasonable water price sharing,thus to promote the development of water-saving agriculture in China.

  6. Freezing phenomena in ice-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.; Zaki, G.; Habeebullah, B. [Fakieh Center for Applied Research, Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Saudi Arabia); King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-09-01

    The characteristics of solidification and melting are reviewed. The properties of water and ice and the phase diagram of water are discussed with special emphasis on ice density. A concise account of the freezing process and the Stefan problem is presented. To this end, the four stages of freezing are identified, supercooling, nucleation and the formation of dendritic ice, the growth of concentric rings of solid ice at 0{sup o}C and the final cooling of the solid ice are treated in some detail. The subject of bursting of pipes is given particular emphasis. Attention is drawn to a common misconception on pipe bursting and to misleading relationships for the computation of freezing time for ice blockage. Several current applications of melting and freezing systems are outlined. (author)

  7. ANALISIS VARIABEL KEUANGAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEBIJAKAN DEVIDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiadji -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji pengaruh variabel keuangan yang terdiri dari: rasio pro-fitabilitas (return on assets, likuiditas (cash ratio, rasio hutang (debt to equity ratio, market value (earnings per share, dan perputaran total aset (total assets turnover terhadap kebijakan dividen yang diproksikan dengan dividend payout ratio (DPR pada perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia tahun 2004-2008. Prosedur pemilihan sampel penelitian menggunakan purposive sampling sehingga menghasilkan 8 perusahaan yang memenuhi kriteria sampel. Data sekunder dikumpulkan dengan teknik dokumentasi bersumber dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD, laporan keuangan, dan hasil Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham (RUPS. Teknik analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian ini adalah secara simultan variabel ROA, CR, DER, EPS dan TATO berpengaruh terhadap DPR. Secara parsial variabel yang mempengaruhi DPR adalah CR, EPS dan TATO. Varabel lainnya, yaitu ROA dan DER ditemukan tidak berpengaruh terhadap DPR. This research was conducted to examine the influence of the financial variables which consists of: return on assets (ROA, cash ratio (CR, debt to equity ratio (DER, earnings per share (EPS, and total asset turnover (TATO to the dividend policy that indicated by the dividend payout ratio (DPR of listed manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange  2004 to 2008. The sample selection procedure used was a purposive sampling so that it produced eight companies that met the sample criteria. Se-condary data was collected by the documentation technique were obtained from the Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD, financial statements, and the results of the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders. The analysis technique used was multiple linear regression analysis. The research found that five variables of kind of ROA, CR, DER, EPS dan TATO simultaneously influence to dividend

  8. PENENTUAN DAERAH RAWAN GIZI BERDASARKAN ANALISIS SPATIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noviati Fuada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang : Riset Kesehatan Dasar telah dilakukan di Indonesia (RISKESDAS 2007. Riset telah mengumpulkan data-data yang terdiri dari data kesehatan yang menggambarkan status gizi anak di bawah lima (antrophometri data di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Kenyataanya masih sedikit analisis dengan menggunakan metode GIS, oleh karena itu artikel ini akan dikaji dengan metode spasial. Kajian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi faktual, yang dapat mendukung kebijakan daerah. Tujuan: Mengidentifikasi daerah kabupaten/provinsi rawan status gizi anak balita, Metode: Analisa GIS denganmenggunakan metode spasial (pengelompokan data dan overlay dengan cara union. Data RISKESDAS 2007. Hasil: Wilayah tingkat tinggi potensi rawan gizi bermasalah (bersumber overlay antara peta sebaran status gizi balita dengan peta sebaran KK miskin  adalah; Kota Tasikmalaya, Kab. Tasikmalaya, Cianjur, Garut, Ciamis, Bandung, Subang dan Majalengka. Wilayah tingkat tinggi berpotensi terkena infeksi penyakit (berdasarkan peta sebaran resiko Infeksi Penyakit dan pemanfaatan posyandu adalah: Kabupaten Purwakarta, Karawang, Bekasi, Bogor, Sukabumi, Tasikmalaya, Kota Tasikmalaya, Bekasi dan Bogor. Wilayah berpotensi rawan gizi kategori tinggi (bersumber pada 4 faktor/peta sebaran meliputi, Kabupaten Cianjur, Garut, Tasikmalaya dan Kota Tasikmalaya. Kasus Gizi bermasalah berdasarkan 3 indeks gabungan menyebar di seluruh wilayah Provinsi Jawa Barat. Wilayah kasus gizi bermasalah kategori tinggi, dan kategori sedang, sebagian besar  terjadi di wilayah Kabupaten. Baik kategori sedang maupun tinggi merupakan wilayah yang berdampingan. Gambaran ini mengarah pada fakta bahwa  masalah gizi cenderung merupakan masalah epidemiologi. Kesimpulan: Terdapat empat wilayah kabupaten status gizi yang paling serius dalam kategori tinggi meliputi, Kabupaten Cianjur, Garut, Tasikmalaya dan Kota Tasikmalaya.  Kata kunci: analisis spasial, status gizi, posyandu, rawan gizi 

  9. ANALISIS DAN PERANCANGAN APLIKASI AUTOMAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajani Indrajani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article analysis business process of a running report delivery and designes an automatied report delivery tothe ABC company partner by noticing the safety of data transfered. The used methods are literature, interview,survey, analysis, and design method. The result is indicates that there is email automation by automail application.The conclusion is the automail analysis and design was cover verification process, text file encoding, and reportdelivery by encryption-description process as form of data safety.Keywords: system analysis, design analysis, automail application

  10. ANALISIS KADAR AIR DAN AKTIFITAS AIR KRITIKAL PRODUK SATA DARI MALAYSIA DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA SIFAT-SIFAT PRODUK DAN UMUR SIMPANNYA [Analysis of Critical Moisture and Water Activity of Malaysian Sata and Its Implication to Product Characteristics and Shelf Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hayati1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical moisture and water activity of Sata. a Malaysian traditional food made of fish and young coconut meats, were analyzed for the first and second critical points of transition among the primary, secondary and tertiary bound water fractions in the Sata. It was found out that the first critical points of moisture content and water activity were M, of 5.09 % db (4.73 % wb and ar of 0.44 respectively. The second critical points were water content M5 of 19.38 % db(15.2 % wb and water activity as of 79 % respectively. The upper limit of he tertiary bound water (Mt was 75.3 % db (43.0 % wb. Sate sample in the primary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content at 5.0 % rib / 4.73 % wb, was stable in color and appearance, but slightly rancid due to molecular mobility of the liquid oil content The sample in the secondary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content of 15.0% db / 13.0% wb, has a color change to darker brown: and in the tertiary bound water fraction (represented by moisture of 30.5 % db / 23.4 % wb, mold growth appeared on the 10th day storage. The characteristics of the Malaysian Sate indicated an intermediate moisture food (IMF with water content of 37.5% wb, water activity of 0.9 and limited shelf tile to, few days at room temperature.

  11. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and bathtub and/or shower shall be provided with a hot water supply system including a listed water... to the manufactured home or water supply piping. When a master cold water shutoff full flow valve is... screw piping shall be less than 1/2 inch iron pipe size. (2) Sizing procedure. Both hot and cold water...

  12. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2013-01-01

    The water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2013,its progress can be summarized as follows:1)The deionized water production equipment and the main circulating water cooling unit are installed and tested.2)The circulating water cooling unit for high power target and circulating water cooling unit for vacuum helium compressor are installed and tested.

  13. ANALISIS KESULITAN MAHASISWA MENYELESAIKAN SKRIPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmawan Asmawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed the difficulties of students in completing the skripsi (thesis. The research problems were the factors that cause the length of students in completing the thesis, as well as solutions to overcome the problems of old students in completing the thesis. The respondents were accounting education students of the Faculty of Teaching and Education who took courses thesis and proved by the study plan (KRS. The research used purposive sampling technique. This was a qualitative research. Data collection techniques were documentation, interviews and observation. The triangulation technique used to validate the data. The research found several factors that hinder the completion of the thesis. The first factor was the inability of students in writing; the external factor was the difficulty in communicating with the supervisor. While supporting factors were the motivation, a supportive environment and management system.

  14. Analysis on Systematic Water Scarcity Based on Establishment of Water Scarcity Classification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It would be very helpful for making countermeasures against complex water scarcity by analysis on systematic water scarcity.Based on the previous researches on water scarcity classification,a classification system of water scarcity was established according to contributing factors,which comprises three water scarcity categories caused by anthropic factors,natural factors and mixed factors respectively.Accordingly,the concept of systematic water scarcity was proposed,which can be defined as one type of water...

  15. Measurement of Water Quality Parameters for Before and After Maintenance Service in Water Filter System

    OpenAIRE

    Shaharudin Nuraida; Suradi Nurfarhana; Mohd Kamil Nor Amani Filzah

    2017-01-01

    An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of major ways to obtain healthy life. Water filter system is one way to improve the water quality. However, to maintain the performance of the system, it need to undergo the maintenance service. This study evaluate the requirement of maintenance service in water filter system. Water quality was measured before and after maintenance service. Parameters measured were pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, nitrate and heavy metals and these parameters ...

  16. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A; Raju O; Kurthukoti A; Vishwas T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, bo...

  17. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems: A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the distribut

  18. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  19. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems: A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the

  20. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  1. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...... methodology with Ireland as a case and the applicability of energy scenarios modelling tools as a main focus, evaluation of energy demands in Italy and finally evaluation of underground cables vs overhead lines and lacking public acceptance of incurring additional costs for the added benefit of having...

  2. ANALISIS EFISIENSI LEMBAGA KEUANGAN MIKRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Susila

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss about microfinance organizations. The research based on analysis of efficiency of Badan Kredit Desa (BKD in Sukoharjo district in Central of Java Province. In the earlier, paper discuss about microfinance and its role in the economics development. Analysis data use Data Envelopment Analysis with three inputs and two outputs to analysis of financial performance and eight inputs and four outputs to analysis of general efficiency. This research found that from 169 BKD used as setting in this research, only 21 BKD have efficiency in finance performance and 73 BKD in general performance. In the future, microfinance organizations (BKD need innovation especially in the system which originated in developing countries where it has successfully enabled extremely impoverished people to engage in self-employment projects that allow them to generate an income and, in many cases, begin to build wealth and exit poverty. Due to the success of microcredit, many in the traditional banking industry have begun to realize that these microcredit borrowers should more correctly be categorized as pre-bankable; thus, microcredit is increasingly gaining credibility in the mainstream finance industry and many traditional large finance organizations are contemplating microcredit projects as a source of future growth.

  3. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  4. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  5. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  6. Water use and water availability constraints to decarbonised electricity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Edward; Qadrdan, Meysam; Hall, Jim; Amezaga, Jaime; Chaudry, Modassar; Kilsby, Chris; Martino, Tran; Alderson, David

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of numerous low carbon electricity strategies have been shown to have very divergent water requirements, normally needed for cooling of thermoelectric power stations. Our regional river-basin scale analysis of water use for future UK electricity strategies shows that, whilst in the majority of cases freshwater use is expected to decline, pathways with high levels of carbon capture and storage (CCS) will result in significantly elevated and concentrated water demands in a few key river basins. Furthermore, these growing demands are compared to both current water availability, and our expected regional water availability under the impacts of climate change. We identify key freshwater constraints to electricity strategies with high levels of CCS and show how these risks may be mitigated with higher levels of hybrid cooling and alternative cooling water sources.

  7. A closed recirculated sea-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Study of a virus disease in the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) necessitated the use of a marine environment to study the long range effects of the disease and to complete the life cycle of its etiologic agent. A closed recirculated sea-water system was designed for use under experimental laboratory conditions so that controlled studies of the disease could be made. As others may wish to do marine environment studies in the laboratory, the design and operation of our system are presented. Other systems currently in use have been described by Chin (1959), DeWitt and Salo (1960), McCrimmon and Berst (1966), and the authors of collected papers edited by Clark and Clark (1964). Preparatory to the design and construction of the system in use in this laboratory, visits were made to marine systems in use at the University of Washington's College of Fisheries, Seattle, -washington, and Friday Harbor Laboratory, San Juan Island, Washington; the Washington State Department of Fisheries' Point whitney Shellfish Laboratory, Brinnon, Washington; Humboldt State College, Arcata, California; and the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, California.

  8. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  9. ANALISIS VARIABILITAS CURAH HUJAN DAN SUHU DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogi Setiawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia sebagai negara kepulauan yang terdiri dari pulau-pulau besar dan kecil menjadi sangat rentan terhadap dampak perubahan iklim. Salah satu pulau yang juga rentan terhadap perubahan iklim adalah pulau Bali. Dampak potensial adanya perubahan iklim adalah perubahan pola hujan, peningkatan suhuudaradankenaikanpermukaanlaut. Sektoryangakanmenerimadampakperubahaniklimdengan serius adalah sektor kehutanan dan pertanian. Untuk mendukung upaya mitigasi dan adaptasi maka diperlukan informasi perubahan iklim yang terjadi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variabilitas iklim di Bali. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis kecenderungan curah hujan, analisis perubahan suhu udara, analisis perubahan tipe iklim dan analisis pergeseran bulan basah, lembab dan kering. Data hujan yang digunakan adalah data hujan dari GPCC (1961-1998 dan BMKG Bali (19992008, sedangkan data suhu berasal dari BMKG Bali (2004-2008. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa di pulau Bali secara umum sudah mengalami perubahan iklim. Tipe iklim berdasarkan Schmidt-Ferguson mengalami perubahan dari relatif basah menjadi agak kering. Suhu udara rata-rata bulanan serta curah hujan bulanan dan tahunan memiliki kecenderungan yang semakin meningkat. Bulan basah dan bulan kering telah mengalami pergeseran dan perubahan jumlahnya. Dampak perubahan iklim terhadap ekosistem hutan di Bali belum diketahui dengan pasti, namun terdapat beberapa implikasi perubahan iklim terhadap sektor kehutanan diantaranya kebakaran hutan dan perubahan jadwal penanaman.

  10. Natural/mine water deep treatment modular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averin, G.V.; Biochenko, V. [Makeyevka Safety in Mines Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    Shortage of water of service and drinking standards is heavily felt in some industries and residential areas in Donetsk region. Modifications of a natural/mine water deep treatment modular system can be used: to produce service water from mine and natural water sources for further use in industry and household applications; to restore industrial waste waters to ecological standards; to provide tertiary treatment, producing the highest quality of drinking water. The system is briefly described and its specifications are given. Three modifications of modular design are expected to be made of the mine/natural water treatment system. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  12. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  13. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  14. Artesian water supply control system in transient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Олегович Буравченко

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an artesian water supply control system in the transition mode. The control system searches for the optimal performance trajectory of the water supply on the basis of a maximum return with a view to the fastest mode of stabilization. The analysis of artesian water supply control systems in transition mode and methods of improvement was conducted

  15. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  16. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is...

  17. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  18. Analysis and control of erosion by solid particles in the elements of the flow system of steam turbines; Analisis y control de erosion por particulas solidas en los elementos del sistema de flujo de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Campos Amezcua, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of erosion by solid particles is presented of different elements of the flow channel of the steam turbines that operate in Mexico: nozzles, stop valves, blade bosses, labyrinth seals and rotor disc; using tools of of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In these main elements of turbines a strong problem of erosion was registered that threatens the reliable operation of the turbines, its availability and its optimal yield. With base on the results of the numerical analyses, the design modifications of the different elements were developed from the flow channel of the steam turbines, in order to reduce the erosion and thus diminishing the energy losses and increasing the steam turbine efficiency. This work presents the main benefits that the Thermoelectric Power Plants obtain with the reduction of the erosion by solid particles that affect the critical components of steam turbines: extension of the period between maintenance, replacement of components, reduction of operation and maintenance costs of the turbines, and extension of the useful life of the main components. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis de erosion por particulas solidas de diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor que operan en Mexico: toberas, valvula de paro, tetones de los alabes, sellos de laberinto y disco del rotor; utilizando herramientas de Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC). En estos elementos principales de turbinas se registro un fuerte problema de erosion que amenaza la operacion confiable de las turbinas, su disponibilidad y su rendimiento optimo. Con base en los resultados de los analisis numericos, se desarrollaron las modificaciones de diseno de los diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor, con el proposito de reducir la erosion y asi, disminuir las perdidas de energia e incrementar el rendimiento de las turbinas de vapor. Este trabajo presenta los principales beneficios que obtienen las Centrales Termoelectricas con la

  19. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  20. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  1. Water distribution and water use assessment in rice cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Bockari-Gevao

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze the ways of water distribution in a rice growing area during the pre-saturation and normal irrigation supply periods and to assess water use (WU. The analyses were conducted using field data collected at the Besut rice irrigation scheme located in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia. The scheme comprises two sub-schemes, which are further subdivided into compartments and blocks. Based on field water requirements during the pre-saturation and normal irrigation supply periods and available flows at the intake structures, canal simulation was performed using the CanalMan Model. Results have shown that pre-saturation should not be done continuously unless flow rates are 9.00 m3/sec and 3.00 m3/sec for the Besut and Angga Barrages, respectively. If the respective flow rates fall below these values, then pre-saturation should be done in two phases. However, when the flow rate is between 5.00 and 5.50 m3/sec at Besut Barrage, pre-saturation is recommended to be carried out over three phases. During normal irrigation supply period, flow rates of 5.00 m3/sec and 1.50 m3/sec for the Besut and Angga Barrages respectively, are to be maintained for the whole irrigation scheme. In irrigation block-wise, two WU-based performance indices, namely, adequacy (AI and water productivity (WPI were computed. The average water productivity was 0.31 kg/m3 and 0.25 kg/m3 during the main season and off-season, respectively. Two WU indices, WPI and AI, ranked the performance of the blocks and identified those having problems in water allocation and utilization. These indices revealed that the blocks using more water performed poorly in terms of water productivity. These indices could be used to rectify uneven distribution of water in the scheme.

  2. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  3. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  4. ANALISIS GEN HAEMAGGLUTININ PADA VIRUS CAMPAK LIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Campak disebabkan oleh virus campak yang termasuk genus Morbilivirus dan Family Paramyxoviridae. Penyakit campak masih menjadi masalah kesehatan karena masih ditemukan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab terjadinya KLB tersebut diduga sebagaiakibat perbedaan antigenesitas antara strain vaksin yang digunakan dengan strain virus campak liar yang beredar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran tentang karakteristik genetik gen Haemagglutinin virus campak liar yang ada di Indonesia. Spesimen yang digunakan sebanyak 27 isolat virus penyebab KLB dari 17 propinsi selama periode tahun 2003-2010. Isolat virus dilakukan pemeriksaan secara RT-PCR dan sekuensing dengan metode Sanger. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Bioedit 7.0 dan MEGA 4.0. Hasil penelitian didapatkan perbedaan 10 asam amino antara virus campak strain vaksin CAM-70 dan virus campak liar pada posisi D416N; K424T; V451M; N455T; V466I; I473T; F476L; Y481S atau Y481N; H495N; G505D. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik genetik antara virus campak liar di Indonesia berbeda dengan strain virus vaksin CAM-70.Kata kunci : Campak, Analisis Molekuler, Hemagglutinin, CD46AbstractMeasles is caused by virus belonging to the genus Morbilivirus and Family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is still a public health problem because outbreak of measles still found in Indonesia. Outbreak is suspected as a result of differences in antigenicity between vaccine strains used with wild-type measles virus strains circulating in Indonesia. This study aims to get genetic characteristics of wild-type measles virus haemagglutinin gene in Indonesia. The specimens were used 27 viral isolates from 17 provinces period 2003-2010. Viral isolates examined by RT-PCR and sequencing with Sanger method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.0 and MEGA 4.0 software. The results showed 10 amino acid differences

  5. KLASIFIKASI TINGKAT KEPUASAN PELANGGAN DENGAN ANALISIS DISKRIMINAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rizkiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Persaingan yang semakin ketat dalam dunia usaha khususnya yang bergerak dalam bidang jasa, mengharuskan perusahaan menempatkan orientasi kepuasan pelanggan sebagai tujuan utama. Untuk mempertahankan pelanggan, memperluas pangsa pasar dan meningkatkan keuntungan, perusahaan harus berupaya menciptakan suatu strategi yang dapat memberikan nilai kepuasan terhadap pelanggan. Penelitian ini menganalisis kepuasan pelanggan Leasing Company di Kabupaten Semarang dengan analisis diskriminan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan yang signifikan kepuasan pelanggan pengguna jasa Leasing Company dengan membentuk model diskriminan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode survey dengan pengumpulan data primer menggunakan angket melalui pengambilan sampel proporsional. Kepuasan pelanggan dibedakan menjadi tiga kategori yaitu tidak puas, cukup puas dan sangat puas. Sedangkan variabel yang diduga mempengaruhi tingkat kepuasan pelanggan adalah usia pelanggan, lama aktifitas, lama waktu pelunasan, besar uang muka (DP, pendapatan, pengeluaran, dan harga kendaraan. Berdasarkan hasil analisis diskriminan tiga factor melalui uji prasyarat dan uji kelayakan variabel, diperoleh dua variabel yang layak dianalisis, yaitu lama waktu pelunasan pinjaman dan besar uang muka. Model diskriminan tiga faktor yang terbentuk adalah zScore =0,969 0,077 dan zScore = 4,146 + 0,085  dengan  sebagai variabel lama pelunasan dan  sebagai variabel uang muka. Hasil validasi menunjukkan angka ketepatan model yang cukup tinggi yaitu 54%. Competition in business, especially in services sector, causing every company must put orientation on customer satisfaction as a primary goal. To retain customers, expand market share and improve profitability, companies must strive to create a strategy to create customer's satisfaction. This study analyzes Leasing Company customer satisfaction in Kabupaten Semarang with discriminant analysis. The purpose of this study

  6. Modeling of residual chlorine in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Water quality within water distribution system may vary with both location and time. Water quality models are used to predict the spatial and temporal variation of water quality throughout water system. A model of residual chlorine decay in water pipe has been developed,given the consumption of chlorine in reactions with chemicals in bulk water, bio-films on pipe wall, in corrosion process, and the mass transport of chlorine from bulk water to pipe wall. Analytical methods of the flow path from water sources to the observed point and the water age of every observed node were proposed. Model is used to predict the decay of residual chlorine in an actual distribution system. Good agreement between calculated and measured values was obtained.

  7. Wick wetting for water condensation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Lewis, Gregory Stephen; Kreisberg, Nathan Michael

    2017-04-04

    A system and method for particle enlargement with continuously wetted wicks includes a container into which a flow of particle-laden air is introduced in a laminar manner through an inlet and to an outlet. The container has a first section, a second section and a third section though which the particle-laden air flows between the inlet and the outlet. The temperature of the second section is warmer than that of the first section at the inlet and the third section at the outlet. In one embodiment, a continuous wick spanning an interior wall of the first second, second section and third section, said wick being capable of internally transporting liquid water along its length is provided.

  8. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  9. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  10. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  11. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  12. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water...

  13. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  14. Model Predictive Control for Operational Water Management: A Case Study of the Dutch Water System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, X.

    2015-01-01

    Water is needed everywhere to satisfy domestic, agricultural and industrial water demands, to maintain navigation systems, and to preserve healthy and sustainable ecosystems. In order to protect us from floods and to reallocate water resources in a man-made environment, the 'hardware', water-related

  15. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales.

  16. Model Predictive Control for Operational Water Management: A Case Study of the Dutch Water System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, X.

    2015-01-01

    Water is needed everywhere to satisfy domestic, agricultural and industrial water demands, to maintain navigation systems, and to preserve healthy and sustainable ecosystems. In order to protect us from floods and to reallocate water resources in a man-made environment, the 'hardware', water-related

  17. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  18. Compact Water Jet Propulsion System for a Marine Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention is directed to an improved water jet propulsion system for a marine vehicle. The water jet propulsion system of the present invention...the vehicle hull and extending internally thereof, a water jet pump having an inlet end attached to the outlet end of the inlet duct, a motor for

  19. Information Theory for Risk-based Water System Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Operational management of water resources needs predictions of future behavior of water systems, to anticipate shortage or excess of water in a timely manner. Because the natural systems that are part of the hydrological cycle are complex, the predictions inevitably are subject to considerable uncer

  20. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  1. 64 FR 63334 - Proposed Construction of Frannie Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-19

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Proposed Construction of Frannie Water Distribution... application for grant funding; public comment period on request to fund the Frannie Water Distribution System... Reclamation fund to pay approximately 44 percent of the cost of building the Frannie Water Distribution System...

  2. 64 FR 63336 - Proposed Construction of Etna Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-19

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Proposed Construction of Etna Water Distribution... application for grant funding, public comment period on request to fund the Etna Water Distribution System... Reclamation Fund to pay approximately 8 percent of the cost of building the Etna Water Distribution System...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1101-6 - Water sprinkler systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water sprinkler systems; general. 75.1101-6 Section 75.1101-6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-6 Water sprinkler systems; general. Water...

  4. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  5. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, A R; Raju, O S; Kurthukoti, A J; Vishwas, T D

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  6. Water quality's determination at the Mino River during 1973-1995. Prediction analysis for 2010; Estudio de la calidad del agua del rio Mino durante el periodo 1973-1995. Analisis predictivo a 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De las Heras, A.; Medgar, M. J.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the water quality at the Mino river (Galicia), which belongs to the North river basin, as well as the problems associated to the contaminant contributions originated due to population changes, industrial development and agriculture and live-sock activities during a 23 years period (1973-1995). Similarly, the prediction of such changes till the year 2010 is also realized. The 26 analyzed parameters were obtained from the Database of the COCA-MOPU (Water Quality Control Web), and they were statistically analyzed by means of the hierarchical cluster analysis, principal complements multi variance analysis and the predictor technique for temporal series. Four different factors were identified: alkalinity, physical water characteristics, salinity and organic burden, with an accumulated variance of 60.2%. The predictive analysis adjusted to the ARIMA model, shows the tendency to rise of variables defining alkalinity, salinity and organic matter, if present conditions are maintained. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. Analisis Komponen Biaya Asuransi Jiwa Dwiguna (Endowment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Nyoman Trisnawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asuransi adalah suatu istilah penyediaan jasa yang bergerak dalam bidang pertanggungan atau perlindungan. Seseorang yang telah mengasuransikan dirinya akan menyetujui kontrak yang disebut dengan polis. Di Indonesia terdapat beberapa jenis asuransi jiwa, salah satunya adalah asuransi jiwa dwiguna. Asuransi jiwa dwiguna adalah asuransi jiwa yang kepada tertanggung akan diberikan sejumlah uang pada akhir asuransi sesuai dengan polis. Jika tertanggung meninggal selama masa asuransi atau setelah akhir asuransi, kepada tertanggung akan diberikan uang sebesar uang pertanggungan. Untuk memenuhi pertanggungan, akan dibayarkan sejumlah uang yang disebut dengan premi. Premi terdiri dari premi netto dan premi bruto, premi netto adalah premi yang perhitungannya hanya berdasarkan faktor mortalita, sedangkan premi bruto adalah gabungan dari premi netto dengan faktor-faktor lain seperti faktor biaya. Penelitian ini membahas tentang analisis komponen biaya pada asuransi jiwa dwiguna. Komponen dari biaya asuransi jiwa dwiguna ini adalah biaya penutupan awal, biaya pengumpulan premi dan biaya pemeliharaan.Semua perhitungan aktuaria menggunakan tabel CSO 1980 dengan bunga 9%. Dengan menerapkan metode Eliminasi Gauss Jordan besarnya komponen biaya dari asuransi jiwa dwiguna masing-masing, biaya penutupan awal sebesar dan , biaya pengumpulan premi sebesar 0,075 dan biaya pemeliharaan sebesar 2.

  8. Analisis Komponen Biaya Asuransi Jiwa Dwiguna (Endowment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Nyoman Trisnawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Asuransi adalah suatu istilah penyediaan jasa yang bergerak dalam bidang pertanggungan atau perlindungan. Seseorang yang telah mengasuransikan dirinya akan menyetujui kontrak yang disebut dengan polis. Di Indonesia terdapat beberapa jenis asuransi jiwa, salah satunya adalah asuransi jiwa dwiguna. Asuransi jiwa dwiguna adalah asuransi jiwa yang kepada tertanggung akan diberikan sejumlah uang pada akhir asuransi sesuai dengan polis. Jika tertanggung meninggal selama masa asuransi atau setelah akhir asuransi, kepada tertanggung akan diberikan uang sebesar uang pertanggungan. Untuk memenuhi pertanggungan, akan dibayarkan sejumlah uang yang disebut dengan premi. Premi terdiri dari premi netto dan premi bruto, premi netto adalah premi yang perhitungannya hanya berdasarkan faktor mortalita, sedangkan premi bruto adalah gabungan dari premi netto dengan faktor-faktor lain seperti faktor biaya. Penelitian ini membahas tentang analisis komponen biaya pada asuransi jiwa dwiguna. Komponen dari biaya asuransi jiwa dwiguna ini adalah biaya penutupan awal, biaya pengumpulan premi dan biaya pemeliharaan.Semua perhitungan aktuaria menggunakan tabel CSO 1980 dengan bunga 9%. Dengan menerapkan metode Eliminasi Gauss Jordan besarnya komponen biaya dari asuransi jiwa dwiguna masing-masing, biaya penutupan awal sebesar dan , biaya pengumpulan premi sebesar 0,075 dan biaya pemeliharaan sebesar 2.

  9. Analisis SWOT untuk Penentuan Strategi Optimalisasi Infrastruktur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Undang-undang No.38 tahun 2009 tentang Pos memberikan keleluasaan penyelenggara pos untuk melakukan pengembangan produksi serta peningkatan infrastruktur, yang mendukung daya saing masing-masing penyelenggara pos. Sebagai badan usaha milik negara, PT.Pos Indonesia memiliki jaringan terintegrasi sampai ke pedesaan dan daerah transmigrasi, yang diketahui hampir 100% jaringan dibangun oleh pemerintah. Jaringan Pos adalah jaringan fisik maupun virtual untuk mendukung terselenggaranya layanan pos. Jumlah titik layanan mencapai 24 ribu titik layanan yang menjangkau hampir 100% kecamatan dan 42 % kelurahan/desa. Untuk mengetahui strategi dalam rangka optimalisasi infrastruktur di PT.Pos Indonesia, dilakukan penelitian dengan pendekatan kualitatif dan analisis SWOT dan hasilnya penggambaran pada Matrik Grand Strategi, posisi pada  Kuadran I (positif, positif, artinya, PT.Pos Indonesia khususnya untuk KPRK Jakarta Pusat10000, KPRK Jakarta Utara14000 dan KPRK Bandung 40000 manajemen organisasinya sudah solid, dan banyak mempunyai peluang. Ekspansi dapat dilanjutkan untuk memperbesar pertumbuhan dan pengembangan produk, namun aspek SDM masih perlu ditingkatkan.

  10. A hybrid solar/diesel water heating system: in medicine area in a hospital in Mexico city; Sistema hibrido de energia solar y diesel para calentamiento de agua: caso en el area de medicina fisica en un hospital en la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolasco Mejia, Miguel; Wolpert Kuri, Jorge [UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A hybrid solar/diesel water heating system for therapy in a hospital in Mexico is described in this paper. The use of solar energy in hospitals and clinics, represent an environmentally friendly alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. Analysis is made regarding the feasibility of integrating both solar energy and conventional energy (fuel oil) as back up, to satisfy the hot water demand for hydrotherapy in a hospital. Results from simulation show that solar energy is a cheap means to provide up to 60% of the hot water demand. The solar assisted system proposed uses flat plate solar collectors integrated with an existing hot water tank, where water is heated with vapor from a diesel ran boiler. This represents significant savings on the solar system cost. [Spanish] La utilizacion de la energia solar en hospitales y clinicas, representa una posibilidad para obtener ahorros importantes de energia para satisfacer la demanda de agua caliente. En el presente estudio se analiza la demanda de agua caliente para uso en medicina fisica (hidroterapia), en un hospital ubicado en la Cd. De Mexico y la factibilidad de usar la energia solar, empleando como apoyo el sistema tradicional de combustible fosil (diesel). Mediante un analisis termico se determina el calor necesario para satisfacer la demanda de agua caliente. El analisis economico muestra los costos del sistema solar, los ahorros que se tendran y el periodo de recuperacion de la inversion. Los resultados muestran que la utilizacion de la energia solar es factible debido a la disminucion tanto del consumo de combustible, como de las emisiones atmosfericas. Se propone la instalacion de un sistema solar con colectores planos y el aprovechamiento de uno de los dos tanques de agua caliente existentes, donde se efectua la trasferencia de calor al agua por medio de vapor, lo cual disminuye el costo del sistema solar. La aportacion solar puede ser mayor del 60%, el complemento sera aportado por el sistema tradicional con

  11. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López; Jerónimo Puertas; Jose Anta; Alfredo Jácome; José Manuel Álvarez-Campana

    2014-01-01

    The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmenta...

  12. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  13. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  14. Model predictive control on open water systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Overloop, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Human life depends on water daily, especially for drinking and food production. Also, human life needs to be protected against excess of water caused by heavy precipitation and floods. People have formed water management organizations to guarantee these necessities of life for communities. These org

  15. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  16. Validation Aspects of Water Treatment Systems for Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validation Aspects of Water Treatment Systems for Pharmaceutical Products. ... that a process, when operated within established limits, produces a product of ... of validation including different approaches, components of water treatment ...

  17. Water Information Management & Analysis System (WIMAS) v 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Water Information Management and Analysis System (WIMAS) is an ArcView based GIS application that allows users to query Kansas water right data maintained by the...

  18. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  19. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  20. EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program: Water Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water systems challenged by limited resources, aging infrastructure, shifting demographics, climate change, and extreme weather events need transformative approaches to meet public health and environmental goals, while optimizing water treatment and maximizing resource recovery a...

  1. Drought risk and vulnerability in water supply systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrote de Marcos, Luis; Cubillo, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the challenges presented to the managers of water supply systems by drought and water scarcity. Risk assessment is an essential tool for the diagnostic of water scarcity in this type of systems. The evaluation of the risk of water shortage is performed with the use of complex mathematical models. Different alternatives to address the problem are presented, covering a range of methodological approaches. The actions adopted to prevent or mitigate the effects o...

  2. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  3. Tap water isotope ratios reflect urban water system structure and dynamics across a semiarid metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Yusuf; Brewer, Simon; Good, Stephen P.; Tipple, Brett J.; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-08-01

    Water extraction for anthropogenic use has become a major flux in the hydrological cycle. With increasing demand for water and challenges supplying it in the face of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand connections between human populations, climate, water extraction, water use, and its impacts. To understand these connections, we collected and analyzed stable isotopic ratios of more than 800 urban tap water samples in a series of semiannual water surveys (spring and fall, 2013-2015) across the Salt Lake Valley (SLV) of northern Utah. Consistent with previous work, we found that mean tap water had a lower 2H and 18O concentration than local precipitation, highlighting the importance of nearby montane winter precipitation as source water for the region. However, we observed strong and structured spatiotemporal variation in tap water isotopic compositions across the region which we attribute to complex distribution systems, varying water management practices and multiple sources used across the valley. Water from different sources was not used uniformly throughout the area and we identified significant correlation between water source and demographic parameters including population and income. Isotopic mass balance indicated significant interannual and intra-annual variability in water losses within the distribution network due to evaporation from surface water resources supplying the SLV. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of isotopes as an indicator of water management strategies and climate impacts within regional urban water systems, with potential utility for monitoring, regulation, forensic, and a range of water resource research.

  4. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.

    In this thesis the possibilities are presented for fixed-film post-treatment of anaerobically digested domestic sewage and water reconditioning in aquacultural water recirculation systems. Emphasis i...

  5. Water System Architectures for Moon and Mars Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Water systems for human bases on the moon and Mars will recycle multiple sources of wastewater. Systems for both the moon and Mars will also store water to support and backup the recycling system. Most water system requirements, such as number of crew, quantity and quality of water supply, presence of gravity, and surface mission duration of 6 or 18 months, will be similar for the moon and Mars. If the water system fails, a crew on the moon can quickly receive spare parts and supplies or return to Earth, but a crew on Mars cannot. A recycling system on the moon can have a reasonable reliability goal, such as only one unrecoverable failure every five years, if there is enough stored water to allow time for attempted repairs and for the crew to return if repair fails. The water system that has been developed and successfully operated on the International Space Station (ISS) could be used on a moon base. To achieve the same high level of crew safety on Mars without an escape option, either the recycling system must have much higher reliability or enough water must be stored to allow the crew to survive the full duration of the Mars surface mission. A three loop water system architecture that separately recycles condensate, wash water, and urine and flush can improve reliability and reduce cost for a Mars base.

  6. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  7. The influence of calcium magnesium, and sodium on the spectrographic analysis of natural waters; Estudio de la influencia del calcio, magnesio y sodio en un metodo de analisis espectrografico de aguas naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Guerra, J. P.; Capdevilla, C.

    1969-07-01

    The influences of 1000 {mu}g/ml of calcium and sodium and 300 {mu}g/ml of magnesium, on the spectrographic determination of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Li , Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Ti, minor constituents in natural waters, have been studied, In order to eliminate them, the elements Ga, In, La, Ti and Zn, as well as a mixture containing 30 % Tl-70 % In, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water......While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water...... and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response relationships a range of effects from different drinking water qualities is merged into a holistic...

  9. ANALISIS DAN EVALUASI IMPLEMENTASI PENGELOLAAN KEPEMILIKAN UMUM DAN NEGARA DI INDONESIA (PENDEKATAN MADZHAB HAMFARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Murtiyani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and critically evaluate the implementation of the management of public ownership (Milkiyah 'ammah and State ownership (Milkiyah Daulah in Indonesia. This study descriptively describes the implementation of both ownerships that are currently practicing in Indonesia. Theoretical approaches used is the Islamic Economic System Madzhab Hamfara (Hadza Min fadzli Rabbi who critically evaluate the implementation of the public wealth management and state wealth in Indonesia. This research used secondary data that was obtained from Madzhab Hamfara books, literature, journal and information relating to the Indonesian State assets management system. A comparative analysis was conducted to understand the difference between the public wealth management and state wealth management in Indonesia. Findings show that the management of both, public and state ownership are not in accordance to the ownership management approach of Madzhab Hamfara Islamic Economic System. The evidence suggests that both public and state ownership are not fully managed by the Government of Indonesia. The fact shows that public ownership in the form of water, fire and pastures are managed by individuals and institutions as well as foreign parties who have fund to privatize the public ownership. Consequently, it has the impact on unequal distribution of income that cause poverty in Indonesia. This research suggest that government should implement Islamic Economic System Madzhab Hamfara in managing public and state ownership in Indonesia. =========================================== Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dan mengevaluasi secara kritis penerapan pengelolaan kepemilikan umum (Milkiyah 'Ammah dan kepemilikan negara (Milkiyah Daulah di Indonesia. Studi ini menjelaskan secara deskriptif tentang implementasi pengelolaan kedua kepemilikan tersebut yang sekarang dipraktikkan di Indonesia. Teori yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Sistem Ekonomi

  10. Monte Carlo design of a system for the detection of explosive materials and analysis of the dose; Diseno Monte Carlo de un sistema para la deteccion de materiales explosivos y analisis de la dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, P. L.; Medina C, D.; Rodriguez I, J. L.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: pabloyae_2@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The problems associated with insecurity and terrorism have forced to designing systems for detecting nuclear materials, drugs and explosives that are installed on roads, ports and airports. Organic materials are composed of C, H, O and N; similarly the explosive materials are manufactured which can be distinguished by the concentration of these elements. Its elemental composition, particularly the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen, allow distinguish them from other organic substances. When these materials are irradiated with neutrons nuclear reactions (n, γ) are produced, where the emitted photons are ready gamma rays whose energy is characteristic of each element and its abundance allows estimating their concentration. The aim of this study was designed using Monte Carlo methods a system with neutron source, gamma rays detector and moderator able to distinguish the presence of Rdx and urea. In design were used as moderators: paraffin, light water, polyethylene and graphite; as detectors were used HPGe and the NaI(Tl). The design that showed the best performance was the moderator of light water and HPGe, with a source of {sup 241}AmBe. For this design, the values of ambient dose equivalent around the system were calculated. (Author)

  11. Bacterial communities associated with an occurrence of colored water in an urban drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ting; Mi, Zi Long; Zhang, Jing Xu; Chen, Chao; Xie, Shu Guang

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate bacterial community in an urban drinking water distribution system (DWDS) during an occurrence of colored water. Variation in the bacterial community diversity and structure was observed among the different waters, with the predominance of Proteobacteria. While Verrucomicrobia was also a major phylum group in colored water. Limnobacter was the major genus group in colored water, but Undibacterium predominated in normal tap water. The coexistence of Limnobacter as well as Sediminibacterium and Aquabacterium might contribute to the formation of colored water. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and ambient temperature as the input factors and daily water intake values as the output factor. The reasoning mechanism of the fuzzy system can calculate the recommended value of daily water intake. Finally, the system will compare the actual recommended values with our system to determine the usefulness. The experimental results show that this recommendation system is effective in actual application.

  13. Hydrodynamic, geochemical and isotopic analysis for the assessment of low temperature hydrothermal systems in the Argentine plain; Analisis hidrodinamico, geoquimico e isotopico de base para la evaluacion de sistemas hidrotermales de baja temperatura en la llanura cordobesa (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, A.; Blarasin, M.; Matteoda, E.

    2010-07-01

    A hydrogeological model of the low temperature aquifer system in the South of the pampean plain is presented, with emphasis on dynamic, geochemical and isotopic groundwater studies. Isotopic analysis ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H and {sup 3}H) and geothermometers (SiO{sub 2}, Na/K, Na/K/Ca, Na/Li and Mg/Li) were used. The area is part of the lower megablock associated to a geological regional fault system (N-S). The deep aquifers are related to a multilayer sedimentary system associated with different stages of a Tertiary fluvial network. Three deep multilayer aquifers were defined taking into account hydraulic behaviors, depths and groundwater quality. The two shallower and less confined aquifers had higher salinities and similar isotopic composition to the unconfined aquifer (-4.8 {per_thousand}{approx}{delta}{sup 18}O; {delta}{sup 2}H{approx}-30 {per_thousand}) suggesting hydraulic connection between them. The deepest and more confined level, showed water more fresh and a more impoverished isotopic composition (-6.6 {per_thousand}{approx}{delta}{sup 18}O; {delta}{sup 2}H{approx}-43 {per_thousand}), suggesting allochthonous recharge. In this deepest level, the sulphate water type and hydraulic estimations suggest aging from recharge areas, which is supported by very low {sup 3}H values ({approx} 1.5{+-}0.4 UT). The groundwater has temperatures ({<=} 35.8 C) exceeding up to 10 C those expected by the laying depths. The geothermal anomaly, according to the regional tectonic model, is due to a possible cortical thinning, the probable presence of deep granitic rocks (U, Th, K) which would have capacity to produce high internal radiogenic heat and the geological faults that facilitate the circulation of water at different depths. (Author).

  14. Theory and model of water resources complex adaptive allocation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJianshi; WANGZhongjing; WENGWenbin

    2003-01-01

    Complex adaptive system theory is a new and important embranchment of system science,which provides a new thought to research water resources allocation system.Based on the analysis of complexity and complex adaptive mechanism of water resources allocation system,a fire-new analysis model is presented in this paper.With the description of Dynamical mechanism of system,behavior characters of agents and the evalustion method of system status,an integrity research system is built to analyse the evolvement rule of water resources allocation system.And a brief research for the impact of water resources allocation in beneficial regions of the Water Transfer from south to North China Project is conducted.

  15. PENERAPAN TEORI ATRIBUSI WEINER UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN ANALISIS PENDAPATAN NASIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Suwandi

    2012-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk; (1) meningkatkan pemahaman tentang analisis pendapatan nasional dengan menerapkan Teori Atribusi Weiner, (2) sejauh mana peningkatan hasil belajar mahasiswa dari penerapan Teori Atribusi Weiner, dan (3) bagaimana tanggapan mahasiswa terhadap penerapan Teori Atribusi Weiner. Penelitian tindakan kelas ini menggunakan model alir dari Kemmis dan Taggart yang terdiri dari kegiatan perencanaan, tindakan, observasi dan refleksi. Subjek penelitian Mahasiswa semester...

  16. THE DEMINERALIZED WATER SYSTEM FOR THE NRL CYCLOTRON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    handling system was considered impractical to handle this heat load. Therefore, the demineralized water system for the NRL Sector-Focusing Cyclotron...decided to run the water system on a continuous basis. Continuous operation can be dangerous, because it can cause a large leak to occur, but this

  17. Drinking-water safety: challenges for community-managed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizak, S; Hrudey, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    A targeted review of documented waterborne disease outbreaks over the past decades reveals some recurring themes that should be understood by drinking-water suppliers. Evidence indicates the outbreaks are often linked to some significant change in conditions that provides a sudden challenge to a water system. Severe weather events, such as heavy rainfall or runoff from snow melt, as well as treatment process and system changes, are common risk factors for drinking-water outbreaks. Failure to recognise warning signs and complacency are important contributors to drinking water becoming unsafe. Drinking-water suppliers must focus on competence and vigilance in maintaining effective multiple barriers appropriate to the challenges facing the drinking-water system. Understanding the risk factors and failure modes of waterborne disease outbreaks is an essential component for effective management of community drinking-water supplies and ensuring the delivery of safe drinking-water to consumers.

  18. Thermal behaviour analysis and simulation of a two-pipe heat exchanger used as heat recoverer in an absorption system; Analisis y simulacion del comportamiento termico de un intercambiador de doble tubo utilizado como recuperador en un sistema de absorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Iglesias, Jesus; Vazquez, Manuel [Universidad de Vigo (Spain). Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos

    1996-07-01

    The paper describes the analysis of the thermal behaviour of a two-pipe heat exchanger used as a heat recoverer between the weak and strong solutions in an ammonium-water absorption refrigeration system. A mathematical model based on the general energy equation is set and implemented by using the Finite Difference Method. The numerical results show the shortness of the transient period and let know the influence of the design relevant parameters on the heat transfer rate and the heat exchanger effectiveness. (author)

  19. Unit process engineering for water quality control and biosecurity in marine water recirculating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-intensity systems that treat and recirculate water must maintain a culture environment that can sustain near optimum fish health and growth at the design carrying capacity. Water recirculating systems that use centralized treatment systems can benefit from the economies of scale to decrease th...

  20. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  1. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  2. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  3. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER — BASIN WATER HIGH EFFICIENCY ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Basin Water System was conducted over a 54-day period between April 4, 2005 and May 28, 2005. The test was conducted at the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District (EVMWD) Corydon Street Well in Lake Elsinore, California. The source water was a raw gr...

  4. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  5. ANALISIS KINERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN RASIO CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murdiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis tingkat kesehatan bank dilihat dari kategori CAMEL. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus di PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo.Dalam menguji hipotesis digunakan alat analisis CAMEL. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu modal pada 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat. ROA meningkat 2008 sampai 2010 dengan kriteria sehat bagi biaya operasional yang dikeluarkan oleh pendapatan operasional yang seimbang. Rasio Kas tahun 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat berarti bank memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola asset yang digunakan untuk membayar kewajiban. LDR mengalami tren yang signifikan selama tahun 2008 sampai 2010 sehingga dana yang diterima bank untuk meningkatkan baik tabungan, deposito berjangka, modal inti, yang berarti kemampuan bank untuk meningkatkan penyaluran kredit, IRR menunjukan nilai positif dalam menghadapi resiko pasar.Pengembangan tingkat kesehatan pada tahun 2008 sampai 2010 untuk komponen Capital, Assets, Laba dan Likuiditas meningkat. The goal of this research is to analyze the healtiness of banks seen from CAMEL category. The research applied a case study in PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo. The hypotheses tested using CAMEL analysis tools. The result of the study is that the modal used 2008 until 2010 is consideredin a healthy criteria. The increasing ROA in 2008 until 2010 is considered healthy criteria for operational expenses incurred by the operating income. Such condition meant that the banks are able to manage the assets which are used to pay the obligations. The significant increasing of LDR over the years 2008 until 2010 makes the received funds by the bank to increase the savings deposits, time deposits and the core capital. As the recunts, the banks are able to increase credit disstribution. More over, the IRR showed a positive values in the face of market risks and the development of healthy levels in 2008 until 2010 for the components of Capital, Assets, Earnings and

  6. ANALISIS FAKTOR DAYA SAING DI KABUPATEN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Handriani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jika perusahaan dapat mengoptimalkan penggunaan sumberdaya maka perusahaan mampu menghasilkan sustained competitive advantage. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuktikan bahwa faktor internal dan eksternal, keterampilan pengusaha dan strategi yang diterapkan dalam UKM Kabupaten Semarang berpengaruh terhadap keunggulan kompetitif baik secara simultan dan parsial. Pengusaha mikro memiliki potensi besar dalam ekonomi nasional dan lokal sesuai dengan periode pasar bebas. Namun, etos dan persaingan masih dalam tingkat rendah. Penyebab utama dari masalah ini berasal dari faktor tenaga lingkungan, di antaranya adalah faktor internal dan eksternal keterampilan pengusaha, strategi, dan etos. Sebuah strategi yang akurat diperlukan untuk memecahkan masalah ini. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 60 pengusaha mikro melalui empat variabel dependen dan satu variabel independen dengan menggunakan alat analisis statistik program SPSS. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa faktor internal dan eksternal, keterampilan pengusaha, strategi dan etos telah signifikan berpengaruh pada keunggulan kompetitif yang diterapkan oleh pengusaha mikro di Kabupaten Semarang secara parsial maupun simultan. The purpose of this research is to attest that internal and external factor, entrepreneur skill and strategy which applied in the UKM of Kabupaten Semarang are influence to the competitive advantage simultaneously and partially. Micro entrepreneur has great potency in the national and local economic according to this free market period. However, it is ethos and competition still in the low level. The main cause of this problem come up from environmental exertion factor, among them are internal and external factor the entrepreneur skill, strategy, and ethos. An accurate strategy is needed to solve this problem. This research has been done on 60 micro entrepreneurs through four dependent variables and one independent variable using to SPSS statistic program. The result shown that

  7. ANALISIS KINERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN RASIO CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murdiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis tingkat kesehatan bank dilihat dari kategori CAMEL. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus di PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo.Dalam menguji hipotesis digunakan alat analisis CAMEL. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu modal pada 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat. ROA meningkat 2008 sampai 2010 dengan kriteria sehat bagi biaya operasional yang dikeluarkan oleh pendapatan operasional yang seimbang. Rasio Kas tahun 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat berarti bank memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola asset yang digunakan untuk membayar kewajiban. LDR mengalami tren yang signifikan selama tahun 2008 sampai 2010 sehingga dana yang diterima bank untuk meningkatkan baik tabungan, deposito berjangka, modal inti, yang berarti kemampuan bank untuk meningkatkan penyaluran kredit, IRR menunjukan nilai positif dalam menghadapi resiko pasar.Pengembangan tingkat kesehatan pada tahun 2008 sampai 2010 untuk komponen Capital, Assets, Laba dan Likuiditas meningkat. The goal of this research is to analyze the healtiness of banks seen from CAMEL category. The research applied a case study in PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo. The hypotheses tested using CAMEL analysis tools. The result of the study is that the modal used 2008 until 2010 is consideredin a healthy criteria. The increasing ROA in 2008 until 2010 is considered healthy criteria for operational expenses incurred by the operating income. Such condition meant that the banks are able to manage the assets which are used to pay the obligations. The significant increasing of LDR over the years 2008 until 2010 makes the received funds by the bank to increase the savings deposits, time deposits and the core capital. As the recunts, the banks are able to increase credit disstribution. More over, the IRR showed a positive values in the face of market risks and the development of healthy levels in 2008 until 2010 for the components of Capital, Assets, Earnings and

  8. Online location of seismic damage to a water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建文

    2003-01-01

    As one of the most important urban lifeline systems, a water distribution system can be damaged under a strong earthquake, and the damage cannot easily be located, especially immediately after the event. This often causes tremendous difficulties to post-earthquake emergency response and recovery activities. This paper proposes a methodology to locate seismic damage to a water distribution system by monitoring watcr head online at some nodes in the water distribution system. An artificial neural network-based inverse analysis method is developed to estimate the water head variations at all nodes that are not monitored based on the water head variations at the nodes that are monitored. The methodology provides a quick, effective, and practical way to locate seismic damage to a water distribution system.

  9. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  10. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mertz

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10{sup -3} that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  11. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  12. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  13. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  14. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  15. Conceptual design for the National Water Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.D.; Putnam, A.L.; Hutchison, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey began the design and development of a National Water Information System (NWIS) in 1983. The NWIS will replace and integrate the existing data systems of the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, National Water Data Exchange, National Water-Use Information Program, and Water Resources Scientific Information Center. The NWIS has been designed as an interactive , distributed data system. The software system has been designed in a modular manner which integrates existing software functions and allows multiple use of software modules. The data of the existing water data, water use data, and water data indexing information by using a common relational data base management system. The NWIS will be operated on microcomputers located in each of the Water Resources Division 's District offices and many of its state, subdistrict, and field offices. The microcomputers will be linked together through a national telecommunication network maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The NWIS is scheduled to be placed in operation in 1990. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  17. Design of Simple Water Treatment System for Cleaning Dirty Water in the Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Haristiani, N.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce our simple home-made water treatment system for solving the clean water supply problem in rural area. We designed a water system using several materials: activated sand, activated carbon, manganese, and zeolite. As a model, we investigated the water treatment system on two wells that placed in one of the rural area (far from the main city) in West Java, Indonesia. Experimental results showed that our designed water treatment system succeeded to purify dirty water and the properties and the chemical composition of the purified water is fit with the minimum standard requirement of clean water. Analysis and discussion about the way for the cleaning water process were also presented in the paper. Finally, since the wells are installed in the elementary school and the water is typically used for daily life activity for the neighbour people, this water system can be used for educational purposes and the school can become a center of life in this rural area.

  18. La ideologia del emprendimiento. Una mirada desde el analisis critico del discurso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ararat Herrera, Jaime Andres

    2010-01-01

    .... Se trata de examinar, mediante un enfoque cualitativo y una metodologia de Analisis Critico del Discurso, la "construccion" de tales posturas mediante las practicas discursivas de los encargados...

  19. Representando intereses nacionales? Un analisis del senado Colombiano 2006-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montilla, Paola

    2011-01-01

    .... El analisis plantea que el anclaje regional de los partidos tradicionales, los caciquismos departamentales y las caracteristicas del sistema electoral han desalentado las proposiciones nacionales.

  20. Preliminary analysis of the inclusion of security passive systems to reduce the impact of accidents in nuclear power plants; Analisis preliminar de la inclusion de sistemas pasivos de seguridad para reducir el impacto de accidentes en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: jersonsanchez@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (MX)

    2011-11-15

    In this work is presented a conceptual analysis of possible benefits and limitations that potentially represents the introduction of security passive systems to reduce the events impact of very low probability and high risk to the systems of radioactive material confinement of a light water reactor. These events are related with the possibility that a hydrogen explosion is presented as consequence of the accumulation of the same hydrogen in the contention of the reactor, in a scenario of severe accident. This accumulated hydrogen can be liberated in the reactor building or primary contention, where the conditions of their atmosphere make but prone the combustion. The catalytic recombination represents a viable option for the hydrogen concentrations decrease and because this recombination is highly exothermic, is important to analyze and to know if the recombined vapor to high temperature can be used in combination with vapor injectors that in turn, they are passive systems. In the following sections an explanation is presented about the use of the mentioned systems, as well as some results on the behavior of the vapor injectors. (Author)

  1. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the general construction schedule of the BRIF project, the water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2012, its progress can be summarized as follows. 1) Inside wiring of 7 water distribution cabinets were completed. 2) Manufacturer selection of circulating water cooling unit and deionized water production equipment was decided after market survey and bidding process. The contracts were formally signed in February. The deionized water production equipment was ready in May and the circulating water cooling

  2. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  3. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  4. Analisis de los factores que influyen en la explosividad del polvo de carbon en las minas subterraneas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baquero, K; Blandon, A; Molina J

    2012-01-01

    .... A las muestras de polvo de carbon se les efectuaron los analisis de explosividad, y a las de los mantos, se les hicieron los analisis proximos, granulometricos, petrograficos, del punto de ignicion...

  5. Application of the integrated analysis of safety (IAS) to sequences of Total loss of feed water in a PWR Reactor; Aplicacion del Analisis Integrado de Seguridad (ISA) a Secuencias de Perdidas Total de Agua de Alimentacion en un Reactor PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Chamorro, P.; Gallego Diaz, C.

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to show the current status of the implementation of integrated analysis of safety (IAS) methodology and its SCAIS associated tool (system of simulation codes for IAS) to the sequence analysis of total loss of feedwater in a PWR reactor model Westinghouse of three loops with large, dry containment.

  6. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  7. Water Treatment Systems Make a Big Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In the 1960s, NASA's Manned Space Center (now known as Johnson Space Center) and the Garrett Corporation, Air Research Division, conducted a research program to develop a small, lightweight water purifier for the Apollo spacecraft that would require minimal power and would not need to be monitored around-the-clock by astronauts in orbit. The 9-ounce purifier, slightly larger than a cigarette pack and completely chlorine-free, dispensed silver ions into the spacecraft s water supply to successfully kill off bacteria. A NASA Technical Brief released around the time of the research reported that the silver ions did not impart an unpleasant taste to the water. NASA s ingenuity to control microbial contamination in space caught on quickly, opening the doors for safer methods of controlling water pollutants on Earth.

  8. Mesoscopic Simulation of Aggregates in Surfactant/Oil/Water Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑世领; 蔡政亭; 徐桂英

    2003-01-01

    The aggregates in sodium dedecylsulphate(SDS)/dimethylbenzene/water systems have been investigated using dissipative particles dynamic(DPD) simulation method.Through analyzing three-dimensional structures of aggregates,three simulated results are found.One is the phase separation,which is clearly observed by water density and the aggregates in the simulated cell;another is the water morphology in reverse micelle,which can be found through the isodensity slice of water including bound water,trapped water and bulky water;the third is about the water/oil interface,i.e.,ionic surfactant molecules,SDS,prefer to exist in the interface between water and oil phase at the low concentraion.

  9. Optimal Dispatching of Large-scale Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of optimal control techniques in large-scale water distribution networks. According to the network characteristics and actual state of the water supply system in China, the implicit model, which may be solved by utilizing the hierarchical optimization method, is established. In special, based on the analyses of the water supply system containing variable-speed pumps, a software tool has been developed successfully. The application of this model to the city of Shenyang (China) is compared to experiential strategy. The results of this study show that the developed model is a very promising optimization method to control the large-scale water supply systems.

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  11. Lyophilization for Water Recovery III, System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids that remain. Our previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground- based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents results of functional and performance tests.

  12. ANALISIS KONDISI TERAS REAKTOR DAYA MAJU AP1000 PADA KECELAKAAN SMALL BREAK LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KONDISI TERAS REAKTOR DAYA MAJU AP1000 PADA KECELAKAAN SMALL BREAK LOCA. Kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kehilangan pendingin (loss of coolant accident / LOCA dari sistem reaktor merupakan kejadian dasar desain yang tetap diantisipasi dalam desain reaktor daya yang mengadopsi teknologi Generasi II hingga IV. LOCA ukuran kecil (small break LOCA memiliki dampak yang lebih signifikan terhadap keselamatan dibandingkan LOCA ukuran besar (large break LOCA seperti terlihat pada kejadian Three-Mile Island (TMI. Fokus makalah adalah pada analisis small break LOCA pada reaktor daya maju Generasi III+ yaitu AP1000 dengan mensimulasikan tiga kejadian pemicu yaitu membukanya katup Automatic Depressurization System (ADS secara tak disengaja, putusnya salah satu pipa Direct Vessel Injection (DVI secara double-ended, dan putusnya pipa lengan dingin dengan diameter bocoran 10 inci. Metode yang digunakan adalah simulasi kejadian pada model AP1000 yang dikembangkan secara mandiri menggunakan program perhitungan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4. Dampak yang ingin dilihat adalah kondisi teras selama terjadinya small break LOCA yang terdiri dari pembentukan mixture level dan transien temperatur kelongsong bahan bakar. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa mixture level untuk semua kejadian small break LOCA berada di atas tinggi teras aktif yang menunjukkan tidak terjadinya core uncovery. Adanya mixture level berpengaruh pada transien temperatur kelongsong yang menurun dan menunjukkan pendinginan bahan bakar yang efektif. Hasil di atas juga identik dengan hasil perhitungan program lain yaitu NOTRUMP. Keefektifan pendinginan teras juga disebabkan oleh berfungsinya injeksi pendingin melalui fitur keselamatan pasif yang menjadi ciri reaktor daya AP1000. Secara keseluruhan, hasil analisis menunjukkan model AP1000 yang telah dikembangkan dengan RELAP5 dapat digunakan untuk keperluan analisis kecelakaan dasar desain pada reaktor daya maju AP1000. Kata kunci: analisis

  13. Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Jaruco-Aguacate Aquifer; Analisis hidrodinamico del acuifero Jaurco-Aguacate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilla Salvador, Felix [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas (Cuba)

    2002-03-01

    The paper shows the hydrodynamic analysis of the Jaruco-Aguacate aquifer using an unsteady groundwater flow mathematical model. The simulation includes conditions before and after pumping from a well filed, called El Gato, which is considered, as the most important water source for Havana city. The system is closed to the sea and conformed by an unconfined karstic aquifer with a well defined storage zone; its natural discharge flows through two spring groups. Results obtained with the model for the main spring discharge are near to the measured values, i. e. around 5 m{sup 3}/dec as the mean value for the period without main pumping station. Flow is reduced to 2.5-1.5 m{sup 3}/sec during pumping period but there are no data to confirm this result. Besides, a detailed study of the open boundary of the system is done when piezometric head variation in time is known. The mathematical modelling has been able to simulate the aquifer in its most general conception, in its regional as well as local representation, with a mean deviation of simulated head from observed values less than one meter in both analysed simulated periods. [Spanish] El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar un analisis hidrodinamico del acuifero Jaruco-Aguacate antes y despues de la puesta en marcha del acueducto el Gato, una de las fuentes de abasto mas importantes de la ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, basado en un modelo matematico de simulacion de flujo subterraneo transitorio bidimensional. El acuifero es una llanura carstica cerrada al mar y libre; hacia su centro, la zona de almacenamiento esta bien definida; el sistema de descarga natural realiza por medio de dos grupos de manantiales. El resultado obtenido para el gasto del manantial coincide con los valores aforados para un valor medio de 5 m{sup 3}/seg en el periodo analizado antes del funcionamiento del acueducto, pero su valor se reduce, variando desde 2.5 a 1.5 m{sup 3}/seg, en el periodo posterior, sin embargo, no existe informacion para

  14. Joint optimization of regional water-power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Cardenal, Silvio J.; Mo, Birger; Gjelsvik, Anders; Riegels, Niels D.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Energy and water resources systems are tightly coupled; energy is needed to deliver water and water is needed to extract or produce energy. Growing pressure on these resources has raised concerns about their long-term management and highlights the need to develop integrated solutions. A method for joint optimization of water and electric power systems was developed in order to identify methodologies to assess the broader interactions between water and energy systems. The proposed method is to include water users and power producers into an economic optimization problem that minimizes the cost of power production and maximizes the benefits of water allocation, subject to constraints from the power and hydrological systems. The method was tested on the Iberian Peninsula using simplified models of the seven major river basins and the power market. The optimization problem was successfully solved using stochastic dual dynamic programming. The results showed that current water allocation to hydropower producers in basins with high irrigation productivity, and to irrigation users in basins with high hydropower productivity was sub-optimal. Optimal allocation was achieved by managing reservoirs in very distinct ways, according to the local inflow, storage capacity, hydropower productivity, and irrigation demand and productivity. This highlights the importance of appropriately representing the water users' spatial distribution and marginal benefits and costs when allocating water resources optimally. The method can handle further spatial disaggregation and can be extended to include other aspects of the water-energy nexus.

  15. Water activities of polymeric membrane/water systems in fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Ji Yun; Bae, Young Chan [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang Kook [Division of Chemical Engineering and Center for Information and Communication Material, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2006-07-03

    A new equation of state (EOS) is established to describe water activities of polymeric membrane/water systems in fuel cell. It is developed based on the modified perturbed hard-sphere-chain (PHSC) EOS by introducing a new perturbation equation that is obtained from the generalized Lennard-Jones (GLJ) potential function based on a statistical-mechanical relationship. Experimentally observed water activities of polymeric electrolyte/water systems are interpreted by the proposed model. The values calculated from the proposed model are in a good agreement with the experimental data for given systems. (author)

  16. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  17. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  18. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  19. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  20. WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

  1. Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

  2. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  3. Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.

    2010-01-01

    A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

  4. A water-renewal system that accurately delivers small volumes of water to exposure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, D. C.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a system that can accurately deliver small volumes of water (50 ml per cycle) to eight 300-ml beakers. The system is inexpensive <$100), easy to build (<8 h), and easy to calibrate (<15 min), and accurately delivers small volumes of water (<5% variability).

  5. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  6. LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions is presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a Dump-type because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

  7. Classifications of central solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J. Y.; Hao, B.; Peng, C.; Wang, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there are many means by which to classify solar domestic hot water systems, which are often categorized according to their scope of supply, solar collector positions, and type of heat storage tank. However, the lack of systematic and scientific classification as well as the general disregard of the thermal performance of the auxiliary heat source is important to DHW systems. Thus, the primary focus of this paper is to determine a classification system for solar domestic hot water systems based on the positions of the solar collector and auxiliary heating device, both respectively and in combination. Field-testing data regarding many central solar DHW systems demonstrates that the position of the auxiliary heat source clearly reflects the operational energy consumption. The consumption of collective auxiliary heating hot water system is much higher than individual auxiliary heating hot water system. In addition, costs are significantly reduced by the separation of the heat storage tank and the auxiliary heating device.

  8. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  9. Analisis Pembiayaan Kesehatan Keluarga Penderita Talasemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Kurniawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pembiayaan kesehatan sekitar 146 (60% penderita talasemia di Banyumas, tahun 2011 ditanggung rumah tangga dalam bentuk pembayaran langsung (out of pocket payment. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ability to pay, willingness to pay, dan need assessment pembiayaan kesehatan penderita talasemia di Kabupaten Banyumas. Jenis penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan rancangan studi kasus. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain studi cross sectional dengan teknik pengambilan sampel simple random sampling. Jumlah sampel penelitian 30 responden yang mempunyai anggota keluarga penderita talasemia di Kabupaten Banyumas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keluarga penderita talasemia mempunyai ability to pay rata-rata adalah Rp34.448,8/bulan dan rata-rata willingness to pay pengobatan talasemia adalah Rp133.833,3/ bulan. Pola pembiayaan kesehatan talasemia di Kabupaten Banyumas menggunakan 93,3% Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Jamkesmas, 3,3% biaya sendiri, dan 3,3% asuransi kesehatan. Sebelum mendapatkan Jamkesmas, 90,0% responden membayar dengan out of pocket, berhutang, berhemat pada kebutuhan nonkesehatan, dan menjual perhiasan/sawah. Kebutuhan pelayanan kesehatan yang diharapkan keluarga penderita talasemia adalah konsultasi talasemia dan desain khusus ruang perawatan anak. Kebutuhan pembiayaan kesehatan keluarga penderita talasemia adalah uang transportasi ke rumah sakit sebagai bentuk biaya tidak langsung. Health financing of majority thalassemia patients, around 146 people (60% in Banyumas year 2011 is assured by Households in direct payments to health care providers (out-of-pocket payment. This study aimed to analyze the ability to pay, willingness to pay, and need assessment of health financing thalassemia in Banyumas. This research an analytic observation- Analisis Pembiayaan Kesehatan Keluarga Penderita Talasemia Health Financing Analysis of Thalassemia Patient Family Arif Kurniawan, Arih Diyaning Intiasari al with case study design

  10. ANALISIS TRANSIEN PADA FIXED BED NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizaal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Desain teras Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR yang modular memungkinkan pengendalian daya dapat dilakukan dengan mengatur ketinggian suspended core dan laju aliran massa pendingin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari perubahan daya termal teras sebagai akibat perubahan laju aliran massa pendingin yang masuk ke teras reaktor dan perubahan ketinggian suspended core serta mempelajari karakteristik keselamatan melekat yang dimiliki FBNR saat terjadi kegagalan pelepasan kalor (loss of heat sink. Keadaan neutronik teras dimodelkan pada kondisi tunak dengan menggunakan paket program Standard Reactor Analysis Code (SRAC untuk memperoleh data fluks neutron, konstanta grup, fraksi neutron kasip, konstanta peluruhan prekursor neutron kasip, dan beberapa parameter teras penting lainnya. Selanjutnya data tersebut digunakan pada perhitungan transien sebagai syarat awal. Analisis transien dilakukan pada tiga kondisi, yaitu saat terjadi penurunan laju aliran massa pendingin, saat terjadi penurunan ketinggian suspended core, dan saat terjadi kegagalan sistem pelepasan kalor. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju aliran massa pendingin sebesar 50%, dari kondisi normal, menyebabkan daya termal teras turun 28% dibanding daya sebelumnya. Penurunan ketinggian suspended core sebesar 30% dari ketinggian normal menyebabkan daya termal teras turun 17% dibanding daya sebelumnya. Sementara untuk kondisi kegagalan sistem pelepasan kalor, daya termal teras mengalami penurunan sebesar 76%. Dengan demikian, pengendalian daya pada FBNR dapat dilakukan dengan mengatur laju aliran massa pendingin dan ketinggian suspended core, serta keselamatan melekat yang handal pada kondisi kegagalan sistem pelepasan kalor. Kata kunci: FBNR, transien, daya, laju aliran massa, suspended core Modular in design enables Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR power controlled by the adjustment of suspended core and coolant flow rate. The main purposes of this paper

  11. Performance of chromatographic systems to model soil-water sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2012-08-24

    A systematic approach for evaluating the goodness of chromatographic systems to model the sorption of neutral organic compounds by soil from water is presented in this work. It is based on the examination of the three sources of error that determine the overall variance obtained when soil-water partition coefficients are correlated against chromatographic retention factors: the variance of the soil-water sorption data, the variance of the chromatographic data, and the variance attributed to the dissimilarity between the two systems. These contributions of variance are easily predicted through the characterization of the systems by the solvation parameter model. According to this method, several chromatographic systems besides the reference octanol-water partition system have been selected to test their performance in the emulation of soil-water sorption. The results from the experimental correlations agree with the predicted variances. The high-performance liquid chromatography system based on an immobilized artificial membrane and the micellar electrokinetic chromatography systems of sodium dodecylsulfate and sodium taurocholate provide the most precise correlation models. They have shown to predict well soil-water sorption coefficients of several tested herbicides. Octanol-water partitions and high-performance liquid chromatography measurements using C18 columns are less suited for the estimation of soil-water partition coefficients.

  12. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  13. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ooshaksaraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

  14. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  15. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  16. Regional Water System Vulnerabilities and Strengths for Unavoidable Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Palaniappan, M.; Christian-Smith, J.; Cooley, H.

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of options are available to help water systems prepare and adapt for unavoidable climate impacts, but these options vary depending on region, climatic conditions, economic status, and technical infrastructure in place. Drawing on case studies from the United States, India, and elsewhere, and from both urban and agricultural water systems, risks to water supply and quality are evaluated and summarized and categories of responses to help improve the effectiveness of adaptation policies are reviewed. Among the issues to be discussed are characteristics unique to developing country cities, such as the predominance of informal actors in the water sector. The formal, or government sector, which often exclusively manages water access and distribution in developed country cities, is only one among many players in the water sector in developing country cities. Informal access to water includes direct access by individuals through private groundwater systems, private water markets using vendors or sales of bottled water, and rainwater harvesting systems on individual homes. In this environment, with already existing pressures on water availability and use, the impacts of climate change on water will be strongly felt. This complicates planning for water supply and demand and risks increasing already prevalent water insecurity, especially for urban poor. In wealthier countries, any planning for water-related climate impacts tends to take the form of "business as usual" responses, such as efforts to expand supply with new infrastructure, manage demand through conservation programs, or simply put off addressing the problem to the next generation of managers and users. These approaches can be effective, but also risk missing unusual, non-linear, or threshold impacts. Examples of more informed and innovative efforts to substantively address climate change risks will be presented.

  17. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  18. [Water-borne outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O8 due to a small scale water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shimizu, Miwako; Kanatani, Jun-ichi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2014-11-01

    A water-borne outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 associated with a small-scale water system occurred during July-August 2011 in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Escherichia coli was not detected in tap water from the small-scale water system. However, the maximum concentration of viable bacteria in the tap water was 700CFU/mL, which exceeds the legal standard for purity of tap water (100CFU/mL). Furthermore, Y. enterocolitica O8 was isolated from the tap water with the use of immunomagnetic beads prepared with anti-Y. enterocolitica O8 antibodies. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified 3 isolates from tap water and 5 isolates from 4 patient stool specimens as belonging to the outbreak strain. An epidemiological investigation revealed improper management of the residual chlorine concentration in the tap water. This is the first report of an outbreak of Y. enterocolitica due to tap water from a small-scale water system in Japan.

  19. [Methods of disinfection of water systems in dental units by water chlorination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, N E; Henriksen, K

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple disinfection method to reduce the content of bacteria in the water system of dental units to an acceptable level. The study was carried out at the Royal Dental College, Copenhagen on 250 dental units. Samples of the cooling water to the ultrasonic scalers and of the water to the water glasses were obtained from eight different units representing different parts of the school. Disinfection of the water system was carried out by addition of chlorine to the pipe water near the main water intake to the institution. The chlorination af the water was automatically regulated, and the installation was so flexible that the concentration of chlorine and the time and frequency of the chlorination could be varied. Different modes of dosage of chlorine were examined. Before chlorination the bacterial content in the water system of the units was about 10(4)-10(5) c.f.u./ml. It was found that an intermittent chlorination with 0.5-1 ppm chlorine for 10 min. every day could normally reduce the bacterial counts in the water system to about a few hundreds per ml.

  20. Methods of disinfection of the water system of dental units by water chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, N E; Henriksen, K

    1988-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple disinfection method for reducing the content of bacteria in the water system of dental units to an acceptable level. The study was carried out at the Royal Dental College, Copenhagen, on 250 dental units. Samples of the cooling water supplying the ultrasonic scalers and of the water supplying the water glasses were obtained from eight different units representing different parts of the school. Disinfection of the water system was carried out by addition of chlorine to the pipe water near the institution's main water intake. The chlorination of the water was automatically regulated, and the installation was so flexible that the concentration of chlorine and the time and frequency of the chlorination could be varied. Different modes of chlorine dosage were examined. Before chlorination, the bacterial content in the water system of the units was about 10(4)-10(5) cfu/mL. It was found that an intermittent chlorination with 0.5-1 ppm chlorine for 10 minutes every day could reduce the normal bacterial counts in the water system to about a few hundred per mL.

  1. Design and installation package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains the design and installation procedure for the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's solar hot water system. Included are the system performance specifications, system design drawings, hazard analysis and other information necessary to evaluate the design and instal the system.

  2. An analysis of water data systems to inform the Open Water Data Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David L.; Read, Emily Kara; Lucido, Jessica M.; Slawecki, Tad; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Improving access to data and fostering open exchange of water information is foundational to solving water resources issues. In this vein, the Department of the Interior's Assistant Secretary for Water and Science put forward the charge to undertake an Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) that would prioritize and accelerate work toward better water data infrastructure. The goal of the OWDI is to build out the Open Water Web (OWW). We therefore considered the OWW in terms of four conceptual functions: water data cataloging, water data as a service, enriching water data, and community for water data. To describe the current state of the OWW and identify areas needing improvement, we conducted an analysis of existing systems using a standard model for describing distributed systems and their business requirements. Our analysis considered three OWDI-focused use cases—flooding, drought, and contaminant transport—and then examined the landscape of other existing applications that support the Open Water Web. The analysis, which includes a discussion of observed successful practices of cataloging, serving, enriching, and building community around water resources data, demonstrates that we have made significant progress toward the needed infrastructure, although challenges remain. The further development of the OWW can be greatly informed by the interpretation and findings of our analysis.

  3. Hydrologic response of northern wetlands to silvicultural water management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of water management systems are used to ameliorate saturated soil conditions which limit silvicultural operations and site productivity in northern wetlands. The pattern ditch system is an intensive drainage network designed to regulate water table depth in peat soils. The prescription drainage system is a low-intensity drainage system that is used to develop apparent drainage patterns in mineral and histic-mineral soils. These water management systems may either increase or decrease peak flow, base flow, and the duration of peak flow events, depending on drainage system design, climate, season, site characteristics, and land use. The most common hydrologic response to drainage is an increase in peak flow and base flow, and an increase in annual runoff. The effect of wetland drainage on watershed hydrology depends on the proportion of the watershed drained. Drainage may also affect water quality, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition and structure.

  4. Parameterizing the soil - water - plant root system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, R.A.; Raats, P.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Root water uptake is described from the local scale, to the field scale and to the regional and global scales. The local macroscopic model can be incorporated in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) numerical models, like the SWAP, HYSWASOR, HYDRUS, ENVIRO-GRO and FUSSIM models. These SPAC models

  5. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  6. Method of Distinguishing Hydrologic Drought for Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to design water supply system to adjust runoff. Thus it will not meet the practical needs if only the hydrologic drought in natural basin is studied. In practice the natural water balance and water deficits must be researched, i. e., the adjusting effects of the water supply system such as a reservoir should be considered, and the drought event be distinguished according to the special system. The problem of drought identification under adjusted runoff was investigated in this study. By considering water transfer during different periods, a method to distinguish hydrologic drought for the water supply system was developed, and a standard drought severity index SWDSI was proposed. The method has been applied in Pan Jiakou water supply system in China. From 1953 to 1997, a total of 14 hydrologic droughts were identified in the water supply system, among which there were 3 severe droughts, 6 moderate droughts and 5 light droughts. The results are in good agreement with the historic drought records.

  7. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and control system for the real time installation, programmable logic controllers with basic functions communication systems, standard interfaces or dedicated ones with proximity sensors, electrical drive elements, measuring devices, etc. In this project it is proposed to develop the PLC & SCADA based water monitoring and theft prevention. Control System is further coupled to SCADA unit .This paper focuses particularly to a control system for controlling and monitoring within a Water Distribution System. Process automation system based upon utilization of an industrial PLC and PC systems including all the network components represents the best way to improve the water distribution technological process.

  8. Robust Control of Urban Industrial Water Mismatching Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kebai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban industrial water system parameter fluctuation producing uncertainty may not occur in a control input channel, can be applied mismatching uncertain system to describe. Based on Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality, design the urban industrial water mismatching uncertain system feedback stabilization robust control scheme. Avoid the defects that the feedback stabilization control method based on the matrix Riccati equation need to preset equation parameters, easier to solve and can reduce the conservative.

  9. Field performance of photovoltaic solar water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanney, A.H.; Dougherty, B.P.; Kramp, K.P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building Environment Div.

    1997-11-01

    Energy consumed for water heating accounts for approximately 17.9 EJ of the energy consumed by residential and commercial buildings. Although there are over 90 million water heaters currently in use within the United States, durability and installation issues as well as initial cost have limited the sales of solar water heaters to less than 1 million units. Durability issues have included freeze and fluid leakage problems, failure of pumps and their associated controllers, the loss of heat transfer fluids under stagnation conditions, and heat exchanger fouling. The installation of solar water heating systems has often proved difficult, requiring roof penetrations for the piping that transports fluid to and from the solar collectors. Fanney and Dougherty have recently proposed and patented a solar water heating system that eliminates the durability and installation problems associated with current solar water heating systems. The system employs photovoltaic modules to generate electrical energy which is dissipated in multiple electric heating elements. A microprocessor controller is used to match the electrical resistance of the load to the operating characteristics of the photovoltaic modules. Although currently more expensive than existing solar hot water systems, photovoltaic solar water heaters offer the promise of being less expensive than solar thermal systems within the next decade. To date, photovoltaic solar water heating systems have been installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD and the Florida Solar Energy Center in Cocoa, FL. This paper will review the technology employed, describe the two photovoltaic solar water heating systems, and present measured performance data.

  10. Electrical load management for the California water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, B.; Lasater, I.; Blumstein, C.

    1977-07-01

    To meet its water needs California has developed an extensive system for transporting water from areas with high water runoff to areas with high water demand. This system annually consumes more than 6 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity for pumping water and produces more than 12 billion kWh/year of hydroelectric power. From the point of view of energy conservation, the optimum operation of the California water supply system would require that pumping be done at night and generation be done during the day. Night pumping would reduce electric power peak load demand and permit the pumps to be supplied with electricity from ''base load'' generating plants. Daytime hydro power generation would augment peak load power generation by fossil-fuel power plants and save fuel. The technical and institutional aspects of this type of electric power load management for water projects are examined for the purpose of explaining some of the actions which might be pursued and to develop recommendations for the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (ERCDC). The California water supply system is described. A brief description is given of various energy conservation methods, other than load management, that can be used in the management of water resources. An analysis of load management is presented. Three actions for the ERCDC are recommended: the Commission should monitor upcoming power contract negotiations between the utilities and the water projects; it should determine the applicability of the power-pooling provisions of the proposed National Energy Act to water systems; and it should encourage and support detailed studies of load management methods for specific water projects.

  11. Decision support system for economic value of irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Inas; El-Ganzori, Akram

    2012-06-01

    The mismatch between the supply and demand, inequitable distribution and the over irrigation of water consuming crops are the main constraints that are faced in the implementation of the integrated water resources management in Egypt. With water scarcity, the problem under consideration is that the current cropping pattern is not economically efficient in the utilization of the available water resource. Moreover, in consequence of the importance of the agricultural sector to the national economies, it is necessary to be aware of the economic performance of water use in the crops production. The scope of this study is to develop economic value of irrigation water maps of Egypt. The objective of the study is carried out by acquiring a Decision Support System for economic value of irrigation water of Egypt. This Decision Support System is applied for developing economic value maps for the irrigation water that is used for cultivating 45 crops under cereal, fiber, legumes, and vegetables, herbalist, and forages categories at each governorate of Egypt in year 2008 and 2009. The crops that achieve the highest and lowest economic value of irrigation water at each governorate of Egypt were identified. The reasons of the variations in the economic value of irrigation water at the governorates of Egypt were determined. The developed Decision Support System could be used yearly as a tool for demonstrating a picture about the economic value of irrigation water for the decision makers in the areas of water resources and agriculture. The developed economic value of irrigation water maps can be used in proposing a cropping pattern that maximizes the economic value of irrigation water in each governorate of Egypt.

  12. [Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements.

  13. Sustainability of urban systems and most important problems related to environmental geological components; Sostenibilita` dei sistemi urbani e principali problematiche geologico-territoriali: L`analisi di dati di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, Francesco; Basili, Mauro; Del Ciello, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-10-01

    The most important aspects of environmental geology, related to the urban syatems are analysed in this paper; the term urban system is here preferred to urban environment, since the second one refers to a part of a complex system, that comprises social, economic, etc. environments. All the possible environmental impacts have been described to evaluate how the urban system is affected by the environmental geological components. They are subdivided into urban impacts on the environment and environmental impacts on the cities. The environmental changes induced by: quarries, natural surfaces waterproofing, drained marshes, subways for transportation networks, bridges and gully-holes, topography changes, natural hollows filling up and ground piles, loss of the natural conditions for river beds, loss of soils, falls in piezometry and connected subsistence phenomena, are classified into the firdt type of impacts, also defined as anthropic risks. The pollution of soils, surface waters (marine and fluvial), groundwater and the impact of watse management and their restorage were also dealth with. The geological risks have also been analyzed as pressure factors from the environmenton the cities. They are generally interrelated and in some cases added up. The main instruments to help monitor and manage the environment are also described. They are monitoring networks that constitute a part of the Informative Environmental Systems. A great relevance is given to the indicators and indexes of the environmental quality, either for the measurement of the quality of life that for the measurement of environmental sustainability of cities. The scientific use of such indicators and indexes is presently a subject of debate world-wide. The authors consider is correct to delineate concise indexes, obtained from state indicators for the quality of life. They are represented by the umber of days/per year in which a service was suspended, or the environment didn`t present the characteristics

  14. Modeling, control and optimization of water systems systems engineering methods for control and decision making tasks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides essential background knowledge on the development of model-based real-world solutions in the field of control and decision making for water systems. It presents system engineering methods for modelling surface water and groundwater resources as well as water transportation systems (rivers, channels and pipelines). The models in turn provide information on both the water quantity (flow rates, water levels) of surface water and groundwater and on water quality. In addition, methods for modelling and predicting water demand are described. Sample applications of the models are presented, such as a water allocation decision support system for semi-arid regions, a multiple-criteria control model for run-of-river hydropower plants, and a supply network simulation for public services.

  15. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  16. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  17. Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

    2013-04-01

    United Nations global demographic prospects show that from 1950 to 2050, the number of people living in cities will increase from 0.7 to 6.3 billion, which represents a 9 times fold in 100 years. In contrast, human population as a whole doesn't show the same trends of the urban subset. For instance, rural population is in some regions almost stalled or reducing at small rates, with an average growth rate 50% less than the urban population. This progressive change in global population structure, with more people living mostly in urban areas, already places urban settlements as the main node driving the interaction of human population and other earth systems, at local, regional and global scales. This population dynamics is a major source of concern, mainly because the need to comprehensively understand the two apparent contradictory faces of the urbanization phenomena: Despite cities tend to perform more efficiently in terms of mass and energy requirements as function of population size, the agglomeration process in cities typically implies an increase of overall throughput of mass and energy over time. Thus, a central question is to understand how the apparent per capita energy and material flows minimization occurring in cities can propagate its effects towards other geosystems in future population scenarios. The magnitude of scaled (temporal and spatial) effects is crucial to determine if limits of supporting systems capacity is or will be exceeded for a system of cities, or if otherwise is within steady limits. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework aims for the study of the above question from the perspective of water. Typically between 50 and 70% of mass throughput in urban areas is water, however, that figure doesn't account for other teleconnected flows, such as energy production (hydropower facilities) and food production (virtual water), etc. Therefore, a comprehensive view of actual dependence of urban areas and water faces - in the view of the

  18. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter V. L. Hunt; Rogers, Christopher D.F.

    2014-01-01

    The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be...

  19. Analisis Kelelahan dan Hubungannya dengan Umur Material Pada Camshaft

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia Brahmana

    2006-01-01

    Tekanan yang berubah-ubah secara berulang-ulang selama selang waktu tertentu pada bahan akan mengakibatkan kegagalan akibat kelelahan, selanjutnya penyebaran keretakan dan keretakan yang semakin melebar dan sehingga mengakibatkan patah. Umur lelah dari suatu bahan dipengaruhi oleh tingkat amplitudo dari beban yang diberikan kepada bahan tersebut, dan pada umumnya kelelahan pada benjolan camshaft terjadi mulai pada 50 juta getaran. Analisis kelelahan akibat stress, strain, dan gaya memberikan ...

  20. MODEL TES DAN ANALISIS PRESTASI BELAJAR MATEMATIK SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR

    OpenAIRE

    Zamsir Zamsir

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan model tes dan analisis prestasi belajar siswa yang dapat dipakai untuk melakukan identifikasi level kemampuan dan menyusun profil pencapaian kompetensi siswa, khususnya di sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan model yang dikembangkan menyangkut dua hal, yaitu: (1) prosedur dan langkah-langkah penyusunan tes serta teknik identifikasi level kemampuan siswa, dan (2) pelaporan hasil tes. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan cara menempat...

  1. ANALISIS KONTRASTIF PADA FUNGSI BAHASA JEPANG DAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika Nuswantara; Salsabela Putri Aghnadiin

    2016-01-01

    Paper ini mencoba menguraikan ungkapan-ungkapan bahasa Jepang yang umum diajarkan pengajar bahasa Jepang pada pembelajar yang berbicara bahasa Indonesia. Teori analisis kontrastif digunakan untuk memperoleh persamaan sekaligus perbedaan antara ungkapan pada bahasa Jepang dan bahasa Indonesia. Sumber acuan data diambil dari buku ajar Marugoto A1 jilid katsudou. Diperoleh 120 data ungkapan, dan diantaranya yaitu, 97 ungkapan yang mirip, 21 ungkapan yang memiliki perbedaan, dan 2 ungkapan yang t...

  2. ANALISIS PERAN BADAN PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT DESA DI KABUPATEN BULUKUMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Muh.Nur

    2015-01-01

    2015 INTISARI MUH.NUR AKBAR NOMOR POKOK E12111603, Program Studi Ilmu Pemerintahan Kerjasama Jurusan Politik Pemerintahan, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Hasanuddin. Analisis Peran Badan Pemeberdayaan Masyarakat Desa Di Kabupaten Bulukumba. Di Bimbing Oleh Dr.H.A.Gau Kadir,MA Selaku Pembimbing I Dan Dr.HJ.Indar Arifin,M.Si Selaku Pembimbing II. Tujuan Penelitian Ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis peran Badan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Des...

  3. Uso de Analisis de Covarianza (ANCOVA en investigacion cientifica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badii, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The basics of the ANalisis of COVAriance (ANCOVA are given. The objectives and the application of ANCOVA are laid out. Techniques for the estimation of contrasts and for the control and reduction of the degree of error are discussed. The application of a simple ANCOVA using real data is highlighted. The application of this technique in fixing the auxiliary variable in experimentation is emphasized.

  4. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  5. Solar system design to heating water for a biodigester; Diseno de un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua para un biodigestor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Castro, Lucia Monica; Quinto Diez, Pedro [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: moni-80-lgc@hotmail.com; pqd510@hotmail.com; Tovar Galvez, Luis Raul [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ltovarg@ipn.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper a Solar System of Heating Water (SSHW) to provide energy to a biodigester which produces biogas located in the Interdisciplinary Center of Investigation of Studies About Environment and Development (CIIEMAD) is assessed. This evaluation is made by means of the f Method considerating the extraterrestrial radiation, the earth radiation in the zone and the necessary energy to maintain at 55 degrees Celsius the mixture inside the biodigester. The data were introduced in the SOLAR program to calculate both the harnessing area m{sup 2} and the storage capacity in L/m{sup 2}. To guarantee the good performance of the SSHW, a control and monitoring system for the temperature of the mix inside the biodigester is proposed. It also controls the input and output temperature to the solar collectors, as well as the cost analysis which shows the savings of fuel of the SSHW with a conventional system to heating water. [Spanish] En este articulo se evalua un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua (SSCA) para proveer energia a un biodigestor que forma parte del sistema de generacion de biogas (SGB) ubicado en el Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CIIEMAD). Dicha evaluacion se realiza por medio del Metodo f de diseno que considera datos de radiacion terrestre, radiacion extraterrestre sobre la zona y la energia necesaria para mantener la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor a 55 grados centigrados. Los datos fueron introducidos en el programa SOLAR para el calculo del area de captacion en m{sup 2} y la capacidad de almacenamiento en L/m{sup 2}. Para garantizar el buen funcionamiento del SSCA se propone un sistema de control y monitoreo de la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor. Tambien se controla la temperatura de entrada y salida a los colectores solares, asi como el analisis de costos que muestra el ahorro de combustible del SSCA con un sistema convencional de calentamiento de agua.

  6. Biofilms from a Brazilian water distribution system include filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, V M; Oliveira, H M B; Santos, C; Paterson, R R M; Gusmão, N B; Lima, N

    2013-03-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water can block water pipes, can cause organoleptic biodeterioration, and are a source of pathogens. There are increasing reports of the involvement of the organisms in biofilms. This present study describes a sampling device that can be inserted directly into pipes within water distribution systems, allowing biofilm formation in situ. Calcofluor White M2R staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with morphological analyses using epifluorescent microscopy were used to analyse biofilms for filamentous fungi, permitting direct observation of the fungi. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was applied to detect bacteria. Filamentous fungi were detected in biofilms after 6 months on coupons exposed to raw water, decanted water and at the entrance of the water distribution system. Algae, yeast, and bacteria were also observed. The role of filamentous fungi requires further investigations.

  7. Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Tarawneh, Tarek; Abdel-Khaleq, Rania; Lund, Jay R.

    2007-07-01

    We apply systems analysis to estimate household water use in an intermittent supply system considering numerous interdependent water user behaviors. Some 39 household actions include conservation; improving local storage or water quality; and accessing sources having variable costs, availabilities, reliabilities, and qualities. A stochastic optimization program with recourse decisions identifies the infrastructure investments and short-term coping actions a customer can adopt to cost-effectively respond to a probability distribution of piped water availability. Monte Carlo simulations show effects for a population of customers. Model calibration reproduces the distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration for conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, and finance conservation.

  8. An Advanced Microturbine System with Water-Lubricated Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Nakano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of the next-generation, high-performance microturbine system was developed for laboratory evaluation. Its unique feature is its utilization of water. Water is the lubricant for the bearings in this first reported application of water-lubricated bearings in gas turbines. Bearing losses and limitations under usage conditions were found from component tests done on the bearings and load tests done on the prototype microturbine. The rotor system using the water-lubricated bearings achieved stable rotating conditions at a rated rotational speed of 51,000 rpm. An electrical output of 135 kW with an efficiency of more than 33% was obtained. Water was also utilized to improve electrical output and efficiency through water atomizing inlet air cooling (WAC and a humid air turbine (HAT. The operation test results for the WAC and HAT revealed the WAC and HAT operations had significant effects on both electrical output and electrical efficiency.

  9. System configuration for advanced water management in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirazza, G.; Sigon, F.; Zagano, C. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Water ie required for power plant operation and electricity generation. The water demand is steadily increasing depending on the enrgy pro-capite demand, the available or innovative technologies for power generation and the need for emissions control. Water management is also required to comply with the regulatory trends and it agrees with the guidelines for the sustainable development, as recommended at the Rio conference (Agenda 21). In order to assess the design and the operating alternatives for the water system of power plants and the impact of innovative technologies, a simulation code has been developed. The ENEL proprietary WATERSOFT code is presented in this paper. Some significant results will be presented and discussed, within the frame of improving the water management and optimizing the overall performances of the actual water systems.

  10. ANALISIS KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PT. ASURANSI JIWASRAYA (PERSERO) CABANG SULAWESI SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    ARIANTY, ASTRI

    2012-01-01

    ANALISIS KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PT. ASURANSI JIWASRAYA (PERSERO) CABANG SULAWESI SELATAN COMPANY FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS PT. INSURANCE JIWASRAYA (LIMITED) SOUTH BRANCH SULAWESI Astri Arianty Prof. Dr. H. Muhammad Ali, SE., M.S Drs. Armayah Sida, M.Si Analisis terhadap kinerja keuangan perusahaan sangat penting dilakukan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana tingkat pencapaian yang telah diperoleh perusahaan sebagaimana tujuan perusahaan dalam menjalankan proses produk...

  11. Analisis Pemasaran Wortel (Studi Kasus : Desa Gajah, Kec. Simpang IV, Kab. Karo, Prop. Sumatera Utara)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Dewi Fauziah

    2012-01-01

    Penentuan daerah penelitian dilakukan secara purposive, pengambilan sampel petani dilakukan secara Stratified Random Sampling dan pengambilan sampel pedagang dilakukan secara Accidental Sampling, dengan jumlah petani sampel 30 kepala keluarga. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah anal isis deskriptif dan metode Analisis Regresi Berganda. 950304010

  12. Measurement of Water Quality Parameters for Before and After Maintenance Service in Water Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaharudin Nuraida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of major ways to obtain healthy life. Water filter system is one way to improve the water quality. However, to maintain the performance of the system, it need to undergo the maintenance service. This study evaluate the requirement of maintenance service in water filter system. Water quality was measured before and after maintenance service. Parameters measured were pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, nitrate and heavy metals and these parameters were compared with National Drinking Water Quality Standards. Collection of data were involved three housing areas in Johor. The quality of drinking water from water filter system were analysed using pH meter, turbidity meter, DR6000 and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. pH value was increased from 16.4% for before maintenance services to 30.7% for after maintenance service. Increment of removal percentage for turbidity, residual chlorine and nitrate after maintenance were 21.5, 13.6 and 26.7, respectively. This result shows that maintenance service enhance the performance of the system. However, less significant of maintenance service for enhance the removal of heavy metals which the increment of removal percentage in range 0.3 to 9.8. Only aluminium shows percentage removal for after maintenance with 92.8% lower compared to before maintenance service with 95.5%.

  13. [Soil water and its karst effect in epikarst dynamic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Qin, Xing-Ming; Jiang, Zhong-Cheng; Luo, Wei-Qun; Qi, Xiao-Fan

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the soil physical properties, soil CO2, soil water and spring water chemistry in a mature forest and a shrub in Nongla of Guangxi, China, as well as the relationships between the chemistry of soil water and spring water, aimed to understand the karst effect of the soil water in Nongla epikarst dynamic system. Significant differences were observed in the soil bulk density and non-capillary porosity under forest and shrub, which affected soil water content. The fixed CO2 in soil water had a significant negative correlation with soil CO2, and the free CO2 in soil water was 0 mg x m(-3) in the forest and 5.33 x 10(3) mg x m(-3) in the shrub. In soil water and spring water, there was a negative correlation between pH and Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- concentrations, and a positive correlation between K+, Na+, and HCO3- concentrations and organic C content. After the eluviation of rain water, the ion concentrations in leached soil water increased greatly, and accordingly, its corrosion ability enhanced greatly. The karst process in forest environment was stable and intensive, while that in shrub environment was active but weak.

  14. Review of Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghoul, M.A.; Poovanaesvaran, P.; Sopian, K.; Sulaiman, M.Y. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Brackish water are any water sources with TDS between 1000 and 15 000 mg/L. Brackish water cannot be consumed by us directly due to its high salinity. According to World Health Organization (WHO), water with salinity below 500 mg/L is acceptable as drinking water. There are quite a large number of research that had been done on BWRO. Each of them has agreed with a common design on optimum BWRO design with a slight modification in order to improve more and make a better BWRO system. BWRO systems which have been tested in real situation agree that the single stage system with module connected to reject water is the most optimum system both economically and environmentally. There is some improvement done to the design by using SWRO membrane at the second stage. This improvement increases recovery rate to about 83% and reduces boron concentration at the same time. Another design is by using hybrid combination of ultra-low and conventional RO membranes. Hybrid improves permeate quality. It is also possible to create a hybrid array by mixing membrane element types within a pressure vessel itself. Co-operating an efficient module arrangement into a complete BWRO system will reduce energy consumption. Energy-recovery device is a component that must be included in any small or large-scale systems. A small-scale RO system, without energy recovery, would typically consume two to three times more energy. This will be more for large-scale systems. While single stage system with module connected to reject water is preferred by researchers who have done real environment testing, simulation prefers to add another membrane to the reject water of the second module. This system is yet to be tested in real environment to prove its standing. (author)

  15. ANALISIS PELAYANAN KB MANDIRI WANITA USIA SUBUR BERDASARKAN STATUS EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siahaan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Penggunaan metode keluarga berencana (KB oleh Wanita Usia Subur (WUS antara lain dipengaruhi oleh faktor sosial ekonomi. Maka, masalah biaya yang harus dibayar oleh WUS untuk memperoleh pelayanan KB perludi pahami guna keberhasilan program KB Nasional. Metode: Studi menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2010, bertujuan untuk mengetahui biaya pelayanan KB yang dibayar oleh perempuan usia 10–59 tahun (WUS yang pernah kawin menurut metode KB berdasarkan status ekonomi yang bersangkutan. Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif, analisis bivariat dengan uji statistik chi-square. Hasil: Alat/obat KB disposible terbanyak yang digunakan WUS dari semua golongan status ekonomi adalah metode KB suntik, sedangkan kondom terbanyak digunakan oleh WUS dengan status ekonomi atas banyak. Sekitar 50% WUS dengan status ekonomi (SE rendah membayar biaya pelayanan KB berkisar Rp.10.000–Rp.15.000. Sementara itu WUS dengan SE atas terbanyak membayar sekitar > Rp. 20.000. Terdapat korelasi signifikan antara metode KB dengan biaya dan status ekonomi. Kesimpulan: Metode suntik masih merupakan metode pilihan bagi WUS di Indonesia dan pemilihan metode KB oleh WUS berhubungan dengan status ekonomi mereka. Oleh karena itu promosi kesehatan perlu terus digalakkan agar program KB pemerintah dengan IUD dapat lebih dikenal dan dapat diterima masyarakat. Di samping itu, diperlukan kebijakan khusus (bantuan kepada WUS dengan status ekonomi rendah sehingga IUD dapat diperoleh secara gratis atau setidaknya dengan biaya yang terjangkau.

  16. Analisis Strategi Peningkatan Layanan Sertifikasi Perangkat Telepon Seluler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Budi Andhini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardisasi sebagai unsur penunjang pembangunan mempunyai peran penting dalam usaha optimasi pendayagunaan sumber daya.Peningkatan standarisasi dan sertifikasi perangkat telekomunikasi dilaksanakan secara aktif dalam menjaga terlaksananya interkoneksi, seperti dalam Renstra KemKominfo Tahun 2010-2014. Tujuan kegiatan standardisasi telekomunikasi antara lain menjamin interoperabilitas dan interkonektivitas, mengendalikan mutu perangkat. Untuk meningkatkan penyelenggaraan sertifikasi perangkat, dilakukan kajian yang menggambarkan analisis strategi untuk meningkatkan penyelenggaraan sertifikasi telepon seluler. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, dengan format desain deskriptif kualitatif, pendekatan kualitatif matriks SWOT untuk menghasilkan strategi. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara kepada narasumber terdiri dari Direktorat Standardisasi Ditjen SDPPI, Balai Besar Pengujian Perangkat Telekomunikasi, Telkom R&D Center, kuesioner kepada pabrikan dan toko handphone. Teknis analisis data menggunakan Model Miles and Huberman, dan analisis SWOT yaitu mengidentifikasi dan menganalisis faktor Strength (kekuatan, Weakness (Kelemahan, Opportunity (Peluang dan Threat (Tantangan. Hasil pembahasan memperlihatkan strategi masing-masing kolom di matriks SWOT adalah comparative advantage meliputi Roadmap pengembangan lembaga uji, perangkat, SDM; knowledge sharing; mobilization meliputi penyusunan aturan persyaratan teknis perangkat telekomunikasi, sosialisasi, survey; Divestment/ investment : facility sharing, kompetensi SDM, sosialisasi aplikasi online; dan Damage Control meliputi penambahan SDM, uji fungsi/pretest, pertemuan rutin antara Ditstand dan Lembaga Uji.

  17. ANALISIS KEKUATAN STRUKTUR PADA KAPAL WISATA SUNGAI KALIMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dalam mengembangkan sektor pariwisata di sungai Kalimas Surabaya, salah satu diantaranya adalah pembuatan perahu wisata sungai Kalimas. Dalam perancangan kapal wisata kalimas dengan menggunakan bahan komposit FRP (Fiber Reinforcement Plastic yang menggunakan serat buatan alam yang tidak merusak ekosistem di sungai Kalimas dan memiliki kekuatan struktur kapal yang baik. Analisis perancangan struktur dalam perahu wisata sungai Kalimas yang menggunakan bahan FRP yang diterapkan pada analisis struktur konstruksi dengan menggunakan metode elemen hingga. Dimana diterapkan dengan mampu menerima beban baik dari dalam maupun luar pada perahu wisata sungai Kalimas FRP tersebut. Kemampuan kekuatan struktur yang cukup aman diijinkan, dengan nilai tengangan bending yang masih dalam nilai dibawah 67 mPa. Dimana dalam keadaan kondisi hogging maupun sagging telah dianalisis cukup aman kekuatan pada struktur perahu wisata sungai Kalimas FRP yang dapat timbul pembebanan akibat adanya manouvering tersebut, baik secara global memanjang kapal maupun struktur lokal didudukan mesin yang merupakan fokus konsentarsi utama. Untuk Struktur lokal di dudukan mesin dimana menerima beban statis dari mesin outboard maupun beban dinamis yang ditimbulkan akibat pergerakan perahu wisata Kalimas FRP tersebut. Perhitungan dengan mekanisme pembebanan distribusi merata ataupun beban terpusat merupakan faktor utama hasil analisis perancangan struktur perahu wisata sungai Kalimas yang effisien dan efektif.

  18. ANALISIS CLUSTER K-MEANS DALAM PENGELOMPOKAN KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poerwanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cluster Analysis, K-Means Algorithm, Student Classification. This study aims to classify students based on learning outcomes for subject the basic of statistics (DDS, which is measured based on attendance, task, midterm (UTS, and final exams (UAS to further used to evaluate learning for subjects that require analysis of quantitative . This study uses k-means cluster analysis to classify the students into three groups based on learning outcomes. After grouped, there are 3 people in the low category, 27 in the medium category and over 70% in the high category.Abstrak. Analisis Cluster K-Means dalam Pengelompokan Kemampuan Mahasiswa. Pene-litian ini bertujuan untuk mengelompokkan mahasiswa berdasarkan hasil belajar mata kuliah dasar-dasar statistika (DDS yang diukur berdasarkan variabel nilai kehadiran, tugas, ujian tengah semester (UTS, dan ujian akhir semester (UAS untuk selanjutnya digunakan untuk mengevaluasi pembelajaran untuk mata kuliah yang membutuhkan kemampuan analisis kuantititatif yang baik. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis cluster k-means dalam mengelompokkan mahasiswa ke dalam tiga kelompok berdasarkan hasil belajarnya. Seteleh dikelompokkan, terdapat 3 orang yang masuk pada kategori rendah, 27 orang pada kategori sedang dan lebih dari 70% pada kategori tinggi.Kata Kunci: Cluster Analysis, K-Means Algoritma, Klasifikasi Mahasiswa, Universitas Cokroaminoto Palopo

  19. Relating Water Quality and Age in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using Self-Organising Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mirjam Blokker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing water quality in drinking water distribution system is essential for public health and wellbeing, but is challenging due to the number and complexity of interacting physical, chemical and biological processes occurring within vast, deteriorating pipe networks. In this paper we explore the application of Self Organising Map techniques to derive such understanding from international data sets, demonstrating how multivariate, non-linear techniques can be used to identify relationships that are not discernible using univariate and/or linear analysis methods for drinking water quality. The paper reports on how various microbial parameters correlated with modelled water ages and were influenced by water temperatures in three drinking water distribution systems.

  20. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  1. Study on the holistic model for water resources system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianshi; WANG Zhongjing; WENG Wenbin

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Complex Adaptive System developed recently, a holistic model for water resources system is established at the basin level for analyzing water resources management and allocation of the basin. In this holistic model framework,the subsystems of the water resources system, including hydrologic components,agricultural and industrial production, human living, ecosystem and enviorenment are combined in a dynamic connection with inner variables. According to the characteristics of the holistic model framework, a nesting genetic arithmetic is employed to solve the nonlinear optimal model. The model is applied in the Yellow River basin to analyze the rational amount of diversion water for the West Line of Water Transfer Project form South China to North China and its marginal benifit.

  2. Utilizing Climate Forecasts for Improving Water and Power Systems Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Queiroz, A.; Patskoski, J.; Mahinthakumar, K.; DeCarolis, J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate forecasts, typically monthly-to-seasonal precipitation forecasts, are commonly used to develop streamflow forecasts for improving reservoir management. Irrespective of their high skill in forecasting, temperature forecasts in developing power demand forecasts are not often considered along with streamflow forecasts for improving water and power systems coordination. In this study, we consider a prototype system to analyze the utility of climate forecasts, both precipitation and temperature, for improving water and power systems coordination. The prototype system, a unit-commitment model that schedules power generation from various sources, is considered and its performance is compared with an energy system model having an equivalent reservoir representation. Different skill sets of streamflow forecasts and power demand forecasts are forced on both water and power systems representations for understanding the level of model complexity required for utilizing monthly-to-seasonal climate forecasts to improve coordination between these two systems. The analyses also identify various decision-making strategies - forward purchasing of fuel stocks, scheduled maintenance of various power systems and tradeoff on water appropriation between hydropower and other uses - in the context of various water and power systems configurations. Potential application of such analyses for integrating large power systems with multiple river basins is also discussed.

  3. MULTIOBJECTIVES ANALYSIS OF WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TAPIOCA STARCH INDUSTRY: CASE STUDY - CIAMIS DISTRICT, WEST JAVA (Analisis Multiobyektif sistem Pengelolaan Air Limbah Industri Tapioka: Studi Kasus Kabupaten Ciamis, Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Chaerul

    2014-05-01

    Ciamis district is one of the industrial centers of tapioca starch in West Java. Industry has been utilizing solid waste into by-products, fertilizers and animal feeds, but the wastewater which consist a lot of organic substances still discharged directly into the water that potentially cause water pollution. This study aims to determine the wastewater treatment system that can be applied in tapioca starch industry based on five scenarios proposed by using fuzzy goal programming approach. The first objective is the achievement of stream standard (DO-dissolved oxygen and BOD-biochemical oxygen demand and wastewater quality standards. The second objective is to minimize the cost of wastewater treatment. Wastewater treatment system that proposed, consists of a primary, secondary and collective treatment that shared by some of the industries in one segment with 20% efficiency of BOD removal for primary, 60% for secondary and 85% for collective treatment. The results show that scenario five, which consists of primary, secondary and collective wastewater treatment is chosen for all industries by considering economic and environmental aspects. There was some improvement of water quality for the Cijolang middle-stream segment with DO 7.35 mg/L and BOD 3.68 mg/L; Citanduy middle-stream segment with DO 6.24 mg/L and BOD 2.37 mg/L, and also for Citanduy down-stream segment  with DO 6.11 mg/L and BOD 5.52 mg/L. The fulfillment of BOD pollutant load limits obtained with achieving BOD concentration of 6.32 to 27.89 mg/L of each industry with total cost incurred is IDR 62,689 per day. Fuzzy goal programming approach provides a solution in achievement and as useful information for decision-makers to improve the quality of the environment, especially in the district of Ciamis. ABSTRAK Kabupaten Ciamis merupakan salah satu sentra industri tapioka di Jawa Barat. Industri tapioka menghasilkan limbah cair dan limbah padat. Pelaku industri sudah memanfaatkan limbah padat menjadi produk

  4. COMPUTER MODELING OF SELECTED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Kruszyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of computer modeling of flowsand the age of the water in two rural communi-ties province Podlasie - Rutka and Jeleniewo. The model is made using Epanet. In the study, a series of variants of models simulating the behavior of existing distribution systems and water analyzes were performed century. Analysis of the age of the water in water works modeled showed areas where standing water is aging, not having the estuary and not giving way to fresh. Age of water in the pipes is an important indicator of its quality and shelf life. The longer standing water in the aqueduct, the more likely that it will develop dangerous bacteria and produce deposits which remain on the walls of the ducts.

  5. Optimising Residential Water Heating System Performance to Minimise Water-Energy Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Silva Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption associated with domestic hot water supply services correspond to a significant portion of the total energy consumption of the urban water cycle. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of domestic water heaters in the three largest cities of Australia (i.e. Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. The performance of systems was investigated undertaking a multi-parametric analysis, in which energy efficiency indicators (i.e. energy intensity and power peaks were combined with level of service indicators (i.e. compliance rate with minimum temperature thresholds for end use points and hot water tanks. The operation of water heaters was modelled using the software EnergyPlus. Results demonstrate the need for a more holistic approach for the design and assessment of domestic water heaters taking into account not only the technology type to heat water, but also site specific aspects.

  6. Performance of materials in the component cooling water systems of pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    The component cooling water (CCW) system provides cooling water to several important loads throughout the plant under all operating conditions. An aging assessment CCW systems in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was conducted as part of Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program (NPAR) instituted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents some of the results on the performances of materials in respect of their application in CCW Systems. All the CCW system failures reported to the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) from January 1988 to June 1990 were reviewed; it is concluded that three of the main contributors to CCW system failures are valves, pumps, and heat exchangers. This study identified the modes and causes of failure for these components; most of the causes for the aging-related failures could be related to the performance of materials. Also, in this paper the materials used for these components are reviewed, and there aging mechanisms under CCW system conditions are discussed.

  7. Household Pasteurization of Drinking-water: The Chulli Water-treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Fakhrul

    2006-01-01

    A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent temperature can be maintained at approximately 70 °C. Laboratory testing, along with over 400 field tests on chulli systems deployed in six pilot villages, showed that the treatment completely inactivated thermotolerant coliforms. The chulli system produces up to 90 litres per day of treated water at the household level, without any additional time or fuel requirement. The technology has been developed to provide a safe alternative source of drinking-water in arsenic-contaminated areas, but can also have wide application wherever people consume microbiologically-contaminated water. PMID:17366777

  8. Wetlans, compact and built water treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pečečnik, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis we discuss small waste water treatment plants (WWTP) up to 2000 PE and we focus on the comparison of different types and strive to extract the best available options for Slovenian users. While different types of WWTP operate on different principles, the particularly important point of use are the enviromantal and economic aspects. In this regard, the most effective are shown to be plant and lagoon WWTP, but their use is limited by the spatial and capacity aspects. If these restr...

  9. Flood Transformation Effect of a System of Small Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Tlapák

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper resumes the investigation of transformation of watershed flow off caused by retention volumes of small water reservoirs (SWR in landscape. Based on our work experience in the field of water reservoir design and research, we know that simple system of even small fishponds disposes of nonnegligible free retention volume. We decided to verify this assumption with aid of exact determination of discharge transformation within the basin containing realized system of small water reservoirs. The input water management data for design of water reservoirs are represented by water discharge in existing stream related to the point of designed SWR. In the Czech Republic, the data are provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI, however the data refer to an unaffected discharges, i.e. without consideration of transformation effects of existing small water reservoirs within the basin. Although the total available volume for transformation purposes of investigated SWR system is relatively small, the results show the transformation effect of such reservoirs is not insignificant. Furthermore the transformation effect is raised by proper design and functionality of the whole system of water reservoirs.

  10. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  11. Effect of the Distribution System on Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to characterise the main aspects of water quality deterioration in a distribution system. The effect of residence time on chlorine uptake and the formation and evolution of disinfection by-products in distributed drinking water are discussed.

  12. Development of city water supply net information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJing; GUOShiquan; LUJun

    2003-01-01

    Through analyzing the present conditions of water supply networks technical administration files in Chongqing, this paper points out the significance and urgency for exploiting advanced water supply networks information system. It also gives the concept of GIS and some suggestions for the exploitation.

  13. Advanced control of a water supply system: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  14. University Efforts on Non-PRASA Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. EPA and InterAmerican University of San German worked with water treatment operators from Patillas, Puerto Rico on the installation, training and testing of pretreatment/UV disinfection systems in the communities of La Sophia and Apeadero. Test water s...

  15. Students' Developing Understanding of Water in Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covitt, Beth A.; Gunckel, Kristin L.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a framework of empirically grounded curricular goals for water-science literacy and documented the challenges that students face in achieving these goals. Water-related environmental science literacy requires an understanding of connected natural and human-engineered systems at multiple scales ranging from atomic-molecular…

  16. Using WNTR to Model Water Distribution System Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new open source Python package developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Sandia National Laboratories to model and evaluate resilience of water distribution systems. WNTR can be used to simulate a wide range of di...

  17. Influence of periodic water level increase on flow in Poznań Water Ways System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kałuża

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1968-1972, a project named “Rebuilding of the Poznań Water Ways System” was carried out. Within the scope of the project the Chwaliszewo Meander of the Warta river was cut off and covered. A discussion about reconstruction of Chwaliszewo Meander has been run for many years. The results of hydraulic computations of the influence of a weir on water table distribution in Poznań Water Ways System have been presented in the paper. Two different localizations of the weir were considered. Initial maximum water level of upper side of the weir was calculated. The influence of damming up on water level distribution in the Poznań Water Ways System was analysed. One-dimensional unsteady open channel flow computer systems HEC-RAS and SPRuNeR were used to carry out calculations. Building the weir, regardless of its localization, allows to raise water level in the main channel of the Warta river, increase minimum water depth and point to the architecture and recreation values of the Warta river. It is assumed that damming up is necessary only for flow rate below 100 m3/s in both localizations of the weir. The weir in focus should not create obstacles to the inland navigation and fish migration. To meet these requirements two additional hydraulic constructions must be projected: sluice and fish migration water gate.

  18. Teaching Systems Thinking in the Context of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tammy D.; Gail Jones, M.; Chesnutt, Katherine

    2017-06-01

    Complex systems affect every part of our lives from the ecosystems that we inhabit and share with other living organisms to the systems that supply our water (i.e., water cycle). Evaluating events, entities, problems, and systems from multiple perspectives is known as a systems thinking approach. New curriculum standards have made explicit the call for teaching with a systems thinking approach in our science classrooms. However, little is known about how elementary in-service or pre-service teachers understand complex systems especially in terms of systems thinking. This mixed methods study investigated 67 elementary in-service teachers' and 69 pre-service teachers' knowledge of a complex system (e.g., water cycle) and their knowledge of systems thinking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of participants. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of content assessment data and questionnaires were conducted. Results from this study showed elementary in-service and pre-service teachers applied different levels of systems thinking from novice to intermediate. Common barriers to complete systems thinking were identified with both in-service and pre-service teachers and included identifying components and processes, recognizing multiple interactions and relationships between subsystems and hidden dimensions, and difficulty understanding the human impact on the water cycle system.

  19. Effect of Substrate-Water Interaction on the Wetting Behavior in Water-Oil and Substrate-Water-Oil Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yin-quan; Zou Xian-wu; Jin Zhun-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the substrate-water interaction on the wetting behavior in water-oil and surfactant-water-oil systems confined by one substrate which has the preferential interaction to one species of particles have been investigated by using the free energy analysis and discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations. As the preferential interaction between the substrate and water particles varies from small repulsion to large attraction, the partial drying, partial wetting and complete wetting state are observed in sequence. In addition, the wetting behavior of surfactant aqueous solution on the substrate is not only dependent on the interaction, but also limited by the maximum equilibrium concentration of surfactants at the interface.

  20. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: A general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or

  1. Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature. PMID:12406720

  2. Drinking Water Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water utilities in the US using chloramine as disinfectant treatment in their distribution systems have experienced nitrification episodes, which detrimentally impact the water quality. Here, we used 16S rRNA sequencing data to generate high-resolution taxonomic profiles of...

  3. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

  4. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  5. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Utilizing a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, curtailing the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems.

  6. Collaborative Project. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Dufour, Carolina [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Rodgers, Keith B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-12-16

    The focus of this grant was on diagnosing the physical mechanisms controlling upper ocean water mass formation and carbon distribution in Earth System Models (ESMs), with the goal of improving the physics that controls their formation.

  7. use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    3Scientific Data Management Directorate, Tigray Science and. Technology Agency, Mekelle ... information system (GIS) and water quality index. (WQI). Methodology ... State, Hintalo Wajirat wereda. ..... In this research paper the application of.

  8. Use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of geographic information system and water quality index to assess ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The study area Hewane is situated in the southern zone of Tigray Regional State, ... Article Metrics.

  9. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  10. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-09-26

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that, if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems.

  11. Assessment of sorghum–cowpea intercrop system under water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... limited conditions using a decision support tool ... Planting dates (trigger season climate method, modelling and fixed date approaches), fertilizer rates (0, 50 .... cowpea intercrop system for biomass accumulation (2.1%), water.

  12. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems are large, highly interconnected and dynamic, and difficult to control. Sewer systems are also large and subject to time varying inputs and demands. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we aim to link the abundance and diversity of microorganisms to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the ecology of microorganisms within both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details of this multidisciplinary approach, and the principals behind the molecular microbiological methods and techniques that we use, this paper will demonstrate the potential of an integrated approach to better understand urban water system function and so meet future challenges.

  13. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, P.; Meyer, R.; White, James S.

    1977-01-01

    A collection of documents submitted by the Fern Engineering Company for the preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specification, system performance and other documents pertaining to the progress and the design of the system. This system, which is intended for use in the normal single-family residence, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and Government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. One of the two prototype units will be installed in Lansing, Michigan, and the other in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania.

  14. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  15. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.......The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...

  16. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the ?Water Security initiative (WSi).? The Cincinnati pilot has been f...

  17. A water management decision support system contributing to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klaudia; van Esch, Bart; Baayen, Jorn; Pothof, Ivo; Talsma, Jan; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Deltares and Eindhoven University of Technology are developing a new decision support system (DSS) for regional water authorities. In order to maintain water levels in the Dutch polder system, water should be drained and pumped out from the polders to the sea. The time and amount of pumping depends on the current sea level, the water level in the polder, the weather forecast and the electricity price forecast and possibly local renewable power production. This is a multivariable optimisation problem, where the goal is to keep the water level in the polder within certain bounds. By optimizing the operation of the pumps the energy usage and costs can be reduced, hence the operation of the regional water authorities can be more sustainable, while also anticipating on increasing share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost-effective way. The decision support system, based on Delft-FEWS as operational data-integration platform, is running an optimization model built in RTC-Tools 2, which is performing real-time optimization in order to calculate the pumping strategy. It is taking into account the present and future circumstances. As being the core of the real time decision support system, RTC-Tools 2 fulfils the key requirements to a DSS: it is fast, robust and always finds the optimal solution. These properties are associated with convex optimization. In such problems the global optimum can always be found. The challenge in the development is to maintain the convex formulation of all the non-linear components in the system, i.e. open channels, hydraulic structures, and pumps. The system is introduced through 4 pilot projects, one of which is a pilot of the Dutch Water Authority Rivierenland. This is a typical Dutch polder system: several polders are drained to the main water system, the Linge. The water from the Linge can be released to the main rivers that are subject to tidal fluctuations. In case of low tide, water can be released via the gates. In case of high

  18. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  19. Water Well Locations - MO 2010 Public Water System Wells 20 Year Groundwater Distance (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This shapefile represents the estimated distance groundwater around some public water system (PWS) wells will travel in a twenty-year period. See process description.

  20. Water Well Locations - MO 2010 Public Water System Wells Half-Mile Radius (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This shapefile represents a one-half mile radius around public water system (PWS) wells. This data set does not include wells classified as plugged, observation,...

  1. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  2. Development of the Next Generation Type Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Tachihara, Satoru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Ueoka, Terumi; Soejima, Fujito; Teranishi, Hiromitsu

    According to NASA, an astronaut living on the International Space Station (ISS) requires approximately 7 kg of water per day. This includes 2 kg of drinking water as well as sanitary fresh water for hand washing, gargling, etc. This water is carried to the space station from the earth, so when more people are staying on the space station, or staying for a longer period of time, the cost of transporting water increases. Accordingly, water is a valuable commodity, and restrictions are applied to such activities as brushing teeth, washing hair, and washing clothes. The life of an astronaut in space is not necessarily a healthy one. JAXA has experience in the research of water recovery systems. Today, utilizing knowledge learned through experiences living on the space station and space shuttles, and taking advantage of the development of new materials for device construction, it is possible to construct a new water recovery system. Therefore, JAXA and New Medican Tech Corporation (NMT) have created a system for collaborative development. Based on the technologies of both companies, we are proceeding to develop the next generation of water recovery devices in order to contribute to safe, comfortable, and healthy daily life for astronauts in space. The goal of this development is to achieve a water purification system based on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that can perform the following functions. • Preprocessing that removes ammonia and breaks down organic matter contained in urine. • Post-processing that adds minerals and sterilizes the water. • Online TOC measurement for monitoring water quality. • Functions for measuring harmful substances. The RO membrane is an ultra-low-pressure type membrane with a 0.0001 micron (0.1 nanometer) pore size and an operating pressure of 0.4 to 0.6 MPa. During processing with the RO membrane, nearly all of the minerals contained in the cleaned water are removed, resulting in water that is near the quality of deionized water

  3. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  4. The efficient use of the electric energy in underground water pumping systems in the Bajio (lowlands); El uso eficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de bombeo de agua subterranea en el Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Irapuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the Bajio region the underground water is the main source of drinking water and approximately constitutes 50% of the water used for agricultural purposes. From the energy standpoint pumping represents 33% of the electricity consumption and a wastage of 35% is estimated. In order to take care of this problem a methodology was designed for an energetic appraisal of the well pumping systems, with the basic objective of knowing the electro-mechanical efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the auxiliary equipment and the well hydraulic response. The analysis of the results of 221 diagnoses performed demonstrates the profitability of the equipment rehabilitation, plus other advantages of collective character . [Espanol] En la region del Bajio, el agua subterranea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable y aproximadamente, el 50% del agua para riego agricola; desde el punto de vista energetico, el bombeo de ella representa el 33% de la electricidad que se consume y se estima un desperdicio del 35%. Para atender la problematica, se diseno una metodologia para un diagnostico energetico de los sistemas de bombeo de los pozos, con el objetivo basico de conocer la eficiencia electro-mecanica de los equipos, el comportamiento de los equipos auxiliares y la capacidad de respuesta hidraulica del pozo. El analisis de los resultados de 221 diagnosticos realizados, pone de manifiesto la redituabilidad de la rehabilitacion de los equipos, ademas de otras ventajas de caracter colectivo.

  5. Optimization and capacity expansion of a water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Wei, Chih-Chiang; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2008-05-01

    This paper develops an iterative procedure for capacity expansion studies for water distribution systems. We propose a methodology to analyze an existing water distribution system and identify the potential bottlenecks in the system. Based on the results, capacity expansion alternatives are proposed and evaluated for improving the efficiency of water supply. The methodology includes a network flow based optimization model, four evaluation indices, and a series of evaluation steps. We first use a directed graph to configure the water distribution system into a network. The network flow based model optimizes the water distribution in the system so that different expansion alternatives can be evaluated on a comparable basis. This model lends itself to linear programming (LP) and can be easily solved by a standard LP code. The results from the evaluation tool help to identify the bottlenecks in the water distribution system and provide capacity expansion alternatives. A useful complementary tool for decision making is composed of a series of evaluation steps with the bottleneck findings, capacity expansion alternatives, and the evaluation of results. We apply the proposed methodology to the Tou-Qian River Basin, located in the northern region of Taiwan, to demonstrate its applicability in optimization and capacity expansion studies.

  6. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  7. Surface tension isotherms of the dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Dadashev, R. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.; Dadashev, I. N.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the concentration dependence of surface tension of aqueous solutions of the 1,4-dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems were given. The studies were performed by the hanging-drop method on a DSA100 tensiometer. The maximum error of surface tension was 1%. The theoretical models for calculating the surface tension of the ternary systems of organic solutions were analyzed.

  8. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development of civilian guidelines.

  9. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Olsen, R. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Hewett, M. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  10. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  11. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  12. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition.

  13. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....

  14. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....

  15. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...... radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promising results, and show large potentials, exploiting the existing water infrastructure in future climate...

  16. ANALISIS TRANSIEN PADA PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR (PCMSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Makrus Imron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan bahan bakar cair berupa garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 pada Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR meyebabkan pengendalian daya pada PCMSR dapat dilakukan dengan mengendalikan laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Sedangkan dari sistem keselamatan, penggunaan bahan bakar cair menjadikan PCMSR memiliki karakter keselamatan melekat (inherent safety yang baik. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan analisis transien PCMSR pada tiga kondisi, yaitu: ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran bahan bakar, ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran pendingin dan ketika terdapat kegagalan pada sistem pelepasan panas (loss of heat sink. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memodelkan reaktor pada kondisi tunak menggunakan paket program. Standart Reactor Analysis Code (SRAC. Selanjutnya dari keluaran paket program SRAC diperoleh data data yang meliputi fluks netron,konstanta grup, kontanta peluran prekusor netron, fraksi netron kasip untuk perhitungan transien. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju aliran bahan bakar sebesar 50 % dari laju bahan bakar sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 78 % dari daya sebelumnya. Dan penurunan laju aliran pendingin sebesar 50 % dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 63 % dari daya sebelumnya. Sedangkan pada saat terjadi loss of heat sink daya PCMSR menunjukkan penurunan. Kata kunci: PCMSR, transien, daya, laju aliran.   The use of liquid fuels in the form of molten salts LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 in Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR makes power control at PCMSR can be done by controlling the flow rate of fuel and coolant. In addition, from safety systems aspect, the use of liquid fuels makes PCMSR has good inherent safety characteristics. In this study transient analysis has been carried out on three conditions of PCMSR, namely when the fuel flow rate is changing, when the coolant flow rate is changing and when there is loss of heat sink condition. This research is

  17. Analisis Perencanaan dan Penganggaran Pada Dinas Pendidikan Provinsi Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Darlina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research tried to investigate the analysis of consistency between planning and budgeting in education departement of Jambi Province year 2011 to 2015 which viewed by the planning and budgeting document of education in Jambi Province such as; RPJMD year 2010-2015, Renstra year 2010-2015, RKPD yaer 2011-2015, Renja year 2011-2015, PPAS year 2011-2015, RKA year 2011-2015, and DPA of APBD Education department year 2011-2015. The result of the analysis continuosly was analyzed by using Matrik of Planning and Budgeting Consolidation (MKPP for investigate level of consistency that occur and analyzed what kind of factors which caused inconsistency and what kind of effort has been done to create consistency between planning and budgeting.             The result showed level of planning and budgeting consistency between document of planning and budgeting still low. The highest consistency available in PPAS document and APBD document. The cause of inconsistency is leader policy, human resources limitedness, less coordination between sub-department and SKPD, high frequency of leader commutation and goverment’s role changing. Efforts are being made to achieve consistency between planning and budgeting is the functional improvement of human resource planning, improved coordination between field and education and the establishment of an electronic planning system (E-Planning. Keyword : Consistency, Planning, Budgeting, Education, Region Goverment   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis konsistensi antara perencanaan dan penganggaran pada Dinas Pendidikan Provinsi Jambi Tahun 2011-2015 yang dilihat dari dokumen perencanaan dan pengaggaran pendidikan di Provinsi Jambi seperti RPJMD Tahun 2010-2015, Renstra Tahun 2010-2015, RKPD Tahun 2011-2015, Renja 2011-2015, PPAS Tahun 2011-2015, RKA Tahun 2011-2015, dan DPA Dinas Pendidikan APBD Tahun 2011-2015.Hasil analisa tersebut selanjutnya di analisis dengan menggunakan Matrik

  18. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow—A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water systems are an example of complex, dynamic human-environment coupled systems, which exhibit emergent behaviors that transcends individual scientific disciplines. While previous siloed approaches to water services (i.e., water resources, drinking water, wastewater, and...

  19. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual de...... if they enable the deferment of requirements for new mains water infrastructure.......The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual...... depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard...

  20. Accumulation of arsenic in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas J; Frietch, Christy

    2004-10-15

    The tendency for iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic is well-known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove arsenic. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in drinking water distribution systems, have similar adsorptive properties and could therefore concentrate arsenic and potentially re-release it into the distribution system. The arsenic composition of solids collected from drinking water distribution systems (pipe sections and hydrant flush solids), where the waters had measurable amounts of arsenic in their treated water, were determined. The elemental composition and mineralogy of 67 solid samples collected from 15 drinking water utilities located in Ohio (7), Michigan (7), and Indiana (1) were also determined. The arsenic content of these solids ranged from 10 to 13 650 microg of As/g of solid (as high as 1.37 wt %), and the major element of most solids was iron. Significant amounts of arsenic were even found in solids from systems that were exposed to relatively low concentrations of arsenic (water.

  1. Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LU; XIAO-JIAN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To define the influence of some parameters, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), chloramine residual, etc. on the bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems. Methods Three typical water treatment plants in a northern city (City T) of China and their corresponding distribution systems were investigated. Some parameters of the water samples, such as heterotrophic plate content (HPC), AOC, CODMn, TOC, and phosphate were measured. Results The AOC in most water samples were more than 100 μg/L, or even more than 200 μg/L in some cases. The HPC in distribution systems increased significantly with the decrease of residual chlorine. When the residual chlorine was less than 0.1 mg/L, the magnitude order of HPC was 104 CFU/mL; when it was 0.5-0.7 mg/L, the HPC was about 500 CFU/mL. Conclusion For controlling the biostability of drinking water, the controlling of AOC and residual chlorine should be considered simultaneously. The influence of phosphors on the AOC tests of water is not significant. Phosphors may not be the limiting nutrient in the water distribution systems.

  2. Steady state analysis and Eastern power system dynamic PDVSA EyP considering incorporating Furrial and PIGAP II generation plants; Analisis en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de PDVSA EyP Oriente considerando la incorporacion de las plantas de generacion Furrial y PIGAP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, S [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: sergiodrg200@gmail.com; Vasquez, C [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: vasquezcp@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    This paper is focused on steady state and dynamic analysis of Eastern Power System of Petroleum of Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploration and Production, considering new single cycle gas turbine power plants in Punta de Mata and El Furrial operational areas that will start up in 2015. Network operating conditions were determined, specifically the behavior of power flows and voltage profiles in normal condition of operation and under Contingencies N-1 in PDVSA Power System, as well as the short-circuit levels at all buses of the transmission network. Afterward, it was evaluated the impact on the network caused by the starting of the biggest motor in the system, considering island operation, verifying that it's necessary to maintain the interconnection with the National Electric System. For motor starting study, machine dynamic model was determined by mean of parameters estimation of its equivalent circuit, as well as the application of nonlinear regression methods in order to obtain load model using the information supplied by the manufacturer. [Spanish] El presente trabajo esta enfocado al analisis del comportamiento en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploracion y Produccion Oriente, considerando la incorporacion de nuevas Plantas de Generacion Termoelectricas de Ciclo Simple a Gas que entraran en operacion en las areas operacionales de Punta de Mata y El Furrial para el ano 2015. Se determinaron las condiciones de operacion de la red, especificamente el comportamiento de los flujos de potencia y perfiles de voltaje en Condicion Normal de operacion y bajo Contingencias N-1 dentro del Sistema de PDVSA, asi como el incremento en los niveles de cortocircuito en todas las barras de la red de transmision. Luego se evaluo el impacto en la red originado por el arranque del motor de mayor capacidad considerando la posible operacion en isla del sistema, determinandose que es necesario operar interconectado con el

  3. A scheme for regulating toxic substances to water quality of Chamsil upstream water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Suk; Kim, Jee Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study asserts to reflect a concept of toxicity thoroughly in the present water quality concept. It presents an appropriate solution to control toxic substances flowing into the Chamsil upstream water system. Although a regulation of toxic substances into major rivers in Korea other than Han river is also required urgently, it will be studied in future. It is expected that this study on Chamsil upstream would be a cornerstone for establishing a national regulation policy of toxic substances into water system. 28 refs., 1 fig., 36 tabs.

  4. Water Recovery System Architecture and Operational Concepts to Accommodate Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  5. Design of virtual SCADA simulation system for pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaksono, Umar; Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Hakim, Dadang Lukman

    2016-02-01

    The Virtual SCADA system is a software-based Human-Machine Interface that can visualize the process of a plant. This paper described the results of the virtual SCADA system design that aims to recognize the principle of the Nuclear Power Plant type Pressurized Water Reactor. This simulation uses technical data of the Nuclear Power Plant Unit Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. This device was developed using Wonderware Intouch, which is equipped with manual books for each component, animation links, alarm systems, real time and historical trending, and security system. The results showed that in general this device can demonstrate clearly the principles of energy flow and energy conversion processes in Pressurized Water Reactors. This virtual SCADA simulation system can be used as instructional media to recognize the principle of Pressurized Water Reactor.

  6. Design of virtual SCADA simulation system for pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijaksono, Umar, E-mail: umar.wijaksono@student.upi.edu; Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Hakim, Dadang Lukman [Electrical Power System Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering Education, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi No. 207 Bandung, Indonesia 40154 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The Virtual SCADA system is a software-based Human-Machine Interface that can visualize the process of a plant. This paper described the results of the virtual SCADA system design that aims to recognize the principle of the Nuclear Power Plant type Pressurized Water Reactor. This simulation uses technical data of the Nuclear Power Plant Unit Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. This device was developed using Wonderware Intouch, which is equipped with manual books for each component, animation links, alarm systems, real time and historical trending, and security system. The results showed that in general this device can demonstrate clearly the principles of energy flow and energy conversion processes in Pressurized Water Reactors. This virtual SCADA simulation system can be used as instructional media to recognize the principle of Pressurized Water Reactor.

  7. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  8. Evaluation index system for positive operation of water conservancy projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yuan ZHU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the positive operation of water conservancy projects are described in this paper. A scientific and effective evaluation index system was established based on frequency analysis, theoretical analysis, and expert consultation. This evaluation index system can be divided into six first-level indices: the degree to which facilities are intact and functionality standards are reached, the status of operation and management funds, the rationality and degree of advancement of the management team structure, the adaptability and rationality of the water conservancy project management system, the degree of automatization and informationization of the management techniques, and the conduciveness of the exterior environment. The weights for evaluation indices were obtained through the analytic hierarchy process method with consideration of the difference between public welfare and profit-oriented water conservancy projects. This study provides a scientific method for evaluating the positive operation of water conservancy projects.

  9. Management of the Israeli National Water System under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, U.; Housh, M.; Ostfeld, A.; Zaide, M.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in our region is due to the natural variability of hydrological patterns, with recurring extended droughts, reduced average and broadening variability of recharge that seem to indicate the effect of climate change, as well as to deterioration of water quality in the natural sources, to population growth and distribution, to shifting demand patterns among consumer sectors, and to expected future regional water agreements. These factors combine to create a challenging environment in which highly stressed water resources and water systems have to be developed, operated and managed. The natural sources have been used to their sustainable capacity and often beyond. The main policy responses are a shift of fresh water from agriculture to the cities, replacing it with treated wastewater for irrigation, and a major program for construction of sea-water desalination plants and the associated infrastructure needed for its integration into the supply systems. Organizational reforms, regulation, and demand management options are also being developed, including full-cost pricing. Management of the water resources and systems under these conditions requires a long-term perspective. The methodologies for supporting management decisions that have been used to date by the Israeli Water Authority include evaluation by scenarios, simulation, and optimization with sensitivity analysis. We review existing approaches and models for management of the Israeli water system (Zaide 2006) and then present some new methodologies for addressing operational decisions under hydrological uncertainty, which include generation of tradeoffs between the expected value and variability of the outcomes, and an Info-Gap (Ben-Haim 2006) based approach. These methodologies are demonstrated on examples that emulate portions of a regional water system and are then applied to the Israeli National Water System. Ben-Haim, Y. (2006) Info-Gap Theory: Decisions under Severe Uncertainty, 2nd Ed

  10. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  11. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project.

  12. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.804 Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan. (a) Each air carrier must develop and implement an aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan for each aircraft water system that it...

  13. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  14. The water footprint of California's energy system, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Julian; Cooley, Heather

    2015-03-17

    California's energy and water systems are interconnected and have evolved in recent decades in response to changing conditions and policy goals. For this analysis, we use a water footprint methodology to examine water requirements of energy products consumed in California between 1990 and 2012. We combine energy production, trade, and consumption data with estimates of the blue and green water footprints of energy products. We find that while California's total annual energy consumption increased by just 2.6% during the analysis period, the amount of water required to produce that energy grew by 260%. Nearly all of the increase in California's energy-related water footprint was associated with water use in locations outside of California, where energy products that the state consumes were, and continue to be, produced. We discuss these trends and the implications for California's future energy system as it relates to climate change and expected water management challenges inside and outside the state. Our analysis shows that while California's energy policies have supported climate mitigation efforts, they have increased vulnerability to climate impacts, especially greater hydrologic uncertainty. More integrated analysis and planning are needed to ensure that climate adaptation and mitigation strategies do not work at cross purposes.

  15. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  16. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  17. EFFICIENT DESIGN OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING AND TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmen Ben Chaabene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the world, the exploitation of solar energies knew a strong growth these last years. It is interesting to exploit them on the place of consumption, by directly transforming into heat, or in electricity according to needs and especially in remote areas where power from utility is not available or is too costly to install. The use of photovoltaic sources in water pumping and treatment domain is one of the most important renewable energy applications. Having an arid to a semi-arid climate, Tunisia receives low quantities of rain. Consequently, the available water resources in the country are rather modest in terms of both quantity and quality. 97% of water resources in Tunisia are of brackish water, particularly in the south parts of the country. Originate from ground water resources and surface, these waters are unsuitable for drinking or irrigation, because of the high salinity and biological contagion in sensitive (perceptible germs. The goal of this study is to direct the applied researches to the applications of coupling the photovoltaic energy, which is available in the south of the country and water domain (pumping, desalting and disinfecting. We present in this study some of pilot units coupled to photovoltaic sources and we propose a global system which gathers the water pumping, desalting and disinfecting operations. Some experimental and numerical results have been carried out to show the efficiency of the use of this system. The conception, the realization and the exploitation of this autonomous system will be the suitable solution for providing fresh water to a number of rural regions where important quantities of water are needed to either, the drinking and irrigation, in Tunisia and in the Mediterranean basin in general.

  18. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  19. Sustainability of rainwater harvesting system in terms of water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sadia; Khan, M T R; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S K; Shirazi, S M

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3-N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  20. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.