WorldWideScience

Sample records for water system component

  1. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.

    2017-04-01

    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  2. Operational Experience of Cooling Water Systems for Accelerator Components at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungryul; Kim, Young-Chan; Lee, Bongho; Sik Han, Hong; Soo Ko In; Wha Chung, Chin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling water system has been utilized for absorbing heat generated by a multitude of electromagnetic power delivering networks at PLS. The separate cooling water distribution systems for the storage ring, beam transport line and linear accelerator have been operated with a different operating temperature of supplying water. All water used for heat removal from the accelerator components are deionised and filtered to provide with over 2 MO-cm specific resistance. The operating pressures and flows of input water are also controlled with flow balancing scheme at a specified range. The operating temperature of components in the accelerator is sustained as tight as below ±0.1 deg C to minimize the influence of temperature fluctuation on the beam energy and stability. Although the PLS cooling systems were initially installed with a high degree of flexibility to allow for easy maintenance, a number of system improvements have been employed to enhance operational reliability and to incorporate the newly...

  3. Clustering analysis of water distribution systems: identifying critical components and community impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, K; Farmani, R; Fu, G; Astaraie-Imani, M; Ward, S; Butler, D

    2014-01-01

    Large water distribution systems (WDSs) are networks with both topological and behavioural complexity. Thereby, it is usually difficult to identify the key features of the properties of the system, and subsequently all the critical components within the system for a given purpose of design or control. One way is, however, to more explicitly visualize the network structure and interactions between components by dividing a WDS into a number of clusters (subsystems). Accordingly, this paper introduces a clustering strategy that decomposes WDSs into clusters with stronger internal connections than external connections. The detected cluster layout is very similar to the community structure of the served urban area. As WDSs may expand along with urban development in a community-by-community manner, the correspondingly formed distribution clusters may reveal some crucial configurations of WDSs. For verification, the method is applied to identify all the critical links during firefighting for the vulnerability analysis of a real-world WDS. Moreover, both the most critical pipes and clusters are addressed, given the consequences of pipe failure. Compared with the enumeration method, the method used in this study identifies the same group of the most critical components, and provides similar criticality prioritizations of them in a more computationally efficient time.

  4. Nanoscaled Components for Improved Efficiency in a Multiplanel Photocatalytic Water-Splitting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Marye Anne [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Whitesell, James [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The goal of this program was to construct a multicell photochemical device for the direct conversion of solar energy directly to hydrogen by water splitting. We have fabricated a practical photolytic system for quantum efficient production of hydrogen. Our approach is based on the assembly of a multi-component integrated system for direct photocatalytic splitting of water for the efficient production of hydrogen. We propose to produce hydrogen as an energy source that is cost competitive with fossil fuels and without the concomitant production of greenhouse gases. The concept is quite straightforward. In order to achieve the over potential required for direct water splitting, the device is composed of multiple dye-sensitized cells directly linked in series, as illustrated in the figure below. The advantage of this concept is that each cell need contribute only a fraction of the overall potential required for water splitting, thus permitting device engineering to maximized efficiently without regard to electric potential. Progress and barriers to practical application will be described.

  5. Multi-Component Remediation System for Generating Potable Water Onboard Spacecrafts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractal Systems Inc. proposes to develop an innovative, energy-efficient water purification system to enable humans to live and work permanently in space. Water...

  6. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  7. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  8. In-situ parameter estimation for solar domestic hot water heating systems components. Final report, June 1995--May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.R.

    1997-03-01

    Three different solar domestic hot water systems are being tested at the Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory; an unpressurized drain-back system with a load side heat exchanger, an integral collector storage system, and an ultra low flow natural convection heat exchanger system. The systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. The level of detail allows the observation of the performance of the total system and the performance of the individual components. This report evaluates the systems based on in-situ experimental data and compares the performances with simulated performances. The verification of the simulations aids in the rating procedure. The whole system performance measurements are also used to analyze the performance of individual components of a solar hot water system and to develop improved component models. The data are analyzed extensively and the parameters needed to characterize the systems fully are developed. Also resulting from this indepth analysis are suggested design improvements wither to the systems or the system components.

  9. Design tool for large solar hot water systems - Uniform optimization of components and economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.

    1996-01-01

    In close collaboration with the parties concerned, i.e. both the sellers and investors, a design and optimization method for large solar hot water systems is being developed. In order to support investors in achieving the feasibility of such systems, the normalized method including software tool for

  10. Efficacy of Various Chemical Disinfectants on Biofilms Formed in Spacecraft Potable Water System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Willy; Garcia, Veronica; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Duane

    2009-01-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the vehicle. Pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with non-sterile water and left at room temperature for over one month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, which included Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides., and Cupriavidus pauculus. After 5 days of incubation, these hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide, colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. Disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts following exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% hydrogen peroxide solution or a mixture of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to less than 1 CFU/ml for a period of up to 2 months. Testing results indicated that hydrogen peroxide and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and colloidal silver have tremendous potential as alternative disinfectants for ISS water systems.

  11. Photophysics of Diphenylbutadiynes in Water, Acetonitrile-Water, and Acetonitrile Solvent Systems: Application to Single Component White Light Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Avik Kumar; Jana, Rounak; Gharpure, Santosh J; Mishra, Ashok K

    2016-07-28

    Diacetylenes have been the subject of current research because of their interesting optoelectronic properties. Herein, we report that substituted diphenylbutadiynes exhibit locally excited (LE) and excimer emissions in water and multiple emissions from the LE, excimer, and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states in acetonitrile-water solvent systems. The LE, excimer, and ICT emissions are clearly distinguishable for a diphenylbutadiynyl derivative with push (-NMe2)-pull (-CN) substituents and those are closely overlapped for non-push-pull analogues. In neat acetonitrile, the excimer emission disappears and the LE and ICT emissions predominate. In the case of the push (-NMe2)-pull (-CN) diphenylbutadiyne, the intensity of the ICT emission increases with increasing the fluorophore concentration. This suggests that the ICT emission accompanies with intermolecular CT emission which is of exciplex type. As the LE and exciplex emissions of the push-pull diphenylbutadiyne together cover the visible region (400-700 nm) in acetonitrile, a control of the fluorophore concentration makes the relative intensities of the LE and exciplex emissions such that pure white light emission is achieved. The white light emission is not observed in those diphenylbutadiynyl analogues in which the peripheral substituents of the phenyl rings do not possess strong push-pull character.

  12. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  13. Online Monitoring of Water-Quality Anomaly in Water Distribution Systems Based on Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis by UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibo Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic principal component analysis- (PPCA- based method for online monitoring of water-quality contaminant events by UV-Vis (ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The purpose of this method is to achieve fast and sound protection against accidental and intentional contaminate injection into the water distribution system. The method is achieved first by properly imposing a sliding window onto simultaneously updated online monitoring data collected by the automated spectrometer. The PPCA algorithm is then executed to simplify the large amount of spectrum data while maintaining the necessary spectral information to the largest extent. Finally, a monitoring chart extensively employed in fault diagnosis field methods is used here to search for potential anomaly events and to determine whether the current water-quality is normal or abnormal. A small-scale water-pipe distribution network is tested to detect water contamination events. The tests demonstrate that the PPCA-based online monitoring model can achieve satisfactory results under the ROC curve, which denotes a low false alarm rate and high probability of detecting water contamination events.

  14. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  15. Review of water footprint components of grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wan Amiza Amneera Wan; Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Nik; Zalina Mahmood, Noor

    2017-06-01

    Burgeoning global population, economic development, agriculture and prevailing climate pattern are among aspects contributed to water scarcity. In low and middle income countries, agriculture takes the highest share among water user sector. Demand for grain is widespread all over the globe. Hence, this study review published papers regarding quantification of water footprint of grain. Review shows there are various methods in quantifying water footprint. In ascertaining water footprint, three (green, blue, grey) or two (green, blue) components of water footprint involved. However, there was a study introduced new term in evaluating water footprint, white water footprint. The vulnerability of varying methods is difficulty in conducting comparative among water footprint. Salient source in contributing high water footprint also varies. In some studies, green water footprint play major role. Conversely, few studies found out blue water footprint most contributing component in water footprint. This fluctuate pattern influenced by various aspects, namely, regional climatic characteristics, crop yield and crop types.

  16. A component-based, integrated spatially distributed hydrologic/water quality model: AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) overview and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) is a modular, Java-based spatially distributed model which implements hydrologic/water quality simulation components. The AgES-W model was previously evaluated for streamflow and recently has been enhanced with the addition of nitrogen (N) and sediment modeling compo...

  17. Groundwater contamination and the relationship between water chemistry and biotic components in a karst system (Bihor Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Epure

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics, microbial contaminat ion, and meiofauna of the Ocoale-Gheţar-Dobreşti karst system (Bihor Mountains, Romania were studied in order to assess the natural water quality by an interdisciplinary study. A total of 60 water samples were collected seasonally from 7 sites. Physico-chemical results showed a typical composition of karst waters, except for one site, where Ca2+ was absent, pH was very low, and the abundance and diversity of meiofauna were highest, demonstrating life support even for the most sensitive animals. No significant chemical pollution was found, but microbial contamination occurred in all samples, according to the national water quality standards of the analyzed springs. The Canonical Correlation Analysis and the Canonical Correspondence Analysis performed showed a strong connection between pH, nitrates and faecal pollution, indicating also a direct connection between microbial contaminants and dissolved oxygen.

  18. Component restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John C.

    1983-05-24

    An object restraint system is provided with a collar for gripping the object and a plurality of struts attached to the collar and to anchor means by universal-type joints, the struts being arranged in tangential relation about the collar.

  19. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  20. Modeling Systems of Dependent Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    Marked Shocks generated by a Poisson, a Renewal , or a Hawkes Point Process , ( ) . A Generalized Coupon Collecting Model as a Parsimonious Optimal...estimators of the mean, variance, and tail probabilities of the system life when the shock process is a Poisson process , a renewal process , or a...Modeling Systems of Dependent Components New classes of stochastic models for network systems having stochastically dependent components are studied by

  1. Sustainable Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels.

  2. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  3. Components of the total water balance of an urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, V Grace; McMahon, Thomas A; Mein, Russell G

    2003-12-01

    A daily model was used to quantify the components of the total urban water balance of the Curtin catchment, Canberra, Australia. For this catchment, the mean annual rainfall was found to be three times greater than imported potable water, and the sum of the output from the separate stormwater and wastewater systems exceeded the input of imported potable water by some 50%. Seasonal and annual variations in climate exert a very strong influence over the relative magnitude of the water balance components; this needs to be accounted for when assessing the potential for utilizing stormwater and wastewater within an urban catchment.

  4. Components of solar thermal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, J. Farinha; Carvalho, M.J.; Schossig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The heat production sub-system is the part of the overall system which provides heat to a thermally driven air-conditioning system. With regards to the solar-driven equipment, the solar collector is the main component of the sub-system. A brief review on the present state-of-the-art with respect to performance characteristics and available certification schemes of solar collectors is given in the following chapter. Besides the solar collector field, the storage unit and the back-up heat sourc...

  5. System Testing of Ground Cooling System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensey, Tyler Steven

    2014-01-01

    This internship focused primarily upon software unit testing of Ground Cooling System (GCS) components, one of the three types of tests (unit, integrated, and COTS/regression) utilized in software verification. Unit tests are used to test the software of necessary components before it is implemented into the hardware. A unit test determines that the control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures of a particular component are tested to determine if the program is fit for use. Three different files are used to make and complete an efficient unit test. These files include the following: Model Test file (.mdl), Simulink SystemTest (.test), and autotest (.m). The Model Test file includes the component that is being tested with the appropriate Discrete Physical Interface (DPI) for testing. The Simulink SystemTest is a program used to test all of the requirements of the component. The autotest tests that the component passes Model Advisor and System Testing, and puts the results into proper files. Once unit testing is completed on the GCS components they can then be implemented into the GCS Schematic and the software of the GCS model as a whole can be tested using integrated testing. Unit testing is a critical part of software verification; it allows for the testing of more basic components before a model of higher fidelity is tested, making the process of testing flow in an orderly manner.

  6. Impact of Climate Change on Yields and Components of the Water and Nitrogen Budgets of Dryland Wheat Systems in the US Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, T.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) project (funded by USDA-NIFA), a regional assessment of historical and future yields and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dryland wheat-based cropping systems in the US Pacific Northwest is being conducted. Two issues of interest in the region are changes in the water footprint and nitrogen use of wheat-based systems as a result of climate change. These two are related to the interaction between crop performance and the partitioning of water and nitrogen budget components. They also inform the tradeoff between crop production and environmental services and the sustainability of wheat systems in the future. Computer simulation-based assessment is being done using the CropSyst cropping systems simulation model and daily weather data downscaled to a 4x4 km grid. Future weather is projected using 12 general circulation models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways of future atmospheric CO2 (rcp 4.5 and rcp 8.5). The study region is divided in 3 agro-ecological classes (AECs): grain fallow, grain fallow transition and continuous cropping classes. The following rotations were included by AEC: WW - SF, WW - SW - SF and WW - SW - SP, where WW is winter wheat, SW is spring wheat, SP is spring peas, and SF is summer fallow. A typical conventional tillage (CT) cropping system in each AEC is evaluated as a baseline.

  7. Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Deng, Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2014-02-01

    A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 (2-)/Al3 (+) mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 10(5) to 20 × 10(5) Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r=0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L(-1)), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L(-1) +20 mg L(-1)). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.

  8. The Solutions Data Base Component of the Water Pollution Abatement Subsystem (WPAS) of the Pollution Abatement Management System. (PAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Wastewater Treatment Systes (CAPDET) User’s ude. rnnera 111O-2-174 TOffce of the 2hef of Wgeers,-IT Aprl 1965). 1b C 4) x .- 41 LA 41 - 41U L 0L...soLids can be attained using either irrigation or rapid infiLtration systems. Other poLutants such as ammonia, total nitrogen, and phosphorus can atso

  9. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  10. The magnet components database system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, M.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C. (Superconducting Supercollider Lab., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy, structure, and usage MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. These data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Impact of water management on root morphology, growth and yield component of lowland rice varieties under the organic system of rice intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Aziez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management is one of the keys to success in increasing rice production in paddy fields. Paddy rice production will decrease if the rice plants suffer from water stress, and conversely conventional cultivation is very wasteful of water. Local aromatic varieties have deeper rooting character than improved varieties making it more efficient in using water. The purpose of this study was to obtain more efficient and more productive aromatic local varieties in the use of irrigation water in the SRI organic cultivation system. This research was conducted in organic rice fields in Kebonagung village, Imogiri, Bantul with split plot design of 2 factors with 4 replications. Factor I: The mode of irrigation consists of (a intermittent irrigation, and (b continuous irrigation and Factor II: varieties consisting of (a Mentikwangi, (b Gabusan, (c Sintanur and (d IR64. The observation parameters included (1 root characters i.e. surface area of root, total length of root, and dry weight of root, (2 plant growth analysis i.e. specific leaf weight, net assimilation rate, plant growth rate, (3 and yield components i.e. weight 1000 grains, grain weight per hill, and grain weight per plot. The results showed that intermittent irrigation increased the surface area of root and the dry weight of root of Mentikwangi variety, and increased the specific leaf weight and weight of 1000 grains of IR64 variety, and increased the specific leaf weight and the net assimilation rate of Sintanur variety. Grain weight per hill and per plot showed no difference between intermittent irrigation and continuous irrigation. Grain weight per hill and per plot in intermittent irrigation achieved by Gabusan variety were 35.69 g and 14.28 kg respectively, while in continuous irrigation the grain weight achieved by Gabusan variety were 37.69 g and 15.08 kg respectively. In conclusion, there was no difference in yield between intermittent irrigation and continuous irrigation, so that the

  12. HEAVY WATER COMPONENTS TEST REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2011-10-13

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment

  13. Leaching of Heavy Metals from Water Bottle Components into the Drinking Water of Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals. PMID:23562029

  14. Understanding symmetrical components for power system modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2017-01-01

    This book utilizes symmetrical components for analyzing unbalanced three-phase electrical systems, by applying single-phase analysis tools. The author covers two approaches for studying symmetrical components; the physical approach, avoiding many mathematical matrix algebra equations, and a mathematical approach, using matrix theory. Divided into seven sections, topics include: symmetrical components using matrix methods, fundamental concepts of symmetrical components, symmetrical components –transmission lines and cables, sequence components of rotating equipment and static load, three-phase models of transformers and conductors, unsymmetrical fault calculations, and some limitations of symmetrical components.

  15. Carbon isotope fractionation during diamond growth in depleted peridotite: Counterintuitive insights from modelling water-maximum CHO fluids as multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Chacko, T.; Luth, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    Because of the inability of depleted cratonic peridotites to effectively buffer oxygen fugacities when infiltrated by CHO or carbonatitic fluids, it has been proposed recently (Luth and Stachel, 2014) that diamond formation in peridotites typically does not occur by rock-buffered redox reactions as previously thought but by an oxygen-conserving reaction in which minor coexisting CH4 and CO2 components in a water-rich fluid react to form diamond (CO2 + CH4 = 2C + 2H2O). In such fluid-buffered systems, carbon isotope fractionation during diamond precipitation occurs in the presence of two dominant fluid carbon species. Carbon isotope modelling of diamond precipitation from mixed CH4- and CO2-bearing fluids reveals unexpected fundamental differences relative to diamond crystallization from a single carbon fluid species: (1) irrespective of which carbon fluid species (CH4 or CO2) is dominant in the initial fluid, diamond formation is invariably associated with progressive minor (responsible for diamond formation. Specifically, precipitation of diamonds with δ13C values in the range -4 to -6‰ from mantle-derived fluids with an average δ13C value of -5‰ (derived from evidence not related to diamonds) requires that diamond-forming fluids were relatively reduced and had methane as the dominant carbon species (XCO2 = 0.1-0.5). Application of our model to a recently published set of in-situ carbon isotope analyses for peridotitic diamonds from Marange, Zimbabwe (Smit et al., 2016), which contain CH4 fluid inclusions, allows us to perfectly match the observed co-variations in δ13 C, δ15 N and N content and at the same time explain the previously counter-intuitive observation of progressive 13C enrichment in diamonds that appear to have grown from a fluid with methane as the dominant carbon species. Similarly, the almost complete absence in the published record of progressive 13C depletion trends within diamonds likely reflects ubiquitous precipitation from CH4- and CO

  16. Online stress corrosion crack and fatigue usages factor monitoring and prognostics in light water reactor components: Probabilistic modeling, system identification and data fusion based big data analytics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jagielo, Bryan J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Iverson, William I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL (United States); Bhan, Chi Bum [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Soppet, William S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Nuclear reactors in the United States account for roughly 20% of the nation's total electric energy generation, and maintaining their safety in regards to key component structural integrity is critical not only for long term use of such plants but also for the safety of personnel and the public living around the plant. Early detection of damage signature such as of stress corrosion cracking, thermal-mechanical loading related material degradation in safety-critical components is a necessary requirement for long-term and safe operation of nuclear power plant systems.

  17. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  18. Snow water equivalent modeling components in NewAge-JGrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, G.; Kampf, S. K.; David, O.; Rigon, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a package of modified temperature-index-based snow water equivalent models as part of the hydrological modeling system NewAge-JGrass. Three temperature-based snow models are integrated into the NewAge-JGrass modeling system and use many of its components such as those for radiation balance (short wave radiation balance, SWRB), kriging (KRIGING), automatic calibration algorithms (particle swarm optimization) and tests of goodness of fit (NewAge-V), to build suitable modeling solutions (MS). Similarly to all the NewAge-JGrass components, the models can be executed both in raster and in vector mode. The simulation time step can be daily, hourly or sub-hourly, depending on user needs and availability of input data. The MS are applied on the Cache la Poudre River basin (CO, USA) using three test applications. First, daily snow water equivalent is simulated for three different measurement stations for two snow model formulations. Second, hourly snow water equivalent is simulated using all the three different snow model formulae. Finally, a raster mode application is performed to compute snow water equivalent maps for the whole Cache la Poudre Basin.

  19. Bioregenerative system components for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the class was to design, fabricate, and test prototype designs that were independent, yet applicable to a Closed Loop Life Support System. The three prototypes chosen were in the areas of agar plant growth, regnerative filtration, and microgravity food preparation. The plant growth group designed a prototype agar medium growth system that incorporates nutrient solution replenishment and post-harvest refurbishment. In addition, the unit emphasizes material containment and minimization of open interfaces. The second project was a filter used in microgravity that has the capability to clean itself. The filters are perforated plates which slide through a duct and are cleaned outside of the flow with a vacuum system. The air in the duct is prevented from flowing outside of the duct by a network of sliding seals. The food preparation group developed a device which dispenses and mixes ingredients and then cooks the mixture in microgravity. The dry ingredients are dispensed from a canister by a ratchet-operated piston. The wet ingredients are dispensed from plastic bags through tubing attached to a syringe. Once inside the mixing chamber, the ingredients are mixed using a collapsible whisk and then pushed into the cooking device.

  20. Configuring systems from components: the EMS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogiec, J. M.; Desavouret, E.; Kotelnikov, S.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.

    2004-11-01

    EMS is an exercise in component technology. It offers rapid development of specialized data acquisition, visualization and analysis systems via assembly from vertical and horizontal components. The EMS architecture allows for agile development of systems and promotes reuse of software. The framework supports a visual builder that shows connections between components and lists component properties. The system offers both off-line setup of properties and run-time modifications. Multi-bus architecture allows for independent routing of data, controls, debugs, and exceptions. The architecture, configuration process, and control of applications through scripting are presented.

  1. Thermal Components Boost Performance of HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) travels 17,500 miles per hour, normal is having a constant sensation of free-falling. Normal is no rain, but an extreme amount of shine.with temperatures reaching 250 F when facing the Sun. Thanks to a number of advanced control systems onboard the ISS, however, the interior of the station remains a cool, comfortable, normal environment where astronauts can live and work for extended periods of time. There are two main control systems on the ISS that make it possible for humans to survive in space: the Thermal Control System (TCS) and the Environmental Control and Life Support system. These intricate assemblies work together to supply water and oxygen, regulate temperature and pressure, maintain air quality, and manage waste. Through artificial means, these systems create a habitable environment for the space station s crew. The TCS constantly works to regulate the temperature not only for astronauts, but for the critical instruments and machines inside the spacecraft as well. To do its job, the TCS encompasses several components and systems both inside and outside of the ISS. Inside the spacecraft, a liquid heat-exchange process mechanically pumps fluids in closed-loop circuits to collect, transport, and reject heat. Outside the ISS, an external system circulates anhydrous ammonia to transport heat and cool equipment, and radiators release the heat into space. Over the years, NASA has worked with a variety of partners.public and private, national and international. to develop and refine the most complex thermal control systems ever built for spacecraft, including the one on the ISS.

  2. Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming

    2013-06-18

    Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

  3. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  4. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  5. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  6. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep......, or reducing the mean duration of system downtime. Example applications to an electrical substation system demonstrate the use of the formulas developed in the paper....

  7. Design and components of photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) system components and design. The basic performance of cells, modules, and inverters and how this is used in PV system design is described. Two case studies illustrating PV system design are presented: a hybrid system on

  8. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  9. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  10. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  11. Mobile Application Development: Component Retrieval System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed technology development concept is a software application tool developed for use on a mobile device at SSC for use in the component retrieval system...

  12. Automated reuseable components system study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Reusable Components System (ARCS) was developed under a Phase 1 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract for the U.S. Army CECOM. The objectives of the ARCS program were: (1) to investigate issues associated with automated reuse of software components, identify alternative approaches, and select promising technologies, and (2) to develop tools that support component classification and retrieval. The approach followed was to research emerging techniques and experimental applications associated with reusable software libraries, to investigate the more mature information retrieval technologies for applicability, and to investigate the applicability of specialized technologies to improve the effectiveness of a reusable component library. Various classification schemes and retrieval techniques were identified and evaluated for potential application in an automated library system for reusable components. Strategies for library organization and management, component submittal and storage, and component search and retrieval were developed. A prototype ARCS was built to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the reuse process. The prototype was created using a subset of the classification and retrieval techniques that were investigated. The demonstration system was exercised and evaluated using reusable Ada components selected from the public domain. A requirements specification for a production-quality ARCS was also developed.

  13. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence .... minimizes container pollution and promotes the ...... China – Weathering processes and chemical fluxes;. J. Hydrol.

  14. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  15. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  17. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  18. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  19. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  20. Purge water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  1. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  2. Antiradical activity of water soluble components in common diet vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racchi, Marco; Daglia, Maria; Lanni, Cristina; Papetti, Adele; Govoni, Stefano; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2002-02-27

    The antiradical activity of water-soluble components contained in mushrooms (Psalliota campestris), onions (Allium cepa), white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. alba), and yellow bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) against hydroxyl radicals was tested in a chemical and biological system. The vegetable juices were obtained by centrifugation of a vegetable homogenate processed at 2 degrees C or heated at 102 degrees C. The chemical system consisted of a buffered reaction mixture composed of Fe(III)-EDTA, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, ascorbic acid, and H(2)O(2) generating the hydroxyl radical. The antiradical activity was expressed as an inhibition of deoxyribose degradation. The biological system consisted of IMR32 neuroblastoma cells exposed to H(2)O(2) in the presence or absence of the vegetable juices. Cells were pretreated for either 24 h or 1 h with the vegetable juices, and reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used as a cell viability assay. All vegetable juices inhibited the degradation of deoxyribose and increased the viability of H(2)O(2) treated cells. Raw mushroom juice proved to be the most active in both cases. Boiling significantly affected the activity of mushroom juice, but did not change significantly the effect on onions and yellow bell peppers, and partially increased the activity of white cabbage juice. Mushroom antiradical activity was also confirmed by a cytofluorimetric analysis.

  3. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  4. Determination of sulfonamides in swine muscle after salting-out assisted liquid extraction with acetonitrile coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chen, Ho-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Huang, Joh-Jong; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2010-01-15

    A salting-out assisted liquid extraction coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the extraction and determination of sulfonamides in solid tissue samples. After the homogenization of the swine muscle with acetonitrile and salt-promoted partitioning, an aliquot of 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract containing a small amount of dichloromethane (250-400 microL) was alkalinized with diethylamine. The clear organic extract obtained by centrifugation was used as a donor phase and then a small amount of water (40-55 microL) could be used as an acceptor phase to back-extract the analytes in the water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system. In the back-extraction procedure, after mixing and centrifuging, the sedimented phase would be water and could be withdrawn easily into a microsyringe and directly injected into the HPLC system. Under the optimal conditions, recoveries were determined for swine muscle fortified at 10 ng/g and quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. The calibration curves of five sulfonamides showed linearity with the coefficient of estimation above 0.998. Relative recoveries for the analytes were all from 96.5 to 109.2% with relative standard deviation of 2.7-4.0%. Preconcentration factors ranged from 16.8 to 30.6 for 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/g. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurements of the Three Components of the Water Flow Around a Hydrodynamic Model in a Towing Tank with a 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-23

    Fluid Mecanics Department of the "Ecole .Centrale de Nantes". 14.4.1 A 6 Watt Argon Laser ii installed on an optical bench, the beam is separated by...before the measurements. Although the seeding has a high density, it stays in the water for about three days. This allows the flow around the hull to...wnll with high reflectance -polished yellow paint- the minimum distance when the beams are tangent tp the wall is of 0.5 mm, but when the beams ore

  6. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  7. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  8. Robust principal component analysis in water quality index development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zalina Mohd; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Mengersen, Kerrie; Shitan, Mahendran; Juahir, Hafizan

    2014-06-01

    Some statistical procedures already available in literature are employed in developing the water quality index, WQI. The nature of complexity and interdependency that occur in physical and chemical processes of water could be easier explained if statistical approaches were applied to water quality indexing. The most popular statistical method used in developing WQI is the principal component analysis (PCA). In literature, the WQI development based on the classical PCA mostly used water quality data that have been transformed and normalized. Outliers may be considered in or eliminated from the analysis. However, the classical mean and sample covariance matrix used in classical PCA methodology is not reliable if the outliers exist in the data. Since the presence of outliers may affect the computation of the principal component, robust principal component analysis, RPCA should be used. Focusing in Langat River, the RPCA-WQI was introduced for the first time in this study to re-calculate the DOE-WQI. Results show that the RPCA-WQI is capable to capture similar distribution in the existing DOE-WQI.

  9. Marketing information system - concept and components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet Ivana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Current conditions for the carrying out of business activities are being characterized by an intensive changing of the business surrounding, as well as by a need for a flexible adapting to the newly-created conditions. Dynamisation of economic ambience, based on the principles of a propulsive marketing economy is affirming a business philosophy which will be based on requests of the strategic marketing. Vital component of every successful company is information system, which helps data acquisition and analysis, and its transfer into information, which is then forwarded to users and management. Bearing that in mind, we have created marketing information system, which collects relevant data, analyses it and then produces information, which can be used in planning, implementation and control, those making your company more efficient.

  10. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  11. Modelling raster-based monthly water balance components for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmen, C.

    2000-11-01

    The terrestrial runoff component is a comparatively small but sensitive and thus significant quantity in the global energy and water cycle at the interface between landmass and atmosphere. As opposed to soil moisture and evapotranspiration which critically determine water vapour fluxes and thus water and energy transport, it can be measured as an integrated quantity over a large area, i.e. the river basin. This peculiarity makes terrestrial runoff ideally suited for the calibration, verification and validation of general circulation models (GCMs). Gauging stations are not homogeneously distributed in space. Moreover, time series are not necessarily continuously measured nor do they in general have overlapping time periods. To overcome this problems with regard to regular grid spacing used in GCMs, different methods can be applied to transform irregular data to regular so called gridded runoff fields. The present work aims to directly compute the gridded components of the monthly water balance (including gridded runoff fields) for Europe by application of the well-established raster-based macro-scale water balance model WABIMON used at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany. Model calibration and validation is performed by separated examination of 29 representative European catchments. Results indicate a general applicability of the model delivering reliable overall patterns and integrated quantities on a monthly basis. For time steps less then too weeks further research and structural improvements of the model are suggested. (orig.)

  12. Development of a 5-Component Balance for Water Tunnel Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of this research/development effort was to develop a multi-component strain gage balance to measure both static and dynamic forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. A balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The balance mounts internally in the model and is used in a manner typical of wind tunnel balances. The key differences between a water tunnel balance and a wind tunnel balance are the requirement for very high sensitivity since the loads are very low (typical normal force is 90 grams or 0.2 lbs), the need for water proofing the gage elements, and the small size required to fit into typical water tunnel models. The five-component balance was calibrated and demonstrated linearity in the responses of the primary components to applied loads, very low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and F/A-18 models. The data were compared to forces and moments from wind tunnel tests of the same or similar configurations. The comparison showed very good agreement, providing confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multi-component internal balance. The success of the static experiments encouraged the use of the balance for dynamic experiments. Among the advantages of conducting dynamic tests in a water tunnel are less demanding motion and data acquisition rates than in a wind tunnel test (because of the low-speed flow) and the capability of performing flow visualization and force/moment (F/M) measurements simultaneously with relative simplicity. This capability of simultaneous flow visualization and for F/M measurements proved extremely useful to explain the results obtained during these dynamic tests. In general, the development of this balance should encourage the use of water tunnels for a

  13. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  14. Effect of Cooling Water on Stability of NLC Linac Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, Frederic

    2002-11-01

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  15. Water Powered Bioassay System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    capillary micropump 27 Figure 30: Slow dripping/separation of a droplet from a capillary 4.1.5 Micro Osmotic Pumping Nano Droplet...stored and delivered fluidic pressure and, with a combination of pumps and valves, formed the basic micro fluidic processing unit. The addition of...System, Microvalve, Micro -Accumulator, Micro Dialysis Needle, Bioassay System, Water Activated, Micro Osmotic Pump 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  16. Macroscopic Interpretability of Quantum Component Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, R.

    2006-06-01

    Preliminary accounts on three subjects are produced in Secs. 1, 2, 3. The guiding idea is Universality of Physics, by which we mean that the boundary between the system {S} that is selected, and which is described by Quantum Theory, and the macroscopic environment {A} where the single physical events as well as the events of ordinary life occur, which is described within a Boolean structure, may always be shifted by constructing a Quantum Model also of the environment {A} (to be selected from the "further environment"), as it is set forth in Sec. 1. This introduces the subject of Sec. 2, which examines what should be understood when saying that the quantum component system {A} may be macroscopically or at least "semimacroscopically" interpreted. In its turn this introduces Sec. 3, reporting two still unpublished theorems produced at Camerino 1988, which very closely connect the above requirements on the Quantum Model of {A} with some properties of the operations that the "instrument" {A} performs on {S}, with the result that the macroscopicity conditions of Sec. 2 turn out to be widely model-independent ("environmental").

  17. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.

    2013-05-01

    used in a "kind of" crop factor manner for all vegetation types (including agricultural fields). Finally, the model uses air temperature and humidity, both extracted from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) database. ET estimates were then compared to ground truth data from four sites where long-term Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements of ET were conducted. This approach was developed and applied in Northern Mexico. Emphasis was placed on trying to minimize the large uncertainties that still remained on the temporal evolution and the spatial repartition of ET. Results show good agreement with ground data (with r2 greater than 0.7 on daily ET estimates) from the four sites evaluated using different vegetation types hence reducing the spatial uncertainties. Estimates of total annual ET were used in a water balance, assessing ground water availability for eleven aquifers in the state of Chihuahua. Annual ET in a four-year analysis period, ranged from 200 to 280 mm/year, representing 63 to 83 % of total annual precipitation, which reflects the importance of this component in the water balance. A GIS tool kit is under development to support decision makers at CONAGUA.

  18. Water balance components and climate change in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, V.

    2009-09-01

    The openness of the continental part of Croatia towards the north and the separation of the Pannonian flatland from coastline by relative high mountain barrier of the Dinaric Alps produce a continental, mountain and Mediterranean climate in Croatia. Climate change has become an important issue for agriculture in recent years since agricultural production is highly sensitive to weather and water scarcity and consequently to climate change. The special problem with drought and difficulties in water supply and water management exist in the eastern and southern Croatia in the summer. The soil with karst porous base and unsuitable annual distribution of precipitation amount make the mid-Adriatic coast and islands the driest region in Croatia. Therefore, the main goal is to research the secular variations of water balance components using the Palmer method in the most vulnerable dry region in Croatia vs. wet region. The results have been established the intensity of regional impact of climate change on regime of precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The increase in potential evapotranspiration and decrease in runoff and soil water content were observed in both regions which mostly became significant in the 1980s. However, contrary linear trends (negative in the dry region and positive in the wet region) were noticed in actual evapoptranspiration, moisture loss from the soil and recharge. The reason of that is a significant and faster decrease in annual precipitation and deficit of rainfall in dry region than in wet region in warmer season. Thus, combined influence of precipitation and air temperature affects the decrease in soil water content and runoff that it could have negative consequences on vegetation and agricultural production, particularly in the driest and most vulnerable region in Croatia - in the mid-Adriatic area.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5240 - Complement components immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement components immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5240 Complement components immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement components...

  20. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  1. A system model for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Colin; Roquier, Bastien; Soutter, Marc; Mermoud, André

    2009-03-01

    Although generally accepted as a necessary step to improve water management and planning, integrated water resources management (IWRM) methodology does not provide a clear definition of what should be integrated. The various water-related issues that IWRM might encompass are well documented in the literature, but they are generally addressed separately. Therefore, water management lacks a holistic, systems-based description, with a special emphasis on the interrelations between issues. This article presents such a system model for water management, including a graphical representation and textual descriptions of the various water issues, their components, and their interactions. This model is seen as an aide-memoire and a generic reference, providing background knowledge helping to elicit actual system definitions, in possible combination with other participatory systems approaches. The applicability of the model is demonstrated through its application to two test case studies.

  2. Study on the extraction of AP components in HTPB solid propellant by water/ethanol recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingqi; Du, Shiguo; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the recovery of ammonium perchlorate (AP) components in scrapped HTPB solid propellants, the AP in HTPB solid propellants were extracted by water/ethanol mixed solvent system. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, volume ratio of water/ethanol, ratio of liquid to material, thickness of sample and extraction rate on AP extraction rate were discussed. The extraction results were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the best process parameter for extracting AP components from HTPB solid propellants: the extraction temperature was 70°C, the extraction time was 6h, the volume ratio of water/ethanol was 1:1, the ratio of liquid to material was 6:1(water/ethanol volume and sample mass ratio, ml/g) and the extraction frequency was 2 times. Under this condition, the recovery of AP was 90.5% and the purity of AP was 91.1%.

  3. Building 65 Hydraulic Systems Handbook: Components, Systems, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    on this subject. It is recommended that the untrained reader receive some formal training to get the most out of this manual. This document can...components and their symbols used in the circuits in this manual. It is assumed that the reader has had some type of training on the fundamentals of...site to give better hydraulic system performance and a more aesthetic test setup. The primary flow output is a 1¼” port and auxiliary ports are

  4. Flow-induced vibration of component cooling water heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Y.S.; Chen, S.S. (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Probabilistic techniques using Monte Carlo sampling for multi- component system diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lee, J.C.; Akcasu, A.Z. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1995-06-01

    We outline the structure of a new approach at multi-component system fault diagnostics which utilizes detailed system simulation models, uncertain system observation data, statistical knowledge of system parameters, expert opinion, and component reliability data in an effort to identify incipient component performance degradations of arbitrary number and magnitude. The technique involves the use of multiple adaptive Kalman filters for fault estimation, the results of which are screened using standard hypothesis testing procedures to define a set of component events that could have transpired. Latin Hypercube sample each of these feasible component events in terms of uncertain component reliability data and filter estimates. The capabilities of the procedure are demonstrated through the analysis of a simulated small magnitude binary component fault in a boiling water reactor balance of plant. The results show that the procedure has the potential to be a very effective tool for incipient component fault diagnosis.

  6. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  7. Applications of Advanced Electromagnetics Components and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kouzaev, Guennadi A

    2013-01-01

    This text, directed to the microwave engineers and Master and PhD students, is on the use of electromagnetics to the development and design of advanced integrated components distinguished by their extended field of applications. The results of hundreds of authors scattered in numerous journals and conference proceedings are carefully reviewed and classed.  Several chapters are to refresh the knowledge of readers in advanced electromagnetics. New techniques are represented by compact electromagnetic–quantum equations which can be used in modeling of microwave-quantum integrated circuits of future In addition, a topological method to the boundary value problem analysis is considered with the results and examples.  One extended chapter is for the development and design of integrated components for extended bandwidth applications, and the technology and electromagnetic issues of silicon integrated transmission lines, transitions, filters, power dividers, directional couplers, etc are considered. Novel prospec...

  8. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  9. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  10. The development of component-based information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cesare, Sergio de; Macredie, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a comprehensive overview of research and practical issues relating to component-based development information systems (CBIS). Spanning the organizational, developmental, and technical aspects of the subject, the original research included here provides fresh insights into successful CBIS technology and application. Part I covers component-based development methodologies and system architectures. Part II analyzes different aspects of managing component-based development. Part III investigates component-based development versus commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS), includi

  11. Water management as a key component of integrated weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zanin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Water management within the cropping system is a key factor for an integrated weed management. Soil moisture affects seed persistence and seed dormancy, thus influencing their germination, the establishment of seedlings as well as the competition at adult stage and the number, vitality and dormancy of the new seeds produced by the weeds. The interactions among water availability and competition are very complex and still not fully understood. A research effort in this sector should the be very relevant for the development of new approaches of weed management, such as “Ecological weed management”, aiming to reduce weed density and competitiveness and, in the medium term, to prevent undesired modifications of the weed flora.

  12. 76 FR 74831 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY...- ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water... management of stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. In response to a...

  13. 77 FR 27815 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY..., ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water.'' This LR-ISG... stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. The NRC published Revision 2 of...

  14. Power system protection 1 principles and components

    CERN Document Server

    Association, Electricity Training

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  15. DIGITAL SUBSTATION COMPONENT SYSTEM "SMART GRID"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Vasilchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New production technologies of modern control systems have moved from the stage of research and experimentation into the stage of practical use. Modern communication standards for the exchange of information are developed and introduced. Digital devices, protectors and automation are widely used. There has been substantial development of hardware and software of control systems.

  16. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  17. Automated Water-Purification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  18. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  19. Port Protocols for Deadlock-Freedom of Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lambertz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In component-based development, approaches for property verification exist that avoid building the global system behavior of the component model. Typically, these approaches rely on the analysis of the local behavior of fixed sized subsystems of components. In our approach, we want to avoid not only the analysis of the global behavior but also of the local behaviors of the components. Instead, we consider very small parts of the local behaviors called port protocols that suffice to verify properties.

  20. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160773

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  1. Fitting probability distributions to component water quality data from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of water is carried out to make the available water meet the standards for its intended use. Such use may be for drinking and other household needs, industries,livestock rearing or fisheries etc. poor quality water is commonly treated to ensure potability. Potable water should be free from unpleasant tastes and ...

  2. Toward Common Components for Open Workflow Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Billings, Jay Jay; Jha, Shantenu

    2017-01-01

    The role of scalable high-performance workflows and flexible workflow management systems that can support multiple simulations will continue to increase in importance. For example, with the end of Dennard scaling, there is a need to substitute a single long running simulation with multiple repeats of shorter simulations, or concurrent replicas. Further, many scientific problems involve ensembles of simulations in order to solve a higher-level problem or produce statistically meaningful result...

  3. Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dane (Inventor); Wang, Guoan (Inventor); Kingsley, Nickolas D. (Inventor); Papapolymerou, Ioannis (Inventor); Tentzeris, Emmanouil M. (Inventor); Bairavasubramanian, Ramanan (Inventor); DeJean, Gerald (Inventor); Li, RongLin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture are provided. In this regard, an exemplary system comprises a first layer of liquid crystal polymer (LCP), first electronic components supported by the first layer, and a second layer of LCP. The first layer is attached to the second layer by thermal bonds. Additionally, at least a portion of the first electronic components are located between the first layer and the second layer.

  4. Advanced Reconnaissance System Component Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-07-31

    or chemical interaction of the air atoms and molecules.on the vehicle skin or lens and window materials. The quantity of molecules present is very low...I Mill -• •ri... ": :’s t:.... 111 . . . orIII. i...1 MINI . • ; . . .1...!.... : . •..1 • . , , BIM El MIMIIMO= .. insma’ • • . wart...Reliability were discussed. "Some Reliability Aspects of Systems Design", Moskowitz, Fred and * Lean , John’, RADC Technical Note 55-4 "Reliability is

  5. Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L

    2010-01-01

    Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences.

  6. A two-component system for seedless fruit development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Angenent, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The application relates to the field of plant biotechnology. A two component system for making hybrid plants capable of producing seedless fruits is provided. Using the two component system, for example seedless tomatoes, peppers, aubergines and melons can 5 be made. Also provided is a method for

  7. Disinfection of water distribution systems for Legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Stout, J E; Yu, V L; Vidic, R D

    1998-06-01

    Hospital-acquired legionnaires' disease arises from the presence of Legionella in hospital water systems. Legionella not only persists in hot water tanks but is also found in the biofilm throughout the entire water distribution system. Conditions within water systems that promote Legionella colonization include water temperature, configuration and age of the hot water tank, physicochemical constituents of the water, plumbing materials, and commensal microflora. Hospital-acquired legionnaires' disease has been prevented by instituting control measures directed at the water distribution system. These include superheat-and-flush, copper/silver ionization, ultraviolet light, instantaneous heating systems, and hyperchlorination. Each of the above disinfection methods has been proven to be effective in the short-term, but long-term efficacy has been difficult due to limitations associated with each method. The complexities of Legionella disinfection, including advantages and disadvantages of each method, are reviewed. A successful Legionella prevention program requires cooperation and communication among hospital administrative personnel, engineers, and infection control staff. Routine environmental surveillance cultures for Legionella are the critical component for successful long-term disinfection. Culture results document the efficacy of the disinfection method and alert the hospital staff to consider Legionella in hospitalized patients with pneumonia.

  8. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  10. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ......, or reducing the mean duration of system downtime. Example applications to an electrical substation system demonstrate the use of the formulas developed in the paper....

  11. Global specification and validation of embedded systems integrating heterogeneous components

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, G

    2007-01-01

    Offers a deep understanding of concepts and practices behind the composition of heterogeneous componentsIntroduces a systematic approach to build an execution model for systems composed of heterogeneous componentsMixed continuous/discrete and hardware/software systems will be used to illustrate these concepts.Gives a clear vision on the theory and practice of specification and validation of complex modern systemsExamples give the designers solutions applicable in their daily practice.

  12. Genetic basis for systems of skeletal quantitative traits: Principal component analysis of the canid skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Kevin; Carrier, David R.; Frederick R. Adler; Jarvik, Tyler; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Lorentzen, Travis D.; Lark, Karl G.

    2002-01-01

    Evolution of mammalian skeletal structure can be rapid and the changes profound, as illustrated by the morphological diversity of the domestic dog. Here we use principal component analysis of skeletal variation in a population of Portuguese Water Dogs to reveal systems of traits defining skeletal structures. This analysis classifies phenotypic variation into independent components that can be used to dissect genetic networks regulating complex biological systems. We show that unlinked quantit...

  13. Psychological Empowerment: A systemic model with individual and community components

    OpenAIRE

    Banda Castro, Ana Lilia; Morales Zamorano, Miguel Arturo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm that social participation may influence empowerment as one ofthe four components explained by the theory. The hypothesis proposes systemic interaction of two components of empowerment: intrapersonal and behavioral. 113 urban residents participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested through the use of structural modeling. An intrapersonal component of empowerment, composed of positive empowerment, negative empowerment and socio-political control was identified...

  14. The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

  15. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Water Adequacy and Suitability of the Water Quality Laboratory. The panel also agreed that Quality Procedures Manual the potential for obtaining formal ... formally recognize the high level of work being performed 5 in LTRMP water quality and increase the national from the LTRMP field stations. However...transmission as the primary method for obtaining findings to external peer review is the final steptranmision s te prmar metod or otaiing in quality

  16. Solubility of multi-component biodiesel fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle; Janulis, Prutenis

    2005-03-01

    Solubility of biodiesel fuel components in fossil diesel fuel-methanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester, fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester and fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil ethyl ester systems was investigated. The solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system at 20 degrees C was substantially higher than in the fossil diesel fuel-methanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system. The solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil ethyl ester system was slightly lower than in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester mixture. The moisture content of ethanol had a great influence on mixture solubility. With decrease of temperature, the solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system decreased.

  17. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David M; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2006-01-01

    ...) adequacy and suitability of the water quality procedures manual, (4) adequacy and efficiency of procedures for quality assurance and quality control in data collection and laboratory analyses, (5...

  18. Meeting water requirements system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Roy

    2007-05-01

    There is a plethora of legislation and guidelines relating to the control and supply of water in healthcare establishments. Here, Roy Minett, marketing manager of Rada in the UK, provides some advice on making sense of what is expected and required.

  19. Interaction of water components in the semi-arid Huasco and Limarí river basins, North Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Oyarzún, R.; Reinstorf, F.; Oyarzún, J.; Schirmer, M.; Knöller, K.

    2009-10-01

    For sustainable water resource management in semi-arid regions, sound information is required about interactions between the different components of the water system: rain/snow precipitation, surface/subsurface run-off, groundwater recharge. Exemplarily, the Huasco and Limarí river basins as water stressed river catchments have been studied by isotope and hydrochemical methods for (i) the origin of water, (ii) water quality, (iii) relations of surface and groundwater. Applying the complex multi-isotopic and hydrochemical methodology to the water components of the Huasco and Limarí basins, a differentiation of water components concerning subsurface flow and river water along the catchment area and by anthropogenic impacts are detected. Sulphate and nitrate concentrations indicate remarkable input from mining and agricultural activities along the river catchment. The 2H-18O relations of river water and groundwater of both catchments point to the behaviour of river waters originated in an arid to semi-arid environment. Consequently, the groundwater from several production wells in the lower parts of the catchments is related to the rivers where the wells located, however, it can be distinguished from the river water. Using the hydrological water balance and the isotope mixing model, the interaction between surface and subsurface flows and river flow is estimated.

  20. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    system required 53% lower auxiliary exergy input than the air cooling system, showing a clear benefit for the water-based systems over the air-based systems. The auxiliary energy and exergy input to different systems is an important parameter for the whole system performance. Its effects become more...... pronounced and can be studied better in terms of exergy than energy. The required exergy input to the power plant for space heating and cooling purposes are comparable to the required exergy input for auxiliary components. The exergy input to auxiliary components should be minimized to fully benefit from...... the water-based low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems, and in general in heating and cooling systems, and to integrate effectively the renewable energy resources to building heating and cooling systems....

  1. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  2. Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SVD) of hydrological data was tested for water quality assessment. Using two case studies of waste- and drinking water, PCA via SVD was able to find latent variables which explain 80.8% and 83.7% of the variance, respectively. By means of ...

  3. Effect Of Conjunctive Use Of Water On Yield Components And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deemed University, Allahabad, India in a randomized block design with three replications and four levels of sewage water i.e., 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were applied to radish crop by blending with fresh water. It was observed that the higher ...

  4. Maximum flow-based resilience analysis: From component to system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chong; Li, Ruiying; Kang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Resilience, the ability to withstand disruptions and recover quickly, must be considered during system design because any disruption of the system may cause considerable loss, including economic and societal. This work develops analytic maximum flow-based resilience models for series and parallel systems using Zobel’s resilience measure. The two analytic models can be used to evaluate quantitatively and compare the resilience of the systems with the corresponding performance structures. For systems with identical components, the resilience of the parallel system increases with increasing number of components, while the resilience remains constant in the series system. A Monte Carlo-based simulation method is also provided to verify the correctness of our analytic resilience models and to analyze the resilience of networked systems based on that of components. A road network example is used to illustrate the analysis process, and the resilience comparison among networks with different topologies but the same components indicates that a system with redundant performance is usually more resilient than one without redundant performance. However, not all redundant capacities of components can improve the system resilience, the effectiveness of the capacity redundancy depends on where the redundant capacity is located. PMID:28545135

  5. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  6. Determination of radiation resistant of electronic components in robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea); Kim, Do Sung [Taegu University, Taegu (Korea); Woo, Hong [Kyungsan University, Kyungsan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    We investigated the characteristic change for the electronic components of the systems which were used in radiation area, when those were exposured by gamma rays. Bipolar transistor, FET, TTL, CMOS, operational amplifier, some capacitors, and several electronic components were selected for experiment. We applied irradiated gamma ray to the electronic components in the range of 10{sup 6} rad, by {sup 6}0Co(KAERI). We made up appropriate assessment circuit for each electronic component during the performance test, and assessed the reliability and radiation-resistance of them for the each radiation irradiation. (author). 59 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  8. Optical Computing-Optical Components and Storage Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Optical Computing - Optical Components and Storage Systems ... Keywords. Advanced materials. optical switching. pulse shaping. optical storage device. high-performance computing. imaging; nanotechnology. photonics. telecommunications ...

  9. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Alternative approaches to solar heating and hot water system configurations were studied, parametrizing the number and location of the dampers, the number and location of the fans, the interface locations with the furnace, the size and type of subsystems, and operating modes. A two-pass air-heating collector was selected based on efficiency and ease of installation. Also, an energy transport module was designed to compactly contain all the mechanical and electrical control components. System performance calculations were carried out over a heating season for the tentative site location at Tunkhnana, Pa. Results illustrate the effect of collector size, storage capacity, and use of a reflector. Factors which affected system performance include site location, insulative quality of the house, and of the system components. A preliminary system performance specification is given.

  10. Applying of component system development in object methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, the concept and implementation of component-based architectures have been promoted in software systems creation. Increasingly complex demands are placed on the software component systems, in particular relating to the dynamic properties. The emergence of such requirements has been gradually enforced by the practice of development and implementation of these systems, especially for information systems software.Just the information systems (robust IS of different types require that target software meets their requirements. Among other things, we mean primarily the adaptive processes of different domains, high distributives due to the possibilities of the Internet 2.0, acceptance of high integrity of life domains (process, data and communications integrity, scalability, and flexible adaptation to process changes, a good context for external devices and transparent structure of the sub-process modules and architectural units.Of course, the target software of required qualities and the type robust cannot be a monolith. As commonly known, development of design toward information systems software has clearly come to the need for the software composition of completely autonomous, but cooperating architectural units that communicate with each other using messages of prescribed formats.Although for such units there were often used the so called subsystems and modules, see (Jac, Boo, Rumbo, 1998 and (Arlo, Neus, 2007, their abstraction being gradually enacted as the term component. In other words, the subsystems and modules are specific types of components.In (Král, Žeml, 2000 and (Král, Žeml, 2003 there are considered two types of target software of information systems. The first type – there are SWC (Software Components, composed of permanently available components, which are thought as services – Confederate software. The second type – SWA (Software Alliance, called semi Confederate, formed during the run-time of the

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of water balance components due to a bottomland hedgerow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Ghazavi, G.; Merot, P.

    2009-04-01

    Wooded linear structures in general, and hedgerows in particular, were formerly very abundant in the European landscape, but have undergone a considerable decline in their density in the past decades, before being stabilized. Currently, we observe locally an increase due to the multiple advantages offered by these structures and the effect of agricultural policies. The aim of the present study was to quantify spatially and temporally the impact of an oak hedgerow (Quercus robur) on the various terms of the water balance. This study was carried out at the plot scale by focusing on aspects related to water transfer in the soil and aquifer. From the results obtained on a local scale, we proposed a functional scheme that allowed us to represent the role of hedge trees in water cycle. In this study, groundwater level and soil-water potential were monitored continually at various distances from the hedgerow along two 28 m length transects, at a spacing of 10 m, enabling us to obtain fine-scale information on the functioning of the soil-groundwater system. We evaluate tree transpiration from sap flow density measurements. Functional scheme were proposed illustrating the role of hedgerow, which can then be used for integrating the impact of the hedge trees into hydrological models. For the period when oak trees had their leaves (leafed period), the determining processes that need to be represented are the rainfall interception, tree transpiration and capillary rise. Other terms of the water balance, such as drainage, are directly affected by the presence of the hedgerow. Drainage is strongly reduced under the hedgerow, and decreases significantly at a certain distance from the hedgerow, when capillary rise increased under the hedgerow and decreased far away. Our results show that the impact of a bottomland hedgerow on water balance components can be highly variable according to the climatic conditions. Hedge tree transpiration increased for a wet year when soil-water

  12. Automatic shearography inspection systems for aircraft components in production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Oliver; Waltz, T.; Ettemeyer, Andreas

    1999-09-01

    Shearography has been validated as fast and reliable inspection technique for composite materials in aerospace components. Following a several years phase of evaluation of the technique to show the principal applicability and prove the required sensitivity, now the first production lines for aerospace components have been equipped with automatic shearography inspection systems. In this paper, recent installations of automatic inspection systems in aerospace industries are presented.

  13. Computers as components principles of embedded computing system design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, 3e, presents essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques. Updated for today's embedded systems design methods, this edition features new examples including digital signal processing, multimedia, and cyber-physical systems. Author Marilyn Wolf covers the latest processors from Texas Instruments, ARM, and Microchip Technology plus software, operating systems, networks, consumer devices, and more. Like the previous editions, this textbook: Uses real processors to demonstrate both technology and tec

  14. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  15. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  16. SSME component assembly and life management expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Dietz, W. E.; Ferber, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The space shuttle utilizes several rocket engine systems, all of which must function with a high degree of reliability for successful mission completion. The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is by far the most complex of the rocket engine systems and is designed to be reusable. The reusability of spacecraft systems introduces many problems related to testing, reliability, and logistics. Components must be assembled from parts inventories in a manner which will most effectively utilize the available parts. Assembly must be scheduled to efficiently utilize available assembly benches while still maintaining flight schedules. Assembled components must be assigned to as many contiguous flights as possible, to minimize component changes. Each component must undergo a rigorous testing program prior to flight. In addition, testing and assembly of flight engines and components must be done in conjunction with the assembly and testing of developmental engines and components. The development, testing, manufacture, and flight assignments of the engine fleet involves the satisfaction of many logistical and operational requirements, subject to many constraints. The purpose of the SSME Component Assembly and Life Management Expert System (CALMES) is to assist the engine assembly and scheduling process, and to insure that these activities utilize available resources as efficiently as possible.

  17. Water Powered Bioassay System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Liwei

    2004-01-01

    This project addresses critical technologies, including the acquisition, metering, buffering, delivery and assay for the processing of bio-fluids that enable the complete integration of microfluidic chips into systems...

  18. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  19. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive "m out of n: F" is presented as well.

  20. 76 FR 69292 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY... structures and components exposed to treated borated water and adding reduction of heat transfer due to... Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR- ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and...

  1. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Components and Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Minihan; Ed Schmidt; Greg Enserro; Melissa Thompson

    2008-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to develop the processes for using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for WR production and to put in place a system for implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. Much of the effort was devoted to determining if the use of COTS parts was possible. A basic question: How does the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) begin to use COTS in the weapon Stockpile Life Extension Programs with high reliability, affordability, while managing risk at acceptable levels? In FY00, it was determined that a certain weapon refurbishment program could not be accomplished without the use of COTS components. The elements driving the use of COTS components included decreased cost, greater availability, and shorter delivery time. Key factors that required implementation included identifying the best suppliers and components, defining life cycles and predictions of obsolescence, testing the feasibility of using COTS components with a test contractor to ensure capability, as well as quality and reliability, and implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. The primary effort of this project then was to concentrate on the risks involved in the use of COTS and address the issues of part and vendor selection, procurement and acceptance processes, and qualification of the parts via part and sample testing. The Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS) was used to manage the information generated by the COTS process. eCIS is a common interface for both the design and production of NWC components and systems integrating information between SNL National Laboratory (SNL) and the Kansas City Plant (KCP). The implementation of COTS components utilizes eCIS from part selection through qualification release. All part related data is linked across an unclassified network for access by both SNL and KCP personnel. The system includes not

  2. Component configuration control system development at EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, L.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    One ofthe major programs being pursued by the EBR-II Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to improve the reliability of plant control and protection systems. This effort involves looking closely at the present state of the art and needs associated with plant diagnostic, control and protection systems. One of the areas of development at EBR-II involves a component configuration control system (CCCS). This system is a computerized control and planning aid for the nuclear power operator.

  3. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  4. A Framework for Integrated Component and System Analyses of Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Erwin, James; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Cattafesta, Lou; Liu, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Instabilities associated with fluid handling and operation in liquid rocket propulsion systems and test facilities usually manifest themselves as structural vibrations or some form of structural damage. While the source of the instability is directly related to the performance of a component such as a turbopump, valve or a flow control element, the associated pressure fluctuations as they propagate through the system have the potential to amplify and resonate with natural modes of the structural elements and components of the system. In this paper, the authors have developed an innovative multi-level approach that involves analysis at the component and systems level. The primary source of the unsteadiness is modeled with a high-fidelity hybrid RANS/LES based CFD methodology that has been previously used to study instabilities in feed systems. This high fidelity approach is used to quantify the instability and understand the physics associated with the instability. System response to the driving instability is determined through a transfer matrix approach wherein the incoming and outgoing pressure and velocity fluctuations are related through a transfer (or transmission) matrix. The coefficients of the transfer matrix for each component (i.e. valve, pipe, orifice etc.) are individually derived from the flow physics associated with the component. A demonstration case representing a test loop/test facility comprised of a network of elements is constructed with the transfer matrix approach and the amplification of modes analyzed as the instability propagates through the test loop.

  5. Applying of component system development in object methodology, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To create computarization target software as a component system has been a very strong requirement for the last 20 years of software developing. Finally, the architectural components are self-contained units, presenting not only partial and overall system behavior, but also cooperating with each other on the basis of their interfaces. Among others, components have allowed flexible modification of processes the behavior of which is the foundation of components behavior without changing the life of the component system. On the other hand, the component system makes it possible, at design time, to create numerous new connections between components and thus creating modified system behaviors. This all enables the company management to perform, at design time, required behavioral changes of processes in accordance with the requirements of changing production and market.The development of software which is generally referred to as SDP (Software Development Process contains two directions. The first one, called CBD (Component–Based Development, is dedicated to the development of component–based systems CBS (Component–based System, the second target is the development of software under the influence of SOA (Service–Oriented Architecture. Both directions are equipped with their different development methodologies. The subject of this paper is only the first direction and application of development of component–based systems in its object–oriented methodologies. The requirement of today is to carry out the development of component-based systems in the framework of developed object–oriented methodologies precisely in the way of a dominant style. In some of the known methodologies, however, this development is not completely transparent and is not even recognized as dominant. In some cases, it is corrected by the special meta–integration models of component system development into an object methodology.This paper presents a case study

  6. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... [Das C, Ghosh TS and Mande SS 2016 In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across bacteria: New directions towards functional characterization. J. Biosci. 41 133–143] DOI 10.1007/s12038-016-9599-8. 1. Introduction. Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) was first identified in.

  7. Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triangulated data from the respective medical charts and interview transcripts were analyzed using a directed approach to content analysis. Excerpts were categorized according to three main components of the maternal healthcare delivery system: skill birth attendant (SBA), enabling environment (EE) and referral system ...

  8. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacteriun tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information ...

  9. Advanced three-component ZnO/Ag/CdS nanocomposite photoanode for photocatalytic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Yang; Zhao, Junliang; Wang, Shuguo; Li, Yongdan; Dai, Haitao; Sun, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Ag nanoparticles as co-catalysts are employed to modify the nanoscale ZnO/CdS interface to achieve a ZnO/Ag/CdS nanocomposite photoanode for photocatalytic water splitting. The three-component photoanode exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical properties as compared with the single-component (ZnO) and two-component (ZnO/Ag or ZnO/CdS) systems. The modification with Ag nanoparticles can significantly enhance the light absorption and facilitate the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers through the localized surface plasma resonance (LPSR) effect. The developed ZnO/Ag/CdS nanocomposite photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance, with a high hydrogen productivity up to 3.5 mL h-1 (∼155 umol h-1) at + 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode with an almost constant rate during 10 h. Even without any external bias, the photoanode can still exhibit a relatively high hydrogen productivity up to 0.5 mL h-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposite photoanode shows excellent photocorrosion resistance, which is ascribed to a considerable decrease of surface defect density on ZnO nanowires and the reduction of holes.

  10. Universal distribution of component frequencies in biological and technological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tin Yau; Maslov, Sergei

    2013-04-09

    Bacterial genomes and large-scale computer software projects both consist of a large number of components (genes or software packages) connected via a network of mutual dependencies. Components can be easily added or removed from individual systems, and their use frequencies vary over many orders of magnitude. We study this frequency distribution in genomes of ∼500 bacterial species and in over 2 million Linux computers and find that in both cases it is described by the same scale-free power-law distribution with an additional peak near the tail of the distribution corresponding to nearly universal components. We argue that the existence of a power law distribution of frequencies of components is a general property of any modular system with a multilayered dependency network. We demonstrate that the frequency of a component is positively correlated with its dependency degree given by the total number of upstream components whose operation directly or indirectly depends on the selected component. The observed frequency/dependency degree distributions are reproduced in a simple mathematically tractable model introduced and analyzed in this study.

  11. Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-07

    2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic...31-Aug-2014 ABSTRACT Final Report: Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic Systems Report Title The goal of this...52, 1461-1467 (2005)., (04 2012): 811. doi: N Liu, J S Yang, F Jin. Transient thickness-shear vibration of a piezoelectric plate of monoclinic

  12. Simulation of data safety components for corporative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaremko, Svetlana A.; Kuzmina, Elena M.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Krivonosov, Valeriy E.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Arman, Abenov; Smailova, Saule; Kalizhanova, Aliya

    2017-08-01

    The article deals with research of designing data safety components for corporations by means of mathematical simulations and modern information technologies. Simulation of threats ranks has been done which is based on definite values of data components. The rules of safety policy for corporative information systems have been presented. The ways of realization of safety policy rules have been proposed on the basis of taken conditions and appropriate class of valuable data protection.

  13. Evaluation and mitigation of the degradation by corrosion in the components of the service water system of a nuclear power plant; Evaluacion y mitigacion de la degradacion por corrosion en los componentes del sistema de agua de servicio de una planta nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaices A, E.; Salaices, M.; Ovando, R. [IIE, Av. Reforma 113 Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: sal@iie.org.mx

    2005-07-01

    One of the main problems that face the nuclear power stations is the degradation by corrosion in the service water systems. The corrosion causes lost substantial in energy generation and a high cost in maintenance and repairs. In this work, the results of a study of the degradation by the MIC mechanisms (microorganisms influenced corrosion), incrustations in heat exchangers and erosion for solid particles in the components of a typical service water system of a nuclear plant are presented. Diverse mitigation options are analyzed for these mechanisms. In the analysis, it was used the CHECWORKS-CWA code to carry out the evaluation of the degradation so much as well as the mitigation of the caused damage. The results are presented in susceptibility indexes and degradation rates component-by-component. A significant decrement could be observed in the susceptibility to MIC when changing the operation conditions of stagnated flow to continuous flow. With respect to the erosion by solid particles, it was found a significant reduction of the damage it when adding filters to the system. Finally, in the case of the heat exchangers, it is shown that one of the more viable options to diminish incrustations and existent calcium deposits it is the reduction of the pH of the service water. (Author)

  14. Three-component U-Pu-Th fuel for plutonium irradiation in heavy water reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts for three-component fuel bundles containing plutonium, uranium and thorium for use in pressurised heavy water reactors, and cases for and against implementation of such a nuclear energy system in the United Kingdom. Heavy water reactors are used extensively in Canada, and are deploying within India and China, whilst the UK is considering the use of heavy water reactors to manage its plutonium inventory of 140 tonnes. The UK heavy water reactor proposal uses a mixed oxide (MOX fuel of plutonium in depleted uranium, within the enhanced CANDU-6 (EC-6 reactor. This work proposes an alternative heterogeneous fuel concept based on the same reactor and CANFLEX fuel bundle, with eight large-diameter fuel elements loaded with natural thorium oxide and 35 small-diameter fuel elements loaded with a MOX of plutonium and reprocessed uranium stocks from UK MAGNOX and AGR reactors. Indicative neutronic calculations suggest that such a fuel would be neutronically feasible. A similar MOX may alternatively be fabricated from reprocessed <5% enriched light water reactor fuel, such as the fuel of the AREVA EPR reactor, to consume newly produced plutonium from reprocessing, similar to the DUPIC (direct use of PWR fuel in CANDU process.

  15. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  16. The Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Samuel James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire more resources, such as processing power and memory, than any single computer can provide. A common drawback to effectively utilizing such a large-scale system is the management infrastructure, which often does not often scale well as the system grows. Large-scale parallel systems provide new research challenges in the area of systems software, the programs or tools that manage the system from boot-up to running a parallel job. The approach presented in this thesis utilizes a collection of separate components that communicate with each other to achieve a common goal. While systems software comprises a broad array of components, this thesis focuses on the design choices for a node monitoring component. We will describe Fountain, an implementation of the Scalable Systems Software (SSS) node monitor specification. It is targeted at aggregate node monitoring for clusters, focusing on both scalability and fault tolerance as its design goals. It leverages widely used technologies such as XML and HTTP to present an interface to other components in the SSS environment.

  17. A geo-informatics approach for estimating water resources management components and their interrelationships

    KAUST Repository

    Liaqat, Umar Waqas

    2016-09-21

    A remote sensing based geo-informatics approach was developed to estimate water resources management (WRM) components across a large irrigation scheme in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. The approach provides a generalized framework for estimating a range of key water management variables and provides a management tool for the sustainable operation of similar schemes globally. A focus on the use of satellite data allowed for the quantification of relationships across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Variables including actual and crop evapotranspiration, net and gross irrigation, net and gross groundwater use, groundwater recharge, net groundwater recharge, were estimated and then their interrelationships explored across the Hakra Canal command area. Spatially distributed remotely sensed estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rates were determined using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model and evaluated against ground-based evaporation calculated from the advection-aridity method. Analysis of ETa simulations across two cropping season, referred to as Kharif and Rabi, yielded Pearson correlation (R) values of 0.69 and 0.84, Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (NSE) of 0.28 and 0.63, percentage bias of −3.85% and 10.6% and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 10.6 mm and 12.21 mm for each season, respectively. For the period of study between 2008 and 2014, it was estimated that an average of 0.63 mm day−1 water was supplied through canal irrigation against a crop water demand of 3.81 mm day−1. Approximately 1.86 mm day−1 groundwater abstraction was estimated in the region, which contributed to fulfil the gap between crop water demand and canal water supply. Importantly, the combined canal, groundwater and rainfall sources of water only met 70% of the crop water requirements. As such, the difference between recharge and discharge showed that groundwater depletion was around −115 mm year−1 during the six year study period. Analysis indicated that

  18. Towards a Component Based Model for Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Paul ROTARU

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their effectiveness in the design and development of software applications and due to their recognized advantages in terms of reusability, Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE concepts have been arousing a great deal of interest in recent years. This paper presents and extends a component-based approach to object-oriented database systems (OODB introduced by us in [1] and [2]. Components are proposed as a new abstraction level for database system, logical partitions of the schema. In this context, the scope is introduced as an escalated property for transactions. Components are studied from the integrity, consistency, and concurrency control perspective. The main benefits of our proposed component model for OODB are the reusability of the database design, including the access statistics required for a proper query optimization, and a smooth information exchange. The integration of crosscutting concerns into the component database model using aspect-oriented techniques is also discussed. One of the main goals is to define a method for the assessment of component composition capabilities. These capabilities are restricted by the component’s interface and measured in terms of adaptability, degree of compose-ability and acceptability level. The above-mentioned metrics are extended from database components to generic software components. This paper extends and consolidates into one common view the ideas previously presented by us in [1, 2, 3].[1] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Component Aspects in Object Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice (SERP’04, Volume II, ISBN 1-932415-29-7, pages 719-725, Las Vegas, NV, USA, June 2004.[2] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Mircea Petrescu, Integrity and Consistency Aspects in Component-Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Innovation in Information and Communication Technology (ISIICT

  19. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  20. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  1. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive yet feasible approach to monitoring system behavior...... specified properties via simulation. The presented method has been experimentally validated in an industrial case study---a control system for a safety-critical medical ventilator unit....... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...

  2. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D [Ames, IA; Lipert, Robert J [Ames, IA; Doyle, Robert T [Ames, IA; Grubisha, Desiree S [Corona, CA; Rahman, Salma [Ames, IA

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  3. 10 CFR 50.69 - Risk-informed categorization and treatment of structures, systems and components for nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., systems and components for nuclear power reactors. 50.69 Section 50.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY..., systems and components for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions. Risk-Informed Safety Class (RISC)-1... holder of a license to operate a light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant under this part; a holder...

  4. An automatic chip structure optical inspection system for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhichao; Xue, Bindang; Liang, Jiyuan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Junzhang; Liu, Yunhe

    2018-01-01

    An automatic chip structure inspection system based on machine vision is presented to ensure the reliability of electronic components. It consists of four major modules, including a metallographic microscope, a Gigabit Ethernet high-resolution camera, a control system and a high performance computer. An auto-focusing technique is presented to solve the problem that the chip surface is not on the same focusing surface under the high magnification of the microscope. A panoramic high-resolution image stitching algorithm is adopted to deal with the contradiction between resolution and field of view, caused by different sizes of electronic components. In addition, we establish a database to storage and callback appropriate parameters to ensure the consistency of chip images of electronic components with the same model. We use image change detection technology to realize the detection of chip images of electronic components. The system can achieve high-resolution imaging for chips of electronic components with various sizes, and clearly imaging for the surface of chip with different horizontal and standardized imaging for ones with the same model, and can recognize chip defects.

  5. [Analysis on water-soluble components in roots of Changium smyrnioides among different populations by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlin; Guo, Qiaosheng; Cheng, Boxing; Yang, Liwen; Zhou, Tinghui

    2010-12-01

    To analyze water-soluble components in the roots of Ch. smyrnioides among different populations that distributed in the main areas and give a reference for germplasm evaluation and quality control. Water-soluble components were extracted with the cold-soaking method and analyzed by HPLC, similarity coefficient was calculated by included angle cosine method according to relative content of major water-soluble components, and systematic relationships were constructed based on UPGMA method. There was significant difference in water-soluble components in root among population. Jiuhuashan population had the highest content of water-soluble extract. The content of water-soluble extract was below the pharmacopoeia standard in the root of Dalongshan population and Fushan population. There was significant difference in the HPLC chromatogram of water-soluble components in the root of Ch. smyrnioides from different populations, and the number of common peak was small. Similarity coefficient significantly ranged from 0.0306 to 0.9995 among 10 populations of Ch. smymrnioides. Water-soluble components in the root of Zijinshan population was the most unique, similarity coefficients were relatively small among Zijinshan population and the other seven populations except Hongshan population, and similarity coefficient was in a higher level of 0.9697 between Zijinshan population and Hongshan population. Water-soluble components were extremely similar in four populations that were Laoshan, Maoshan, Qinglongshan and Langyashan, and similarity coefficients among them were in a high level exceeded 0.99. 10 populations were divided into 3 groups according to clustering results. Water-soluble components show a high diversity in the roots of Ch. smyrnioides among different populations, and can be clearly divided into 3 types.

  6. Secure Wireless Embedded Systems Via Component-based Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis S.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure...... communication component for distributed wireless embedded devices. The components communicate using the Secure Embedded Exchange Protocol (SEEP), which has been designed for flexible trust establishment so that small, resource-constrained, wireless embedded systems are able to communicate short command messages......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  7. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure...... communication component for distributed wireless embedded devices. The components communicate using the Secure Embedded Exchange Protocol (SEEP), which has been designed for flexible trust establishment so that small, resource-constrained, wireless embedded systems are able to communicate short command messages......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  8. Evaluation of systems and components for hybrid optical firing sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, M.J.; Rupert, J.W.; Mittas, A.

    1989-06-01

    High-energy density light appears to be a unique energy form that may be used to enhance the nuclear safety of weapon systems. Hybrid optical firing sets (HOFS) utilize the weak-link/strong-link exclusion region concept for nuclear safety; this method is similar to present systems, but uses light to transmit power across the exclusion region barrier. This report describes the assembling, operating, and testing of fourteen HOFS. These firing sets were required to charge a capacitor-discharge unit to 2.0 and 2.5 kV (100 mJ) in less than 1 s. First, we describe the components, the measurement techniques used to evaluate the components, and the different characteristics of the measured components. Second, we describe the HOFS studied, the setups used for evaluating them, and the resulting characteristics. Third, we make recommendations for improving the overall performance and suggest the best HOFS for packaging. 36 refs., 145 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Integrating Existing Simulation Components into a Cohesive Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brian J.; Barrett, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    A tradition of leveraging the re-use of components to help manage costs has evolved in the development of complex system. This tradition continues on in the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program with the cloning of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite for the JPSS-1 mission, including the instrument complement. One benefit of re-use on a mission is the availability of existing simulation assets from the systems that were previously built. An issue arises in the continual shift of technology over a long mission, or multi-mission, lifecycle. As the missions mature, the requirements for the observatory simulations evolve. The challenge in this environment becomes re-using the existing components in that ever-changing landscape. To meet this challenge, the system must: establish an operational architecture that minimizes impacts on the implementation of individual components, consolidate the satisfaction of new high-impact requirements into system-level infrastructure, and build in a long-term view of system adaptation that spans the full lifecycle of the simulation system. The Flight Vehicle Test Suite (FVTS) within the JPSS Program is defining and executing this approach to ensure a robust simulation capability for the JPSS multi-mission environment

  10. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

    2008-11-01

    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  11. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  12. Green IT engineering components, networks and systems implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, Yuriy; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book presents modern approaches to improving the energy efficiency, safety and environmental performance of industrial processes and products, based on the application of advanced trends in Green Information Technologies (IT) Engineering to components, networks and complex systems (software, programmable and hardware components, communications, Cloud and IoT-based systems, as well as IT infrastructures). The book’s 16 chapters, prepared by authors from Greece, Malaysia, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom, are grouped into four sections: (1) The Green Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Data Mining, (2) Green Mobile and Embedded Control Systems, (3) Green Logic and FPGA Design, and (4) Green IT for Industry and Smart Grids. The book will motivate researchers and engineers from different IT domains to develop, implement and propagate green values in complex systems. Further, it will benefit all scientists and graduate students pursuing research in computer science with a focus on green ...

  13. Formalized methodology for the separation of three component electrolytic systems: Partial separation of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suljkanović Midhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a formalized methodology for salt's separation from three component electrolytic systems. The methodology is based on the multi-variant modelling block of a generalized crystallization process, with options for simulating the boundary conditions of feasible equilibrium processes and the elements of crystallization techniques. The following techniques are considered: cooling crystallization, adiabatic evaporative-cooling crystallization, salt-out crystallization, isothermal crystallization, and a combination of the mentioned techniques. The multi-variant options of the crystallization module are based on different variable sets with assigned values for solving mathematical models of generalized crystallization processes. The first level of the methodology begins with the determination of salt crystallization paths from a hypothetical electrolytic AX-BX-H2O system, following by an examination of salt-cooling crystallization possibilities. The second level determines feasible processes by the communication of a feed-system with the environment through a stream of evaporated water, or introduced water with introduced crystallized BX salt. The third level determines the value intervals of the variables for feasible processes. The methodological logic and possibilities for the created process simulator are demonstrated on examples of sodium sulphate separation from the NaCl-Na2SO4-H2O system, using different salt concentrations within the feed system.

  14. Precoded spatial multiplexing MIMO system with spatial component interleaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Zhanji

    In this paper, the performance of precoded bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) spatial multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with spatial component interleaver is investigated. For the ideal precoded spatial multiplexing MIMO system with spatial component interleaver based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the MIMO channel, the average pairwise error probability (PEP) of coded bits is derived. Based on the PEP analysis, the optimum spatial Q-component interleaver design criterion is provided to achieve the minimum error probability. For the limited feedback precoded proposed scheme with linear zero forcing (ZF) receiver, in order to minimize a bound on the average probability of a symbol vector error, a novel effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-based precoding matrix selection criterion and a simplified criterion are proposed. Based on the average mutual information (AMI)-maximization criterion, the optimal constellation rotation angles are investigated. Simulation results indicate that the optimized spatial multiplexing MIMO system with spatial component interleaver can achieve significant performance advantages compared to the conventional spatial multiplexing MIMO system.

  15. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Mathematics ul. Morska 81-87, Gdynia 81-225 Poland (Poland)

    2016-06-08

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive “m out of n: F” is presented as well.

  16. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional and component structure of the population trading service system

    OpenAIRE

    Кобилін, П. О.

    2017-01-01

    Formulation the problem. Over the past decade the system of population trading service has seen substantial qualitative changes, particularly the ownership form of retail, restaurant business institutions changed, the range of products expanded, new types of stores, forms of trade (supermarkets, hypermarkets, shopping malls, internet commerce, vending machines etc.) appeared. These changes affect the functional and component structure of population trading service system that has become more ...

  18. Modeling Hydraulic Components for Automated FMEA of a Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    to be reusable and, on the other hand, powerful enough to deliver the predictions relevant to FMEA of braking systems. In this paper, we present...context-independent,  analyze how a stimulus in terms of a local pressure change (e.g. pushing a brake pedal ) propagates through the system...mechanical components and the electronic control unit (ECU) and its software. It contains a tandem pedal actuation unit (with two pistons and two

  19. Development of a Water Recovery System Resource Tracking Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Sargusingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah; Moore, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed to track water resources in an exploration vehicle using Regenerative Life Support (RLS) systems. The Resource Tracking Model (RTM) integrates the functions of all the vehicle components that affect the processing and recovery of water during simulated missions. The approach used in developing the RTM enables its use as part of a complete vehicle simulation for real time mission studies. Performance data for the components in the RTM is focused on water processing. The data provided to the model has been based on the most recent information available regarding the technology of the component. This paper will describe the process of defining the RLS system to be modeled, the way the modeling environment was selected, and how the model has been implemented. Results showing how the RLS components exchange water are provided in a set of test cases.

  20. Active and Passive RF Components for High-Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantista, Christopher D.

    2002-09-06

    In recent years, R&D for pulse compression and power distribution systems for the Next Linear Collider has led to the invention of many novel rf components, some of which must handle up to 600 MW of pulsed power at X-band. These include passive waveguide components, active switch designs, and non-reciprocal devices. Among the former is a class of multi-moded, highly efficient rf components based on planar geometries with overmoded rectangular ports. Multi-moding allows us, by means of input phasing, to direct power to different locations through the same waveguide. Planar symmetry allows the height to be increased to improve power handling capacity. Features that invite breakdown, such as coupling slots, irises and H-plane septa, are avoided. This class includes hybrids, directional couplers, an eight-port superhybrid/dual-mode launcher, a mode-selective extractor, mode-preserving bends, a rectangular mode converter, and mode-mixers. We are able to utilize such rectangular waveguide components in systems incorporating low-loss, circular waveguide delay lines by means of specially designed tapers that efficiently transform multiple rectangular waveguide modes into their corresponding circular waveguide modes, specifically TE10 and TE20 into circular TE11 and TE01. These extremely compact tapers can replace well-known mode converters such as the Marie type. Another component, a reflective TE01-TE02 mode converter in circular waveguide, allows us to double the delay in reflective or resonant delay lines. Ideas for multi-megawatt active components, such as switches, have also been pursued. Power-handling capacity for these is increased by making them also highly overmoded. We present a design methodology for active rf magnetic components which are suitable for pulse compression systems of future X-band linear colliders. We also present an active switch based on a PIN diode array. This component comprises an array of active elements arranged so that the electric fields

  1. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 199O's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  2. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  3. Integrated component fluidic servovalves and position control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormley, D. N.; Lee, K. M.

    1983-04-01

    The operating characteristics of fluidic laminar proportional amplifier (+PA's) operating on hydraulic oil have been determined as a function of pressure and temperature. The useful operating range of these elements has been defined for application in multistage gain blocks and summing amplifiers. An operational servovalve constructed from LPA's has been developed and coupled with a fluidic position feedback transducer, summing amplifier and ram to construct a closed loop position control system. Static and dynamic experimental evaluation of the servosystem has shown that its performance is comparable to that of a servo employing electrohydraulic components. This development effort has demonstrated the capability to develop high performance, closed loop servo components from standard, integrated component fluidic elements.

  4. Robustness of Component Models in Energy System Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian

    2003-01-01

    ). Others have to do with the interaction between models of the nature of the substances in an energy system (e.g., fuels, air, flue gas), models of the components in a system (e.g., heat exchangers, turbines, pumps), and the solver for the system of equations. This paper proposes that the interaction...... or less difficult depending on the mathematical expressions creating the exceptions. The proposed idea suggests that the solvers may be helped by exception handling leading it back on the right track. The original equation of the model is substituted by an algorithm, so the original equation is only...

  5. 77 FR 23513 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... Management Criteria for PWR Reactor Vessel Internal Components.'' The original notice provided the ADAMS... published a notice requesting public comments on draft LR-ISG-2011-04, ``Updated Aging Management Criteria...

  6. Design for robustness of unique, multi-component engineering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kenneth A.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to advance the science of conceptual designing for robustness in unique, multi-component engineering systems. Robustness is herein defined as the ability of an engineering system to operate within a desired performance range even if the actual configuration has differences from specifications within specified tolerances. These differences are caused by three sources, namely manufacturing errors, system degradation (operational wear and tear), and parts availability. Unique, multi-component engineering systems are defined as systems produced in unique or very small production numbers. They typically have design and manufacturing costs on the order of billions of dollars, and have multiple, competing performance objectives. Design time for these systems must be minimized due to competition, high manpower costs, long manufacturing times, technology obsolescence, and limited available manpower expertise. Most importantly, design mistakes cannot be easily corrected after the systems are operational. For all these reasons, robustness of these systems is absolutely critical. This research examines the space satellite industry in particular. Although inherent robustness assurance is absolutely critical, it is difficult to achieve in practice. The current state of the art for robustness in the industry is to overdesign components and subsystems with redundancy and margin. The shortfall is that it is not known if the added margins were either necessary or sufficient given the risk management preferences of the designer or engineering system customer. To address this shortcoming, new assessment criteria to evaluate robustness in design concepts have been developed. The criteria are comprised of the "Value Distance", addressing manufacturing errors and system degradation, and "Component Distance", addressing parts availability. They are based on an evolutionary computation format that uses a string of alleles to describe the components in the

  7. European standards for thermal solar systems and components. The finals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drück, H.; Heidemann, W.; Müller, H.; Veenstra, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Europe standards for solar collectors, hot water stores and for complete thermal solar systems have been developed during the past six years. This year (2001) these European Standards were established and therefore replaced all corresponding national standards. In the new European standards basic

  8. A microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for the detection of toxic components in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial fuel cell bacteria produce electricity. When water with a constant quality is lead passed the bacteria, a constant current will be measured. When toxic components enter the cell with the water, the bacteria are affected

  9. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Meinzer; David Woodruff; Danielle Marias; Katherine McCulloh; Sanna Sevanto

    2014-01-01

    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus...

  10. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  11. Robotic system construction with mechatronic components inverted pendulum: humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, Lucian Alexandru; Crainic, Marius Florin; Savu, Diana; Moldovan, Cristian; Dolga, Valer; Preitl, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Mechatronics is a new methodology used to achieve an optimal design of an electromechanical product. This methodology is collection of practices, procedures and rules used by those who work in particular branch of knowledge or discipline. Education in mechatronics at the Polytechnic University Timisoara is organized on three levels: bachelor, master and PhD studies. These activities refer and to design the mechatronics systems. In this context the design, implementation and experimental study of a family of mechatronic demonstrator occupy an important place. In this paper, a variant for a mechatronic demonstrator based on the combination of the electrical and mechanical components is proposed. The demonstrator, named humanoid robot, is equivalent with an inverted pendulum. Is presented the analyze of components for associated functions of the humanoid robot. This type of development the mechatronic systems by the combination of hardware and software, offers the opportunity to build the optimal solutions.

  12. Comparison and Assessment of Three Advanced Land Surface Models in Simulating Terrestrial Water Storage Components over the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Youlong [I. M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/Environmental Modeling Center, College Park, Maryland; Mocko, David [Hydrological Science Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Li, Bailing [Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland; Rodell, Matthew [Hydrological Science Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Mitchell, Kenneth E. [Prescient Weather Ltd., State College, Pennsylvania; Cai, Xitian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Ek, Michael B. [NOAA/NCEP/Environmental Modeling Center, College Park, Maryland

    2017-03-01

    In preparation for next generation North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), 3 three advanced land surface models (CLM4.0, Noah-MP, and CLSM-F2.5) were run from 1979 4 to 2014 within the NLDAS-based framework. Monthly total water storage anomaly (TWSA) and 5 its individual water storage components were evaluated against satellite-based and in situ 6 observations, and reference reanalysis products at basin-wide and statewide scales. In general, all 7 three models are able to reasonably capture the monthly and interannual variability and 8 magnitudes for TWSA. However, contributions of the anomalies of individual water 9 components to TWSA are very dependent on the model and basin. A major contributor to the 10 TWSA is the anomaly of total column soil moisture content (SMCA) for CLM4.0 and Noah-MP 11 or groundwater storage anomaly (GWSA) for CLSM-F2.5 although other components such as 12 the anomaly of snow water equivalent (SWEA) also play some role. For each individual water 13 storage component, the models are able to capture broad features such as monthly and 14 interannual variability. However, there are large inter-model differences and quantitative 15 uncertainties in this study. Therefore, it should be thought of as a preliminary synthesis and 16 analysis.

  13. How to constrain multi-objective calibrations using water balance components for an improved realism of model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannerstill, Matthias; Bieger, Katrin; Guse, Björn; Bosch, David; Fohrer, Nicola; Arnold, Jeffrey G.

    2017-04-01

    Accurate discharge simulation is one of the most common objectives of hydrological modeling studies. However, a good simulation of discharge is not necessarily the result of a realistic simulation of hydrological processes within the catchment. To enhance the realism of model results, we propose an evaluation framework that considers both discharge and water balance components as evaluation criteria for hydrological models. In this study, we integrated easily available expert knowledge such as average annual values of surface runoff, groundwater flow, and evapotranspiration in the model evaluation procedure to constrain the selection of good model runs. For evaluating water balance and discharge dynamics, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and percent bias (PBIAS) were used. In addition, the ratio of root mean square error and standard deviation of measured data (RSR) was calculated for individual segments of the flow duration curve to identify the best model runs in terms of discharge magnitude. Our results indicate that good statistics for discharge do not guarantee realistic simulations of individual water balance components. Therefore, we recommend constraining the ranges of water balance components to better capture internal and external fluxes of the hydrological system, even if trade-offs between good statistics for discharge simulations and reasonable amounts of the water balance components are unavoidable.

  14. The Issue Of Water Resources Diversification In Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Janusz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the methodology for determining the diversification degree of water resources in Collective Water Supply Systems (CWSS. Knowing the number of water supply sub-systems and their share in the total supply of water for CWSS, it is possible to calculate the dimensionless Pielou ratio. The paper presents the calculation of the diversification rate for 26 CWSS in Poland. The presented methodology makes it possible to compare CWSS with different water requirements.

  15. Component based distributed systems - CORBA and EJB in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, T. F.; McCaughey, A. J.

    2000-05-01

    Astronomy, like other sciences, is highly collaborative, so it is no surprise that astronomical computing environments have become increasingly distributed in nature. Therefore the interest in benefiting from new developments in distributed computing technologies is clear, but to reap these potential benefits one must overcome the problems posed by the heterogeneous mix of different architectures and operating systems that occur. This mix has made information flow between systems at best difficult and organizations have not been able to fully harness one of their most valuable assets, namely information. This paper introduces the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise Java Beans (EJBs), and puts forward a rationale as to why they have the potential to provide the required integration platform. These component based distributed technologies, allow disparate, heterogeneous legacy data systems to be integrated with current systems and they also support the incremental growth of current systems to meet evolving requirements.

  16. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  17. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-11

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.

  18. 76 FR 45859 - In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products...

  19. 77 FR 45376 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products...

  20. 77 FR 39509 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same. The complaint names as...

  1. Formation of higher plant component microbial community in closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    2001-07-01

    Closed ecological systems (CES) place at the disposal of a researcher unique possibilities to study the role of microbial communities in individual components and of the entire system. The microbial community of the higher plant component has been found to form depending on specific conditions of the closed ecosystem: length of time the solution is reused, introduction of intrasystem waste water into the nutrient medium, effect of other component of the system, and system closure in terms of gas exchange. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of wheat. The composition of the components' microflora changed, species diversity decreased, individual species of bacteria and fungi whose numbers were not so great before the closure prevailed. Special attention should be paid to phytopathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species of microorganisms potentially hazardous to man or plants and the least controlled in CES. This situation can endanger creation of CES and make conjectural existence of preplanned components, man, specifically, and consequently, of CES as it is.

  2. A microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for the detection of toxic components in water

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial fuel cell bacteria produce electricity. When water with a constant quality is lead passed the bacteria, a constant current will be measured. When toxic components enter the cell with the water, the bacteria are affected and this will show as a decrease in current. In this way a microbial fuel cell can act as a sensor for toxic components in water. The research focused on the control of the sensor to reach a sensitive sensor. This was done by controlling the potential of the ano...

  3. SOILS AS REPRESENTATIVE COMPONENT OF URBAN SYSTEM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorkina N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some classifications of city soils together with possibilities of operative tracking of the ecological state of urban system soil cover were considered. Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises and territories adjacent to artillery base complex near Novobogdanovka.The use of modern classifications of urban soils allows us to monitor the ecological state of soil of urban system and take proper measures for its optimization. The most representative indicators of the ecological status of soils for urban system are pH and heavy metals. All components of urban system must be considered as integrated structural and functional formation, where the main structural components are the administrative and territorial units - regions, and functional - industrial, residential and recreational areas of the city.Environmental monitoring of the spatial distribution of heavy metals and pH in Melitopol proved their uneven distribution. Most disadvantaged areas were located near highways. The main role in the pollution of the urban Melitopol environment has shifted to the road transport industry due to its significant increase.

  4. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural......Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...

  5. A Reconfigurable FPGA System for Parallel Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A run-time reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA system is presented for the implementation of the parallel independent component analysis (ICA algorithm. In this work, we investigate design challenges caused by the capacity constraints of single FPGA. Using the reconfigurability of FPGA, we show how to manipulate the FPGA-based system and execute processes for the parallel ICA (pICA algorithm. During the implementation procedure, pICA is first partitioned into three temporally independent function blocks, each of which is synthesized by using several ICA-related reconfigurable components (RCs that are developed for reuse and retargeting purposes. All blocks are then integrated into a design and development environment for performing tasks such as FPGA optimization, placement, and routing. With partitioning and reconfiguration, the proposed reconfigurable FPGA system overcomes the capacity constraints for the pICA implementation on embedded systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this implementation on real images with large throughput for dimensionality reduction in hyperspectral image (HSI analysis.

  6. A Reconfigurable FPGA System for Parallel Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Qi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A run-time reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA system is presented for the implementation of the parallel independent component analysis (ICA algorithm. In this work, we investigate design challenges caused by the capacity constraints of single FPGA. Using the reconfigurability of FPGA, we show how to manipulate the FPGA-based system and execute processes for the parallel ICA (pICA algorithm. During the implementation procedure, pICA is first partitioned into three temporally independent function blocks, each of which is synthesized by using several ICA-related reconfigurable components (RCs that are developed for reuse and retargeting purposes. All blocks are then integrated into a design and development environment for performing tasks such as FPGA optimization, placement, and routing. With partitioning and reconfiguration, the proposed reconfigurable FPGA system overcomes the capacity constraints for the pICA implementation on embedded systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this implementation on real images with large throughput for dimensionality reduction in hyperspectral image (HSI analysis.

  7. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  8. Detection of Component Failures for Smart Structure Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hiroshi

    Uncertainties in the dynamics model of a smart structure are often of significance due to model errors caused by parameter identification errors and reduced-order modeling of the system. Design of a model-based Failure Detection and Isolation (FDI) system for smart structures, therefore, needs careful consideration regarding robustness with respect to such model uncertainties. In this paper, we proposes a new method of robust fault detection that is insensitive to the disturbances caused by unknown modeling errors while it is highly sensitive to the component failures. The capability of the robust detection algorithm is examined for the sensor failure of a flexible smart beam control system. It is shown by numerical simulations that the proposed method suppresses the disturbances due to model errors and markedly improves the detection performance.

  9. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Surface Water Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of surface water intakes. These intake locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  10. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Drinking Water Well Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of drinking water wells. These well locations are part of the safe drinking water information system (SDWIS)....

  11. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  12. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.; Schoenfeld, M.; Webster, K.; Briggs, M. H.; Geng, S. M.; Adkins, H. E.; Werner, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to perform testing at both the module/component level and in near prototypic reactor configurations using a non-nuclear test methodology allowed for evaluation of two components critical to the development of a potential nuclear fission power system for the lunar surface. A pair of 1 kW Stirling power convertors, similar to the type that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, were integrated into a reactor simulator system to determine their performance using pumped NaK as the hot side working fluid. The performance in the pumped-NaK system met or exceed the baseline performance measurements where the converters were electrically heated. At the maximum hot-side temperature of 550 C the maximum output power was 2375 watts. A specially-designed test apparatus was fabricated and used to quantify the performance of an annular linear induction pump that is similar to the type that could be used to circulate liquid metal through the core of a space reactor system. The errors on the measurements were generally much smaller than the magnitude of the measurements, permitting accurate performance evaluation over a wide range of operating conditions. The pump produced flow rates spanning roughly 0.16 to 5.7 l/s (2.5 to 90 GPM), and delta p levels from less than 1 kPa to 90 kPa (greater than 0.145 psi to roughly 13 psi). At the nominal FSP system operating temperature of 525 C the maximum efficiency was just over 4%.

  13. Study on system layout and component design in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tanihira, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Shoji [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The global warming becomes a significant issue in the world so that it needs to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission. It is expected that hydrogen is in place of the fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and plays the important role to resolve the global warming. There are several hydrogen making processes such as water electrolysis and steam reforming of hydrocarbon. Steam reforming of hydrocarbon is a major hydrogen making process because of economy in industry. It utilizes the fossil fuels as process heat for chemical reaction and results in a large CO{sub 2} emission. New steam reforming system without fossil fuel can contribute to resolve the global warming. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has a unique feature to be able to supply a hot helium gas whose temperature is approximately 950degC at the reactor outlet. This makes HTGR possible to utilize for not only power generation but also process heat utilization. JAERI constructed the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) that is a sort of HTGR in Oarai establishment and starts operation. Nuclear heat utilization is one of the R and D items of the HTTR. The steam reforming system coupling to the HTTR for hydrogen production has been designed. This report represents the system layout and design specification of key components in HTTR steam reforming system. (author)

  14. Shower Water Reuse System-Expanded Operations to Laundry Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Laundry rinse water carries dilute soaps and dirt. Detergents, bleaches, and disinfectants are a significant risk to plants and soils, while some...sulfate is designated as a hazardous substance 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act...Footprint Camp Program September 2014 Shower Water Reuse System- Expanded Operations to Laundry Water Work Unit WW13-01 Prepared by Valerie H. Adams, Ph.D

  15. An Efficient Connected Component Labeling Architecture for Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Spagnolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Connected component analysis is one of the most fundamental steps used in several image processing systems. This technique allows for distinguishing and detecting different objects in images by assigning a unique label to all pixels that refer to the same object. Most of the previous published algorithms have been designed for implementation by software. However, due to the large number of memory accesses and compare, lookup, and control operations when executed on a general-purpose processor, they do not satisfy the speed performance required by the next generation high performance computer vision systems. In this paper, we present the design of a new Connected Component Labeling hardware architecture suitable for high performance heterogeneous image processing of embedded designs. When implemented on a Zynq All Programmable-System on Chip (AP-SOC 7045 chip, the proposed design allows a throughput rate higher of 220 Mpixels/s to be reached using less than 18,000 LUTs and 5000 FFs, dissipating about 620 μJ.

  16. Motel solar-hot-water system--Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes system which meets 64 percent of hot water requirements of 120 room motel. Key system components include 1,000 square foot, roof-mounted collector array, 1,000 gallon storage tank, tube-in-shell heat exchanger, and three domestic hot-water tanks. Report contains calibration instructions for differential temperature controllers, shutdown procedures, and operation guidelines, performance analysis, and manufacturers' maintenance literature.

  17. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  18. Application of fuzzy-MOORA method: Ranking of components for reliability estimation of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software system (CBSS development technique is an emerging discipline that promises to take software development into a new era. As hardware systems are presently being constructed from kits of parts, software systems may also be assembled from components. It is more reliable to reuse software than to create. It is the glue code and individual components reliability that contribute to the reliability of the overall system. Every component contributes to overall system reliability according to the number of times it is being used, some components are of critical usage, known as usage frequency of component. The usage frequency decides the weight of each component. According to their weights, each component contributes to the overall reliability of the system. Therefore, ranking of components may be obtained by analyzing their reliability impacts on overall application. In this paper, we propose the application of fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, Fuzzy-MOORA. The method helps us find the best suitable alternative, software component, from a set of available feasible alternatives named software components. It is an accurate and easy to understand tool for solving multi-criteria decision making problems that have imprecise and vague evaluation data. By the use of ratio analysis, the proposed method determines the most suitable alternative among all possible alternatives, and dimensionless measurement will realize the job of ranking of components for estimating CBSS reliability in a non-subjective way. Finally, three case studies are shown to illustrate the use of the proposed technique.

  19. Insulating complex cooling system components; Kaeltedaemmung komplexer Anlagenteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.

    2009-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at the use of specially formed insulation components made of synthetic rubber. The author comments on the difficulties encountered by companies when estimating the amount of work needed to insulate complex systems, as this often involves work being carried out in several stages. The importance of a clear concept for the insulation work is stressed. Details on the insulation of piping, connection flanges, valves and stop-cocks are presented and the use of specially formed insulation elements is discussed. Various tips are given and practical guides are presented regarding couplings, critical elements and problematical zones.

  20. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  1. Water footprint components required to address the water-energy-food nexus, with the recent Urban Water Atlas for Europe as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy

    2017-04-01

    The first part of this presentation analyses which water footprint (WF) components are necessary in WF accounting to provide relevant information to address the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) water security (SDG 6), food security (SDG 2) and energy security (SDG 7) in a nexus setting. It is strongly based on the publication Vanham (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.08.003. First, the nexus links between (1) the planetary boundary freshwater resources (green and blue water resources) and (2) food, energy and blue water security are discussed. Second, it is shown which water uses are mostly represented in WF accounting. General water management and WF studies only account for the water uses agriculture, industry and domestic water. Important water uses are however mostly not identified as separate entities or even included, i.e. green and blue water resources for aquaculture, wild foods, biofuels, hydroelectric cooling, hydropower, recreation/tourism, forestry (for energy and other biomass uses) and navigation. Third, therefore a list of essential separate components to be included within WF accounting is presented. The latter would be more coherent with the water-food-energy-ecosystem nexus. The second part of the presentation gives a brief overview of the recently published Urban Water Atlas for Europe. It shows for a selected city which WF components are represented and which not. As such, it also identifies research gaps.

  2. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  3. Application of principal component regression and partial least squares regression in ultraviolet spectrum water quality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtong; Luo, Yongdao; Dai, Honglin

    2018-01-01

    Water is the source of life and the essential foundation of all life. With the development of industrialization, the phenomenon of water pollution is becoming more and more frequent, which directly affects the survival and development of human. Water quality detection is one of the necessary measures to protect water resources. Ultraviolet (UV) spectral analysis is an important research method in the field of water quality detection, which partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis method is becoming predominant technology, however, in some special cases, PLSR's analysis produce considerable errors. In order to solve this problem, the traditional principal component regression (PCR) analysis method was improved by using the principle of PLSR in this paper. The experimental results show that for some special experimental data set, improved PCR analysis method performance is better than PLSR. The PCR and PLSR is the focus of this paper. Firstly, the principal component analysis (PCA) is performed by MATLAB to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data; on the basis of a large number of experiments, the optimized principal component is extracted by using the principle of PLSR, which carries most of the original data information. Secondly, the linear regression analysis of the principal component is carried out with statistic package for social science (SPSS), which the coefficients and relations of principal components can be obtained. Finally, calculating a same water spectral data set by PLSR and improved PCR, analyzing and comparing two results, improved PCR and PLSR is similar for most data, but improved PCR is better than PLSR for data near the detection limit. Both PLSR and improved PCR can be used in Ultraviolet spectral analysis of water, but for data near the detection limit, improved PCR's result better than PLSR.

  4. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota

    2009-09-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  5. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  6. System and method for manufacture of airfoil components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Thomas Michael

    2016-11-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to systems and methods for manufacturing an airfoil component. The system can include: a geometrical mold; an elongated flexible sleeve having a closed-off interior and positioned within the geometrical mold, wherein the elongated flexible sleeve is further positioned to have a desired geometry; an infusing channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to communicate a resinous material thereto; a vacuum channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to vacuum seal the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve; and a glass fiber layer positioned within the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve.

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  9. A study on the establishment of component/equipment performance criteria considering Heavy Water Reactor characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kwon, Young Chul; Lee, Min Kyu; Lee, Yun Soo [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Seong Hoong; Ryo, Chang Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soong Pyung; Hwnag, Jung Rye; Chung, Chul Kee [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Foreign and domestic technology trends, regulatory requirements, design and researches for heavy water reactors are analyzed. Safety design guides of Canada industry and regulatory documents and consultative documents of Canada regulatory agency are reviewed. Applicability of MOST guidance 16 Revision 'guidance for technical criteria of nuclear reactor facility' is reviewed. Specific performance criteria are established for components and facilities for heavy water reactor.

  10. Monitoring systems for community water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  11. Roles of Various Bitumen Components in the Stability of Water-in-Diluted-Bitumen Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan; Elliott; Masliyah

    1999-12-15

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the various components of Athabasca bitumen in stabilizing water-in-diluted-bitumen emulsions. The solvent used to dilute the very viscous bitumen was a mixture of 50:50 by volume of hexane and toluene. The various bitumen components studied were asphaltenes, deasphalted bitumen, and fine solids. It was found that asphaltenes and fine solids were the main stabilizers of the water-in-diluted-bitumen emulsions. Individually, the two components can stabilize water-in-diluted-bitumen emulsions. However, when both are present the capacity of the diluted bitumen to stabilize water emulsions is greatest. Emulsion stabilization tests indicated that whole bitumen had less capacity to stabilize water emulsions than asphaltenes and solids. This would indicate that the presence of the small molecules within the whole bitumen tends to lower the emulsion stability. Deasphalted bitumen acts as a poor emulsion stabilizer. Although deasphalted bitumen led to the least emulsion stabilization capacity, interfacial tension measurements showed that diluted deasphalted bitumen gave a greater decrease in the interfacial tension of water with diluent. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  13. Corrosion failure of Ni-resist pumping system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarov, A.; Gareau, F. [Skystone Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bondarchuk, D.; Cymbol, B. [Apache Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a failure analysis conducted after the failure of a new high pressure horizontal pumping system that was installed as part of an oilfield injection system. The pump impellers failed after less than a year in service due to the corrosion and cracking. The components were constructed from Ni-Resist type 1, a commonly used material in corrosive environments, as well as a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface coating. A visual examination, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a metallographic examination did not demonstrate signs of impingement corrosion, abrasive wear, or cavitation. Results of the study showed that the root cause of the corrosion failure was the permeability of the coating, and the unprotected surfaces of the Ni-Resist material, which did not have a protective passive film. The system was found to contain an un-removed surface scale of sand and ceramics as well as materials left over from the manufacturing process. A thorough cleaning of the system's surfaces would have allowed a passive layer to form on the surface and prevented the failure from occurring. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Guidelines to achieve seals with minimal leak rates for HWR-NPR coolant system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, P.A.

    1991-03-01

    Seal design practices that are acceptable in pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors in the United States are not usable for the Heavy Water Reactor-New Production Reactor (HWR-NPR) because of the stringent requirement on tritium control for the atmosphere within its containment building. To maintain an atmosphere in which workers do not need protective equipment, the components of the coolant system must have a cumulative leak rate less than 0.00026 L/s. Existing technology for seal systems was reviewed with regard to flange, elastomer, valve, and pump design. A technology data base for the designers of the HWR-NPR coolant system was derived from operating experience and seal development work on reactors in the United States, Canada, and Europe. This data base was then used to generate guidelines for the design of seals and/or joints for the HWR-NPR coolant system. Also discussed are needed additional research and development, as well as the necessary component qualification tests for an effective quality control program. 141 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Visualization Component of Vehicle Health Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Turmon, Michael; Stough, Timothy; Siegel, Herbert; Walter, patrick; Kurt, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    The visualization front-end of a Decision Support System (DSS) also includes an analysis engine linked to vehicle telemetry, and a database of learned models for known behaviors. Because the display is graphical rather than text-based, the summarization it provides has a greater information density on one screen for evaluation by a flight controller.This tool provides a system-level visualization of the state of a vehicle, and drill-down capability for more details and interfaces to separate analysis algorithms and sensor data streams. The system-level view is a 3D rendering of the vehicle, with sensors represented as icons, tied to appropriate positions within the vehicle body and colored to indicate sensor state (e.g., normal, warning, anomalous state, etc.). The sensor data is received via an Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) client that connects to an external server for real-time telemetry. Users can interactively pan, zoom, and rotate this 3D view, as well as select sensors for a detail plot of the associated time series data. Subsets of the plotted data can be selected and sent to an external analysis engine to either search for a similar time series in an historical database, or to detect anomalous events. The system overview and plotting capabilities are completely general in that they can be applied to any vehicle instrumented with a collection of sensors. This visualization component can interface with the ISP for data streams used by NASA s Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. In addition, it can connect to, and display results from, separate analysis engine components that identify anomalies or that search for past instances of similar behavior. This software supports NASA's Software, Intelligent Systems, and Modeling element in the Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program by augmenting the capability of human flight controllers to make correct decisions, thus increasing safety and reliability. It was designed specifically as a

  16. Calorimetric Measuring Systems for Characterizing High Frequency Power Losses in Power Electronic Components and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim; Ritchie, Andrew Ewen

    2002-01-01

    High frequency power losses in power electronic components and systems are very difficult to measure. The same applies to the efficiency of high-efficiency systems and components. An important method to measure losses with high accuracy is the calorimetric measuring systems. This paper describes...... two different calorimetric measuring systems, one for power losses up to 50 W and one for power losses up to 1500 W. These differ in size and also the systems which can be analysed. The basic concept of calorimetry is discussed and the overall performance of the two systems is specified. Methods...

  17. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  18. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents and Fuel Components (BTEX and MTBE) in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitored Natural Attenuation is widely used in the USA to deal with ground water contamination from fuel components such as the BTEX compounds or MTBE or TBA and from chlorinated solvents such as PCE, TCE, and TCA. This presentation reviews the theory and practice of MNA in the...

  19. 77 FR 16270 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... COMMISSION Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... license renewal interim staff guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-04, ``Updated Aging Management Criteria for... Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report for the aging management of stainless steel structures and...

  20. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR.

  1. 77 FR 74883 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water; Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water; Revision 1... Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water,'' which was announced in the Federal Register on May 11... Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in...

  2. Phase Transitions in Biological Systems with Many Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2017-02-28

    Biological mixtures such as the cytosol may consist of thousands of distinct components. There is now a substantial body of evidence showing that, under physiological conditions, intracellular mixtures can phase separate into spatially distinct regions with differing compositions. In this article we present numerical evidence indicating that such spontaneous compartmentalization exploits general features of the phase diagram of a multicomponent biomolecular mixture. In particular, we show that demixed domains are likely to segregate when the variance in the intermolecular interaction strengths exceeds a well-defined threshold. Multiple distinct phases are likely to become stable under very similar conditions, which can then be tuned to achieve multiphase coexistence. As a result, only minor adjustments to the composition of the cytosol or the strengths of the intermolecular interactions are needed to regulate the formation of different domains with specific compositions, implying that phase separation is a robust mechanism for creating spatial organization. We further predict that this functionality is only weakly affected by increasing the number of components in the system. Our model therefore suggests that, for purely physico-chemical reasons, biological mixtures are naturally poised to undergo a small number of demixing phase transitions. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

  4. Microalgae as part of the autotrophic component of life support systems for future planetary bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita

    Research and development of human life support systems incorporating biospheric components performed in the USSR and Russia for over 50 years resulted in a well- structured and rational step-by-step approach to this area of activities. The development of biological life support systems (BLSS) was based on the theory of biocenology advanced by V.N. Sukachev, according to which organic matter turnover is a result of combined activities of plants, animals and microorganisms. Hence, a BLSS with its semi-closed matter turnover needs to incorporate all the components of natural ecosystems, i.e., plants (photoautotrophic organisms), animals, including humans, and microorganisms (heterotrophic organisms). The photoautotrophic component of the BLSS designed to support humans should meet a number of specific requirements, the most important of which are: - high productivity - stability of functional parameters within their normal fluctuation ranges - compatibility with other system components to preclude additional load on them - minimum of un-utilizable compounds in the material balance of the component. The photosynthetic component may consist of lower and higher plants, which may function separately or jointly. In either case, microalgae will play a key role, as they do on Earth, in the production of organic compounds and oxygen as well as in the support of BLSS reliability. The construction of a planetary base begins with the assembly of major engineering facilities whereas the construction of a BLSS starts after the assembly is complete and the base interior is fully separated from the outside environment. At early stages of base operation the autotrophic component of the system will consist of algae alone, which will provide photosynthetic regeneration of air and water. At later stages the autotrophic component will progress from lower to higher plants; when the greenhouses reach adequate sizes, higher plants will occupy the major portion of the autotrophic component

  5. Development of fiber-delivered laser peening system to prevent stress corrosion cracking of reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Y.; Kimura, M.; Yoda, M.; Mukai, N.; Sato, K.; Uehara, T.; Ito, T.; Shimamura, M.; Sudo, A.; Suezono, N. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The authors have developed a system to deliver water-penetrable intense laser pulses of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser through optical fiber. The system is capable of improving a residual stress on water immersed metal material remotely, which is effective to prevent the initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of reactor components. Experimental results showed that a compressive residual stress with enough amplitude and depth was built in the surface layer of type 304 stainless steel (SUS304) by irradiating laser pulses through optical fiber with diameter of 1 mm. A prototype peening head with miniaturized dimensions of 88 mm x 46 mm x 25 mm was assembled to con-firm the accessibility to the heat affected zone (HAZ) along weld lines of a reactor core shroud. The accessibility was significantly improved owing to the flexible optical fiber and the miniaturized peening head. The fiber delivered system opens up the possibility of new applications of laser peening. (author)

  6. Critical mm-wave components for synthetic automatic test systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hrobak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Michael Hrobak studied hybrid integrated front end modules for high frequency measurement equipment and especially for synthetic automatic test systems. Recent developments of innovative, critical millimeter-wave components like frequency multipliers, directional couplers, filters, triple balanced mixers and power detectors are illustrated by the author separately and in combination.  Contents Synthetic Instruments Resistive Diode Frequency Multipliers Planar Directional Couplers and Filters Triple Balanced Mixers Zero Bias Schottky Power Detectors Integrated Front End Assemblies  Target Groups Scientists and students in the field of electrical engineering with main emphasis on high frequency technology Engineers and Practitioners dealing with the development of micro- and millimeter-wave measurement instruments  About the Author Dr. Michael Hrobak is with the Microwave Department of the Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH), Berlin, Germany, where he is involved in the development and measurement of monolithic i...

  7. Efficient two-component relativistic method for large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Hiromi [Department of Chemitsry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    This paper reviews a series of theoretical studies to develop efficient two-component (2c) relativistic method for large systems by the author’s group. The basic theory is the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method for many-electron Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme can effectively produce the 2c relativistic Hamiltonian, and the divide-and-conquer (DC) method can achieve linear-scaling of Hartree-Fock and electron correlation methods. The frozen core potential (FCP) theoretically connects model potential calculations with the all-electron ones. The accompanying coordinate expansion with a transfer recurrence relation (ACE-TRR) scheme accelerates the computations of electron repulsion integrals with high angular momenta and long contractions.

  8. Production of complement components by cells of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, R; van Essen, M F; van Kooten, C; Trouw, L A

    2017-05-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate immune defence. It contributes not only to local inflammation, removal and killing of pathogens, but it also assists in shaping of the adaptive immune response. Besides a role in inflammation, complement is also involved in physiological processes such as waste disposal and developmental programmes. The complement system comprises several soluble and membrane-bound proteins. The bulk of the soluble proteins is produced mainly by the liver. While several complement proteins are produced by a wide variety of cell types, other complement proteins are produced by only a few related cell types. As these data suggest that local production by specific cell types may have specific functions, more detailed studies have been employed recently analysing the local and even intracellular role of these complement proteins. Here we review the current knowledge about extrahepatic production and/or secretion of complement components. More specifically, we address what is known about complement synthesis by cells of the human immune system. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  10. Stomatal behavior and components of the antioxidative system in coffee plants under water stress Comportamento estomático e componentes do sistema antioxidante em cafeeiros sob estresse hídrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Deuner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea arabica plants show a positive relationship between stomatal closure and formation and accumulation of H2O2. However, for coffee plants under water restriction such relationship has never been studied. The objective of the present study was evaluate the stomatal movement and the antioxidant capacity of coffee seedlings under different water regimes. Eight months old coffee seedlings of cv. Catuaí IAC 99 were submitted to field capacity, gradual and total suspension of irrigation during a period of 21 days. Evaluations of leaf water potential (Ψw were performed in the beginning of the morning, and stomatal resistance, transpiration rate and vapor pressure deficit were determined at 10 am and 5 pm. All biochemical and enzymatic determinations were performed in leaves collected at 5 pm. Evaluations and samplings were performed at three days intervals. There was no variation in Ψw during the evaluated period for plants in field capacity. However, an expressive decrease of Ψw following day 12, reaching values near -2.5 MPa at the end of the experiment was observed for plants submitted to gradual suspension of irrigation. For plants submitted to total suspension of irrigation, Ψw decreases after the sixth day, reaching -2.5 MPa at day 15. The decay of Ψw in plants submitted to gradual and total suspension of irrigation reflected in increased stomatal resistance and in a decreased transpiration rate leading to an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation and, on final stages, increase in lipid peroxidation. As a conclusion, an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes as well as in the levels of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate was observed, which act in the detoxification of free radicals formed as result of the water stress.Para o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica existe uma comprovada relação positiva entre fechamento estomático e formação e acúmulo de H2O2. Entretanto, tal relação para a cultura sob restrição hídrica ainda

  11. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  12. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  13. Silver disinfection in water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestry Rodriguez, Nadia

    Silver was evaluated as disinfectant to maintain water quality in water distribution system. It was used to inhibit growth of two opportunistic bacteria in planktonik form and in biofilm formation in Robbins devices with stainless steel and PVC surfaces. The results of this work show that silver is a potential secondary disinfectant to be used in water distribution systems.

  14. Greening the global water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  15. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  16. Performance of Control System Using Microcontroller for Sea Water Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani, A.; Witanto, Y.; Pratama, A. S.; Supriyadi; Hendra; Tanjung, A.

    2018-02-01

    Now a day control system is very important rule for any process. Control system have been used in the automatic system. Automatic system can be seen in the industrial filed, mechanical field, electrical field and etc. In industrial and mechanical field, control system are used for control of motion component such as motor, conveyor, machine, control of process made of product, control of system and soon. In electrical field, control system can met for control of electrical system as equipment or part electrical like fan, rice cooker, refrigerator, air conditioner and etc. Control system are used for control of temperature and circulation gas, air and water. Control system of temperature and circulation of water also can be used for fisher community. Control system can be create by using microcontroller, PLC and other automatic program [1][2]. In this paper we will focus on the close loop system by using microcontroller Arduino Mega to control of temperature and circulation of sea water for fisher community. Performance control system is influenced by control equipment, sensor sensitivity, test condition, environment and others. The temperature sensor is measured using the DS18S20 and the sea water clarity sensor for circulation indicator with turbidity sensor. From the test results indicated that this control system can circulate sea water and maintain the temperature and clarity of seawater in a short time.

  17. Solvent Replacement for Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 for Cleaning Oxygen System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. A.; Lowrey, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum is the result of a 2-year project funded by the Defense Logistics Agency-Aviation, Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, to identify and test two candidate solvents to replace hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) for cleaning oxygen systems. The solvents were also compared to a second solvent composed predominantly of perfluorobutyl iodide (PFBI), which had received limited approval by the United States Air Force (USAF) for hand wipe cleaning of components for aviators’ breathing oxygen systems. The tests performed for this study were based on those reported in AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2003-4040, “The Wipe Solvent Program,” the test program used to qualify Ikon® Solvent P for USAF applications.The study was completed in August 2014, prior to the completion of a more extensive study funded by the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) program. The results of the RPT project are reported in NASA/TP-2015-18207, “Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon–225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems.” The test methods used in this study for nonvolatile residue (NVR) background, materials compatibility, and cleaning effectiveness were different than those used for the RPT project; a smaller set of materials and contaminants were tested. The tests for this study were complementary to and provided supplementary information for the down-selection process during the course of the test program reported in NASA/TP-2015-218207.

  18. Water activity in polyol/water systems: new UNIFAC parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolli, C.; Peter, Th.

    2005-06-01

    Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2-7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio with water. In aqueous solutions with the same molar concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water activities than those with higher molecular weights. For diols with four or more carbon atoms, the hydrophilicity shows considerable differences between isomers: The 1,2-isomers - consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic part - bind less strongly to water than isomers with a more balanced distribution of the hydroxyl groups. The experimental water activities were compared with the predictions of the group contribution method UNIFAC: the model predictions overestimate the water activity of water/polyol systems of substances with two or more hydroxyl groups and can not describe the decreased binding to water of isomers with hydrophobic tails. To account for the differences between isomers, a modified UNIFAC parameterization was developed, that allows to discriminate between three types of alkyl groups depending on their position in the molecule. These new group interaction parameters were calculated using water activities of alcohol/water mixtures. This leads to a distinctly improved agreement of model predictions with experimental results while largely keeping the simplicity of the functional group approach.

  19. Water activity in polyol/water systems: new UNIFAC parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2-7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio with water. In aqueous solutions with the same molar concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water activities than those with higher molecular weights. For diols with four or more carbon atoms, the hydrophilicity shows considerable differences between isomers: The 1,2-isomers - consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic part - bind less strongly to water than isomers with a more balanced distribution of the hydroxyl groups. The experimental water activities were compared with the predictions of the group contribution method UNIFAC: the model predictions overestimate the water activity of water/polyol systems of substances with two or more hydroxyl groups and can not describe the decreased binding to water of isomers with hydrophobic tails. To account for the differences between isomers, a modified UNIFAC parameterization was developed, that allows to discriminate between three types of alkyl groups depending on their position in the molecule. These new group interaction parameters were calculated using water activities of alcohol/water mixtures. This leads to a distinctly improved agreement of model predictions with experimental results while largely keeping the simplicity of the functional group approach.

  20. Architecture Support for Runtime Integration and Verification of Component-based Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: ASE 2008 - 23rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, 15-19 September 2008; doi:10.1109/ASEW.2008.4686292 Systems-of-Systems (SoS) represent a novel kind of system, for which runtime evolution is a key requirement, as components join and

  1. [Components of plastic disrupt the function of the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychowski, Konrad Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Anna Katarzyna

    2013-05-27

    Development of the chemical industry leads to the development of new chemical compounds, which naturally do not exist in the environment. These chemicals are used to reduce flammability, increase plasticity, or improve solubility of other substances. Many of these compounds, which are components of plastic, the new generation of cosmetics, medical devices, food packaging and other everyday products, are easily released into the environment. Many studies have shown that a major lipophilicity characterizes substances such as phthalates, BPA, TBBPA and PCBs. This feature allows them to easily penetrate into living cells, accumulate in the tissues and the organs, and affect human and animal health. Due to the chemical structures, these compounds are able to mimic some endogenous hormones such as estradiol and to disrupt the hormone homeostasis. They can also easily pass the placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier. As numerous studies have shown, these chemicals disturb the proper functions of the nervous system from the earliest moments of life. It has been proven that these compounds affect neurogenesis as well as the synaptic transmission process. As a consequence, they interfere with the formation of the sex of the brain, as well as with the learning processes, memory and behavior. Additionally, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect may cause neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents the current state of knowledge about the effects of phthalates, BPA, TBBPA, and PCBs on the nervous system.

  2. EBV Infection of Mice with Reconstituted Human Immune System Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 50 years ago as the first candidate human tumor virus. Since then, we have realized that this human γ-herpesvirus establishes persistent infection in the majority of adult humans, but fortunately causes EBV-associated diseases only in few individuals. This is an incredible success story of the human immune system, which controls EBV infection and its transforming capacity for decades. A better understanding of this immune control would not only benefit patients with EBV-associated malignancies, but could also provide clues how to establish such a potent, mostly cell-mediated immune control against other pathogens and tumors. However, the functional relevance of EBV-specific immune responses can only be addressed in vivo, and mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huMice) constitute a small animal model to interrogate the protective value of immune compartments during EBV infection, but also might provide a platform to test EBV-specific vaccines. This chapter will summarize the insights into EBV immunobiology that have already been gained in these models and provide an outlook into promising future avenues to develop this in vivo model of EBV infection and human immune responses further.

  3. Designing Radiotherapy Software Components and Systems That Will Work Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet

    1997-01-01

    The radiation treatment planning and delivery process requires that many different computerized data sources, software tools, and computer control systems be smoothly integrated. These include computer-controlled accelerators and new digital imaging modalities. At the same time, the applications themselves are becoming increasingly complex. In radiotherapy, the variety of components to integrate is much greater than in other areas of clinical medicine, growing out of more than a 30-year history of use of highly stylized traditional computer applications and many rigid conventions and practices associated with these computer programs. The introduction of new tools and computer-controlled equipment influenced the evolution of radiotherapy planning software, leading us to take a new look at how radiotherapy planning is done. Addressing and solving these integration problems as a serious research undertaking is vital to continued success in deploying computer applications for clinical use. New software design ideas such as object oriented design, behavioral abstraction and mediators can solve these problems. Our experience shows that the time and effort to build high-quality adaptable modular systems can be kept modest and within the reach of a small development team.

  4. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  5. Optimization Program for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Area-Wide Optimization Program (AWOP) provides tools and approaches for drinking water systems to meet water quality optimization goals and provide an increased – and sustainable – level of public health protection to their consumers.

  6. HAWQS (Hydrologic and Water Quality System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water quantity and quality modeling system to evaluate the impacts of management alternatives, pollution control scenarios, and climate change scenarios on the quantity and quality of water at a national scale.

  7. Water activity in polyol/water systems: new UNIFAC parameterization

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolli, C.; Peter, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298 K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2–7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio 5 with water. In aqueous solutions with the same mass concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water activities than those with higher molecular weights. For diols with four or more carbon atoms, the hygro...

  8. Forcing variables in simulation of transpiration of water stressed plants determined by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durigon, Angelica; Lier, Quirijn de Jong van; Metselaar, Klaas

    2016-10-01

    To date, measuring plant transpiration at canopy scale is laborious and its estimation by numerical modelling can be used to assess high time frequency data. When using the model by Jacobs (1994) to simulate transpiration of water stressed plants it needs to be reparametrized. We compare the importance of model variables affecting simulated transpiration of water stressed plants. A systematic literature review was performed to recover existing parameterizations to be tested in the model. Data from a field experiment with common bean under full and deficit irrigation were used to correlate estimations to forcing variables applying principal component analysis. New parameterizations resulted in a moderate reduction of prediction errors and in an increase in model performance. Ags model was sensitive to changes in the mesophyll conductance and leaf angle distribution parameterizations, allowing model improvement. Simulated transpiration could be separated in temporal components. Daily, afternoon depression and long-term components for the fully irrigated treatment were more related to atmospheric forcing variables (specific humidity deficit between stomata and air, relative air humidity and canopy temperature). Daily and afternoon depression components for the deficit-irrigated treatment were related to both atmospheric and soil dryness, and long-term component was related to soil dryness.

  9. Is overactive bladder microvasculature disease a component of systemic atheroscleorosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Meseri, Reci; Kismali, Erkan; Ari, Anıl; Kavukcu, Gulgun; Aydin, Hikmet H; Ak, Handan; Atay, Sevcan; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB) and systemic atherosclerosis in a cohort of women. In this case-control study, we assessed atherosclerosis indicators, such as Framingham risk scores and carotid and femoral artery intima-media thickness, and evaluated possible bladder wall responses to atherosclerosis using endovaginal color Doppler ultrasound and the detection of urinary cytokines in women with OAB and in controls. Quantitative assessment of blood perfusion at the bladder neck was performed using a method that allows for the dynamic monitoring of flow in a predefined region of interest at every point of the cardiac cycle. The independent samples t-test was used to evaluate the relationship between OAB and the atherosclerotic findings when parametric conditions were met, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used when parametric conditions were not met. Kendall's Tau was used to assess the correlation between OAB severity and the atherosclerotic variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were 74 OAB patients and 73 controls; in total, 147 women were evaluated. We found that all atherosclerosis indicators were significantly associated with OAB and that there was a significant relationship between OAB and decreased bladder neck perfusion. Additionally, there were correlations of OAB severity with systemic atherosclerosis and impaired vascular perfusion of the bladder. Decreased perfusion at the bladder neck, the Framingham scores in severe OAB, and the correlation between them suggest that OAB microvascular disease may be a component of systemic atherosclerosis rather than a separate process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  11. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks. The first tank (tank A comprised of one vertical (qA0 and two lateral (qA1 and qA2 water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0 and one lateral (qB1 water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0 and one lateral (qC1 water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1.  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the depletion of water flow in the related tanks but would replenish tanks in the deeper layers. It was assumed that at all lateral water flow components would finally accumulate in one stream, summing-up of the lateral water flow, much or less, should be equal to the water discharge (Qo at specified time concerns. Tank A received precipitation (R and evapo-transpiration (ET which was its gradientof (R-ET over time would become the driving force for the changes of water stored in the soil profiles and thosewater flows leaving the soil layer.  Thus tank model could describe th vertical and horizontal water flow withinthe watershed. The research site was Cisadane Upper Catchment, located at Pasir Buncir Village of CaringinSub-District within the Regency of Bogor in West Java Province.  The elevations ranged 512 –2,235 m above sealevel, with a total drainage area of 1,811.5 ha and total length of main stream of 14,340.7 m.  The land cover wasdominated by  forest  with a total of 1,044.6 ha (57.67%,  upland agriculture with a total of 477.96 ha (26.38%,mixed garden with a total of 92.85 ha(5.13% and semitechnical irigated rice field with a total of 196.09 ha (10,8%.  The soil was classified as hydraquent (96.6% and distropept (3.4%.  Based on the calibration of tank model application in the study area, the resulting coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.72 with model efficiency (NSEof= 0.75, thus tank model could well illustrate the water flow distribution of

  12. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  13. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  14. Assessing Variation in Water Balance Components in Mountainous Inland River Basin Experiencing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the changes of water balance components is significant for water resource assessment and management. This paper employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the water balance in a mountainous watershed in northwest China at different spatial scales over the past half century. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and determination coefficient (R2 were over 0.90 for the calibration and validation periods. The water balance components presented rising trends at the watershed scale, and the total runoff increased by 30.5% during 1964 to 2013 period. Rising surface runoff and rising groundwater flow contributed 42.7% and 57.3% of the total rising runoff, respectively. The runoff coefficient was sensitive to increasing precipitation and was not significant to the increase of temperature. The alpine meadow was the main landscape which occupied 51.1% of the watershed and contributed 55.5% of the total runoff. Grass land, forest land, bare land, and glacier covered 14.2%, 18.8%, 15.4%, and 0.5% of the watershed and contributed 8.5%, 16.9%, 15.9%, and 3.2% of the total runoff, respectively. The elevation zone from 3500 to 4500 m occupied 66.5% of the watershed area, and contributed the majority of the total runoff (70.7%. The runoff coefficients in the elevation zone from 1637 to 2800 m, 2800 to 3500 m, 3500 to 4000 m, 4000 to 4500 m, and 4500 to 5062 m were 0.20, 0.27, 0.32, 0.43, and 0.78, respectively, which tend to be larger along with the elevation increase. The quantities and change trends of the water balance components at the watershed scale were calculated by the results of the sub-watersheds. Furthermore, we characterized the spatial distribution of quantities and changes in trends of water balance components at the sub-watershed scale analysis. This study provides some references for water resource management and planning in inland river basins.

  15. A practitioner's guide for exploring water quality patterns using principal components analysis and Procrustes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, C J; Starkey, E N; Bartz, K K; Wilson, M H; Mueter, F J

    2016-04-01

    To design sustainable water quality monitoring programs, practitioners must choose meaningful variables, justify the temporal and spatial extent of measurements, and demonstrate that program objectives are successfully achieved after implementation. Consequently, data must be analyzed across several variables and often from multiple sites and seasons. Multivariate techniques such as ordination are common throughout the water quality literature, but methods vary widely and could benefit from greater standardization. We have found little clear guidance and open source code for efficiently conducting ordination to explore water quality patterns. Practitioners unfamiliar with techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) are faced with a steep learning curve to summarize expansive data sets in periodic reports and manuscripts. Here, we present a seven-step framework for conducting PCA and associated tests. The last step is dedicated to conducting Procrustes analysis, a valuable but rarely used test within the water quality field that describes the degree of concordance between separate multivariate data matrices and provides residual values for similar points across each matrix. We illustrate the utility of these tools using three increasingly complex water quality case studies in US parklands. The case studies demonstrate how PCA and Procrustes analysis answer common applied monitoring questions such as (1) do data from separate monitoring locations describe similar water quality regimes, and (2) what time periods exhibit the greatest water quality regime variability? We provide data sets and annotated R code for recreating case study results and as a base for crafting new code for similar monitoring applications.

  16. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  17. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  18. Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management as Components of the Cybernetic System Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra MISDOLEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the role played by the information system and its component, the software system, in a larger system - the Enterprise. In this context, the paper focuses on the structure of Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management and their benefits in the functioning of the global system, by examining the conditions of implementation of these tools in the organization. We will show that used independently these tools offer reduced services, but when interconnected, they become a very powerful tool for command and control. Viability, evolution and autonomy requested by users for their information system are obtained more easily by a systemic-cybernetic approach to the Enterprise.

  19. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  20. Green Networking for Major Components of Information Communication Technology Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeadally Sherali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green Networking can be the way to help reduce carbon emissions by the Information and Communications Technology (ICT Industry. This paper presents some of the major components of Green Networking and discusses how the carbon footprint of these components can be reduced.

  1. Magnetization transfer studies of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkern, Robert V; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Haker, Steven J; Maier, Stephan E

    2005-05-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) properties of the fast and slow diffusion components recently observed in the human brain were assessed experimentally. One set of experiments, performed at 1.5 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether the amplitudes of fast and slow diffusion components, differentiated on the basis of biexponential fits to signal decays over a wide range of b-factors, demonstrated a different or similar magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Another set of experiments, performed at 3 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether MTRs differed when measured from high signal-to-noise images acquired with b-factor weightings of 350 vs 3500 s/mm2. The 3 T studies included measurements of MTR as a function of off-resonance frequency for the MT pulse at both low and high b-factors. The primary conclusion drawn from all the studies is that there appears to be no significant difference between the magnetization transfer properties of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components. The conclusions do not lend support to a direct interpretation of the 'components' of the biexponential diffusion decay in terms of the 'compartments' associated with intra- and extracellular water. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition.

  3. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on... States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason of...

  4. 77 FR 75659 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... the United States after importation of certain video analytics software systems, components thereof...

  5. 76 FR 22726 - Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... multimedia display and navigation devices and systems, components thereof, and products containing same by...

  6. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the same...

  7. 77 FR 35428 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the same...

  8. 76 FR 55944 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation of certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated... having graphics processing units (``GPUs'') supplied by NVIDIA Corporation (``NVIDIA'') infringe any...

  9. 77 FR 24738 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing... States after importation of certain wireless communication devices and systems, components thereof, and... Sunnyvale, California; Meru Networks of Sunnyvale, California; and Ruckus Wireless of Sunnyvale, California...

  10. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  11. Design of virtual SCADA simulation system for pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaksono, Umar; Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Hakim, Dadang Lukman

    2016-02-01

    The Virtual SCADA system is a software-based Human-Machine Interface that can visualize the process of a plant. This paper described the results of the virtual SCADA system design that aims to recognize the principle of the Nuclear Power Plant type Pressurized Water Reactor. This simulation uses technical data of the Nuclear Power Plant Unit Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. This device was developed using Wonderware Intouch, which is equipped with manual books for each component, animation links, alarm systems, real time and historical trending, and security system. The results showed that in general this device can demonstrate clearly the principles of energy flow and energy conversion processes in Pressurized Water Reactors. This virtual SCADA simulation system can be used as instructional media to recognize the principle of Pressurized Water Reactor.

  12. Design of virtual SCADA simulation system for pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijaksono, Umar, E-mail: umar.wijaksono@student.upi.edu; Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Hakim, Dadang Lukman [Electrical Power System Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering Education, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi No. 207 Bandung, Indonesia 40154 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The Virtual SCADA system is a software-based Human-Machine Interface that can visualize the process of a plant. This paper described the results of the virtual SCADA system design that aims to recognize the principle of the Nuclear Power Plant type Pressurized Water Reactor. This simulation uses technical data of the Nuclear Power Plant Unit Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. This device was developed using Wonderware Intouch, which is equipped with manual books for each component, animation links, alarm systems, real time and historical trending, and security system. The results showed that in general this device can demonstrate clearly the principles of energy flow and energy conversion processes in Pressurized Water Reactors. This virtual SCADA simulation system can be used as instructional media to recognize the principle of Pressurized Water Reactor.

  13. Detection of water soluble lectin and antioxidant component from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A F S; Argolo, A C C; Coelho, L C B B; Paiva, P M G

    2005-03-01

    Seed flour from Moringa oleifera is widely used as a natural coagulant for water treatment in developing countries. Extracts obtained by water soaking of M. oleifera intact seeds were investigated for the presence of lectin, trypsin inhibitor, tannin as well as antioxidant activity. A water soluble M. oleifera lectin (WSMoL) detected was mainly active with rabbit cells at pH 4.5; heat treatment, pH 7.0, fructose and porcine thyroglobulin abolished HA of WSMoL. Trypsin inhibitor or tannins were not detected; the antioxidant component (WSMoAC) reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) was slower than catechin and was thermostable. The extracts showed a primary glycopolypeptide band of Mw 20,000; the main native acidic protein showed hemagglutinating activity. WSMoL may be involved in seed coagulant properties.

  14. Biodegradation of the water-soluble gasoline components in a novel hybrid bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De-Jesus, A.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.; Santoyo-Tepole, F.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Cristiani-Urbina, E.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N.; Galindez Mayer, J. [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, ' ' Centro Operativo Naranjo' ' , Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A novel hybrid bioreactor was designed to remove volatile organic compounds from water contaminated with water-soluble gasoline components, and the performance of this new bioreactor was investigated. It was composed of two biotrickling filter sections and one biofilter section. The liquid phase pollutants were removed by a mixed culture in the biotrickling filter sections and the gas phase pollutants stripped by air injection in the biofilter section. The specific rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained in the reactor were directly proportional to the pollutant-loading rate. A stable operation of the hybrid bioreactor was attained for long periods of time. The bioreactor had the potential to simultaneously treat a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds, e.g., those present in the water-soluble fraction of gasoline, as well as the capacity to readily adapt to changing operational conditions, such as an increased contaminant loading, and variations in the airflow rate. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. The fractional virial potential energy in two-component systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, φ = φ(y, m, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, m = Mj /Mi by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of m is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the (Oyφ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is y = Rj /Ri , and the fractional virial potential energy is φ = (Eji vir /(Eij vir . Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of N = 16 elliptical galaxies (EGs on the (Oyφ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, m, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, Ξu = Ru /r† , u = i, j, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, y, or fractional scaling radii, y† = r† /r† , deduced from sample objects.

  16. Floodplains: the forgotten and abused component of the fluvial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heritage George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available River restoration is strongly focussed on in-channel initiatives driven by fisheries interests and a continued desire for river stability. This contrasts greatly with the inherently mobile nature of watercourses. What is often overlooked is the fact that many rivers have developed floodplain units that would naturally operate as integrated functional systems, moderating the effects of extreme floods by distributing flow energy and sediment transport capacity through out of bank flooding. Floodplain utilisation for farming activities and landowner intransigence when it comes to acknowledging that the floodplain is part of the river system, has resulted in floodplains being the most degraded fluvial morphologic unit, both in terms of loss of form and function and sheer levels of spatial impact. The degradation has been facilitated by the failure of regulatory mechanisms to adequately acknowledge floodplain form and function. This is testament to the ‘inward looking’ thinking behind national assessment strategies. This paper reviews the state of floodplain systems drawing on quantitative data from England and Wales to argue for greater consideration of the floodplain in relation to river management. The database is poor and must be improved, however it does reveal significant loss of watercourse-floodplain connectivity linked to direct flood alleviation measures and also to altered flood frequency as a result of river downcutting following river engineering. These latter effects have persisted along many watercourses despite the historic nature of the engineering interventions and will continue to exacerbate the risk of flooding to downstream communities. We also present several examples of the local and wider values of reinstating floodplain form and function, demonstrating major ecological gains, improvement to downstream flood reduction, elevation of water quality status and reductions in overall fine sediment loss from farmland. A re

  17. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  18. Improved water balance component estimates through joint assimilation of GRACE water storage and SMOS soil moisture retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Siyuan; Tregoning, Paul; Renzullo, Luigi J.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Allgeyer, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of global water balance estimates is limited by the lack of observations at large scale and the uncertainties of model simulations. Global retrievals of terrestrial water storage (TWS) change and soil moisture (SM) from satellites provide an opportunity to improve model estimates through data assimilation. However, combining these two data sets is challenging due to the disparity in temporal and spatial resolution at both vertical and horizontal scale. For the first time, TWS observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and near-surface SM observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) were jointly assimilated into a water balance model using the Ensemble Kalman Smoother from January 2010 to December 2013 for the Australian continent. The performance of joint assimilation was assessed against open-loop model simulations and the assimilation of either GRACE TWS anomalies or SMOS SM alone. The SMOS-only assimilation improved SM estimates but reduced the accuracy of groundwater and TWS estimates. The GRACE-only assimilation improved groundwater estimates but did not always produce accurate estimates of SM. The joint assimilation typically led to more accurate water storage profile estimates with improved surface SM, root-zone SM, and groundwater estimates against in situ observations. The assimilation successfully downscaled GRACE-derived integrated water storage horizontally and vertically into individual water stores at the same spatial scale as the model and SMOS, and partitioned monthly averaged TWS into daily estimates. These results demonstrate that satellite TWS and SM measurements can be jointly assimilated to produce improved water balance component estimates.

  19. Teaching Systems Thinking in the Context of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tammy D.; Gail Jones, M.; Chesnutt, Katherine

    2017-06-01

    Complex systems affect every part of our lives from the ecosystems that we inhabit and share with other living organisms to the systems that supply our water (i.e., water cycle). Evaluating events, entities, problems, and systems from multiple perspectives is known as a systems thinking approach. New curriculum standards have made explicit the call for teaching with a systems thinking approach in our science classrooms. However, little is known about how elementary in-service or pre-service teachers understand complex systems especially in terms of systems thinking. This mixed methods study investigated 67 elementary in-service teachers' and 69 pre-service teachers' knowledge of a complex system (e.g., water cycle) and their knowledge of systems thinking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of participants. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of content assessment data and questionnaires were conducted. Results from this study showed elementary in-service and pre-service teachers applied different levels of systems thinking from novice to intermediate. Common barriers to complete systems thinking were identified with both in-service and pre-service teachers and included identifying components and processes, recognizing multiple interactions and relationships between subsystems and hidden dimensions, and difficulty understanding the human impact on the water cycle system.

  20. Interaction of surface and subsurface waters in the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Bychinski, Valerii; Sandimirov, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    Purpose of the study - to assess the influence of the Khibiny massif on the formation of the chemical composition of surface and subsurface waters, generated within its boundaries using physical-chemical modeling ("Selector" software package). Objects of monitoring - rivers with sources in the upper reaches of the Khibiny massif (surface waters), and boreholes, located in these rivers' valleys (subsurface waters) have been chosen as objects of monitoring. Processes of formation of surface and subsurface waters, generated within the boundaries of the Khibiny massif, have been considered within the framework of a unified system "water-rock-atmosphere-carbon". The initial data of the model: chemical compositions of the Khibiny massif rocks and chemical analyses of atmospheric and surface waters. Besides, there have been considered Clarke concentrations S, Cl, F, C, their influence on the formation of chemical composition of water solutions; geochemical mobility of chemical elements. The previously developed model has been improved with the purpose of assessment of the influence of organic substance, either liquid or solid, on the formation of the chemical composition of water. The record of the base model of the multisystem includes 24 independent components (Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-H-O-e), 872 dependent components, including, in a water solution - 295, in a gas phase - 76, liquid hydrocarbons - 111, solid phases, organic and mineral substances - 390. The record of solid phases of multisystem is made with consideration of the mineral composition of the Khibiny massif. Using the created model, the physical-chemical modeling of surface and subsurface water generation has been carried out: 1. The system "water-rock-atmosphere" has been studied, depending on the interaction degree (ksi) of rock with water. A model like this allowed investigating the interactions of surface waters (rivers and lakes) with rocks that form the Khibiny massif. 2

  1. Solar-powered hot-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  2. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  3. Alternative Water Systems Project (India) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Alternative Water Systems Project seeks to develop a point-of-use safe water system incorporating natural plant-derived coagulants, simple sari cloth filtration and chlorine disinfection for the control of waterborne diseases in South Asian slums. This is a technical approach that is simple, inexpensive, makes use of ...

  4. Tap Water Hydraulic Control Systems - Design and Industrial Applications. Chapter 7 in Advances in Hydraulic Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...... applications and the environmental benefits are in focus, in particular in the food processing industry and in fire-fighting systems....

  5. Comparative analysis of water resources carrying capacity based on principal component analysis in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from the perspective of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanfeng; Wang, Ruimei; Zhang, Xiling; Cheng, Changlin; Song, Huan; Hu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    According to related statistics, this paper selected 15 indicators to establish the evaluation index system of water resources carrying capacity and evaluated the level of water resources carrying capacity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region during 2004 and 2014 using the principal component analysis while comparing the water resources carrying capacity in Hebei, Tianjin and Beijing. The results show that there are four factors affecting water resources carrying capacity, including industry-environment factor, agriculture-society-water supply factor, life-ecology factor and water resources exploitation factor. During the period from 2004 to 2014, Hebei Province gets the maximum score in evaluating the water resources carrying capacity, then Beijing gets the lower level, and Tianjin gets the lowest level. The water resources carrying capacity in Hebei Province decreased in the fluctuation and increased after 2012, which rose in the fluctuation in Beijing and showed a periodic variation in Tianjin.

  6. Rivers and Floodplains as Key Components of Global Terrestrial Water Storage Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto; Kumar, Sujay; Girotto, Manuela; Rodell, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    This study quantifies the contribution of rivers and floodplains to terrestrial water storage (TWS) variability. We use state-of-the-art models to simulate land surface processes and river dynamics and to separate TWS into its main components. Based on a proposed impact index, we show that surface water storage (SWS) contributes 8% of TWS variability globally, but that contribution differs widely among climate zones. Changes in SWS are a principal component of TWS variability in the tropics, where major rivers flow over arid regions and at high latitudes. SWS accounts for 22-27% of TWS variability in both the Amazon and Nile Basins. Changes in SWS are negligible in the Western U.S., Northern Africa, Middle East, and central Asia. Based on comparisons with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment-based TWS, we conclude that accounting for SWS improves simulated TWS in most of South America, Africa, and Southern Asia, confirming that SWS is a key component of TWS variability.

  7. Review of Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghoul, M.A.; Poovanaesvaran, P.; Sopian, K.; Sulaiman, M.Y. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Brackish water are any water sources with TDS between 1000 and 15 000 mg/L. Brackish water cannot be consumed by us directly due to its high salinity. According to World Health Organization (WHO), water with salinity below 500 mg/L is acceptable as drinking water. There are quite a large number of research that had been done on BWRO. Each of them has agreed with a common design on optimum BWRO design with a slight modification in order to improve more and make a better BWRO system. BWRO systems which have been tested in real situation agree that the single stage system with module connected to reject water is the most optimum system both economically and environmentally. There is some improvement done to the design by using SWRO membrane at the second stage. This improvement increases recovery rate to about 83% and reduces boron concentration at the same time. Another design is by using hybrid combination of ultra-low and conventional RO membranes. Hybrid improves permeate quality. It is also possible to create a hybrid array by mixing membrane element types within a pressure vessel itself. Co-operating an efficient module arrangement into a complete BWRO system will reduce energy consumption. Energy-recovery device is a component that must be included in any small or large-scale systems. A small-scale RO system, without energy recovery, would typically consume two to three times more energy. This will be more for large-scale systems. While single stage system with module connected to reject water is preferred by researchers who have done real environment testing, simulation prefers to add another membrane to the reject water of the second module. This system is yet to be tested in real environment to prove its standing. (author)

  8. GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ayala–Cabrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of leakage in water distribution systems through the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR as a nondestructive method. Laboratory tests are performed to extract features of water leakage from the obtained GPR images. Moreover, a test in a real-world urban system under real conditions is performed. Feature extraction is performed by interpreting GPR images with the support of a pre-processing methodology based on an appropriate combination of statistical methods and multi-agent systems. The results of these tests are presented, interpreted, analyzed and discussed in this paper.

  9. The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.

  10. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  11. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  12. Water turbine system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  13. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  14. Model-integrating software components engineering flexible software systems

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshanmanesh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    In his study, Mahdi Derakhshanmanesh builds on the state of the art in modeling by proposing to integrate models into running software on the component-level without translating them to code. Such so-called model-integrating software exploits all advantages of models: models implicitly support a good separation of concerns, they are self-documenting and thus improve understandability and maintainability and in contrast to model-driven approaches there is no synchronization problem anymore between the models and the code generated from them. Using model-integrating components, software will be

  15. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Barry T. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed

  16. Small Drinking Water System Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small system variances allow a small system to install and maintain technology that can remove a contaminant to the maximum extent that is affordable and protective of public health in lieu of technology that can achieve compliance with the regulation.

  17. Multiple corrosion protection systems for reinforced concrete bridge components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Eleven systems combining epoxy-coated reinforcement with another corrosion protection system are evaluated using : the rapid macrocell, Southern Exposure, cracked beam, and linear polarization resistance tests. The systems include : bars that are pre...

  18. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  19. Assessment of climate change impacts on water balance components of Heeia watershed in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkeba Tolessa Leta

    2016-12-01

    New hydrological insights for the study region: Compared to continental watersheds, the Heeia watershed showed high rainfall initial abstraction due to high initial infiltration capacity of the soils. The simulated and observed streamflows generally showed a good agreement and satisfactory model performance demonstrating the applicability of SWAT for small island watersheds with large topographic, precipitation, and land-use gradients. The study also demonstrates methods to resolve data scarcity issues. Predicted climate change scenarios showed that the decrease in rainfall during wet season and marginal increase in dry season are the main factors for the overall decrease in water balance components. Specifically, the groundwater flow component may consistently decrease by as much as 15% due to predicted rainfall and temperature changes by 2100, which may have serious implications on groundwater availability in the watershed.

  20. Application of the genetic algorithm for optimisation of large solar hot water systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Visser, H.

    2002-01-01

    An implementation of the genetic algorithm in a design support tool for (large) solar hot water systems is described. The tool calculates the yield and the costs of solar hot water systems based on technical and financial data of the system components. The genetic algorithm allows for optimisation

  1. Structured automated code checking through structural components and systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, J.L.; Rolvink, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal to employ the design computing methodology proposed as StructuralComponents (Rolvink et al [6] and van de Weerd et al [7]) as a method to perform a digital verification process to fulfil the requirements related to structural design and engineering as part of a

  2. StructuralComponents : A software system for conceptual structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, B.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual design is the starting point of the design process. The conceptual design stage comprises the formation of several ideas or design concepts to meet the imposed constraints. StructuralComponents is a software application that attempts to provide the designing engineer with a suitable set

  3. Impact of climate change on water balance components in Mediterranean rainfed olive orchards under tillage or cover crop soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carretero, María Teresa; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Dosio, Alessandro; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    The rainfed olive orchards in Southern Spain constitute the main socioeconomic system of the Mediterranean Spanish agriculture. These systems have an elevated level of complexity and require the accurate characterization of crop, climate and soil components for a correct management. It is common the inclusion of cover crops (usually winter cereals or natural cover) intercalated between the olive rows in order to reduce water erosion. Saving limited available water requires specific management, mowing or killing these cover crops in early spring. Thus, under the semi-arid conditions in Southern Spain the management of the cover crops in rainfed olive orchards is essential to avoid a severe impact to the olive orchards yield through depletion of soil water. In order to characterize this agricultural system, a complete water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for the semi-arid conditions of Southern Spain, called WABOL (Abazi et al., 2013). In this complex and fragile system, the climate change constitutes a huge threat for its sustainability, currently limited by the availability of water resources, and its forecasted reduction for Mediterranean environments in Southern Spain. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of climate change on the different components of the water balance in these representative double cropping systems: transpiration of the olive orchard and cover crop, runoff, deep percolation and soil water content. Four climatic scenarios from the FP6 European Project ENSEMBLES were first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) and, subsequently, used as inputs for the WABOL model for five olive orchard fields located in Southern Spain under different conditions of crop, climate, soils and management, in order to consider as much as possible of the variability detected in the Spanish olive orchards. The first results indicate the significant effect of the cover

  4. Combined heat and power systems for commercial buildings: investigating cost, emissions, and primary energy reduction based on system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda D.

    Combined heat and power (CHP) systems produce electricity and useful heat from fuel. When power is produced near a building which consumes power, transmission losses are averted, and heat which is a byproduct of power production may be useful to the building. That thermal energy can be used for hot water or space heating, among other applications. This dissertation focuses on CHP systems using natural gas, a common fuel, and systems serving commercial buildings in the United States. First, the necessary price difference between purchased electricity and purchased fuel is analyzed in terms of the efficiencies of system components by comparing CHP with a conventional separate heat and power (SHP) configuration, where power is purchased from the electrical grid and heat is provided by a gas boiler. Similarly, the relationship between CDE due to electricity purchases and due to fuel purchases is analyzed as well as the relationship between primary energy conversion factors for electricity and fuel. The primary energy conversion factor indicates the quantity of source energy necessary to produce the energy purchased at the site. Next, greenhouse gas emissions are investigated for a variety of commercial buildings using CHP or SHP. The relationship between the magnitude of the reduction in emissions and the parameters of the CHP system is explored. The cost savings and reduction in primary energy consumption are evaluated for the same buildings. Finally, a CHP system is analyzed with the addition of a thermal energy storage (TES) component, which can store excess thermal energy and deliver it later if necessary. The potential for CHP with TES to reduce cost, emissions, and primary energy consumption is investigated for a variety of buildings. A case study is developed for one building for which TES does provide additional benefits over a CHP system alone, and the requirements for a water tank TES device are examined.

  5. Maintenance of HVAC-systems and components: How to prevent pollution from HVAC-systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Björkroth, M.; Plitt, U.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies, from seven

  6. The biological component of the life support system for a martian expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, V.; Levinskikh, M.; Shepelev, Y.

    Five ground-based experiments were performed at RF SRC-IBMP with the aim to scrutinize a human-unicell algae-mineralization model as a component of a life3 support system. The system was 15 m in volume. It contained 45 L of algal suspension with the dry substance density of 10-12 g per one liter. Water volume, including the algal suspension, was 59 L. More sophisticated subsystems including2 higher plants (crop area equal to 15m ) were tested in three experiments from 1.5 up to 2 months in duration. The experiments showed that LSS with inclusion of unicell algae coped well with the macrofunction (air and water regeneration) and, besides, carried many other functions (air revitalization, establishment of microbial cenosis etc.) providing an adequate human environment. This polyfunctionality of the biological regenerative processes is a weighty argument for their integration in space LSS. It is also important that functional reliability of the algal regenerative subsystem is secured by a huge number of cells able, in the event of death of a part of population, to recover in the shortest possible time the size of population and, hence, functionality of the LSS autotrophic component. Inclusion of the autotrophic component (higher plants) improved LSS parameters and increased closure of the material cycle (26 % of humans dietary needs were met owing to production of plant biomass). The experiments were successful in achieving a full balance of atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide, as the assimilation coefficient of the autotrophic component was similar to the human breathing coefficient. For a long period of time a Martian crew will be detached from Earth's biosphere and for this reason LSS of their vehicle must be highly reliable, robust and redundant. One of the approaches to LSS re dundancy is installation of two systems with different but equally efficient regeneration technologies, i.e. physical-chemical and biological. At best, these two systems should operate in

  7. Experimental Study of the Cooling of Electrical Components Using Water Film Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Harmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer, which occur in the evaporation of a falling film of water, are studied experimentally. This evaporation allows the dissipation of the heat flux produced by twelve resistors, which simulate electrical components on the back side of an aluminium plate. On the front side of the plate, a falling film of water flows by the action of gravity. An inverse heat conduction model, associated with a spatial regularisation, was developed and produces the local heat fluxes on the plate using the measured temperatures. The efficiency of this evaporative process has been studied with respect to several parameters: imposed heat flux, inlet mass flow rate, and geometry. A comparison of the latent and sensible fluxes used to dissipate the imposed heat flux was studied in the case of a plexiglass sheet in front of the falling film at different distances from the aluminium plate.

  8. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2017-11-21

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  9. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2017-01-31

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  10. Spatial Trends in Evapotranspiration Components over Africa between 1979 and 2012 and Their Relative Influence on Crop Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J.; Caylor, K. K.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how climate change will affect crop water use (evapotranspiration) is fundamental to understanding food security. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, where crops are largely grown in dryland systems, and agricultural production is expected to expand dramatically this century. Yet analyzing how climate change has impacted crop evapotranspiration (ET) has been hampered by the lack of long-term and spatially continuous meteorological data. Here we use a newly developed, spatio-temporally corrected meteorological dataset to 1) identify trends in individual ET components [rainfall (RF), temperature (T), specific humidity (SH), windspeed (WS), long- and shortwave radiation (LWR, SWR)] in Africa since 1979 and 2) determine the impact of these trends on crop water use. The meteorological data was developed from the Princeton University global meteorological dataset (PGF), which merges gridded station data, satellite retrievals and reanalysis to create a 1.0° resolution, 3-hourly weather dataset for the years 1948-2012. The PGF was downscaled to 0.25° resolution using bilinear interpolation, correcting T, SH, and LWR for elevation, and then merged (using state-space estimation) with meteorological station data (~1000, obtained from the Global Summary of Day database) and corrected for temporal inhomogeneities (due to instrument changes, etc) and gap-filled for missing days. This resulted in a bias-corrected gridded set of daily observations for the variables of interest over southern, East, and West Africa (Central Africa was excluded because of insufficient station observations) for the period 1979-2012, focusing on the satellite period. Using Kendall-Theil Robust line and Mann-Kendall tests, we identify and map significant (p<0.05) trends in ET components in each 0.25° cell over the time period. To estimate the crop water use impact of significant changes in ET components, we undertook a series of crop modeling experiments to isolate the

  11. Separation of cosmic-ray components in a single water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico)]. E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx

    2005-11-11

    We describe the use of a water Cherenkov detector to study in detail the signals associated to secondary cosmic rays. In particular we describe a direct way to identify some of the components of secondary cosmic rays. It consists of a polyethylene tank of 1.54 m of diameter filled with water up to a height of 1.2 with one 8'' phototube looking downwards in the center of the tank at the level of the water. By collecting data using three different types of triggers, namely, vertical non-central muons, vertical central muons and arbitrary muons, we show the existence of very strong correlations among the voltage amplitudes, charge depositions, and rise times from 10% to 90% for isolated electrons, isolated muons and extended air showers using a single detector. The simple technique described also allows a clear identification of the muon interaction with the PMT glass envelope. We discuss a way in which our results can be used, in conjunction with a classification scheme such as neural networks, to form artificial signals for extensive air showers with the purpose to estimate the muon/EM ratio of air showers measured with large ground arrays of water Cherenkov detectors such as in the case of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  13. Reducing the Runtime Acceptance Costs of Large-Scale Distributed Component-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Software Systems of Systems (SoS) are large-scale distributed component-based systems in which the individual components are elaborate and complex systems in their own right. Distinguishing characteristics are their short expected integration and deployment time, and the need to modify their

  14. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  15. Impact of Hybrid Water Supply on the Centralised Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitzenfrei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional (technical concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination with their short-sighted planning and design. A combination of (existing centralised and decentralised infrastructure is expected to be more reliable and sustainable. However, the impact of increasing implementation of decentralised technologies on the local technical performance in sewer or water supply networks and the interaction with the urban form has rarely been addressed in the literature. In this work, an approach which couples the UrbanBEATS model for the planning of decentralised strategies together with a water supply modelling approach is developed and applied to a demonstration case. With this novel approach, critical but also favourable areas for such implementations can be identified. For example, low density areas, which have high potential for rainwater harvesting, can result in local water quality problems in the supply network when further reducing usually low pipe velocities in these areas. On the contrary, in high demand areas (e.g., high density urban forms there is less effect of rainwater harvesting due to the limited available space. In these high density areas, water efficiency measures result in the highest savings in water volume, but do not cause significant problems in the technical performance of the potable water supply network. For a more generalised and case-independent conclusion, further analyses are performed for semi-virtual benchmark networks to answer the question of an appropriate representation of the water distribution system in a computational model for such an analysis. Inappropriate hydraulic model assumptions and characteristics were identified for the stated problem, which have more

  16. Application of advanced austenitic alloys to fossil power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Most power and recovery boilers operating in the US produce steam at temperatures below 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) and pressures below 24 MPa (3500 psi). For these operating conditions, carbon steels and low alloy steels may be used for the construction of most of the boiler components. Austenitic stainless steels often are used for superheater/reheater tubing when these components are expected to experience temperatures above 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) or when the environment is too corrosive for low alloys steels. The austenitic stainless steels typically used are the 304H, 321H, and 347H grades. New ferritic steels such as T91 and T92 are now being introduced to replace austenitic: stainless steels in aging fossil power plants. Generally, these high-strength ferritic steels are more expensive to fabricate than austenitic stainless steels because the ferritic steels have more stringent heat treating requirements. Now, annealing requirements are being considered for the stabilized grades of austenitic stainless steels when they receive more than 5% cold work, and these requirements would increase significantly the cost of fabrication of boiler components where bending strains often exceed 15%. It has been shown, however, that advanced stainless steels developed at ORNL greatly benefit from cold work, and these steels could provide an alternative to either conventional stainless steels or high-strength ferritic steels. The purpose of the activities reported here is to examine the potential of advanced stainless steels for construction of tubular components in power boilers. The work is being carried out with collaboration of a commercial boiler manufacturer.

  17. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  18. A changing framework for urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Janet G; Waite, T David; Luthy, Richard G; Drewes, Jörg E; Sedlak, David L

    2013-10-01

    Urban water infrastructure and the institutions responsible for its management have gradually evolved over the past two centuries. Today, they are under increasing stress as water scarcity and a growing recognition of the importance of factors other than the cost of service provision are forcing a reexamination of long-held ideas. Research and development that supports new technological approaches and more effective management strategies are needed to ensure that the emerging framework for urban water systems will meet future societal needs.

  19. Design of Dependable Control System Using a Component Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1995-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed and a consistent method for design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed and a consistent method for design is presented....

  20. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  1. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  2. Process planning for a modular component placement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Harten, Aart

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a hierarchically structured process planning system for a printed circuit board assembly line. Basically, the assembly system consists of a series of independently operating placement modules, connected by a carrierless conveyor system. Both the modules and the

  3. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  4. Water masers in the Kronian system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco; Fernández, J. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Prialnik, D.; Schulz, R.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star (Hansen et al. 2006). Prompted by this discovery, we

  5. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  6. Terra-Preta-Technology as an innovative system component to create circulation oriented, sustainable land use systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, M.; Böttcher, J.; Krieger, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents current research and application projects on innovative system solutions which are based on the implementation of a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) is a recently developed substance composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including biochar, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Based on their properties, positive effects on water and nutrient retention, soil microbiological activity, and cation-exchange capacity are expected and currently investigated by different projects. TPS further sequesters carbon and decreases NO2 emissions from fertilized soils as observed by the use of biochar. The production of TPS is based on a circulation oriented organic waste management system directly adapted to the local available inputs and desired soil amendment properties. The production of TPS is possible with simple box systems for subsistence farming but also on a much larger scale as modular industrial plants for farmers or commercial and municipal waste management companies in sizes from 500 and 50,000 m3. The Terra-Preta-Technology enhances solutions to soil conservation, soil amelioration, humic formation, reduced water consumption, long term carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, containment binding, and to biodiversity on local to a regional scale. The projects also involve research of ancient land management systems to enhance resource efficiency by means of an integrative and transdisciplinary approach.

  7. Swelling in light water reactor internal components: Insights from computational modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, Roger E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barashev, Alexander V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Golubov, Stanislav I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A modern cluster dynamics model has been used to investigate the materials and irradiation parameters that control microstructural evolution under the relatively low-temperature exposure conditions that are representative of the operating environment for in-core light water reactor components. The focus is on components fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. The model accounts for the synergistic interaction between radiation-produced vacancies and the helium that is produced by nuclear transmutation reactions. Cavity nucleation rates are shown to be relatively high in this temperature regime (275 to 325°C), but are sensitive to assumptions about the fine scale microstructure produced under low-temperature irradiation. The cavity nucleation rates observed run counter to the expectation that void swelling would not occur under these conditions. This expectation was based on previous research on void swelling in austenitic steels in fast reactors. This misleading impression arose primarily from an absence of relevant data. The results of the computational modeling are generally consistent with recent data obtained by examining ex-service components. However, it has been shown that the sensitivity of the model s predictions of low-temperature swelling behavior to assumptions about the primary damage source term and specification of the mean-field sink strengths is somewhat greater that that observed at higher temperatures. Further assessment of the mathematical model is underway to meet the long-term objective of this research, which is to provide a predictive model of void swelling at relevant lifetime exposures to support extended reactor operations.

  8. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by

  9. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  10. Spatial variation in the ecological relationships among the components of Beijing's carbon metabolic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Linlin; Fath, Brian D; Scharler, Ursula M; Zhang, Yan

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we construct a spatially explicit model of carbon metabolism for the flows of carbon among the components of an urban area. We used the model to identify spatial heterogeneity in the ecological relationships within a carbon metabolic network. We combined land-use and cover type maps for Beijing from 1990 to 2010 with empirical coefficients and socioeconomic data to quantify the flows. We used utility analysis to determine the ecological relationships between the components of the system and analyzed their changes during urban development. We used ArcGIS to analyze their spatial variation. We found that the positive utilities in Beijing decreased over time and that negative relationships mostly outweighed positive relationships after 2000. The main ecological relationships were distributed throughout the entire urban area before 2000; subsequently, exploitation, control, and mutualism relationships became concentrated in the southeast, leaving competition relationships to dominate the northwest. Mutualism relationships were most common for natural components, but were not stable because they were easily disturbed by urban expansion. Transportation and industrial land and urban land were the most important contributors to exploitation and control relationships and may be important indicators of spatial adjustment. Increasing competition relationships unbalanced the carbon metabolism, and limitations on the area of land available for development and on the water resources led to increasingly serious competition. The results provide an objective basis for planning adjustments to Beijing's land-use patterns to improve its carbon metabolism and reduce carbon emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A water management decision support system contributing to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klaudia; van Esch, Bart; Baayen, Jorn; Pothof, Ivo; Talsma, Jan; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Deltares and Eindhoven University of Technology are developing a new decision support system (DSS) for regional water authorities. In order to maintain water levels in the Dutch polder system, water should be drained and pumped out from the polders to the sea. The time and amount of pumping depends on the current sea level, the water level in the polder, the weather forecast and the electricity price forecast and possibly local renewable power production. This is a multivariable optimisation problem, where the goal is to keep the water level in the polder within certain bounds. By optimizing the operation of the pumps the energy usage and costs can be reduced, hence the operation of the regional water authorities can be more sustainable, while also anticipating on increasing share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost-effective way. The decision support system, based on Delft-FEWS as operational data-integration platform, is running an optimization model built in RTC-Tools 2, which is performing real-time optimization in order to calculate the pumping strategy. It is taking into account the present and future circumstances. As being the core of the real time decision support system, RTC-Tools 2 fulfils the key requirements to a DSS: it is fast, robust and always finds the optimal solution. These properties are associated with convex optimization. In such problems the global optimum can always be found. The challenge in the development is to maintain the convex formulation of all the non-linear components in the system, i.e. open channels, hydraulic structures, and pumps. The system is introduced through 4 pilot projects, one of which is a pilot of the Dutch Water Authority Rivierenland. This is a typical Dutch polder system: several polders are drained to the main water system, the Linge. The water from the Linge can be released to the main rivers that are subject to tidal fluctuations. In case of low tide, water can be released via the gates. In case of high

  12. Family of Packaged Water/Packaged Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    equipment were surveyed. These companies were selected from: a. Thomas Register - Pharmaceutical , Blood Processing Equipment, and Intravenous Equipment...Engineering Center, ASTM- CCM , Fort Lee, VA. 4. U.S. Army Quartermaster Center and School. 1992. Draft Study Plan for the Packaged Water System

  13. SOILS AS REPRESENTATIVE COMPONENT OF URBAN SYSTEM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yorkina N.V

    2011-01-01

    .... Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises...

  14. Generating a global soil evaporation dataset using SMAP soil moisture data to estimate components of the surface water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, E.; Small, E. E.; Badger, A.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is fundamental to the water, energy and carbon cycles. However, our ability to measure ET and partition the total flux into transpiration and evaporation from soil is limited. This project aims to generate a global, observationally-based soil evaporation dataset (E-SMAP): using SMAP surface soil moisture data in conjunction with models and auxiliary observations to observe or estimate each component of the surface water balance. E-SMAP will enable a better understanding of water balance processes and contribute to forecasts of water resource availability. Here we focus on the flux between the soil surface and root zone layers (qbot), which dictates the proportion of water that is available for soil evaporation. Any water that moves from the surface layer to the root zone contributes to transpiration or groundwater recharge. The magnitude and direction of qbot are driven by gravity and the gradient in matric potential. We use a highly discretized Richards Equation-type model (e.g. Hydrus 1D software) with meteorological forcing from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) to estimate qbot. We verify the simulations using SMAP L4 surface and root zone soil moisture data. These data are well suited for evaluating qbot because they represent the most advanced estimate of the surface to root zone soil moisture gradient at the global scale. Results are compared with similar calculations using NLDAS and in situ soil moisture data. Preliminary calculations show that the greatest amount of variability between qbot determined from NLDAS, in situ and SMAP occurs directly after precipitation events. At these times, uncertainties in qbot calculations significantly affect E-SMAP estimates.

  15. Development of the Next Generation Type Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Tachihara, Satoru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Ueoka, Terumi; Soejima, Fujito; Teranishi, Hiromitsu

    According to NASA, an astronaut living on the International Space Station (ISS) requires approximately 7 kg of water per day. This includes 2 kg of drinking water as well as sanitary fresh water for hand washing, gargling, etc. This water is carried to the space station from the earth, so when more people are staying on the space station, or staying for a longer period of time, the cost of transporting water increases. Accordingly, water is a valuable commodity, and restrictions are applied to such activities as brushing teeth, washing hair, and washing clothes. The life of an astronaut in space is not necessarily a healthy one. JAXA has experience in the research of water recovery systems. Today, utilizing knowledge learned through experiences living on the space station and space shuttles, and taking advantage of the development of new materials for device construction, it is possible to construct a new water recovery system. Therefore, JAXA and New Medican Tech Corporation (NMT) have created a system for collaborative development. Based on the technologies of both companies, we are proceeding to develop the next generation of water recovery devices in order to contribute to safe, comfortable, and healthy daily life for astronauts in space. The goal of this development is to achieve a water purification system based on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that can perform the following functions. • Preprocessing that removes ammonia and breaks down organic matter contained in urine. • Post-processing that adds minerals and sterilizes the water. • Online TOC measurement for monitoring water quality. • Functions for measuring harmful substances. The RO membrane is an ultra-low-pressure type membrane with a 0.0001 micron (0.1 nanometer) pore size and an operating pressure of 0.4 to 0.6 MPa. During processing with the RO membrane, nearly all of the minerals contained in the cleaned water are removed, resulting in water that is near the quality of deionized water

  16. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K. [Sfax University, (Turkey); Bacha, H. Ben [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

  17. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems... importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more of...

  18. 77 FR 75188 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of..., Inc. The remaining respondents are Bosch Security Systems, Inc.; Robert Bosch GmbH; Bosch...

  19. 77 FR 808 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... States after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products...; Bosch Security Systems, Inc. of Fairpoint, New York; Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd. of Seoul, Korea; Samsung...

  20. Evaluation and development of measurement components for a catalytic converter test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this research and development project was to evaluate and configure the components of a test system designed for the analysis of full-scale vehicle-aged automobile catalytic converters. The components tested included an exhaust gas analyzer for measuring hydrocarbon, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} contents and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) for measuring NO{sub x}, as well as thermocouples and pressure meters. A software package (TestPoint vers.2.Ob, Capital Equipment) was used to develop a computer-based data sampling and acquisition interface with the components and sensors connected to the test system. Tests of the Sun MGA-1200, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer, with CO, CO{sub 2} and various hydrocarbons (propane and octane) revealed sensitivity to large pressure changes (greater than 500 mbar). There was no significant cross-sensitivity between the gases except for the slight response of the hydrocarbon (HC) register to water vapor and CO. However, the low range of HC(5-30 vppm) expected in car exhaust after the converter means any cross-sensitivity could have an effect on the measurement, depending on measurement conditions. Tests of the EcoPhysics CLD 700 NO{sub x} meter also indicated sensitivity to pressure. An executable TestPoint run-time application was created to allow near real-time monitoring of the test system using a desktop computer. Nine channels of analog data are fed to a desktop computer via an A/D board and seven exhaust gas parameters through an RS-232C interface with the MGA-1200 23 refs, 32 figs, 10 tabs. Examination paper

  1. Initial data problems for the two-component Camassa-Holm system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the study of some properties of the two-component Camassa-Holm system. By constructing two sequences of solutions of the two-component Camassa-Holm system, we prove that the solution map of the Cauchy problem of the two-component Camassa-Holm system is not uniformly continuous in $H^s(\\mathbb{R}$, $s>5/2$.

  2. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this Select Phase II program is to build and deliver laser components both for airborne water vapor and ozone DIAL systems. Specifically, Fibertek...

  3. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  4. An overview of the NASA electronic components information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G.; Waterbury, S.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Parts Project Office (NPPO) comprehensive data system to support all NASA Electric, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and technical data requirements is described. A phase delivery approach is adopted, comprising four principal phases. Phases 1 and 2 support Space Station Freedom (SSF) and use a centralized architecture with all data and processing kept on a mainframe computer. Phases 3 and 4 support all NASA centers and projects and implement a distributed system architecture, in which data and processing are shared among networked database servers. The Phase 1 system, which became operational in February of 1990, implements a core set of functions. Phase 2, scheduled for release in 1991, adds functions to the Phase 1 system. Phase 3, to be prototyped beginning in 1991 and delivered in 1992, introduces a distributed system, separate from the Phase 1 and 2 system, with a refined semantic data model. Phase 4 extends the data model and functionality of the Phase 3 system to provide support for the NASA design community, including integration with Computer Aided Design (CAD) environments. Phase 4 is scheduled for prototyping in 1992 to 93 and delivery in 1994.

  5. Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

    2006-09-01

    Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

  6. The Landlab OverlandFlow component: a Python library for computing shallow-water flow across watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Jordan M.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Hobley, Daniel E. J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Hutton, Eric W. H.; Nudurupati, Sai S.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrologic models and modeling components are used in a wide range of applications. Rainfall-runoff models are used to investigate the evolution of hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture and surface water discharge, throughout one or more rainfall events. Longer-term landscape evolution models also include aspects of hydrology, albeit in a highly simplified manner, in order to approximate how flowing water shapes landscapes. Here we illustrate how the OverlandFlow hydrologic component co...

  7. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Carter, Donald L.; Schunk, Richard G.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station Water Recovery System (WRS) is comprised of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed, develop improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor, evaluate optimum operation of UPA through parametric testing, and improve reliability of the UPA fluids pump and Distillation Assembly.

  8. Further testing of solar water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Watson, M.

    2002-07-01

    In a study for the DTI, the Energy Monitoring Company compared the amount of energy which eight solar water heaters could generate. The systems were operated side by side over about six months. In one series of tests the systems were operated entirely as solar systems, and in another, auxiliary top-up heating was applied. The two systems were evaluated and the relative advantages/disadvantages discussed.

  9. LOGIC SIMULATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM COMPONENT IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Marchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article proposed the use of simulation methods for evaluating the effectiveness of a stepped fan engine speed control while maintaining the air flow volume in the set boundaries of the «fan-filter» system. A detailed algorithm of the program made on the basis of an Any Logic software package. Is analyzed the possibility of using the proposed method in the design of ventilation systems.The proposed method allows at the design stage to determine the maximum replacement intervals of the systems filter elements, as well as to predict the time to switch the fan motor speeds. Using of the technique allows to refuse the complex air flow systems and maximize the life of the filter elements set.Methods of logical processes modeling allows to reduce construction costs and improve energy efficiency of buildings. 

  10. Type systems for distributed programs components and sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Dardha, Ornela

    2016-01-01

    In this book we develop powerful techniques based on formal methods for the verification of correctness, consistency and safety properties related to dynamic reconfiguration and communication in complex distributed systems. In particular, static analysis techniques based on types and type systems are an adequate methodology considering their success in guaranteeing not only basic safety properties, but also more sophisticated ones like deadlock or lock freedom in concurrent settings. The main contributions of this book are twofold. i) We design a type system for a concurrent object-oriented calculus to statically ensure consistency of dynamic reconfigurations. ii) We define an encoding of the session pi-calculus, which models communication in distributed systems, into the standard typed pi-calculus. We use this encoding to derive properties like type safety and progress in the session pi-calculus by exploiting the corresponding properties in the standard typed pi-calculus.

  11. Heat pipe radiation cooling of advanced hypersonic propulsion system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. A.; Keddy, M.; Merrigan, M. A.; Silverstein, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Heat transfer, heat pipe, and system studies were performed to assess the newly proposed heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) concept. With an HPRC system, heat is removed from the ramburner and nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft engine by a surrounding, high-temperature, heat pipe nacelle structure, transported to nearby external surfaces, and rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. With HPRC, the Mach number range available for using hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft operation extends into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 range, up from the current limit of about Mach 4. Heat transfer studies using a newly developed HPRC computer code determine cooling system and ramburner and nozzle temperatures, heat loads, and weights for a representative combined-cycle engine cruising at Mach 5 at 80,000 ft altitude. Heat pipe heat transport calculations, using the Los Alamos code HTPIPE, reveal that adequate heat trasport capability is available using molybdenum-lithium heat pipe technology. Results show that the HPRC system radiator area is limited in size to the ramburner-nozzle region of the engine nacelle; reasonable system weights are expected; hot section temperatures are consistent with advanced structural materials development goals; and system impact on engine performance is minimal.

  12. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Water Resources Center, Lubbock, Texas (United States); Pickering, K. [Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2002-06-15

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NO{sub 2}{sup -} as the e{sup -} acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities

  13. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  14. 78 FR 77649 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Xylem Water Systems USA LLC, Subzone 37D...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Xylem Water Systems USA LLC, Subzone 37D, (Centrifugal, Submersible Pumps and Related Components), Auburn, New York Xylem Water Systems USA LLC (Xylem), operator of Subzone 37D, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to...

  15. Conference on Radiation and its Effects on Components and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The aim of RADECS conferences is to provide an annual European forum for the presentation and discussion of the latest advances in the field of radiation effects on electronic and photonic materials, devices, circuits, sensors, and systems. The scope of the conference encompasses technological processes and design techniques for producing radiation tolerant systems for space, aeronautical or terrestrial applications, as well as relevant methodologies for their characterization and qualification. The conference features a technical program, an Industrial Exhibit, and one day tutorial or ‘short course’ on radiation effects. The technical program includes oral and poster sessions and round tables.

  16. Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakera, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Margaria,Tiziana; Hinchey, Mike; Vassev, Emil; Steffen, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Rich and multifaceted domain specific specification languages like the Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) help to design reliable systems with self-healing capabilities. The GEAR game-based Model Checker has been used successfully to investigate properties of the ESA Exo- Mars Rover in depth. We show here how to enable GEAR s game-based verification techniques for ASSL via systematic model extraction from a behavioral subset of the language, and illustrate it on a description of the Voyager II space mission.

  17. FDIR for the IMU Component of AOCS Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício N. Pontuschka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is the study of a FDIR for an IMU aiming at space applications with focus on the gyro signal analysis and the tests of the filtering algorithms. The algorithms have been tested by using lab data provided by the DMC LABSIM (Physical’s Simulation Laboratory of the Space Mechanics and Control Division of INPE. The results have demonstrated good agreement with the concepts applied in this study. Automatic detection procedures are very important in the characterization of occurrence, definition of criteria, and device types in the scenario of AOCS FDIR. An IMU comprised of four gyros in a tetrahedral configuration is one of the assumed components for the AOCS (attitude and orbit control subsystem considered in this work. The types of failures considered in this paper are the step abrupt change, ramp/drift/slow, stuck, cyclic, erratic, spike, and finally the stuck for variance alteration noise. An appropriate algorithm for the automatic detection of each type of fault is developed. The approach includes the mapping capability of fault event indicators to the IMU. This mapping is very important in the characterization of the occurrence, definition of criteria, and device types as well as associated fault identification for an AOCS.

  18. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  19. APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been compared with diesel, wind and hand pump systems and found to be .... motor and may also include maximum power point tracker and ... performance. Commercially available PY water pumping systems are in a variety of configurations. p. (a). DC Motor + Pump. PV. Array. (b). Inverter. AC Motor + Pump. Figure 2 ...

  20. Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. P.; Dandy, G. C.; Maier, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    In many regions, conventional water supplies are unable to meet projected consumer demand. Consequently, interest has arisen in integrated urban water systems, which involve the reclamation or harvesting of alternative, localized water sources. However, this makes the planning and design of water infrastructure more difficult, as multiple objectives need to be considered, water sources need to be selected from a number of alternatives, and end uses of these sources need to be specified. In addition, the scale at which each treatment, collection, and distribution network should operate needs to be investigated. In order to deal with this complexity, a framework for planning and designing water infrastructure taking into account integrated urban water management principles is presented in this paper and applied to a rural greenfield development. Various options for water supply, and the scale at which they operate were investigated in order to determine the life-cycle trade-offs between water savings, cost, and GHG emissions as calculated from models calibrated using Australian data. The decision space includes the choice of water sources, storage tanks, treatment facilities, and pipes for water conveyance. For each water system analyzed, infrastructure components were sized using multiobjective genetic algorithms. The results indicate that local water sources are competitive in terms of cost and GHG emissions, and can reduce demand on the potable system by as much as 54%. Economies of scale in treatment dominated the diseconomies of scale in collection and distribution of water. Therefore, water systems that connect large clusters of households tend to be more cost efficient and have lower GHG emissions. In addition, water systems that recycle wastewater tended to perform better than systems that captured roof-runoff. Through these results, the framework was shown to be effective at identifying near optimal trade-offs between competing objectives, thereby enabling

  1. Using WNTR to Model Water Distribution System Resilience ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new open source Python package developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Sandia National Laboratories to model and evaluate resilience of water distribution systems. WNTR can be used to simulate a wide range of disruptive events, including earthquakes, contamination incidents, floods, climate change, and fires. The software includes the EPANET solver as well as a WNTR solver with the ability to model pressure-driven demand hydraulics, pipe breaks, component degradation and failure, changes to supply and demand, and cascading failure. Damage to individual components in the network (i.e. pipes, tanks) can be selected probabilistically using fragility curves. WNTR can also simulate different types of resilience-enhancing actions, including scheduled pipe repair or replacement, water conservation efforts, addition of back-up power, and use of contamination warning systems. The software can be used to estimate potential damage in a network, evaluate preparedness, prioritize repair strategies, and identify worse case scenarios. As a Python package, WNTR takes advantage of many existing python capabilities, including parallel processing of scenarios and graphics capabilities. This presentation will outline the modeling components in WNTR, demonstrate their use, give the audience information on how to get started using the code, and invite others to participate in this open source project. This pres

  2. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, Jinmin; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    Business-to-Business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support

  3. Expression of complement components in the peripheral nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Rosalein R.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Vreijling, Jeroen P.; Troost, Dirk; Baas, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We have generated a SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) library of normal sciatic nerve and found tags encoding for mRNAs of the complement system highly represented. RNA (RT-PCR and northern blot hybridization) and protein (western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry) studies confirmed

  4. Photovoltaic system and components price development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Schoen, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Market inventories have been made since fall 2011 for modules, inverters, and systems that are available for purchase in the Netherlands to provide the fast growing Dutch market with proper market information. The most recent inventory was made in December 2016. After the drop in module price in

  5. Effect of water chemistry on the planktonic communities and relationships among food web components across a freshwater ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczan T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ecological research on the food web has been focused more on the pelagic zone than on the transitional zone - ecotones between lentic and lotic habitats. The specific goals of this study were to determine whether the contact zone of waters differs in hydrochemical and biological terms from the waters of the canal and the open water zone, and to evaluate the influence of particular macro-habitats on the interactions between components of the planktonic food web. The distribution of samples in ordination space led us to conclude that the studied habitats are distributed along the rising gradient of total organic carbon and nutrients. Assemblages of all investigated groups showed a strong compositional gradient correlated with conductivity and total phosphorus, while a second strong gradient in species composition was explained by nitrate nitrogen and/or phosphate concentrations. The analysis of trophic relationships in the system bacteriaciliates- crustaceans reveals a clear differentiation and strength of mutual relations between the analyzed zones. The highest number of significant correlations was determined in the contact zone. It can also be a place of very efficient matter and energy flow in freshwater ecosystems.

  6. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power reactors...

  7. Universality in a 2-component fermi system at finite temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupak, Gautam

    2007-03-02

    Thermodynamic properties of a Fermi system close to the unitarity limit, where the 2-body scattering length a approaches +/-infinity, are studied in the high temperature Boltzmann regime. For dilute systems the virial expansion coefficients in the Boltzmann regime are expected, from general arguments, to be universal. A model independent finite temperature T calculation of the third virial coefficient b3(T) is presented. At the unitarity limit, b3infinity approximately 1.11 is a universal number. The energy density up to the third virial expansion is derived. These calculations are of interest in dilute neutron matter and could be tested in current atomic experiments on dilute Fermi gases near the Feshbach resonance.

  8. STORAGE – INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF THE LOGISTIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Florin TUDOR; Andrei Bogdan BUDICA; Ilie BUDICA; Adrian Florin BUDICA

    2014-01-01

    A very important objective of logistics is the storage of material goods necessary to ensure the uninterrupted operation of activities to achieve successful missions . The typical definition of the concept of filing emphasizes that it is a space storage of stocks of goods. This paper aims to show the role and importance of storage in the logistics system. Storage related field has become a comprehensive economic category includes sizing issues, reducing expenditure and storage issues related ...

  9. Epigenetics Components of Aging in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yue-Qiang; Jordan, I. King; Lunyak, Victoria V.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent discoveries that have shaped the emerging viewpoints in the field of epigenetic influences in the central nervous system (CNS), focusing on the following questions: i) How is the CNS shaped during development when precursor cells transition into morphologically and molecularly distinct cell types, and is this event driven by epigenetic alterations?; ii) How do epigenetic pathways control CNS function?; iii) What happens to “epigenetic memory” during aging process...

  10. Information Flow Integrity for Systems of Independently-Developed Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    Hayawardh Vijayakumar, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State University, May 2014. 2.2 Kernel Software Execution Integrity Computing systems now may utilize ... cookies , browsing history, and the contents of individual web pages loaded by the browser. Extension code is not sandboxed in the same way as web...capweave can be applied to rewrite security-critical UNIX utilities to satisfy practical security policies. capweave itself works quickly, and the

  11. Inhomogeneity growth in two-component fermionic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, P.; Colonna, M.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of fermionic many-body systems is investigated in the framework of Boltzmann-Langevin (BL) stochastic one-body approaches. Within the recently introduced Boltzmann-Langevin one-body (BLOB) model, we examine the interplay between mean-field effects and two-body correlations, of stochastic nature, for nuclear matter at moderate temperature and in several density conditions, corresponding to stable or mechanically unstable situations. Numerical results are compared with analytic expectations for the fluctuation amplitude of isoscalar and isovector densities, probing the link to the properties of the employed effective interaction; namely, symmetry energy (for isovector modes) and incompressibility (for isoscalar modes). For unstable systems, clusterization is observed. The associated features are compared with analytical results for the typical length and timescales characterizing the growth of unstable modes in nuclear matter and for the isotopic variance of the emerging fragments. We show that the BLOB model is generally better suited than simplified approaches previously introduced to solve the BL equation, and it is therefore more advantageous in applications to open systems, such as heavy-ion collisions.

  12. Fourier component imaging of water resonance in the human breast provides markers for malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Milica; Newstead, Gillian M.; Fan, Xiaobing; Du, Yiping P.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Zamora, Marta A.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that voxels with inhomogeneously broadened water resonances, as revealed by high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI, correlate with underlying tumor pathology findings, and thus carry diagnostically useful information. Thirty-four women with mammographically suspicious breast lesions were imaged at 1.5 T, using high-resolution echo-planar spectroscopic imaging. Fourier component images (FCIs) of the off-peak spectral signal were generated, and clusters of voxels with significant inhomogeneous broadening (broadened clusters) were identified and correlated to biopsy results. Inhomogeneously broadened clusters were found significantly more frequently in malignant than in benign lesions. A larger percentage of broadened cluster voxels were found inside the malignant versus benign lesions. The high statistical significance for separation of benign and malignant lesions was robust over a large range of post-processing parameters, with a maximum ROC area under curve of 0.83. In the human breast, an inhomogeneously broadened water resonance can serve as a correlate marker for malignancy and is likely to reflect the underlying anatomy or physiology.

  13. Analysis of electrical property changes of skin by oil-in-water emulsion components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, C B; Han, J Y; Cho, J C; Suh, K D; Nam, G W

    2013-08-01

    As the 'Dry Skin Cycle' produces continuous deterioration, cosmetic xerosis (flaky, dry skin) is one of the major concerns to most consumers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisturizing effect of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion components. There are numerous types of oils, waxes, polyols and surfactants used as ingredients in skincare products. However, the moisturizing effect of each ingredient and understanding each use to make an effective moisturizing products are still not well understood. To provide answers to these questions, we investigated the moisturizing effect of widely used 41 components (four different classes) in a simple O/W emulsion using capacitance methods. 106 different single oils, and combinations of oil with oil, wax, humectants, and surfactant were formulated and tested. In this study, we found that most of the O/W emulsion components had hydration effects on the skin. (i) The average relative water content increase (RWCI) rate of a single oil-based emulsion was 11.8 ± 5.2% (SE) and 7.9 ± 6.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (ii) An oil combination emulsion showed an average RWCI rate similar to that of a single oil-based emulsion, 12.6 ± 6.0% (SE) and 12.1 ± 6.4% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (iii) A combination of waxes with oil showed an average RWCI rate of 16 ± 5.6% (SE) and 12.4 ± 4.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (iv) Humectant combinations showed the highest average RWCI rate 28 ± 7.3% (SE) and 22.2 ± 7.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (v) Surfactant combinations had an average RWCI of 10.8 ± 4.5% (SE) and 6.0 ± 4.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. Interestingly, it was difficult to find moisturizing power differences among samples in the same group. Only the humectants group showed significant differences among samples. Glycerine and urea showed significant skin hydration effects compared with other humectants. We also found a significant moisturizing effect by analysing the

  14. An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical review of the physical impacts of decentralized water supply systems on existing centralized water infrastructures. This paper highlights the combination of centralized and decentralized systems, which is referred to as hybrid water supply systems. The system is hypothesized to generate more sustainable and resilient urban water systems. The basic concept is to use decentralized water supply options such as rainwater tanks, storm water harvesting and localized wastewater treatment and reuse in combination with centralized systems. Currently the impact of hybrid water supply technologies on the operational performance of the downstream infrastructure and existing treatment processes is yet to be known. The paper identifies a number of significant research gaps related to interactions between centralized and decentralized urban water services. It indicates that an improved understanding of the interaction between these systems is expected to provide a better integration of hybrid systems by improved sewerage and drainage design, as well as facilitate operation and maintenance planning. The paper also highlights the need for a framework to better understand the interaction between different components of hybrid water supply systems.

  15. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  16. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Matuska; Borivoj Sourek

    2017-01-01

    Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized loa...

  17. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  18. Handoff algorithm for mobile satellite systems with ancillary terrestrial component

    KAUST Repository

    Sadek, Mirette

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a locally optimal handoff algorithm for integrated satellite/ground communication systems. We derive the handoff decision function and present the results in the form of tradeoff curves between the number of handoffs and the number of link degradation events in a given distance covered by the mobile user. This is a practical receiver-controlled handoff algorithm that optimizes the handoff process from a user perspective based on the received signal strength rather than from a network perspective. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Discrete Fractional Component Monte Carlo Simulation Study of Dilute Nonionic Surfactants at the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Brian; Marin-Rimoldi, Eliseo; Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Jusufi, Arben; Maginn, Edward J

    2017-09-26

    We present a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme to predict bulk surfactant concentrations and surface tensions at the air-water interface for various surfactant interfacial coverages. Since the concentration regimes of these systems of interest are typically very dilute (≪10-5 mol. frac.), Monte Carlo simulations with the use of insertion/deletion moves can provide the ability to overcome finite system size limitations that often prohibit the use of modern molecular simulation techniques. In performing these simulations, we use the discrete fractional component Monte Carlo (DFCMC) method in the Gibbs ensemble framework, which allows us to separate the bulk and air-water interface into two separate boxes and efficiently swap tetraethylene glycol surfactants C10E4 between boxes. Combining this move with preferential translations, volume biased insertions, and Wang-Landau biasing vastly enhances sampling and helps overcome the classical "insertion problem", often encountered in non-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We demonstrate that this methodology is both consistent with the original molecular thermodynamic theory (MTT) of Blankschtein and co-workers, as well as their recently modified theory (MD/MTT), which incorporates the results of surfactant infinite dilution transfer free energies and surface tension calculations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. User's manual for the National Water Information System of the U.S. Geological Survey: Automated Data Processing System (ADAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The Automated Data Processing System (ADAPS) was developed for the processing, storage, and retrieval of water data, and is part of the National Water Information System (NWIS) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. NWIS is a distributed water database in which data can be processed over a network of computers at U.S. Geological Survey offices throughout the United States. NWIS comprises four subsystems: ADAPS, the Ground-Water Site Inventory System (GWSI), the Water-Quality System (QWDATA), and the Site-Specific Water-Use Data System (SWUDS). This section of the NWIS User's Manual describes the automated data processing of continuously recorded water data, which primarily are surface-water data; however, the system also allows for the processing of water-quality and ground-water data. This manual describes various components and features of the ADAPS, and provides an overview of the data processing system and a description of the system framework. The components and features included are: (1) data collection and processing, (2) ADAPS menus and programs, (3) command line functions, (4) steps for processing station records, (5) postprocessor programs control files, (6) the standard format for transferring and entering unit and daily values, and (7) relational database (RDB) formats.

  1. Application of SWAT99.2 to sensitivity analysis of water balance components in unique plots in a hilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-feng Dai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many sensitivity analyses using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT in a complex watershed have been conducted, little attention has been paid to the application potential of the model in unique plots. In addition, sensitivity analysis of percolation and evapotranspiration with SWAT has seldom been undertaken. In this study, SWAT99.2 was calibrated to simulate water balance components for unique plots in Southern China from 2000 to 2001, which included surface runoff, percolation, and evapotranspiration. Twenty-one parameters classified into four categories, including meteorological conditions, topographical characteristics, soil properties, and vegetation attributes, were used for sensitivity analysis through one-at-a-time (OAT sampling to identify the factor that contributed most to the variance in water balance components. The results were shown to be different for different plots, with parameter sensitivity indices and ranks varying for different water balance components. Water balance components in the broad-leaved forest and natural grass plots were most sensitive to meteorological conditions, less sensitive to vegetation attributes and soil properties, and least sensitive to topographical characteristics. Compared to those in the natural grass plot, water balance components in the broad-leaved forest plot demonstrated higher sensitivity to the maximum stomatal conductance (GSI and maximum leaf area index (BLAI.

  2. 78 FR 41950 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ..., ``Nintendo''). The products accused of infringing the asserted patents are gaming systems and related... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission...

  3. Sampling the Solar System. A Critical Exploration Component for Future Planetary Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sample return is a critical component for understanding our solar system (and other solar systems), and advancing human exploration activities. Here I will examine potential pathways for evolving sample return technologies needed to carry out increasingly complex missions.

  4. Dynamics of Biofilm Regrowth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Husband, S; Loza, V; Boxall, J

    2016-07-15

    The majority of biomass within water distribution systems is in the form of attached biofilm. This is known to be central to drinking water quality degradation following treatment, yet little understanding of the dynamics of these highly heterogeneous communities exists. This paper presents original information on such dynamics, with findings demonstrating patterns of material accumulation, seasonality, and influential factors. Rigorous flushing operations repeated over a 1-year period on an operational chlorinated system in the United Kingdom are presented here. Intensive monitoring and sampling were undertaken, including time-series turbidity and detailed microbial analysis using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results show that bacterial dynamics were influenced by differences in the supplied water and by the material remaining attached to the pipe wall following flushing. Turbidity, metals, and phosphate were the main factors correlated with the distribution of bacteria in the samples. Coupled with the lack of inhibition of biofilm development due to residual chlorine, this suggests that limiting inorganic nutrients, rather than organic carbon, might be a viable component in treatment strategies to manage biofilms. The research also showed that repeat flushing exerted beneficial selective pressure, giving another reason for flushing being a viable advantageous biofilm management option. This work advances our understanding of microbiological processes in drinking water distribution systems and helps inform strategies to optimize asset performance. This research provides novel information regarding the dynamics of biofilm formation in real drinking water distribution systems made of different materials. This new knowledge on microbiological process in water supply systems can be used to optimize the performance of the distribution network and to guarantee safe and good-quality drinking water to consumers. Copyright © 2016 Douterelo et al.

  5. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  6. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... treatment systems and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

  7. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software that... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with image...

  8. Two-Component Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis—Structure-Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tucker, Paul; Nowak, Elzbieta; Morth, Jens Preben

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains few two‐component systems compared to many other bacteria, possibly because it has more serine/threonine signaling pathways. Even so, these two‐component systems appear to play an important role in early intracellular survival of the pathogen as well as in aspe...

  9. 76 FR 33363 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communication devices... importation of certain wireless communication devices and systems, components thereof, and products containing...

  10. EVOLUTION OF SOME COMPONENTS OF AGROECOSYSTEMS PRODUCTIVITY FROM VINGA PLAIN IN WATER STRESS SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dicu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The researches are inscribed on line of substantiation of durable agricultural system, having as main objective the prominence of quantitative and qualitative modifications made on agro-system level under the effect of no-tillage system for wheat, maize and soybeans. The experimental field is placed on a cambic chernozem, with a medium content of clay, dominant in the Prodagro West Arad agro-centre and representative for a large surface in the Banat-Crisana Plain. The passing to no-till system change the structure of technological elements, through less soil works, so the impact on agro-system is different comparing with conventional tillage, first less the intervention pressure on agro-system ant secondly appear new interactions, new equilibriums and disequilibriums. Considering the evolution of soil humidity, the observations made monthly (by taking soil samples and laboratory determinations for the three cultures showed that in the no-till system, there are more uniform values in the soil profile, and in the variants where the deep work of soil was made it could be observed a low increase of the water volume in the soil.

  11. Dynamic water vapor and temperature calibration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, F W; Primiano, F P; Saidel, G M

    1984-06-01

    The objective evaluation of thermal and humidification processes in the pulmonary system requires accurate dynamic measurements of temperature and water vapor concentration of a flowing gas mixture. The adequacy of instruments used for such measurements can only be determined by dynamic calibration techniques. We have developed a method of producing step changes in temperature and water vapor content of a gas mixture undergoing controlled steady flow. The system consists of two reservoirs and a slide valve that switches a test section between them. The inlet (usually a probe or catheter tip) of the device to be calibrated is positioned in the test section. The flow rate through the test section is minimally changed during the transition between gas from one reservoir to that of the other. The system has been used to analyze the response of a thermistor and a respiratory mass spectrometer to changes in gas temperature and water vapor.

  12. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  13. Components and systems for hybrid- and electromobiles; Komponenten und Systeme fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immle, Michael; Burgmayr, Thomas [Panasonic Electric Works Europe AG, Holzkirchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    On the Hybrid and Electric Vehicle sector Panasonic Electric Works is working among others on electro-mechanical products, such as contactors for battery disconnection or battery charging, on semi-conductor relays for battery monitoring and on complex systems as battery disconnect units. This paper will show experience on the hybrid vehicle sector. Further on different switching components and their usage will be introduced. As a main topic battery disconnected units will be discussed. Based on an actual example basic development items and system features will be touched and important development stages will be shown. As a general topic a future view on vehicles and batteries, as well as on charging systems and infrastructural necessities will be introduced. (orig.)

  14. IDMS: A System to Verify Component Interface Completeness and Compatibility for Product Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeprayolkij, Wantana; Limpiyakorn, Yachai; Gansawat, Duangrat

    The growing approach of Component-Based software Development has had a great impact on today system architectural design. However, the design of subsystems that lacks interoperability and reusability can cause problems during product integration. At worst, this may result in project failure. In literature, it is suggested that the verification of interface descriptions and management of interface changes are factors essential to the success of product integration process. This paper thus presents an automation approach to facilitate reviewing component interfaces for completeness and compatibility. The Interface Descriptions Management System (IDMS) has been implemented to ease and fasten the interface review activities using UML component diagrams as input. The method of verifying interface compatibility is accomplished by traversing the component dependency graph called Component Compatibility Graph (CCG). CCG is the visualization of which each node represents a component, and each edge represents communications between associated components. Three case studies were studied to subjectively evaluate the correctness and usefulness of IDMS.

  15. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.

    2016-01-01

    A set of deep charging tests has been carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. The samples, which included solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, were placed in passive and active (powered) circuit configurations and exposed to electron radiation. The energy of the electron radiation was chosen to deeply penetrate insulating (dielectric) materials on each sample. Each circuit configuration was monitored to determine if potentially damaging electrostatic discharge events (arcs) were developed on the coupon as a result of deep charging. The motivation for the test, along with charging levels, experimental setup, sample details, and results will be discussed.

  16. Optical Components for Reconfigurable Photonic Networks and Mobile Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Rommel, Simon

    edge; RoF techniques based on photonic technologies enable to generate, transport and radiate in a straight forward manner microwave and millimeter wave signals. Although electronic technologies are able to sustain an increase in frequency from a technology point of view, with current development about...... communication needs to move to the millimeter-wavelength or sub-terahertz range. Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) technologies have evolved from a blue sky academic topic in the 90s to a main driver within the current quest for the 5th generation mobile systems (5G). A twist in RoF technologies is that it has found along...... the way niches in areas non purely related to communication technologies (ICT) applications: distribution of highly pure clock signals for radio telescopes, photonic-based coherent radar and fiber optic sensing. It is however in the communication arena where RoF seems to be able to provide a technological...

  17. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  18. Global resilience analysis of water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Kegong; Sweetapple, Chris; Farmani, Raziyeh; Fu, Guangtao; Ward, Sarah; Butler, David

    2016-12-01

    Evaluating and enhancing resilience in water infrastructure is a crucial step towards more sustainable urban water management. As a prerequisite to enhancing resilience, a detailed understanding is required of the inherent resilience of the underlying system. Differing from traditional risk analysis, here we propose a global resilience analysis (GRA) approach that shifts the objective from analysing multiple and unknown threats to analysing the more identifiable and measurable system responses to extreme conditions, i.e. potential failure modes. GRA aims to evaluate a system's resilience to a possible failure mode regardless of the causal threat(s) (known or unknown, external or internal). The method is applied to test the resilience of four water distribution systems (WDSs) with various features to three typical failure modes (pipe failure, excess demand, and substance intrusion). The study reveals GRA provides an overview of a water system's resilience to various failure modes. For each failure mode, it identifies the range of corresponding failure impacts and reveals extreme scenarios (e.g. the complete loss of water supply with only 5% pipe failure, or still meeting 80% of demand despite over 70% of pipes failing). GRA also reveals that increased resilience to one failure mode may decrease resilience to another and increasing system capacity may delay the system's recovery in some situations. It is also shown that selecting an appropriate level of detail for hydraulic models is of great importance in resilience analysis. The method can be used as a comprehensive diagnostic framework to evaluate a range of interventions for improving system resilience in future studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2015-01-27

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  20. System partners `97. Innovations of the component manufacturing industry; System Partners 97. Innovationen der Zulieferindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenpfeiffer, W. [comp.

    1997-08-01

    Innovativeness and high product quality are the two key factors of the positive image of the German car industry. The author presents some examples to illustrate this point: German producers were the first to replace carburetors with fuel injection systems with electronic control, the first to offer an antilock system, and the first to have xenon headlights. Dynamic speed control systems are another example. The component manufacturing industry has made an important contribution to all this, and it is for this reason that ATZ/MTZ have dedicated this special issue to the component manufacturing industry. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die Erfolge und das Image der deutschen Automobilindustrie haben sicherlich viele Gruende. Die wichtigsten sind Innovationen und Produktqualitaet, zu der auch die schnelle Umsetzung gehoert. Ein kurzer Rueckblick auf die letzten zwei Jahrzehnte verdeutlicht mit einigen Beispielen diese Aussage. Die Abloesung des Vergasers durch die elektronisch gesteuerte Benzineinspritzung ging von hier aus. Deutsche Automobilhersteller boten ihren Kunden weltweit als erste ein Antiblockiersystem an, das Xenonlicht ist bisher nur in deutschen Pkw lieferbar. An einer Fahrdynamikregelung arbeiten zwar weltweit viele Hersteller, bei Automobilen ``Made in Germany`` ist sie jedoch bereits in Serie. Bei allen Innovationen war auch immer die deutsche Zulieferindustrie federfuehrend beteiligt. Ein Grund genug fuer die Herausgabe dieses Sonderhefts. (orig./AKF)

  1. Water maser emission from exoplanetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmovici, C. B.; Pogrebenko, S.

    2018-01-01

    Since the first discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet in 1995 more than 2000 exo-planets have been found to exist around main sequence stars. The detection techniques are based on the radial velocity method (which involves the measurement of the star's wobbling induced by the gravitational field of the orbiting giant planets) or on transit photometry by using space telescopes (Kepler, Corot, Hubble and Spitzer) outside the absorbing Earth atmosphere. From the ground, as infrared observations are strongly limited by atmospheric absorption, radioastronomy offers almost the only possible way to search for water presence and abundance in the planetary atmospheres of terrestrial-type planets where life may evolve. Following the discovery in 1994 of the first water maser emission in the atmosphere of Jupiter induced by a cometary impact, our measurements have shown that the water maser line at 22 GHz (1.35 cm) can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool for water search outside the solar system, as comets are able to deliver considerable amounts of water to planets raising the fascinating possibility of extraterrestrial life evolution. Thus in 1999 we started the systematic search for water on 35 different targets up to 50 light years away from the Sun. Here we report the first detection of the water maser emission from the exoplanetary systems Epsilon Eridani, Lalande 21185 and Gliese 581. We have shown the peculiar feasibility of water detection and its importance in the search for exoplanetary systems especially for the Astrobiology programs, given the possibility of long period observations using powerful radiotelescopes equipped with adequate spectrometers.

  2. Conceptual Analysis of System Average Water Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Averaging over time and area, the precipitation in an ecosystem (SAP - system average precipitation) depends on the average surface temperature and relative humidity (RH) in the system if uniform convection is assumed. RH depends on the evapotranspiration of the system (SAE - system average evapotranspiration). There is a non-linear relationship between SAP and SAE. Studying this relationship can lead mechanistic understanding of the ecosystem health status and trend under different setups. If SAP is higher than SAE, the system will have a water runoff which flows out through rivers. If SAP is lower than SAE, irrigation is needed to maintain the vegetation status. This presentation will give a conceptual analysis of the stability in this relationship under different assumed areas, water or forest coverages, elevations and latitudes. This analysis shows that desert is a stable system. Water circulation in basins is also stabilized at a specific SAP based on the basin profile. It further shows that deforestation will reduce SAP, and can flip the system to an irrigation required status. If no irrigation is provided, the system will automatically reduce to its stable point - desert, which is extremely difficult to turn around.

  3. Adapting water accounting for integrated water resource management. The Júcar Water Resource System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Pedro-Monzonís, María

    2014-11-01

    An increase in water demands, exacerbated by climate change and the tightening of environmental requirements, leads to a reduction in available water resources for economic uses. This situation poses challenges for water resource planning and management. Water accounting has emerged as an appropriate tool to improve transparency and control in water management. There are multiple water accounting approaches, but they generally involve a very exhaustive list of accounted concepts. According to our findings in this research, one of the best water accounting methodologies is the Australian Water Accounting Standard. However, its implementation for integrated water resource planning and management purposes calls into questioning the amount of information and level of detail necessary for the users of water accounts. In this paper, we present a different method of applying the Australian Water Accounting Standard in relation to water resource management, which improves its utility. In order to compare the original approach and that proposed here, we present and discuss an application to the Júcar Water Resource System, in eastern Spain.

  4. Systems Reliability Framework for Surface Water Sustainability and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. R.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2016-12-01

    With microbial contamination posing a serious threat to the availability of clean water across the world, it is necessary to develop a framework that evaluates the safety and sustainability of water systems in respect to non-point source fecal microbial contamination. The concept of water safety is closely related to the concept of failure in reliability theory. In water quality problems, the event of failure can be defined as the concentration of microbial contamination exceeding a certain standard for usability of water. It is pertinent in watershed management to know the likelihood of such an event of failure occurring at a particular point in space and time. Microbial fate and transport are driven by environmental processes taking place in complex, multi-component, interdependent environmental systems that are dynamic and spatially heterogeneous, which means these processes and therefore their influences upon microbial transport must be considered stochastic and variable through space and time. A physics-based stochastic model of microbial dynamics is presented that propagates uncertainty using a unique sampling method based on artificial neural networks to produce a correlation between watershed characteristics and spatial-temporal probabilistic patterns of microbial contamination. These results are used to address the question of water safety through several sustainability metrics: reliability, vulnerability, resilience and a composite sustainability index. System reliability is described uniquely though the temporal evolution of risk along watershed points or pathways. Probabilistic resilience describes how long the system is above a certain probability of failure, and the vulnerability metric describes how the temporal evolution of risk changes throughout a hierarchy of failure levels. Additionally our approach allows for the identification of contributions in microbial contamination and uncertainty from specific pathways and sources. We expect that this

  5. The GNSS Component of the Seismic Monitoring System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chile is amongst the most seismically active countries in the world. Since mid-XVI Century, a magnitude 8 or more earthquake has taken place every dozen of years, as an average. In the last 100 years, more than ten events with magnitudes around 8 or larger have taken place in this part of world. Three events with M>8 have taken place only in the last six years. The largest earthquake ever recorded took place in May, 1960, in southern Chile. Such extreme seismic activity is the result of the interaction of the Nazca, Antarctic, Scotia and South American plates in southwestern South America where Chile is located. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. At least eighteen of these earthquakes have generated local tsunamis with runups larger than 4 m -including events in 2010, 2014 and 2015- therefore it is mandatory to establish a system with capabilities to rapidly evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of these events. In 2013, the newly created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network by increasing the numbers of real-time monitoring stations. The most important change to previous practices is the establishment of a GNSS network composed by 130 devices, in addition to the incorporation of 65 new collocated broadband and strong motion instruments. Additional 297 strong motion instruments for engineering purposes complement the system. Forty units -of the 130 devices- present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz position stream at 4-cm level. First records of ground displacement -using this technology-were recorded at the time of the largest aftershock (Mw=7.6) of the sequence that affected northern Chile in 2014. The CSN is currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement from the

  6. Nonlinear analysis of rotor-bearing systems using component mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. D.; Meacham, W. L.; Fleming, D. P.; Kascak, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The method of component mode synthesis is developed to determine the forced response of nonlinear, multishaft, rotor-bearing systems. The formulation allows for simulation of system response due to blade loss, distributed unbalance, base shock, maneuver loads, and specified fixed frame forces. The motion of each rotating component of the system is described by superposing constraint modes associated with boundary coordinates and constrained precessional modes associated with internal coordinates. The precessional modes are truncated for each component and the reduced component equations are assembled with the nonlinear supports and interconnections to form a set of nonlinear system equations of reduced order. These equations are then numerically integrated to obtain the system response. A computer program, which is presently restricted to single shaft systems, has been written and results are presented for transient system response associated with blade loss dynamics with squeeze film dampers, and with interference rubs.

  7. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Russell, Richard; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Ruffino, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses development of various NDE techniques to detect cracks in A40 steel poppets used in a valve of the fuel system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The valve assembly experiences a severe high cycle fatigue environment during its operation. Cracks were discovered at the radius of the poppet flange. Experience shows that very small cracks or material anomalies do not cause failure in a single operation event. While the design is being modified to eliminate the issue, NDE has been used to screen the poppets for cracks before every use. Several surface flaw detection techniques were considered and a few NDE techniques were developed to provide NDE screening for the flaw detection. The primary method used was the eddy current testing. In the eddy current technique, the X-Y channel test data from the eddy current instrument was recorded as computer files. A Matlab data review and plotting application was developed to analyze the data files. The Matlab application provides much higher resolution than the eddy current instrument that was used to acquire the data. Other techniques that were used included ultrasonic surface wave and magnetic particle testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was undertaken to determine the 90/95 size for the eddy current technique. This study used specimens with same geometry and material as the poppet. Fatigue cracks were grown in these specimens. Information on results of the NDE techniques and results of the POD study are provided.

  8. Recreation as a component of the community youth development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outley, Corliss; Bocarro, Jason N; Boleman, Chris T

    2011-01-01

    In an era of fragmented school systems and budget cuts, many educators and youth leaders seeking to solve the problems that youth face are turning to out-of-school-time programs. In many communities, these programs are seen as essential in the development of youth into fully functioning adults. One such area of the out-of-school-time sector is the provision of recreation services. Recreational services have a vital role in connecting youth to their communities, as well as enabling youth and adult allies to improve challenging conditions. This chapter outlines the historical role that recreation has played in community youth development programs and shows how community youth development has evolved. It then looks at how organizations in three communities--the Youthline Outreach Mentorship program in Minneapolis, a 4-H initiative in Parker City, Texas, and the Hockey Is for Everyone program--have successfully applied the theoretical knowledge. Best practices from these programs illustrate that the role of recreation in community youth development is changing. No longer are recreation programs about providing just "fun and games." Recreation organizations are now placing more value on the development of the community as a whole, in addition to the individual well-being of young people. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  9. Survey, modeling, interpretation as multidisciplinary components of a Knowledge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianchini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage represents a very difficult subject to be handled. Despite its cross-cutting and multi-level characters (scientific, social, economic, political, etc., nevertheless the topic can hardly be framed in a proper and comprehensive way. Any project addressing Cultural Heritage  (documentation, preservation, retrofitting, valorisation and so on actually tends to exalt a specific point of view and, therefore, to neglect potentially crucial contributions coming from different fields of expertise. Comprehensive solutions to this problem seem by now available thanks to ICT and the 3D Digitalization and Multimedia Technologies: nevertheless the more the platforms improve their multidisciplinary capabilities and interoperability, the more they need an intelligent design and an accurate control during the implementation phase. Built Cultural Heritage (as historic buildings, districts, sites, etc. perfectly represents the wide range of situations, which have to be tackled. Any intervention, in fact, from the design phase to its realization and validation, actually deals with several different interlaced layers that together depict a “complex system”. The construction of a Knowledge System represents a crucial step in correctly addressing the problem.

  10. Mixed-level optical-system simulation incorporating component-level modeling of interface elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pablo V.; Stone, Bryan; Heller, Evan; Herrmann, Dan; Ghillino, Enrico; Scarmozzino, Rob

    2014-03-01

    While system-level simulation can allow designers to assess optical system performance via measures such as signal waveforms, spectra, eye diagrams, and BER calculations, component-level modeling can provide a more accurate description of coupling into and out of individual devices, as well as their detailed signal propagation characteristics. In particular, the system-level simulation of interface components used in optical systems, including splitters, combiners, grating couplers, waveguides, spot-size converters, and lens assemblies, can benefit from more detailed component-level modeling. Depending upon the nature of the device and the scale of the problem, simulation of optical transmission through these components can be carried out using either electromagnetic device-level simulation, such as the beampropagation method, or ray-based approaches. In either case, system-level simulation can interface to such componentlevel modeling via a suitable exchange of optical signal data. This paper presents the use of a mixed-level simulation flow in which both electromagnetic device-level and ray-based tools are integrated with a system-level simulation environment in order to model the use of various interface components in optical systems for a range of purposes, including, for example, coupling to and from optical transmission media such as single- and multimode optical fiber. This approach enables case studies on the impact of physical and geometric component variations on system performance, and the sensitivity of system behavior to misalignment between components.

  11. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  12. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    concerning the fragrances, and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol, phthalate). The Saale water samples contain components able to eco-toxic and immunomodulated effects as measured on the vitality and cytokine-secretion profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Even fragrances caused such effects which are unknown so far. The study of assessing urban effects onto the water system is still under investigation.

  13. Analysis on Sealing Reliability of Bolted Joint Ball Head Component of Satellite Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Fan, Yougao; Gao, Feng; Gu, Shixin; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Propulsion system is one of the important subsystems of satellite, and its performance directly affects the service life, attitude control and reliability of the satellite. The Paper analyzes the sealing principle of bolted joint ball head component of satellite propulsion system and discuss from the compatibility of hydrazine anhydrous and bolted joint ball head component, influence of ground environment on the sealing performance of bolted joint ball heads, and material failure caused by environment, showing that the sealing reliability of bolted joint ball head component is good and the influence of above three aspects on sealing of bolted joint ball head component can be ignored.

  14. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  15. AOIPS water resources data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwie, P.

    1977-01-01

    The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

  16. Water Balance of the Eğirdir Lake and the Influence of Budget Components, Isparta,Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşen DAVRAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water budget of lakes must be determined regarding to their sustainable usage as for all water resources. One of the major problems in the management of lakes is the estimation of water budget components. The lack of regularly measured data is the biggest problem in calculation of hydrological balance of a lake. A lake water budget is computed by measuring or estimating all of the lake’s water gains and losses and measuring the corresponding changes in the lake volume over the same time period. Eğirdir Lake is one of the most important freshwater lakes in Turkey and is the most important surface water resources in the region due to different usages. Recharge of the Eğirdir Lake is supplied from especially precipitation, surface and subsurface water inflow. The discharge components of the lake are evaporation and water intake for irrigation, drinking and energy purposes. The difference between recharge and discharge of the lake was calculated as 7.78 hm3 for 1970-2010 period. According to rainfall, evaporation and the lake water level relations, rainfall is dominantly effective on the lake water level such as direct recharge to the lake and indirect recharge with groundwater flow

  17. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  18. Impacts of deforestation on water balance components of a watershed on the Brazilian East Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete dos Reis Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian East coast was intensely affected by deforestation, which drastically cut back the original biome. The possible impacts of this process on water resources are still unknown. The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the impacts of deforestation on the main water balance components of the Galo creek watershed, in the State of Espírito Santo, on the East coast of Brazil. Considering the real conditions of the watershed, the SWAT model was calibrated with data from 1997 to 2000 and validated for the period between 2001 and 2003. The calibration and validation processes were evaluated by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and by the statistical parameters (determination coefficient, slope coefficient and F test of the regression model adjusted for estimated and measured flow data. After calibration and validation of the model, new simulations were carried out for three different land use scenarios: a scenario in compliance with the law (C1, assuming the preservation of PPAs (permanent preservation areas; an optimistic scenario (C2, which considers the watershed to be almost entirely covered by native vegetation; and a pessimistic scenario (C3, in which the watershed would be almost entirely covered by pasture. The scenarios C1, C2 and C3 represent a soil cover of native forest of 76, 97 and 0 %, respectively. The results were compared with the simulation, considering the real scenario (C0 with 54 % forest cover. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.65 and 0.70 for calibration and validation, respectively, indicating satisfactory results in the flow simulation. A mean reduction of 10 % of the native forest cover would cause a mean annual increase of approximately 11.5 mm in total runoff at the watershed outlet. Reforestation would ensure minimum flows in the dry period and regulate the maximum flow of the main watercourse of the watershed.

  19. Flood risk assessment of fresh water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a common hazard causing damages to people, buildings and infrastructures. Often located in low-lying areas or nearby rivers, water utilities are particularly vulnerable to flooding. Water and debris can inundate the facility, thereby damaging equipment and causing power outages. Such impacts can lead to costly repairs, disruptions of service, hazardous situations for personnel and public health advisories. While flood damage evaluation to buildings and their contents is becoming increasingly available, the quantification of impact on critical infrastructures is less common. In this work, we present the flood risk assessment of a fresh water supply system considering the hazard of a riverine flooding and exposure and vulnerability of the system components (i.e. pipes, junctions, lifting stations etc.). The evaluation of flood impact on the aqueduct network is carried out for flood scenarios with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to determine their residual functionality. Above a selected threshold, the affected elements are considered as failed. The water distribution piping system is modelled through a model based on EPANET designed so as to implement Pressure-Driven Demand (PDD), which is more appropriate when modelling water distribution networks with a high number of offline nodes. Results of piping system model affected by the flood are then compared in a QGIS environment with flood depth to identify the location of service outages and potential risk of contamination. The application to the water supply system of the city of Florence (Italy), serving approximately 385000 inhabitants through 900 km of piping is presented and discussed.

  20. Water distribution systems design optimisation using metaheuristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topic of multi-objective water distribution systems (WDS) design optimisation using metaheuristics is investigated, comparing numerous modern metaheuristics, including several multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, an estimation of distribution algorithm and a recent hyperheuristic named AMALGAM (an evolutionary ...

  1. to medium-sized water distribution systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Framework for optimizing chlorine dose in small- to medium-sized water distribution systems: A case of a residential neighbourhood in Lahore, Pakistan. ... The bulk decay coefficient (Kb) was determined in the laboratory, whereas the wall decay coefficient (Kw) was estimated by calibrating the simulation results with the ...

  2. The Serum Complement System: A Simplified Laboratory Exercise to Measure the Activity of an Important Component of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Jordan E.; Radziwon, Kimberly A.; Maniero, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be…

  3. Design of illumination systems for vision-assisted placement of surface-mount components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, S. H.; Lehtihet, E. A.; Egbelu, Pius J.

    1994-03-01

    One of the major parts of any vision system design is the development of effective illumination techniques. For high accuracy applications one can not afford to ignore an obvious source of error, namely a poor lighting system. In electronic manufacturing, accurate placement of fine pitch surface-mount components (SMCs) requires the integration of a vision system with the placement system. This paper describes the design of very effective lighting techniques for a vision-assisted system to place surface-mount components. The lighting systems provide consistent images of SMCs and pads with high contrast.

  4. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plant association with mycorrhiza has been considered as one of the options to improve input efficiency particularly for water and nutrient - (Allen and Musik, 1993; Bolan, 1991. This has been due to kncreasing the absorbing area of the root and therefore better contact with water and nutrients. Inoculation with mycorrhiza enhances nutrient uptake with low immobility such as phosphorus and solphur-, improve association and could be an option to drought and other environmental abnormalities such as salinity (Rice et al., 2002. Moreover, higher water use efficiency (WUE for crops -has been reported in the literatures (Sekhara and Reddy, 1993.The sustainable use of scarce water resources in Iran is a priority for agricultural development. The pressure of using water in agriculture sector is increasing, so creating ways to improve water-use efficiency and taking a full advantage of available water are crucial. Water stress reduce crop yield by impairing the growth of crop canopy and biomass. Scheduling water application is very crucial for efficient use of drip irrigation system, as excessive irrigation reduces yield, while inadequate irrigation causes water stress and reduces production. The aim of present study was to evaluate the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of sesame under different irrigation regimes in Mashhad. Material and Methods In order to investigate the impact of inoculation with two species of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during two growing seasons 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.. The experimental factors were three irrigation regimes include 2000, 3000 and

  5. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  6. Deglacial changes in the strength of deep southern component water and sediment supply at the Argentine continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warratz, Grit; Henrich, Rüdiger; Voigt, Ines; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lantzsch, Hendrik

    2017-08-01

    The deep southern component water (SCW), comprising Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), is a major component of the global oceanic circulation. It has been suggested that the deep Atlantic water mass structure changed significantly during the last glacial/interglacial cycle. However, deep SCW source-proximal records remain sparse. Here we present three coherent deep SCW paleocurrent records from the deep Argentine continental margin shedding light on deep water circulation and deep SCW flow strength in the Southwest Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Based on increased sortable silt values, we propose enhanced deep SCW flow strength from 14 to 10 cal ka B.P. relative to the early deglacial/LGM and the Holocene. We propose a direct influence of deep northern component water (NCW) on deep SCW flow strength due to vertical narrowing of deep SCW spreading, concurrent with a migration of the high-energetic LCDW/AABW interface occupying our core sites. We suggest a shoaled NCW until 13 cal ka B.P., thereby providing space for deep SCW spreading that resulted in reduced carbonate preservation at our core sites. Increased carbonate content from 13 cal ka B.P. indicates that the NCW expanded changing deep water properties at our core sites in the deep Southwest Atlantic. However, southern sourced terrigenous sediments continued to be deposited at our core sites, suggesting that deep SCW flow was uninterrupted along the Argentine continental margin since the LGM.

  7. Drinking Water Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water utilities in the US using chloramine as disinfectant treatment in their distribution systems have experienced nitrification episodes, which detrimentally impact the water quality. A chloraminated drinking water distribution system (DWDS) simulator was operated throug...

  8. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Casey M; Lund, Jay R; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M; Zagona, Edith A; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science...

  9. Building automation system of payment platform weight component for large spacecraft reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. V.; Badanina, J. O.

    2016-04-01

    Considered Design and the logic of opening large convertible antenna. The necessity of compensation weight component in the assembly and testing of the design. Given the logic of the movement elements of power spokes, concluded that the use of the tracking system to compensate for the weight component. The analysis of the existing equipment and control systems. Produced selection of the manufacturer of automated equipment that meets the stated objectives of management and control. It is concluded that the design component of the weight compensation system based on servo controllers and sensors combined platform automation, controlled by special software. The structure of the platform automation, consistent workflow testing. It defines the principles of interaction between subsystems of the weight compensation component for receiving, processing and monitoring of process parameters testing. It is concluded that the proposed system can be integrated into the automation system and the perspective of process control testing of disclosure of large spacecraft.

  10. COMPONENT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE EDUCATION QUALITY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM OF THE FUTURE ECONOMISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostiantyn S. Khoruzhyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, problems and features of forming the educational quality management information system for the future economists are examined, its component structure is presented and the significance and functions of every component are explained. The functions, which bind the components mentioned to each other, are also examined. To ensure functioning of the developed components of the EQMIS an indicator system is proposed. The article also covers the program components of this system, formed according to the requirements analysis, their technical description, as well as the importance and role in operation of the EQMIS of the future economists based on the individually-oriented, professionally-competent, informational-communicational and systematic approach methods.

  11. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD and Electrical Overstress (EOS: The state of the art in components to systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Voldman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Discharge (ESD, Electrical Overstress (EOS and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC continue to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. The range of concern for components include semiconductor components, magnetic recording industry, MEMs, and for products from disk drives, cell phones, notebooks, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. The objective of this lecture is to address the state of the art of electrostatic discharge (ESD and electrical overstress (EOS in today’s electronic components and systems. The tutorial provides a clear picture of ESD, EOS and EMC phenomena, sources, physics, failure mechanisms, testing and qualification of components and systems. The conclusion of this talk is that ESD and EOS continue to be a concern in technologies from micro-electronics to nano-structures, and will remain a reliability and quality issue in the future.

  12. Cross Entropy multiobjective optimization for water distribution systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lina; Ostfeld, Avi; Salomons, Elad

    2008-09-01

    A methodology extending the Cross Entropy combinatorial optimization method originating from an adaptive algorithm for rare events simulation estimation, to multiobjective optimization of water distribution systems design is developed and demonstrated. The single objective optimal design problem of a water distribution system is commonly to find the water distribution system component characteristics that minimize the system capital and operational costs such that the system hydraulics is maintained and constraints on quantities and pressures at the consumer nodes are fulfilled. The multiobjective design goals considered herein are the minimization of the network capital and operational costs versus the minimization of the maximum pressure deficit of the network demand nodes. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using two sample applications from the research literature and is compared to the NSGA-II multiobjective scheme. The method was found to be robust in that it produced very similar Pareto fronts in almost all runs. The suggested methodology provided improved results in all trails compared to the NSGA-II algorithm.

  13. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  14. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew; Takada, Kevin; Carter, Layne

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to improve the WPA through the use of Reverse Osmosis technology to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed and improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor to reduce the operational temperature and pressure. For the UPA, this paper discusses progress on various concepts for improving the reliability of the UPA, including the implementation of a more reliable drive belt, improved methods for managing condensate in the stationary bowl of the Distillation Assembly, deleting the Separator Plumbing Assembly, and evaluating upgrades to the UPA vacuum pump.

  15. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  16. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  17. iSAW: Integrating Structure, Actors, and Water to study socio-hydro-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Armstrong, Andrea; Baker, Michelle A.; Bedingfield, Sean; Betts, David; Buahin, Caleb; Buchert, Martin; Crowl, Todd; Dupont, R. Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Flint, Courtney; Grant, Jacqualine; Hinners, Sarah; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Jones, Amber S.; Licon, Carlos; Null, Sarah E.; Odame, Augustina; Pataki, Diane E.; Rosenberg, David; Runburg, Madlyn; Stoker, Philip; Strong, Courtenay

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization, climate, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Although water systems are complex, a need exists for a generalized representation of these systems to identify important components and linkages to guide scientific inquiry and aid water management. We developed an integrated Structure-Actor-Water framework (iSAW) to facilitate the understanding of and transitions to sustainable water systems. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research that could address management challenges across scales (e.g., plot to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, transitioning, and urban landscapes). The framework was designed to be generalizable across all human-environment systems, yet with sufficient detail and flexibility to be customized to specific cases. iSAW includes three major components: structure (natural, built, and social), actors (individual and organizational), and water (quality and quantity). Key linkages among these components include: (1) ecological/hydrologic processes, (2) ecosystem/geomorphic feedbacks, (3) planning, design, and policy, (4) perceptions, information, and experience, (5) resource access and risk, and (6) operational water use and management. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of the iSAW framework by applying it to two research and management problems: understanding urban water supply and demand in a changing climate and expanding use of green storm water infrastructure in a semi-arid environment. The applications demonstrate that a generalized conceptual model can identify important components and linkages in complex and diverse water systems and facilitate communication about those systems among researchers from diverse disciplines.

  18. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  19. The origin of inner Solar System water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M O'D

    2017-05-28

    Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model). To test these models, at present the H isotopes of water are the most promising indicators of formation location because they should have become increasingly D-rich with distance from the Sun. The estimated initial H isotopic compositions of water accreted by the CI, CM, CR and Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrites were much more D-poor than measured outer Solar System objects. A similar pattern is seen for N isotopes. The D-poor compositions reflect incomplete re-equilibration with H2 in the inner Solar System, which is also consistent with the O isotopes of chondritic water. On balance, it seems that the carbonaceous chondrites and their water did not form very far out in the disc, almost certainly not beyond the orbit of Saturn when its moons formed (approx. 3-7 AU in the Grand Tack model) and possibly close to where they are found today.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Towards system-level modeling and characterization of components for intravenous therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Problems occur regularly with intravenous therapy, especially with the flow behavior. A mechanical model can predict which components of intravenous therapy systems introduce non-ideal effects in the flow. This study concentrates on gaining quantitative information of each separate component for

  1. Using TinyOS Components for the Design of an Adaptive Ubiquitous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaya, O.S.; Durmaz, O.; Dulman, S.O.; Gemesi, R.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    This work is an initiative attempt toward component-based software engineering in ubiquitous computing systems. Software components cooperate in a distributed manner to meet a demand, and adapt their software bindings during run-time depending on the context information. There are two main research

  2. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  3. An Efficient Scalable Runtime System for S-Net Dataflow Component Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.U.; Gijsbers, E.J.; Zimmermann, W.

    2013-01-01

    S-Net is a declarative component coordination language aimed at radically facilitating software engineering for modern parallel compute systems by near-complete separation of concerns between application (component) engineering and concurrency orchestration. S-Net builds on the concept of stream

  4. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  5. Towards quantification of the water fooptprint of paper: a first estimate of its consumptive component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    For a hardcopy of this article, printed in the Netherlands, an estimated 100 l of water have been used. Most of the water is required in the forestry stage, due to evapotranspiration (green and blue water). In addition, the water footprint during the industrial stage, as accounted for in this study,

  6. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  7. Thermotropic nanostructured gels with complex hierarchical structure and two gelling components for water shut-off and enhance of oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, I. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kozlov, V. V.; Stasyeva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory and field tests of thermotropic composition MEGA with two simultaneously acting gelling components, polymer and inorganic. The composition is intended for improving oil recovery and water shut-off at oilfields developed by thermal flooding, and cyclic-steam stimulated oil production wells. The composition forms an in-situ "gel-in-gel" system with improved structural-mechanical properties, using reservoir or carrier fluid heat for gelling. The gel blocks water breakthrough into producing wells and redistribute fluid flows, thus increasing the oil recovery factor.

  8. Assessing adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Rhizopus oryzae cell wall components with water-methanol cosolvent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Lv, Xiaofei; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2016-03-01

    The contribution of different fungal cell wall components in adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is still unclear. We isolated Rhizopus oryzae cell walls components with sequential extraction, characterized functional groups with NEXAFS spectra, and determined partition coefficients of PAHs on cell walls and cell wall components with cosolvent model. Spectra of NEXAFS indicated that isolated cell walls components were featured with peaks at ~532.7 and ~534.5eV energy. The lipid cosolvent partition coefficients were approximately one order of magnitude higher than the corresponding carbohydrate cosolvent partition coefficients. The partition coefficients for four tested carbohydrates varied at approximate 0.5 logarithmic units. Partition coefficients between biosorbents and water calculated based cosolvent models ranged from 0.8 to 4.2. The present study proved the importance of fungal cell wall components in adsorption of PAHs, and consequently the role of fungi in PAHs bioremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  10. The effect of water on the gecko adhesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Alyssa Yeager

    The gecko adhesive system is a dry, reversible adhesive that is virtually surface-insensitive due to the utilization of intermolecular van der Waals forces. Remarkably, although detailed models of the adhesive mechanism exist and hundreds of gecko-inspired synthetics have been fabricated, our ability to fully replicate the system still falls short. One reason for this is our limited understanding of how the system performs in natural environments. To begin to resolve this I focused on one particular environmental parameter, water. Although thin layers of water can disrupt van der Waals forces, I hypothesized that geckos are able to retain or regain adhesive function on wet surfaces. I was motivated to investigate this hypothesis because many species of gecko are native to the tropics, a climate where we expect surface water to be prevalent, thus it is likely geckos have some mechanism to overcome the challenges associated with surface water and wetting. Despite the challenge water should pose to adhesion, I found that when tested on hydrophobic substrates geckos cling equally well in air and water. Conversely, on wet hydrophilic substrates geckos cannot support their body weight. Investigating these results further, I found that the superhydrophobic nature of the adhesive toe pads allows geckos to form an air bubble around their foot, which when pressed into contact with a hydrophobic substrate likely removes water from the adhesive interface. When the toe pads are no longer superhydrophobic however, geckos cannot support their body weight and fall from substrates. In order to regain adhesion geckos only need to take about ten steps on a dry substrate to self-dry their toe pads. Finally, when measuring a dynamic component of adhesion, running, we found that geckos are able to maintain speed on misted hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates, contrary to what we would predict based on static shear adhesion measurements. In conclusion, my research provides a detailed

  11. Use of Principal Components Analysis and Kriging to Predict Groundwater-Sourced Rural Drinking Water Quality in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl L

    2017-09-15

    Groundwater drinking water supply surveillance data were accessed to summarize water quality delivered as public and private water supplies in southern Saskatchewan as part of an exposure assessment for epidemiologic analyses of associations between water quality and type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to a variety of chronic diseases and previous studies have identified multiple wells with arsenic above the drinking water standard of 0.01 mg/L; therefore, arsenic concentrations were of specific interest. Principal components analysis was applied to obtain principal component (PC) scores to summarize mixtures of correlated parameters identified as health standards and those identified as aesthetic objectives in the Saskatchewan Drinking Water Quality Standards and Objective. Ordinary, universal, and empirical Bayesian kriging were used to interpolate arsenic concentrations and PC scores in southern Saskatchewan, and the results were compared. Empirical Bayesian kriging performed best across all analyses, based on having the greatest number of variables for which the root mean square error was lowest. While all of the kriging methods appeared to underestimate high values of arsenic and PC scores, empirical Bayesian kriging was chosen to summarize large scale geographic trends in groundwater-sourced drinking water quality and assess exposure to mixtures of trace metals and ions.

  12. Model-Based Sensor Placement for Component Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis in Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobed, Parham [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Pednekar, Pratik [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Turton, Richard [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rengaswamy, Raghunathan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Design and operation of energy producing, near “zero-emission” coal plants has become a national imperative. This report on model-based sensor placement describes a transformative two-tier approach to identify the optimum placement, number, and type of sensors for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in fossil energy system operations. The algorithms are tested on a high fidelity model of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. For a condition monitoring network, whether equipment should be considered at a unit level or a systems level depends upon the criticality of the process equipment, its likeliness to fail, and the level of resolution desired for any specific failure. Because of the presence of a high fidelity model at the unit level, a sensor network can be designed to monitor the spatial profile of the states and estimate fault severity levels. In an IGCC plant, besides the gasifier, the sour water gas shift (WGS) reactor plays an important role. In view of this, condition monitoring of the sour WGS reactor is considered at the unit level, while a detailed plant-wide model of gasification island, including sour WGS reactor and the Selexol process, is considered for fault diagnosis at the system-level. Finally, the developed algorithms unify the two levels and identifies an optimal sensor network that maximizes the effectiveness of the overall system-level fault diagnosis and component-level condition monitoring. This work could have a major impact on the design and operation of future fossil energy plants, particularly at the grassroots level where the sensor network is yet to be identified. In addition, the same algorithms developed in this report can be further enhanced to be used in retrofits, where the objectives could be upgrade (addition of more sensors) and relocation of existing sensors.

  13. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume II, Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industry...

  14. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume I, Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industr...

  15. 76 FR 70490 - Certain Electronic Devices With Graphics Data Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices With Graphics Data Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and Associated Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  16. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent,

  17. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  18. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE...-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item is..., operating systems and support software for design, implementation, test, operation, diagnosis and repair. A...

  19. 10 CFR 73.46 - Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must be provided with two separated physical barriers with an intrusion detection system placed between... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems... physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. (a) A licensee physical protection...

  20. Optimal Repair And Replacement Policy For A System With Multiple Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS OPTIMAL REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT POLICY FOR A SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE COMPONENTS by Jan-Wilhelm...Thesis 10-15-2015 to 06-16-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMAL REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT POLICY FOR A SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE COMPONENTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...AUTHOR(S) Jan-Wilhelm Brendecke 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 8. PERFORMING

  1. Water in micro- and nanofluidics systems described using the water potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    This Tutorial Review shows the behaviour of water in micro- and nanofluidic systems. The chemical potential of water (‘water potential’) conveniently describes the energy level of the water at different locations in and around the system, both in the liquid and gaseous state. Since water moves from

  2. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water purification... Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction water purification systems are devices specifically intended to generate high quality...

  3. Radiation hardening of components and systems for nuclear rocket vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, W. A.; Cheever, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the S-2 and S-4B components, although incomplete, indicate that many Saturn 5 components and subsystems, e.g., pumps, valves, etc., can be radiation hardened to meet NRV requirements by material substitution and minor design modifications. Results of these analyses include (1) recommended radiation tolerance limits for over 100 material applications; (2) design data which describes the components of each system; (3) presentation of radiation hardening examples of systems; and (4) designing radiation effects tests to supply data for selecting materials.

  4. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    a semi - arid climate , where indoor air is mostly re-circulated, and HVAC unit temperature set points are intentionally high to conserve energy...Traditional Irrigation System • May be applicable in any climate (i.e., arid and/or semi - arid ). • Are economical in many regions of the country where...consumption for irrigation at our DoD installations located in semi - arid regions where alternative water conservation measures are being pursued. The

  5. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  6. Studying the Relationship between System-Level and Component-Level Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to maintain stability in a system relies on the components which make up the system. This study explores the relationship between component-level resilience and system-level resilience with the aim of identifying policies which foster system-level resilience in situations where existing incentives might undermine it. We use an abstract model of interacting specialized resource users and producers which can be parameterized to represent specific real systems. We want to understand how features, such as stockpiles, influence system versus component resilience. Systems are subject to perturbations of varying intensity and frequency. For our study, we create a simplified economy in which an inventory carrying cost is imposed to incentivize smaller inventories and examine how components with varying inventory levels compete in environments subject to periods of resource scarcity. The results show that policies requiring larger inventories foster higher component-level resilience but do not foster higher system-level resilience. Inventory carrying costs reduce production efficiency as inventory sizes increase. JIT inventory strategies improve production efficiency but do not afford any buffer against future uncertainty of resource availability.

  7. Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project - Information Management System (WWIPIMS), South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, S.; Sieste, M.; Barth, A.; Rudinskaya, J. [Beak Consultants GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Croukamp, L.; Roos, M. [Council for Geoscience (CGS), Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    The Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project at the Council for Geoscience, South Africa (CGS) deals with an inventory, a risk assessment and the development of rehabilitation strategies for abandoned mining sites in the Witwatersrand Mining Basin. The main focus is the prevention of water ingress and to understand the future decanting scenario. An Information Management System consisting of both a relational database and an application for the Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project is established for accessing and managing all project-related data. This easy to use application makes the data available to all staff at the CGS via several modules as well as a GIS-component for accessing and querying spatial data. This will enable the scientists to derive further knowledge of the water flowing processes by directly using all of the existing up-to-date data. Many additional functions, such as the support for map printing on demand, extensive possibilities for inquiries, data import and export, diagrams and a GIS-viewer for spatial inquiries do complete the system. (orig.)

  8. Highly efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of naphthopyran derivatives in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    An expeditious and efficient protocol for the synthesis of naphthopyrans has been developed that proceeds via one-pot three-component sequential reaction in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite or sodium-modified-hydroxyapatite. The title compounds have been obtained in high yield a...

  9. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Deshan Tang; Melissa Pilgrim; Jinan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quanti...

  10. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Barrie [School of Biological Sciences Memorial Building, Deiniol Road Bangor, LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.b.johnson@bangor.ac.uk; Hallberg, Kevin B. [School of Biological Sciences Memorial Building, Deiniol Road Bangor, LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    The compost bioreactor ('anaerobic cell') components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This

  11. Using a CLIPS expert system to automatically manage TCP/IP networks and their components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Ben M.

    1991-01-01

    A expert system that can directly manage networks components on a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network is described. Previous expert systems for managing networks have focused on managing network faults after they occur. However, this proactive expert system can monitor and control network components in near real time. The ability to directly manage network elements from the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is accomplished by the integration of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and a Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) parser into the CLIPS artificial intelligence language.

  12. Harmonic Stability Analysis of Inverter-Fed Power Systems Using Component Connection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a Component Connection Method (CCM)-based harmonic stability analysis for ac power-electronic-fed power systems. In the approach, the system is partitioned as individual components, including the controllers of DG units, LC filters, network impedances, and power loads...... is formulated. And the harmonic stability is assessed based on eigenvalue traces of the composite model. Simulations and experimental results are given to validate the effectiveness of the analysis method, which can be employed to assess the system harmonic stability for any combinations of system parameters...

  13. Determination of Temporal Order among the Components of an Oscillatory System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barragán

    Full Text Available Oscillatory systems in biology are tightly regulated process where the individual components (e.g. genes express in an orderly manner by virtue of their functions. The temporal order among the components of an oscillatory system may potentially be disrupted for various reasons (e.g. environmental factors. As a result some components of the system may go out of order or even cease to participate in the oscillatory process. In this article, we develop a novel framework to evaluate whether the temporal order is unchanged in different populations (or experimental conditions. We also develop methodology to estimate the order among the components with a suitable notion of "confidence." Using publicly available data on S. pombe, S. cerevisiae and Homo sapiens we discover that the temporal order among the genes cdc18; mik1; hhf1; hta2; fkh2 and klp5 is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans.

  14. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  15. COMPLEX USE OF RESOURCES IN THE REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. ALEXANDRESCU; F. TĂMĂŞANU

    2011-01-01

    Complex use of resources in the regional water supply systems. Regional water supply systems have expanded the range from county to regional level. These are complex works meant to serve the customers from several counties. Viable sources of underground water have become lower in number, quality and volume, due to pollution. Also, the quality indicators of surface water have downgraded because of the pollution. This paper will analyze a typical case of regional system, the water supply system...

  16. Design of runoff water harvesting systems and its role in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, P.; Carmi, G.; Leake, S.; Agam, N.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the major water sources for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. Rainfalls are limited, erratic and not always coincide with the crop growing season. Only a part of the rain is absorbed by the soil. Soil evaporation is most severe in these regions and the large part of the absorbed water is lost to evaporation. The technique of collecting and conveying the runoff is known as runoff harvesting. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect of the design of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile. The study was carried out during two years using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The first year study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments once with the same amount of water (1.5 m3) and the second year study included flooding four times with 0.25 m3 each time. Flooding was followed by monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular

  17. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Esther; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhiming; Maharjan, Sabita; Bowen, Jonathan

    2016-10-28

    Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems' architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  18. Time-independent and time-dependent contributions to the unavailability of standby safety system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofgren, E.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Fairfax Station, VA (United States); Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The unavailability of standby safety system components due to failures in nuclear power plants is considered to involve a time-independent and a time-dependent part. The former relates to the component`s unavailability from demand stresses due to usage, and the latter represents the component`s unavailability due to standby-time stresses related to the environment. In this paper, data from the nuclear plant reliability data system (NPRDS) were used to partition the component`s unavailability into the contributions from standby-time stress (i.e., due to environmental factors) and demand stress (i.e., due to usage). Analyses are presented of motor-operated valves (MOVs), motor-driven pumps (MDPs), and turbine-driven pumps (TDPs). MOVs fail predominantly (approx. 78 %) from environmental factors (standby-time stress failures). MDPs fail slightly more frequently from demand stresses (approx. 63 %) than standby-time stresses, while TDPs fail predominantly from standby-time stresses (approx. 78 %). Such partitions of component unavailability have many uses in risk-informed and performance-based regulation relating to modifications to Technical Specification, in-service testing, precise determination of dominant accident sequences, and implementation of maintenance rules.

  19. Design Choices for Thermofluid Flow Components and Systems that are Exported as Functional Mockup Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Fuchs, Marcus; Nouidui, Thierry

    2015-09-21

    This paper discusses design decisions for exporting Modelica thermofluid flow components as Functional Mockup Units. The purpose is to provide guidelines that will allow building energy simulation programs and HVAC equipment manufacturers to effectively use FMUs for modeling of HVAC components and systems. We provide an analysis for direct input-output dependencies of such components and discuss how these dependencies can lead to algebraic loops that are formed when connecting thermofluid flow components. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations that increase the computing efficiency of such components and systems that are formed by connecting multiple components. We explain what code optimizations are lost when providing thermofluid flow components as FMUs rather than Modelica code. We present an implementation of a package for FMU export of such components, explain the rationale for selecting the connector variables of the FMUs and finally provide computing benchmarks for different design choices. It turns out that selecting temperature rather than specific enthalpy as input and output signals does not lead to a measurable increase in computing time, but selecting nine small FMUs rather than a large FMU increases computing time by 70%.

  20. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF MULTI-COMPONENT AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS FOR LIGHT-DRIVEN HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Richard Eisenberg

    2012-07-18

    The research focussed on fundamental problems in the conversion of light to stored chemical energy. Specifically, work was completed on the design, synthesis and study of multi-component super- and supramolecular systems for photoinduced charge separation, one of the key steps in artificial photosynthesis, and on the use of these and related systems for the photochemical generation of H2 from water. At the center of these systems are chromophores comprised of square planar coordinated Pt(II) ions with arylacetylide and either diimine or terpyridyl ligands. Previous work had shown that the chromophores are photoluminescent in fluid solution with long-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) excited states that are necessarily directional. An advance which set the stage for a number of proposed studies was the light-driven production of hydrogen from water using a Pt(terpyridyl)(arylacetylide)+ chromophore and a sacrificial electron donor. The reaction is catalytic and appears to rival previously reported ruthenium bipyridyl systems in terms of H2 production. Variation of system components and mechanistic studies were conducted to understand better the individual steps in the overall process and how to improve its efficiency. Success with light driven H2 generation was employed as a key probe as new systems were constructed consisting of triads for photoinduced charge separation placed in close proximity to the H2 generating catalyst - a Pt colloid - through direct linkage or supramolecular interactions with the polymer used to stabilize the colloid. In order to prepare new donor-chromophore-acceptor (D-C-A) triads and associated D-C and C-A dyads, new ligands were synthesized having functional groups for different coupling reactions such as simple amide formation and Pd-catalyzed coupling. In these systems, the donor was attached to the arylacetylide ligands and the acceptor was linked to the diimine or terpyridyl chelate. Research under the contract proved