WorldWideScience

Sample records for water system byproducts

  1. Formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in 10 chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Deborah; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A

    2016-09-01

    The presence of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water supplies is a public health concern, particularly since some N-DBPs have been reported to be more toxic than the regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation of the presence of N-DBPs in 10 drinking water supply systems in Western Australia is presented. A suite of 28 N-DBPs, including N-nitrosamines, haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAAms) and halonitromethanes (HNMs), were measured and evaluated for relationships with bulk parameters in the waters before disinfection. A number of N-DBPs were frequently detected in disinfected waters, although at generally low concentrations (water, N-DBP concentrations were significantly correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia, and these, in addition to high bromide in one of the waters, led to elevated concentrations of brominated HANs (26.6 μg/L of dibromoacetonitrile). There were significant differences in the occurrence of all classes of N-DBPs between chlorinated and chloraminated waters, except for HNMs, which were detected at relatively low concentrations in both water types. Trends observed in one large distribution system suggest that N-DBPs can continue to form or degrade within distribution systems, and redosing of disinfectant may cause further by-product formation.

  2. Nitrogenous disinfection byproducts in English drinking water supply systems: Occurrence, bromine substitution and correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tom; Templeton, Michael R; Mokhtar Kamal, Nurul Hana; Graham, Nigel; Kanda, Rakesh

    2015-11-15

    Despite the recent focus on nitrogenous disinfection byproducts in drinking water, there is limited occurrence data available for many species. This paper analyses the occurrence of seven haloacetonitriles, three haloacetamides, eight halonitromethanes and cyanogen chloride in 20 English drinking water supply systems. It is the first survey of its type to compare bromine substitution factors (BSFs) between the haloacetamides and haloacetonitriles. Concentrations of the dihalogenated haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides were well correlated. Although median concentrations of these two groups were lower in chloraminated than chlorinated surface waters, median BSFs for both in chloraminated samples were approximately double those in chlorinated samples, which is significant because of the higher reported toxicity of the brominated species. Furthermore, median BSFs were moderately higher for the dihalogenated haloacetamides than for the haloacetonitriles. This indicates that, while the dihalogenated haloacetamides were primarily generated from hydrolysis of the corresponding haloacetonitriles, secondary formation pathways also contributed. Median halonitromethane concentrations were remarkably unchanging for the different types of disinfectants and source waters: 0.1 μg · mgTOC(-1) in all cases. Cyanogen chloride only occurred in a limited number of samples, yet when present its concentrations were higher than the other N-DBPs. Concentrations of cyanogen chloride and the sum of the halonitromethanes were not correlated with any other DBPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence of arsenic release promoted by disinfection by-products within drinking-water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Botsaris, George; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Kalyvas, Harris; Costa, Costas N

    2014-02-15

    Changes in disinfectant type could trigger a cascade of reactions releasing pipe-anchored metals/metalloids into finished water. However, the effect of pre-formed disinfection by-products on the release of sorbed contaminants (arsenic-As in particular) from drinking water distribution system pipe scales remains unexplored. A bench-scale study using a factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the independent and interaction effects of trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA) on arsenic (As) release from either scales-only or scale-biofilm conglomerates (SBC) both anchored on asbestos/cement pipe coupons. A model biofilm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was allowed to grow on select pipe coupons prior experimentation. Either TTHM or HAA individual dosing did not promote As release from either scales only or SBC, detecting water. In the case of scales-only coupons, the combination of the highest spike level of TTHM and HAA significantly (pwater in pipe networks remains to be investigated in the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination process of drinking water include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acides (HAA5). THMs mainly consist of chloroform, and other harsh chemicals. Prolonged consumptions of drinking water containing high levels of THMs has been linked with diseases of the liver, kidneys, bladder, or central nervous system and may increase likelihood of cancer. A risk also exists for THMs exposure via inhalation while showering, bathing or washing clothes and dishes. Due to these risks, the U.S. EPA regulate THMs content in drinking water. This research investigates biological degradation of THM using chloroform as a model compound. The study aims to decrease possible risks of THMs through filtration. Throughout this year’s presentations, there is a common theme of health and safety concerns. UC researchers are working hard to clean water ways of naturally occurring contaminates as well as man-made toxins found in our waterways. The significance of these presentations translates into the promise of safer environments, and more importantly saved lives, as UC’s faculty continues to produce real-world solutions to problems threatening the world around us. A biotech process has been developed and demonstrated that effectively remove and treat volatile disinfection by-products from drinking water. The process strips low concentration disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, that are formed during the chlori

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  6. Models for estimation of the presence of non-regulated disinfection by-products in small drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2017-10-23

    Among all the organic disinfection by-products (DBPs), only trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are regulated in drinking water, while most DBPs are not. Very little information exists on the occurrence of non-regulated DBPs, particularly in small water systems (SWS). Paradoxically, SWS are more vulnerable to DBPs because of a low capacity to implement adequate treatment technologies to remove DBP precursors. Since DBP analyses are expensive, usually SWS have difficulties to implement a rigorous characterization of these contaminants. The purpose of this study was to estimate non-regulated DBP levels in SWS from easy measurements of relevant parameters regularly monitored. Since no information on non-regulated DBPs in SWS was available, a sampling program was carried out in 25 SWS in two provinces of Canada. Five DBP families were investigated: THMs, HAAs, haloacetonitriles (HANs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), and haloketones (HKs). Multivariate linear mixed regression models were developed to estimate HAN, HK, and HNM levels from water quality characteristics in the water treatment plant, concentrations of regulated DBPs, and residual disinfectant levels. The models obtained have a good explanatory capacity since R 2 varies from 0.77 to 0.91 according to compounds and conditions for application (season and type of treatment). Model validation with an independent database suggested their ability for generalization in similar SWS in North America.

  7. Spatial variations in the occurrence of potentially genotoxic disinfection by-products in drinking water distribution systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiong; Xu, Meijia; Wang, Zijian

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) with genotoxic potential in plant effluent and distribution water samples from four drinking water treatment plants in two Chinese cities using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tested the samples for 37 DBPs with genotoxic potential, which we had previously identified and prioritized in water under controlled laboratory conditions. Thirty of these DBPs were found in the water samples at detection frequencies of between 10% and 100%, and at concentrations between 3.90 and 1.77 × 10 3  ng/L. Of the DBPs detected, the concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloropropan-2-one were highest, and ranged from 299 to 1.77 × 10 3  ng/L with an average of 796 ng/L. The concentrations of 6-chloro-2-N-propan-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine and 2,6-ditert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione were also much higher, and ranged from 107 to 721 ng/L, and from 152 to 504 ng/L, respectively. Concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloropropan-2-one, 2-chloro-1-phenylethanone, 2,2-dichloro-1-phenylethanone and 6-chloro-2-N-propan-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine were highest at or near the treatment plants and decreased with increasing distance from the plants. Patterns in the concentrations of benzaldehyde, 2-phenylpropan-2-ol, and 1-methylnaphthalene differed between plants. The levels of DBPs such as 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, (E)-non-2-enal, and 1-phenylethanone were relatively constant within the distribution systems, even at the furthest sampling points (20 km drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production and distribution of chlorination by-products in the cooling water system of a coastal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnitha, E.; Rajamohan, R.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Employing chlorination as antifouling agent in cooling water circuits of coastal power plants can lead to the production of chlorination by-products (CBP), mainly due to chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds present in natural seawater. Important among the by products are trihalomethane, haloacetonitriles, halo acetic acids, halo phenols etc., with trihalomethanes (THM) generally being the predominant compounds. The THM species that are commonly observed are chloroform, mono bromodichloromethane, dibromochloro-methane and bromoform. The present work was carried out to understand the production and distribution of chlorination by products (mainly trihalomethanes) in the cooling water systems of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Field studies were carried out in which samples collected from the intake, forebay pump house, out fall point and mixing point were analysed for THM using gas chromatograph with electron capture detector. The results showed that bromoform was the dominant THM formed as a result of chlorination, followed by dibromochloromethane. Mono bromodichloromethane and chloroform were not observed in seawater throughout the study period. Moreover, no THM could be detected at the intake point. The total THM values at other stations ranged between 25-250 μgL -1 , the highest values were observed at the process seawater pump outlet and the lowest at the mixing point. The concentrations of CBP's formed were found to be related to the chlorine residuals measured. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to understand CBP formation as a function of chlorine dose and contact time. Chlorine doses ranging from 1 to 10 mgL -1 were added to unfiltered seawater and the various THMs formed were analysed after different time intervals. The results confirmed that bromoform was the dominant THM species, followed by dibromochloromethane, as observed in the field studies. As the chlorine doses increased, the other THMs, namely, mono

  9. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  10. Water disinfection agents and disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.; Kapusta, O.; Kunštek, M.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe factors of water quality change in the distribution network and legislative requirements in Slovakia for disinfectants and disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In the experimental part, the time dependence of the application of the chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on the formation of some by-products of disinfection for drinking water from WTP Hriňová is studied. We monitored trihalomethanes, free chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chlorites.

  11. Solidification of liquid concentrate and solid waste generated as by-products of the liquid radwaste treatment systems in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid concentrate and solid waste produced in light-water reactors as by-products of liquid radwaste treatment systems consists of five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging (solidification) and waste package handling. This paper will concern itself primarily with the solidification operation, however, the other operations enumerated as well as the types of wastes treated and their origins will be briefly described, especially with regards to their effects on solidification. During solidification, liquid concentrate and solid wastes are incorporated with a solidification agent to form a monolithic, free-standing solid. The basic solidification agent types either currently used in the United States or proposed for use include absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, other polymer systems, and bitumen. The operation, formulations and limitations of these agents as used for radwaste solidification will be discussed. Properties relevant to the evaluation of solidified waste forms will be identified and relative comparisons made for wastes solidified by various processes

  12. Halogenated by-products of disinfecting ozonised recreational waters; Subproductos halaogenados de desinfeccion en aguas recreacionales ozonizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goma i Huguet, A.; Quintana i Comte, J.; Soler i Vilaro, J.

    2005-07-01

    Recreational water like the present in swimming pools suffers, more than water from supply, formation of certain by-products in the local disinfection system because a mechanism of accumulation. Using advanced oxidation process, like onization, drives to a reduction of such an effect. Assessment of the presence of these disinfection by-products with and without onization, as well as the discussion of certain key aspects of how to ozonate, are the aim of this paper. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Chlorine dioxine DBPs (disinfection by-products in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lasagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s it has been well known that, though water for human consumption is generally disinfected before being distributed along the network, the use of chemicals results in the formation of many different Disinfection By-Products (DBPs. In the case of chlorine dioxide, the most important and represented DBPs are chlorite and chlorate: after an introduction concerning the current Italian regulation on this subject, in the experimental part the results of a 7-year minitoring campaign, concerning water of different origin collected from taps in various Italian regions, are shown. The analytical technique used for the determination of chlorite and chlorate was Ion Chromatography. The result obtained are finally discussed.

  14. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  15. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) requires an understanding of how drinking waters come into contact with the human through multiple pathways. The most significant pathway is the ingestion of drinking water. However, ingestion can oc...

  16. Disinfection Methods for Swimming Pool Water: Byproduct Formation and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ilyas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO, ultraviolet (UV irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3/chlorine, O3/H2O2/chlorine, O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine for the formation, control and elimination of potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs: trihalomethanes (THMs, haloacetic acids (HAAs, haloacetonitriles (HANs, trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs and chloramines (CAMs. The statistical comparison is carried out using data on 32 swimming pools accumulated from the reviewed studies. The results indicate that O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine are the most promising methods, as the concentration of the studied DBPs (THMs and HANs with these methods was reduced considerably compared with chlorination, EGMO, UV irradiation, UV/chlorine and O3/chlorine. However, the concentration of the studied DBPs including HAAs and CAMs remained much higher with O3/chlorine compared with the limits set by the WHO for drinking water quality. Moreover, the enhancement in the formation of THMs, HANs and CH with UV/chlorine compared with UV irradiation and the increase in the level of HANs with O3/UV/chlorine compared with O3/UV indicate the complexity of the combined processes, which should be optimized to control the toxicity and improve the quality of swimming pool water.

  17. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  18. Models for predicting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking waters: a chronological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2009-07-01

    Disinfection for the supply of safe drinking water forms a variety of known and unknown byproducts through reactions between the disinfectants and natural organic matter. Chronic exposure to disinfection byproducts through the ingestion of drinking water, inhalation and dermal contact during regular indoor activities (e.g., showering, bathing, cooking) may pose cancer and non-cancer risks to human health. Since their discovery in drinking water in 1974, numerous studies have presented models to predict DBP formation in drinking water. To date, more than 48 scientific publications have reported 118 models to predict DBP formation in drinking waters. These models were developed through laboratory and field-scale experiments using raw, pretreated and synthetic waters. This paper aims to review DBP predictive models, analyze the model variables, assess the model advantages and limitations, and to determine their applicability to different water supply systems. The paper identifies the current challenges and future research needs to better control DBP formation. Finally, important directions for future research are recommended to protect human health and to follow the best management practices.

  19. Understanding the Impacts and Meaning of Maintaining Detectable Disinfection Residuals in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Controlling Waterborne Pathogens, Disinfection Byproducts, Organic Chloramines, and Nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    : EPA Region 6, in collaboration with the Office of Research and Development and Office of Water (OW) in Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (LDHH), proposes a drinking water research project to understand how maintaining various drinking water...

  20. Mine water treatment with yellowcake by-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csicsak, J.; Csoevari, M.; Eberfalvy, J.; Lendvai, Zs.

    2002-01-01

    Mining and milling of uranium ore in Hungary was terminated at the end of 1997. From that time rehabilitation works have been carrying out, which include manly the relocation of different solid wastes, such as waste rocks, heap leached residues, demolishing of former industrial buildings, clean up contaminated sites. Overall rehabilitation of the tailings ponds has also started. At first step the ground water restoration system is under construction, aiming at protecting the drinking water aquifer situated in the immediate vicinity of the tailings ponds. Former mining activity has been carried out also in the vicinity of the drinking water catchment area, for protection of that is compulsory to maintain appropriate depression in the mine in question. This means that mine water has to be pumped out continuously and because of the elevated uranium concentration in mine water, the water has to be treated. Thus the water quality protection is connected with uranium removal from the mine water. Mine water treatment process developed is based on anion-exchange process and removal of the uranium from the eluates with hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  1. Study for effective use of fishery byproducts as alternative earth materials focusing on their water retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Nakafusa, Satoru; Nishimura, Tomoyoshi; Morii, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Capillary barriers have been known and widely used in geoenvironmental engineering applications as soil cover for typical rainfall infiltration control systems. The capillary barrier is consisting of a fine-grained soil layer placed over a coarse-grained soil layer. The applications of capillary barriers are significantly useful to preventing infiltration into waste materials. Natural gravel or coarse-grained soil material had a exhaustion problems in practices. On the contrary, shells a kind of fishery byproduct, are classified as industrial waste in laws concerning waste disposal. The majority of shells are piled and left near the fishing port without controlling system. Therefore, it is proposed that the crushed shells are available to layer material instead of natural coarse-grained soil. This solution is considered to great contribute developing of recycle for fisher byproduct shells and is related to environment conservation. Water retention for crushed shells, however, never been fully investigate. This study focuses on the ability of crushed shells to capillary barrier applications. The soil-water characteristic curve for crushed shells with three different grain size distributions was determined using the modified SWCC testing apparatus. Also, it is observed using a conventional model equipment that the getting of fine sand into crushed shell layer is prevented. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Small System Filtration Technologies for the Treatment of Color, Disinfection ByProducts and Microbiological Contaminants in Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) evaluated various filtration systems at the EPA T&E Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio and at a field site in Ely, Minnesota (MN) in collaboration with the Minnesota Department of Health...

  3. Chloraminated Concentrated Drinking Water for Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Research: Evaluating Free Chlorine Contact Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectant oxidizes constituents (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM) and organic pollutants) present in the source water. Since 1974, over 600 DBPs have been identified in drinking water, yet a large portio...

  4. Chloramination of Concentrated Drinking Water for Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Creation- Indianapolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectant oxidizes constituents (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM) and organic pollutants) found in the source water. Since 1974, over 600 DBPs have been identified in drinking water. Despite intense iden...

  5. Chloramination of Concentrated Drinking Water: Evaluation of Disinfection Byproduct Formation and Dosing Scenarios - Portland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectant oxidizes constituents (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM) and organic pollutants) found in the source water. Since 1974, over 600 DBPs have been identified in drinking water. Despite intense iden...

  6. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) requires an understanding of how drinking water comes in contact with humans through multiple pathways. In order to facilitate the investigation of human exposure to DBPs via foods and beverages, analy...

  7. Occurrence of nitrogenous and carbonaceous disinfection byproducts in drinking water distributed in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Zhu, Haihui; Gan, Wenhui; Chen, Xue; Yang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    A 12-month sampling program was conducted throughout a drinking water distribution system in Shenzhen and the data from 251 samples provide a comprehensive picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of 17 species disinfection by-products (DBPs) in a city with subtropical monsoon climate. The carbonaceous disinfection by-product (C-DBPs) included four trihalomethanes (THMs), three trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs) and two haloketones (HKs). Their median concentrations over the entire period were 19.9 μg/L, 3.4 μg/L and 1.4 μg/L, respectively. The nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) monitored were four haloacetonitriles (HANs) and four haloacetamides (HAcAms). Their median levels were 2.0 μg/L and 1.5 μg/L, respectively. Low levels of brominated DBP species (bromine substitution factors ≤ 0.5) were observed. The BSF of each DBP class followed the trend: THMs ≈ DHAcAms > DHANs > THAs. All the DBP concentrations showed clear seasonal variations with the highest average concentrations in spring. Correlation analyses showed that the THMs and CH levels in Shenzhen drinking water could be used as statistical indicators of the levels of unregulated N-DBPs (0.4 water in China, and provide an important reference data set for DBP occurrence in cities with a subtropical monsoon climate around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Charactarization of chlorination by-products. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Enso shori ni yoru shodoku fukuseiseibutsu no seisei tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, T [The Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-10

    Chlorination of drinking water is an inevitable process for the purification of drinking water. It has been made clear that injected free chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce chlorinated by-products. Many of those compounds are toxic, and studies have been made on the international water quality standard. Water quality standard has been revised also in Japan. The sources of organic matter which is the cause for production of chlorinated by-products vary according to the kinds and conditions of the water source for drinking water. Removal of precursors in the original water, removal of by-products, and change in the disinfection system with alternate disinfectant for chlorine are among the measures for decreasing chlorinated by-products at water purification plants, but the first one is employed as the basis method. It is expected that more severe regulation may be imposed on the quality of the water source for drinking water, and more strict oxidation and disinfection systems is inevitable for water management based on the new water quality standard. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Functional properties of meat by-products and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) in a high-moisture model petfood system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J A; Sebranek, J G; Rust, R E

    2000-05-01

    Contributions to water retention capacity (% WRC) and texture changes were determined for pork by-products (lung lobes, kidneys), chicken viscera (head, feet and viscera) and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) as affected by pH and various salts in a high-moisture model system. The % WRC for meat by-products and MSC was increased by increased pH (4.5-6.8). Pork lungs and MSC had the highest % WRC (pmeat by-products. Meat by-product % WRC was not signifcantly (p>0.05) affected by salt (2%), phosphate (0.3%) or NaOH (0.075%). Chicken viscera had the lowest (pmeat by-products and MSC. Strong negative correlations (p<0.05) were obtained for texture with total collagen, soluble collagen and high ionic strength soluble (HIS) proteins. These results should be considered for product quality changes when these by-products are used in formulation of high moisture pet food products.

  10. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile...

  11. Batch Test Screening of Industrial Product/Byproduct Filter Materials for Agricultural Drainage Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. Allred

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water treatment potential was conducted on 58 industrial product/byproduct filter materials grouped into six categories: (1 high carbon content media; (2 high iron content media; (3 high aluminum content media; (4 surfactant modified clay/zeolite; (5 coal combustion residuals; and (6 spent foundry sands. Based on a percent contaminant removal criteria of 75% or greater, seven industrial products/byproducts were found to meet this standard for NO3− alone, 44 met this standard for PO43−, and 25 met this standard for the chlorinated triazine herbicide, atrazine. Using a 50% or greater contaminant removal criteria, five of the industrial product/byproduct filter materials exhibited potential for removing NO3−, PO43−, and atrazine together; eight showed capability for combined NO3− and PO43− removal; 21 showed capability for combined PO43− and atrazine removal; and nine showed capability for combined NO3− and atrazine removal. The results of this study delineated some potential industrial product/byproduct filter materials for drainage water treatment; however, a complete feasibility evaluation for drainage water treatment of any of these filter materials will require much more extensive testing.

  12. Improved concrete properties to resist the saline water using environmental by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Anwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of using environmental by-product materials (silica fume and fly ash in concrete on the chloride ion permeability of concrete. Nine concrete mixtures were designed to have the same degree of workability and air content with water/cementitious material ratio of 0.4. The studied parameters include the main fresh and hardened concrete properties such as slump, air content, unit weight, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, static Young's modulus, and dynamic elastic modulus. Concrete samples were kept in water for 28 days, then immersed in artificial sea water for 5 months. The total and soluble chloride contents were measured through the concrete using the potentiometric titration analysis. The obtained test results indicated that the use of ternary systems in concrete improved the different characteristics of the product concrete and showed a significant resistance to chloride penetration. The weights of chloride in mix 9 (10% silica fume and 25% fly ash at depths from the concrete surface to 30 mm were less than the weights of control mix 1 (100% ordinary Portland cement by about 60%. Further, the ternary systems can be used in concrete industry with considerable proportions.

  13. Water extracts from winery by-products as tobacco defense inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouaret, Razik; Goujon, Eric; Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Mery-Bernardon, Aude; Goupil, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    Water extracts from winery by-products exhibited significant plant defense inducer properties. Experiments were conducted on three marc extracts containing various amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Infiltration of red, white and seed grape marc extracts into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining. The infiltration zones and the surrounding areas revealed accumulation of autofluorescent compounds under UV light. Leaf infiltration of the three winery by-product extracts induced defense gene expression. The antimicrobial PR1, β-1,3-glucanase PR2, and chitinase PR3 target genes were upregulated locally in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatments. The osmotin PR5 transcripts accumulated as well in red marc extract treated-tobacco leaves. Overall, the winery by-product extracts elicited an array of plant defense responses making the grape residues a potential use of high value compounds.

  14. Socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Consol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57% and more bottled water (33% than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003. These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.

  15. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  16. Formation of by-products at radiation - chemical treatment of water solutions of chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, S.A.; Abdullayev, E.T.; Gurbanov, M.A.; Gurbanov, A.H.; Ibadov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation-chemical treatment is considered as a perspective method of water purification from chloroform. It provides the high level of purification (98 percent) of water solutions from chloroform and other chlorine-containing compounds. Meanwhile, other chlorine-containing products can be formed during the process of chloroform degradation and as a result of it the quality of water can change. This work studies the formation of by-products of γ-radiolysis of water solutions at various initial contents of chloroform. Dichlormethane and tetrachlorethane are identified as by-products. It is shown that at high contents of chloroform after certain adsorbed dose the forming products are reducing till their full disappearing. At small contents of chloroform in the studied interval of doses di-chlor-methane is forming. Differences of dose dependences of by-products at various contents of chloroform can be connected with the transition from radical mechanism to chain reaction at high concentrations of chloroform in solutions saturated by oxygen. pH-solutions also reduces during the radiation till pH=1, although this reduction also depends on initial concentration of chloroform. Essential change of pH occurs only at the radiolysis of water solutions containing chloroform ≥0,2 percent. And at radiating of 0,03 percent solution pH reduces only till 4 - 4,5

  17. Identification and characterization of phenylacetonitrile as a nitrogenous disinfection byproduct derived from chlorination of phenylalanine in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Deng, Jing; Feng, Jiao; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Smiley, Elizabeth; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    Unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), originating from chlorination of the precursor amino acid phenylalanine in aqueous systems, were identified in laboratory reactions and distributed tap. The major N-DBP identified was phenylacetonitrile, and minor DBPs of benzyl chloride, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-chlorobenzyl cyanide, and 2, 6-diphenylpyridine were also formed. Phenylacetonitrile was generated through decarboxylation, dechlorination and/or hydrolysis processes. With an aromatic structure, phenylacetonitrile has an unpleasant odor of various descriptors and an odor threshold concentration of 0.2 ppt-v as measured through gas chromatography-olfactometry. The half-life of phenylacetonitrile in reagent water and chlorinated water at 19 °C were 121 h and 792 h, respectively. The occurrence of phenylacetonitrile as an N-DBP in tap water was investigated for the first time; the results revealed that μg/L concentrations were present in nine different distributed drinking waters in China and the United States. Phenylacetonitrile deteriorates the aesthetic quality of drinking water and may present risk due to its prolonged existence in drinking water, especially in the presence of residual chlorine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochars made from agro-industrial by-products remove chlorine and lower water toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzachristas, Andreas; Xirou, Maria; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Dailianis, Stefanos; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2016-04-01

    Chlorination is the most common disinfection process for water and treated wastewater. For the industrial use of water in food production, chlorine can add undesired taste and odor to the final product. For this reason, dechlorination is desired for food industries that use municipal tap water. For treated wastewater discharge or reuse, chlorine can be toxic to the receiving aqueous systems and to the irrigated plants. In both the above cases, dechlorination is also required. Traditionally activated carbon has been used as the ideal material for the removal of chlorine. The main mechanisms that describe the interaction between activated carbon and HOCl or OCl- are described by the following equations (AWWA, 1990): HOCl + C* → C*O + H+ + Cl- (1), OCl- + C* → C*O + Cl- (2) Where C* and C*O represent the activated carbon surface and a surface oxide, respectively. The present study proposes the use of agro-industrial by-products for the production of biochars that will be used for dechlorination of tap-water used for food-industry production. Different raw materials such as malt spent rootlets, coffee residue, olive and grape seeds, etc. are used for the production of biochar. Various temperatures and air-to-solid ratios are tested for optimizing biochar production. Batch tests as well as a column test are employed to study the dechlorination efficiency and kinetics of the different raw and biochar materials as well as those of commercial activated carbons. As chlorine concentration increases the removal also increases linearily. After 1 and 24 hours of contact the chlorine relative removal efficiencies for the biochar made from olive seeds are 50 and 77 ± 4%, respectively. It seems that the removal kinetics are faster during the first hour; then, removal continues but with a slower rate. Most of the biochars tested (with 3 mg of solid in 20 mL of chlorine solution at initial concentration Co=1.5 mg/L) demonstrated removal efficiencies with an average of 9.4 ± 0

  19. Disinfection by-products and extractable organic compounds in South African tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien Nothnagel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An important step in urban purification of drinking water is disinfection by e.g. chlorination where potential pathogenic micro-organisms in the water supply are killed. The presence of organic material in natural water leads to the formation of organic by- products during disinfection. Over 500 of these disinfection by-products (DBPs have been identified and many more are estimated to form during the disinfection step. Several DBPs such as trihalomethanes (THMs, which is carcinogenic, poses serious health risks to the community. There is very few quantitative data available which realizes the actual levels of these compounds present in drinking water. The levels of four THMs present in drinking water were measured. It included chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Although microbiological parameters are considered to get more attention than disinfection by-products, the measurement of the levels of these compounds in South-African drinking water is essential together with establishing minimum acceptable concentration levels. The target range for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs established by the US EPA at the end of 2003 is 0-0.08ug/mL. The aim of this paper is to create an awareness of the problem as well as presenting preliminary results obtained with the method of analysis. Preliminary results indicate that urgent attention must be given to the regulation and monitoring of DBPs in South African drinking water.

  20. Biochars made from agro-industrial by-products remove chlorine from water and wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzachristas, Andreas; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2017-04-01

    Chlorination is the most common disinfection process for water and wastewater. For the industrial use of water in food production, chlorine can add undesired taste and odor to the final product. For this reason, dechlorination is desired for food industries that use municipal tap water. For treated wastewater discharge or reuse, chlorine can be toxic to the receiving aqueous systems and to the irrigated plants. In both the above cases, dechlorination is also required. Traditionally activated carbon has been used as the ideal material for the removal of chlorine. The main mechanisms that describe the interaction between activated carbon and HOCl or OCl- are described by the following equations (AWWA, 1990): HOCl + C* → C*O + H+ + Cl- (1), OCl- + C* → C*O + Cl- (2) Where C* and C*O represent the activated carbon surface and a surface oxide, respectively. The present study proposes the use of agro-industrial by-products for the production of biochars that will be used for dechlorination of tap-water used for food-industry production. Different raw materials such as malt spent rootlets, coffee residue, olive and grape seeds, etc. are used for the production of biochar. Various temperatures and air-to-solid ratios are tested for optimizing biochar production. Batch tests as well as a column test are employed to study the dechlorination kinetics of the different raw and biochar materials as well as those of commercial activated carbons. The removal kinetics are faster during the first hour; then, removal continues but with a slower rate. Most of the biochars tested (with 3 mg of solid in 20 mL of chlorine solution at initial concentration Co=1.5 mg/L) demonstrated removal efficiencies with an average of 9.4 ± 0.5 mg/g. For the two commercial activated carbons, removal efficiencies were 11.4 ± 0.2 mg/g. The first-order constant k1 ranged between 0.001 and 0.014 (min-1) for the biosorbents and the biochars and it was equal to 0.017 (min-1) for the commercial

  1. Disinfection Byproduct Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated and Lyophilized Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking wa...

  2. The determination and fate of disinfection by-products from ozonation of polluted raw water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Fang, G.-C.; Wang, C.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The major disinfection by-products (DBPs) resulting from ozone treatment of polluted surface water were investigated. By-products of either health concern or which may contribute to biological instability of treated drinking water were investigated. The major DBPs were analyzed in two fractions: carbonyl compounds and brominated organic compounds. The natural organic matter (NOM) was also isolated and fractionated from polluted water for subsequent ozonation and DBPs identification under conditions of typical drinking treatment. The main identified carbonyl compounds were low molecular weight carboxylic acids, benzoic compounds, aliphatic aldehydes and odorous aldehydes, respectively. Brominated organics were also found in ozonated water, including bromoform (CHBr 3 ), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), respectively. It was also found that the characteristic of organic precursors have significant influences on brominated organic by-products formation. Humic acid demonstrated the highest CHBr 3 , DBAA and 2,4-DBP formations, whereas hydrophilic neutral produced less CHBr 3 and 2,4-DBP than the rest of the organic fractions but produced the highest amount of DBAN. In addition to the other target compounds, a total of 59 different organic compounds were detected by means of gas chromatograph/high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) detection and tentatively identified using mass spectral library searching, mainly aromatics, acids/esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phthalates and amines/amino acids were analyzed. The percentage of elimination or formation levels reached during ozonation is also discussed in this study

  3. Effect of chlorination by-products on the quantitation of microcystins in finished drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Laura; Zaffiro, Alan; Adams, William A; Wendelken, Steven C

    2017-11-01

    Microcystins are toxic peptides that can be produced by cyanobacteria in harmful algal blooms (HABs). Various analytical techniques have been developed to quantify microcystins in drinking water, including liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and oxidative cleavage to produce 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) with detection by LC/MS/MS, the "MMPB method". Both the ELISA and MMPB methods quantify microcystins by detecting a portion of the molecule common to most microcystins. However, there is little research evaluating the effect of microcystin chlorination by-products potentially produced during drinking water treatment on analytical results. To evaluate this potential, chlorinated drinking water samples were fortified with various microcystin congeners in bench-scale studies. The samples were allowed to react, followed by a comparison of microcystin concentrations measured using the three methods. The congener-specific LC/MS/MS method selectively quantified microcystins and was not affected by the presence of chlorination by-products. The ELISA results were similar to those obtained by LC/MS/MS for most microcystin congeners, but results deviated for a particular microcystin containing a variable amino acid susceptible to oxidation. The concentrations measured by the MMPB method were at least five-fold higher than the concentrations of microcystin measured by the other methods and demonstrate that detection of MMPB does not necessarily correlate to intact microcystin toxins in finished drinking water. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Kinetic model for the radical degradation of tri-halonitromethane disinfection byproducts in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezyk, Stephen P.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Cooper, William J.; Kirkham Cole, S.; Fox, Robert V.; Gardinali, Piero R.

    2012-01-01

    The halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts of the ozonation and chlorine/chloramine treatment of drinking waters. Although typically occurring at low concentrations HNMs have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity, and may therefore represent a significant human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the radical based mineralization of fully-halogenated HNMs in water using the congeners bromodichloronitromethane and chlorodibromonitromethane. We have combined absolute reaction rate constants for their reactions with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron as measured by electron pulse radiolysis and analytical measurements of stable product concentrations obtained by 60 Co steady-state radiolysis with a kinetic computer model that includes water radiolysis reactions and halide/nitrogen oxide radical chemistry to fully elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. These results are compared to our previous similar study of the fully chlorinated HNM chloropicrin. The full optimized computer model, suitable for predicting the behavior of this class of compounds in irradiated drinking water, is provided. - Highlights: ► Radical-based mineralization of aqueous halonitromethane disinfection byproducts. ► Constructed kinetic computer model for tri-halogenated halonitromethane removal. ► Model predicted that superoxide reaction is unimportant for halonitromethanes. ► Measured superoxide reaction with chloropicrin was negligibly slow, 4 M −1 s −1 . ► Determined that superoxide reaction with nitrate also insignificant at ∼10 4 M −1 s −1 .

  5. Characterization of soluble microbial products as precursors of disinfection byproducts in drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Lin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Yue-Feng; Tang, Hao

    2014-02-15

    Water pollution by wastewater discharge can cause the problem of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water supply. In this study, DBP formation characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMPs) as the main products of wastewater organic biodegradation were investigated. The results show that SMPs can act as DBP precursors in simulated wastewater biodegradation process. Under the experimental conditions, stabilized SMPs had DBPFP (DBP formation potential) yield of around 5.6 μmol mmol(-1)-DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and DBP speciation profile different from that of the conventional precursor, natural organic matter (NOM). SMPs contained polysaccharides, proteins, and humic-like substances, and the latter two groups can act as reactive DBP precursors. SMP fraction with molecular weight of water treatment processes, more efforts are needed to control wastewater-derived DBP problem in water resource management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal evaluation of disinfection by-products throughout two full-scale drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Cui, Chongwei; Yu, Shuili

    2017-07-01

    Carbonyl compounds can occur alpha-hydrogens or beta-diketones substitution reactions with disinfectants contributed to halogenated by-products formation. The objective of this research was to study the occurrence and fate of carbonyl compounds as ozonation by-products at two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using different disinfectants for one year. The quality of the raw water used in both plants was varied according to the season. The higher carbonyl compounds concentrations were found in raw water in spring. Up to 15 (as the sum of both DWTPs) of the 24 carbonyl compounds selected for this work were found after disinfection. The dominant carbonyl compounds were formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, fumaric, benzoic, protocatechuic and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid at both DWTPs. In the following steps in each treatment plant, the concentration patterns of these carbonyl compounds differed depending on the type of disinfectant applied. Benzaldehyde was the only aromatic aldehyde detected after oxidation with ozone in spring. As compared with DWTP 1, five new carbonyl compounds were formed (crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, formic, oxalic and malonic acid) disinfection by ozone, and the levels of the carbonyl compounds increased. In addition, pre-ozonation (PO) and main ozonation (OZ) increased the levels of carbonyl compounds, however coagulation/flocculation (CF), sand filtration (SF) and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC) decreased the levels of carbonyl compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Remediation of Ni(2+)-contaminated water using iron powder and steel manufacturing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Zhao, Wei-Rong; Xu, Xin-Hua; Hao, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Yong; He, Ping; Zhou, Mi

    2006-01-01

    Steel manufacturing byproducts and commercial iron powders were tested in the treatment of Ni(2+)-contaminated water. Ni2+ is a priority pollutant of some soils and groundwater. The use of zero-valent iron, which can reduce Ni2+ to its neural form appears to be an alternative approach for the remediation of Ni(2+)-contaminated sites. Our experimental data show that the removal efficiencies of Ni2+ were 95.15% and 94.68% at a metal to solution ratio of 20 g/L for commercial iron powders and the steel manufacturing byproducts in 60 min at room temperature, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 98.20% when the metal to solution ratio was 40 g/L for commercial iron powders. Furthermore, we found that the removal efficiency was also largely affected by other factors such as the pHs of the treated water, the length of time for the metal to be in contact with the Ni(2+)-contaminated water, initial concentrations of metal solutions, particle sizes and the amount of iron powders. Surprisingly, the reaction temperature appeared to have little effect on the removal efficiency. Our study opens the way to further optimize the reaction conditions of in situ remediation of Ni2+ or other heavy metals on contaminated sites.

  8. Toxicity of drinking water disinfection byproducts: cell cycle alterations induced by the monohaloacetonitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Yukako; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-07

    Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are a chemical class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that form from reactions between disinfectants and nitrogen-containing precursors, the latter more prevalent in water sources impacted by algae bloom and municipal wastewater effluent discharge. HANs, previously demonstrated to be genotoxic, were investigated for their effects on the mammalian cell cycle. Treating Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with monoHANs followed by the release from the chemical treatment resulted in the accumulation of abnormally high DNA content in cells over time (hyperploid). The potency for the cell cycle alteration followed the order: iodoacetonitrile (IAN) > bromoacetonitrile (BAN) ≫ chloroacetonitrile (CAN). Exposure to 6 μM IAN, 12 μM BAN and 900 μM CAN after 26 h post-treatment incubation resulted in DNA repair; however, subsequent cell cycle alteration effects were observed. Cell proliferation of HAN-treated cells was suppressed for as long as 43 to 52 h. Enlarged cell size was observed after 52 h post-treatment incubation without the induction of cytotoxicity. The HAN-mediated cell cycle alteration was mitosis- and proliferation-dependent, which suggests that HAN treatment induced mitosis override, and that HAN-treated cells proceeded into S phase and directly into the next cell cycle. Cells with multiples genomes would result in aneuploidy (state of abnormal chromosome number and DNA content) at the next mitosis since extra centrosomes could compromise the assembly of bipolar spindles. There is accumulating evidence of a transient tetraploid state proceeding to aneuploidy in cancer progression. Biological self-defense systems to ensure genomic stability and to eliminate tetraploid cells exist in eukaryotic cells. A key tumor suppressor gene, p53, is oftentimes mutated in various types of human cancer. It is possible that HAN disruption of the normal cell cycle and the generation of aberrant cells with an abnormal number of

  9. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from natural waters using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attenuation of excess nutrients in wastewater and stormwater is required to safeguard aquatic ecosystems. The use of low-cost, mineral-based industrial by-products with high Ca, Mg, Fe or Al content as a solid phase in constructed wetlands potentially offers a cost-effective wastewater treatment option in areas without centralised water treatment facilities. Our objective was to investigate use of water treatment residuals (WTRs), coal fly ash (CFA), and granular activated carbon (GAC) from biomass combustion in in-situ water treatment schemes to manage dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. Both CaO- and CaCO(3)-based WTRs effectively attenuated inorganic N species but exhibited little capacity for organic N removal. The CaO-based WTR demonstrated effective attenuation of DOC and P in column trials, and a high capacity for P sorption in batch experiments. Granular activated carbon proved effective for DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal in column trials, but was ineffective for P attenuation. Only CFA demonstrated effective removal of a broad suite of inorganic and organic nutrients and DOC; however, Se concentrations in column effluents exceeded Australian and New Zealand water quality guideline values. Water treated by filtering through the CaO-based WTR exhibited nutrient ratios characteristic of potential P-limitation with no potential N- or Si-limitation respective to growth of aquatic biota, indicating that treatment of nutrient-rich water using the CaO-based WTR may result in conditions less favourable for cyanobacterial growth and more favourable for growth of diatoms. Results show that selected industrial by-products may mitigate eutrophication through targeted use in nutrient intervention schemes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - REMOVAL OF PRECURSORS TO DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER, PCI MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FYNE PROCESS MODEL ROP 1434 WITH AFC-30 NANOFILTRATON AT BARROW, AK - NSF 00/19/EPADW395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment testing and verification of PCI Membrane Systems Inc. Fyne Process nanofiltraton systems Model ROP 1434 equipped with a C10 module containing AFC-30 tubular membranes was conducted from 3/16-5/11/2000 in Barrow, AS. The source water was a moderate alkalinity, moderately...

  11. Reproductive toxicity of a mixture of regulated drinking-water disinfection by-products in a multigenerational rat bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND:Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloaretic acids (HAAs) are regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs); their joint reproductive toxicity in drinking water is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a drinking water mixture of the four regulated THMs and five regulated HAAs ...

  12. Evaluation of Drinking Water Disinfectant Byproducts Compliance Data as an Indirect Measure for Short-Term Exposure in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Frost, Kali; Sundararajan, Madhura

    2017-05-20

    In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May-August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater. Samples were analyzed for THMs and HAAs per the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standard methods (524.2 and 552.2). The measured levels of total THMs and HAAs were compared temporally and spatially with LRAA and QA data, which showed significant differences ( p water stations showed higher levels than LRAA or QA. Significant numbers of samples in surface water stations exceeded regulatory permissible limits: 27% had excessive THMs and 35% had excessive HAAs. Trichloromethane, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid were the major drivers of variability. This study suggests that LRAA and QA data are not good proxies of short-term exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine if other drinking water systems show consistent findings for improved regulation.

  13. Comparison of permanganate preoxidation and preozonation on algae containing water: cell integrity, characteristics, and chlorinated disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pengchao; Ma, Jun; Fang, Jingyun; Guan, Yinghong; Yue, Siyang; Li, Xuchun; Chen, Liwei

    2013-12-17

    Aqueous suspensions of Microcystis aeruginosa were preoxidized with either ozone or permanganate and then subjected to chlorination under conditions simulating drinking water purification. The impacts of the two oxidants on the algal cells and on the subsequent production of dissolved organic matter and disinfection byproducts were investigated. Preozonation dramatically increased disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination, especially the formation of haloaldehydes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes. Preoxidation with permanganate had much less effect on disinfection byproduct formation. Preozonation destroyed algal cell walls and cell membranes to release intracellular organic matter (IOM), and less than 2.0% integrated cells were left after preozonation with the dosage as low as 0.4 mg/L. Preoxidation with permanganate mainly released organic matter adsorbed on the cells' surface without causing any damage to the cells' integrity, so the increase in byproduct formation was much less. More organic nitrogen and lower molecular weight precursors were produced in a dissolved phase after preozonation than permanganate preoxidation, which contributes to the significant increase of disinfection byproducts after preozonation. The results suggest that permanganate is a better choice than ozone for controlling algae derived pollutants and disinfection byproducts.

  14. Implementation of a system of recovery of by-products for a coke oven pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Quintero, Wilder; Trivino Restrepo, Maria del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    In this work is to the design of a lab-scale system that was constructed and started up to recover primary by-products of the coke gas, which in his first stage presents displays a mechanism of cooling made up of heat exchanger of double shell to reverse flow, a tower of perforated trays and a closed circuit of water that condenses tars. The second phase contemplates the entrance of the gas in crosscurrent to a tank divided by perforated trays with a permanent water shower, where the ammoniac solutions are concentrated. In order to avoid that the gas remains catches in the pipe of conduction by its high density, it is necessary to suck it by means of an extractor type snail closed, that acts as well like centrifugal separator precipitating the heaviest compounds, and impelling the gas towards a tower where the chemical cleaning of sulfurous and hydrocyanic compounds when reacting with the Lamming mixture takes place, providing a clean and ready gas for consumption. An experimental procedure is developed to test coals samples

  15. The effects of chemical additives on the production of disinfection byproducts and ecotoxicity in simulated ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Cha, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Tae Seop; Lee, Jungsuk; Kim, Young-Hee; Bae, Minjung; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-11-01

    The management of ship ballast water is essential to stemming the introduction of non-indigenous species. Approval for onboard installation of a system to treat ballast water requires rigorous land-based testing as dictated in the G8 guideline by the International Maritime Organization. However, this testing lacks standardization-most notably augmentation of organic carbon for influent water by adding chemical additives. Electrochlorination is a popular treatment method for ballast water, in which chlorinated oxidants react with organisms and organic matter in water. The additives could thus affect the treatment efficacy of the ballast water. Here, we examined the effects of several candidates of organic carbon additives on the consumption of total residual oxidant (TRO), the production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), plankton survival, and ecotoxicity. The TRO consumption over five days of storage was higher in electrochlorinated seawater amended with lignin and Metamucil when compared with seawaters with other organic carbon compounds. DBP production varied by almost two orders of magnitude as a function of the various additives. This was largely attributed to the production of tribromomethane and dibromoacetic acid. The survival of Artemia franciscana was significantly different across waters of different organic carbon additives. Algal toxicity testing with the marine haptophyte Isochrysis galbana significantly reduced growth in lignin- and Metamucil-treated seawaters, but not with other organic carbon compounds. Bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri sharply declined in electrochlorinated seawaters with all types of organic carbon compounds, but no toxicity was manifested once the electrochlorinated seawaters were neutralized with sodium thiosulfate. The varying degrees of outcome suggest that it might be better to eliminate the requirements of adding organic carbon to test water as long as natural water was used for land-based testing of BWMS. If needed, the

  16. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH 4 + -N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm -1 ) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm -1 ) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by-products

  17. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  18. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  19. Risk analysis of drinking water microbial contamination versus disinfection by-products (DBPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas John

    2004-01-01

    Managing the provision of safe drinking water has a renewed focus in light of the new World Health Organization (WHO) water safety plans. Risk analysis is a necessary component to assist in selecting priority hazards and identifying hazardous scenarios, be they qualitative to quantitative assessments. For any approach, acute diarrhoeal pathogens are often the higher risk issue for municipal water supplies, no matter how health burden is assessed. Furthermore, potential sequellae (myocarditis, diabetes, reactive arthritis and cancers) only further increase the potential health burden of pathogens; despite the enormous uncertainties in determining pathogen exposures and chemical dose-responses within respective microbial and chemical analyses. These interpretations are currently being improved by Bayesian and bootstrapping approaches to estimate parameters for stochastic assessments. A case example, covering the health benefits of ozonation for Cryptosporidium inactivation versus potential cancers from bromate exposures, illustrated the higher risks from a pathogen than one of the most likely disinfection by-products (DBPs). Such analyses help justify the industries long-held view of the benefits of multiple barriers to hazards and that microbial contamination of water supplies pose a clear public health risk when treatment is inadequate. Therefore, efforts to reduce potential health risks from DBP must not compromise pathogen control, despite socio-political issues

  20. Effect of drinking water disinfection by-products in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Kurzawa-Zegota, Malgorzata; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Gopalan, Rajendran C; Plewa, Michael J; Anderson, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) are generated by the chemical disinfection of water and may pose hazards to public health. Two major classes of DBPs are found in finished drinking water: haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs). HAAs are formed following disinfection with chlorine, which reacts with iodide and bromide in the water. Previously the HAAs were shown to be cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. To determine the effect of HAAs in human somatic and germ cells and whether oxidative stress is involved in genotoxic action. In the present study both somatic and germ cells have been examined as peripheral blood lymphocytes and sperm. The effects of three HAA compounds: iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoacetic acid (BAA) and chloroacetic acid (CAA) were investigated. After determining appropriate concentration responses, oxygen radical involvement with the antioxidants, butylated hydroxanisole (BHA) and the enzyme catalase, were investigated in the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay under alkaline conditions, >pH 13 and the micronucleus assay. In the Comet assay, BHA and catalase were able to reduce DNA damage in each cell type compared to HAA alone. In the micronucleus assay, micronuclei (MNi) were found in peripheral lymphocytes exposed to all three HAAs and catalase and BHA were in general, able to reduce MNi induction, suggesting oxygen radicals play a role in both assays. These observations are of concern to public health since both human somatic and germ cells show similar genotoxic responses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Drinking water disinfection byproduct iodoacetic acid induces tumorigenic transformation of NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Wang, Shu; Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Liu, Xiaolin; Jiang, Songhui; Pi, Jingbo; Zheng, Yuxin; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2013-06-04

    Iodoacetic acid (IAA) and iodoform (IF) are unregulated iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) found in drinking water. Their presence in the drinking water of China has not been documented. Recently, the carcinogenic potential of IAA and IF has been a concern because of their mutagenicity in bacteria and genotoxicity in mammalian cells. Therefore, we measured their concentrations in Shanghai drinking water and assessed their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and ability to transform NIH3T3 cells to tumorigenic lines. The concentrations of IAA and IF in Shanghai drinking water varied between summer and winter with maximum winter levels of 2.18 μg/L IAA and 0.86 μg/L IF. IAA with a lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of 2.77 μM exhibited more potent cytotoxicity in NIH3T3 cells than IF (LC50 = 83.37 μM). IAA, but not IF, induced a concentration-dependent DNA damage measured by γ-H2AX staining and increased tail moment in single-cell gel electrophoresis. Neither IAA nor IF increased micronucleus frequency. Prolonged exposure of NIH3T3 cells to IAA increased the frequencies of transformed cells with anchorage-independent growth and agglutination with concanavalin A. IAA-transformed cells formed aggressive fibrosarcomas after inoculation into Balb/c nude mice. This study demonstrated that IAA has a biological activity that is consistent with a carcinogen and human exposure should be of concern.

  2. Modelling formation of disinfection by-products in water distribution: Optimisation using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Radhakrishnan, Mohanasundar; Pathirana, Assela; Ghebremichael, Kebreab A.; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed as a result of the reaction of halogen-based disinfectants with DBP precursors. In order to appreciate the chemical and biological tradeoffs, it is imperative to understand the formation trends of DBPs and their spread in the distribution network. However, the water at a point in a complex distribution system is a mixture from various sources, whose proportions are complex to estimate and requires advanced hydraulic analysis. To understand the risks of DBPs and to develop mitigation strategies, it is important to understand the distribution of DBPs in a water network, which requires modelling. The goal of this research was to integrate a steady-state water network model with a particle backtracking algorithm and chlorination as well as DBPs models in order to assess the tradeoffs between biological and chemical risks in the distribution network. A multi-objective optimisation algorithm was used to identify the optimal proportion of water from various sources, dosages of alum, and dosages of chlorine in the treatment plant and in booster locations to control the formation of chlorination DBPs and to achieve a balance between microbial and chemical risks. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  3. Modelling formation of disinfection by-products in water distribution: Optimisation using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Radhakrishnan, Mohanasundar

    2012-05-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed as a result of the reaction of halogen-based disinfectants with DBP precursors. In order to appreciate the chemical and biological tradeoffs, it is imperative to understand the formation trends of DBPs and their spread in the distribution network. However, the water at a point in a complex distribution system is a mixture from various sources, whose proportions are complex to estimate and requires advanced hydraulic analysis. To understand the risks of DBPs and to develop mitigation strategies, it is important to understand the distribution of DBPs in a water network, which requires modelling. The goal of this research was to integrate a steady-state water network model with a particle backtracking algorithm and chlorination as well as DBPs models in order to assess the tradeoffs between biological and chemical risks in the distribution network. A multi-objective optimisation algorithm was used to identify the optimal proportion of water from various sources, dosages of alum, and dosages of chlorine in the treatment plant and in booster locations to control the formation of chlorination DBPs and to achieve a balance between microbial and chemical risks. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic Evaluation of the Potential Association between Exposure to Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products and Semen Quality*Morris, R; +Olshan, A; +Lansdell, L; *Jeffay, S; *Strader, L; *Klinefelter, G; *Perreault, S.* U.S. EPA/ORD/NHEERL/RTD/GEEBB, Research ...

  5. Combined UV treatment and ozonation for the removal of by-product precursors in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Waqas Akram; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Both UV treatment and ozonation are used to reduce different types of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. UV treatment is the most common approach, as it is particularly efficient at removing combined chlorine. However, the UV treatment of pool water increases chlorine reactivity...

  6. Analysis, Occurrence and Toxicity of Haloacetaldehydes in Drinking Waters: Iodacetaldehyde as an Emerging Disinfection ByProduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated and brominated haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are consideredthe 3rd largest class of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by weight. The iodinatedHAL, iodoacetaldehyde, has been recently reported as an emerging DBP infinished drinking waters. Overall, iodinated DBPs, e.g., iodoa...

  7. Combining Mass Spectrometry and Toxicology for a Multi-Country European Epidemiologic Study on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HiWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking WATEr) project is the first systematic analysis that combines the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes with analytical chemistry and analytical biology in the European Union. This study...

  8. Ozone and hydrogen peroxide applications for disinfection by-products control in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collivignarelli, C.; Sorlini, S.; Riganti, V.

    2001-01-01

    A great interest has been developed during the last years for ozone in drinking water treatments thanks to its strong oxidant and disinfectant power and for its efficiency in disinfection by-products (DBPs) precursors removal. However ozonization produces some specific DBPs, such as aldehydes and ketones; moreover, the presence of bromide in raw water engages ozone in a complex cycle in which both organic bromide and inorganic bromate are end products. In this paper the combination of hydrogen peroxide with ozone (known as peroxone process) and the ozone alone process were experimented on one surface water coming from the lake of Brugneto (Genova) in order to investigate bromate formation and trihalomethanes precursors removal during the oxidation process. The results show that the advanced peroxone process can be applied for bromate reduction (about 30-40%) with better results in comparison with the ozone alone process, while no advantages are shown for THMs precursors removal. The addition of in-line filtration step after pre-oxidation improves both bromate and THMs precursors removal, particularly with increasing hydrogen peroxide/ozone ratio in the oxidation step [it

  9. Disinfection byproduct formation in drinking water sources: A case study of Yuqiao reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongyan; He, Xizhen; Zhang, Yan; Du, Tingting; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Li, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the potential formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination of 20 water samples collected from different points of Yuqiao reservoir in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter and ammonia decreased downstream the reservoir, while the specific UV absorbance (SUVA: the ratio of UV 254 to dissolved organic carbon) increased [from 0.67 L/(mg*m) upstream to 3.58 L/(mg*m) downstream]. The raw water quality played an important role in the formation of DBPs. During chlorination, haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the major DBPs formed in most of the water samples, followed by trihalomethanes (THMs). CHCl 3 and CHCl 2 Br were the major THM species, while trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were the major HAA species. Chloramination, on the other hand, generally resulted in lower concentrations of THMs (CHCl 3 ), HAAs (TCAA and DCAA), and haloacetonitriles (HANs). All the species of DBPs formed had positive correlations with the SUVA values, and HANs had the highest one (R 2  = 0.8). The correlation coefficients between the analogous DBP yields and the SUVA values in chlorinated samples were close to those in chloraminated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Formation and occurrence of new polar iodinated disinfection byproducts in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Li, Wenbin; An, Hao; Cui, Hao; Wang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    During drinking water disinfection, iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) can be generated through reactions between iodide, disinfectants, and natural organic matter. Drinking water I-DBPs have been increasingly attracting attention as emerging organic pollutants as a result of their significantly higher toxicity and growth inhibition than their chloro- and bromo-analogues. In this study, by adopting ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry precursor ion scan, multiple reaction monitoring, and product ion scan analyses, 11 new polar I-DBPs with confirmed structures and eight new polar I-DBPs with proposed structures were detected in simulated drinking water samples. Chloramination of simulated raw waters containing natural organic matter with higher aromaticity produced higher levels of new phenolic I-DBPs. Formation of new polar I-DBPs and total organic iodine (TOI) was most favored in chloramination, followed by chlorine dioxide treatment, and relatively minor in chlorination. Lower pH in chloramination substantially enhanced the formation of new polar I-DBPs and TOI. NH2Cl and dissolved organic nitrogen could be important nitrogen sources and precursors for formation of the two new nitrogenous phenolic I-DBPs. Notably, in tap water samples collected from nine major cities located in the Yangtze River Delta region of China, seven of the 11 new polar I-DBPs with confirmed structures were detected at levels from 0.11 to 28 ng/L, and the two new nitrogenous phenolic I-DBPs were ubiquitous with concentrations from 0.12 to 24 ng/L, likely due to the relatively high dissolved organic nitrogen levels in regional source waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water--A critical review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tom [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Templeton, Michael R.; Graham, Nigel [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proportion of N-DBP formation attributable to specific precursors was calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precursor concentrations are typically insufficient to account for observed N-DBP formation, except CNX and NDMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino acid precursors are easier to remove during water treatment than suggested by laboratory studies. - Abstract: In recent years research into the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water - including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAcAms), cyanogen halides (CNX) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) - has proliferated. This is partly due to their high reported toxicity of N-DBPs. In this review paper information about the formation yields of N-DBPs from model precursors, and about environmental precursor occurrence, has been employed to assess the amount of N-DBP formation that is attributable to known precursors. It was calculated that for HANs and HAcAms, the concentrations of known precursors - mainly free amino acids are insufficient to account for the observed concentrations of these N-DBP groups. However, at least in some waters, a significant proportion of CNX and NDMA formation can be explained by known precursors. Identified N-DBP precursors tend to be of low molecular weight and low electrostatic charge relative to bulk natural organic matter (NOM). This makes them recalcitrant to removal by water treatment processes, notably coagulation, as confirmed by a number of bench-scale studies. However, amino acids have been found to be easier to remove during water treatment than would be suggested by the known molecular properties of the individual free amino acids.

  12. Desalinated and blended water in Saudi Arabia: human exposure and risk analysis from disinfection byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Imran Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia produces the largest amount of desalinated water as a single country. The desalinated water is typically blended with treated groundwater, pH adjusted and chlorinated prior to supply to the communities. The desalinated seawater and/or blended water contains various types of disinfection byproducts (DBPs, some of which may induce cancer risks to human through lifetime exposure. In this study, occurrences of trihalomethanes (THMs in desalinated and blended water in Saudi Arabia were investigated and their exposure and risks were predicted. The chronic daily intakes of CHCl3, BDCM, DBCM and CHBr3 were estimated to be 8.38×10−5, 7.57×10−5, 2.54×10−5 and 4.32×10−4 mg/kg-day respectively. The overall cancer risk was 1.78×10−5 with the range of 7.40×10−7 – 9.26×10−5 and the average hazard index was 3.49×10−2 with the range of 1.20×10−3 – 2.34×10−1. The loss of disability adjusted life years (DALY were estimated to be 25.1 per year and the average cancer risk had 8.48×10−7 DALY per person per year. The financial burden was estimated to be US$2.72 million with the range of US$2.52–2.91 million. The findings may assist in better understanding and reducing cancer risks from DBPs in desalinated and blended water.

  13. Detection of genotoxic effects of drinking water disinfection by-products using Vicia faba bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Tan, Li; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Ting; Han, Xue; Liu, Na; Lu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based bioassays have gained wide use among the toxicological and/or ecotoxicological assessment procedures because of their simplicity, sensitivity, low cost, and reliability. The present study describes the use of Vicia faba (V. faba) micronucleus (MN) test and V. faba comet assay in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in chlorine-disinfected drinking water. Five haloacetic acids and three halogenated acetonitriles were chosen as representatives of DBPs in this study because they are of potentially great public health risk. Results of the MN test indicated that monochloroacetic acid (MCA), monobromoacetic acid (MBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) caused a statistically significant increase in MN frequency in V. faba root tip cells. However, no genotoxic response was observed for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN). Results of the comet assay showed that all tested DBPs induced a statistically significant increase in genomic DNA damage to V. faba root tip cells. On considering the capacity to detect genomic damage of a different nature, we suggest that a combination of V. faba MN test and V. faba comet assay is a useful tool for the detection of genotoxic effects of DBPs. It is worthy of assessing the feasibility of using V. faba comet assay combined with V. faba MN test to screen for the genotoxic activity of chlorinated drinking water in future work.

  14. Cellular adverse actions of dibromoacetonitrile, a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal levels in rat thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Takumi; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Erdenedalai, Erdenebat; Enhetomuru, Anu; Imai, Shoji; Oyama, Yasuo

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal concentrations on rat thymocytes, by using a cytometric technique with appropriate fluorescent dyes. By using this method, the possibility that DBAN induces cellular actions related to oxidative stress was assessed. DBAN reduced the content of cellular nonprotein thiols under Zn 2+ -free conditions. It elevated the intracellular level of Zn 2+ , being independent from external Zn 2+ . DBAN increased cell vulnerability to the cytotoxic action of hydrogen peroxide. These actions of DBAN were likely related to oxidative stress. DBAN is formed by the reaction of bromides and chlorinated oxidants during water disinfection. Hydrolysis of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, an antimicrobial used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for production of shale gas and oil, produces DBAN. Therefore, the concern regarding the levels of DBAN in industrial water systems is necessary to avoid the environmental risk to humans and wild mammals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive model for disinfection by-product in Alexandria drinking water, northern west of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ali M; Hussona, Salah El-dien

    2013-10-01

    Chlorine has been utilized in the early stages of water treatment processes as disinfectant. Disinfection for drinking water reduces the risk of pathogenic infection but may pose a chemical threat to human health due to disinfection residues and their by-products (DBP) when the organic and inorganic precursors are present in water. In the last two decades, many modeling attempts have been made to predict the occurrence of DBP in drinking water. Models have been developed based on data generated in laboratory-scale and field-scale investigations. The objective of this paper is to develop a predictive model for DBP formation in the Alexandria governorate located at the northern west of Egypt based on field-scale investigations as well as laboratory-controlled experimentations. The present study showed that the correlation coefficient between trihalomethanes (THM) predicted and THM measured was R (2)=0.88 and the minimum deviation percentage between THM predicted and THM measured was 0.8 %, the maximum deviation percentage was 89.3 %, and the average deviation was 17.8 %, while the correlation coefficient between dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) predicted and DCAA measured was R (2)=0.98 and the minimum deviation percentage between DCAA predicted and DCAA measured was 1.3 %, the maximum deviation percentage was 47.2 %, and the average deviation was 16.6 %. In addition, the correlation coefficient between trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) predicted and TCAA measured was R (2)=0.98 and the minimum deviation percentage between TCAA predicted and TCAA measured was 4.9 %, the maximum deviation percentage was 43.0 %, and the average deviation was 16.0 %.

  16. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Hazard assessment of three haloacetic acids, as byproducts of water disinfection, in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsà, Alicia; Cortés, Constanza; Hernández, Alba; Marcos, Ricard

    2018-04-07

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are compounds produced in the raw water disinfection processes. Although increased cancer incidence has been associated with exposure to this complex mixture, the carcinogenic potential of individual DBPs remains not well known; thus, further studies are required. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) constitute an important group among DBPs. In this study, we have assessed the in vitro carcinogenic potential of three HAAs namely chloro-, bromo-, and iodoacetic acids. Using a long-term (8 weeks) and sub-toxic doses exposure scenario, different in vitro transformation markers were evaluated using a human urothelial cell line (T24). Our results indicate that long-term exposure to low doses of HAAs did not reproduce the genotoxic effects observed in acute treatments, where oxidative DNA damage was induced. No changes in the transformation endpoints analyzed were observed, as implied by the absence of significant morphological, cell growth rate and anchorage-independent cell growth pattern modifications. Interestingly, HAA-long-term exposed cells developed resistance to oxidative stress damage, what would explain the observed differences between acute and long-term exposure conditions. Accordingly, data obtained under long-term exposure to sub-toxic doses of HAAs could be more accurate, in terms of risk assessment, than under acute exposure scenarios. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Investigation of coal combustion by-product utilization for oyster reef development in Texas bay waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.B. Jr.; Ray, S.M.; Landry, A.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Houston Lighting and Power Company (HL and P), Texas A and M University at Galveston and JTM Industries, Inc. initiated research in May 1988 and coordinated it with state and federal resource protection agencies to investigate the use of certain HL and P coal combustion by-products (CCBP) for enhancing and creating oyster reefs. Initial research involved determining and optimum mix design based on compressive strength, leaching potential, biofouling success, and cost. CCBP material was found to exceed compressive strength criterion (300 psi for at sign 14 days) and was not a significant leaching source. Candidate mix designs and oyster shell controls were exposed to hatchery-reared oyster larvae to determine spat setability and biofouling success. Larvae setting on CCBP substrate developed into spat and grew at a rate comparable to that for larvae on controls. Since all candidate mix designs exhibited excellent biofouling, an optimum design was chosen based on strength and material cost factors. Chemical analyses conducted to determine materials did not significantly contribute to the trace element load in oysters. Development of oyster cultch material was initiated with input from commercial 2.5 to 7.6 cm (1 to 3 inch) diameter pellets which are irregularly shaped and rough textured. These pellets greatly enhance water circulation, provide maximum setting potential for oyster larvae, and maximize the surface area to volume potential of the CCBP material

  19. Disinfection byproduct formation during biofiltration cycle: Implications for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatolla, R; Séguin, C; Springthorpe, S; Gorman, E; Campbell, A; Douglas, I

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of biofiltration to reduce the formation potential of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Particularly, the work investigates the effect of the duration of the filter cycle on the formation potential of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five species of haloacetic acids (HAA5), dissolved oxygen (DO), organic carbon, nitrogen and total phosphorous concentrations along with biofilm coverage of the filter media and biomass viability of the attached cells. The study was conducted on a full-scale biologically active filter, with anthracite and sand media, at the Britannia water treatment plant (WTP), located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The formation potential of both TTHMs and HAA5s decreased due to biofiltration. However the lowest formation potentials for both groups of DBPs and or their precursors were observed immediately following a backwash event. Hence, the highest percent removal of DBPs was observed during the early stages of the biofiltration cycle, which suggests that a higher frequency of backwashing will reduce the formation of DBPs. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) analysis shows that biofilm coverage of anthracite and sand media increases as the filtration cycle progressed, while biomass viability analysis demonstrates that the percentage of cells attached to the anthracite and sand media also increases as the filtration cycle progresses. These results suggest that the development and growth of biofilm on the filters increases the DPB formation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanding the Role of Systems Modeling: Considering Byproduct Generation from Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Rosentrater

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol industry has been experiencing rapid growth over the past several years, and is expected to continue to increase production for the foreseeable future. A vital component to the success of this industry is the sales and marketing of processing residues, which are primarily sold as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS. Systems modeling, a technique that has been used to predict future demand for bioethanol, can also be used to determine potential byproduct generation rates. This paper discusses the development of one such model, and presents predicted generation of DDGS as well as carbon dioxide emissions from this industry through 2100. These simulation results underscore the growing need to actively pursue research focused on value-added alternatives for the use of bioethanol byproduct streams.

  1. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini [Water ApS, Farum Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum (Denmark); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S., E-mail: kmsh@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  2. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kimberly M; Zeng, Teng; Harkness, Jennifer; Vengosh, Avner; Mitch, William A

    2014-10-07

    The disposal and leaks of hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) to the environment pose human health risks. Since HFW is typically characterized by elevated salinity, concerns have been raised whether the high bromide and iodide in HFW may promote the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and alter their speciation to more toxic brominated and iodinated analogues. This study evaluated the minimum volume percentage of two Marcellus Shale and one Fayetteville Shale HFWs diluted by fresh water collected from the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers that would generate and/or alter the formation and speciation of DBPs following chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation treatments of the blended solutions. During chlorination, dilutions as low as 0.01% HFW altered the speciation toward formation of brominated and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and brominated haloacetonitriles (HANs), and dilutions as low as 0.03% increased the overall formation of both compound classes. The increase in bromide concentration associated with 0.01-0.03% contribution of Marcellus HFW (a range of 70-200 μg/L for HFW with bromide = 600 mg/L) mimics the increased bromide levels observed in western Pennsylvanian surface waters following the Marcellus Shale gas production boom. Chloramination reduced HAN and regulated THM formation; however, iodinated trihalomethane formation was observed at lower pH. For municipal wastewater-impacted river water, the presence of 0.1% HFW increased the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination, particularly for the high iodide (54 ppm) Fayetteville Shale HFW. Finally, ozonation of 0.01-0.03% HFW-impacted river water resulted in significant increases in bromate formation. The results suggest that total elimination of HFW discharge and/or installation of halide-specific removal techniques in centralized brine treatment facilities may be a better strategy to mitigate impacts on downstream drinking water treatment plants than altering

  3. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M.S.; Andersen, Henrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  4. Assessment of air and water contamination by disinfection by-products at 41 indoor swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Robert; Catto, Cyril; Haddad, Sami; Simard, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the profiles (occurrence and speciation) of disinfection by-product (DBP) contamination in air and water of a group of 41 public indoor swimming pools in Québec (Canada). The contaminants measured in the water included the traditional DBPs [i.e., four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acids (HAAs)] but also several emergent DBPs [i.e., halonitriles, halonitromethanes, haloketones and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)]. Those measured in the air comprised THMs and chloramines (CAMs). Overall, extremely variable DBP levels were found from one pool to another (both quantitatively and in terms of speciation). For instance, in water, among the four THMs, chloroform was usually the most abundant compound (37.9±25.7µg/L). Nevertheless, the sum of the three other brominated THMs represented more than 25% of total THMs at almost half the facilities visited (19 cases). In 13 of them, the levels of brominated THMs (66±24.2µg/L) even greatly outweighed the levels of chloroform (15.2±6.31µg/L). Much higher levels of HAAs (294.8±157.6µg/L) were observed, with a consistent preponderance of brominated HAAs in the swimming pools with more brominated THMs. NDMA levels which were measured in a subset of 8 pools ranged between 2.8ng/L and 105ng/L. With respect to air, chloroform was still the most abundant THM globally (119.4±74.2µg/m(3)) but significant levels of brominated THMs were also observed in various cases, particularly in the previously evoked group of 13 swimming pools with preponderant levels of brominated THMs in water. CAM levels (0.23±0.15mg/m(3)) varied highly, ranging from not detected to 0.56mg/m(3). Overall, the levels were generally relatively high compared to current guidelines or reference values from several countries, and they point to a relatively atypical presence of brominated compounds, and to significant levels of emergent DBPs for which health risk is less documented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sample to the laboratory was done on ice in a cooler, and physiochemical analysis was conducted immediately within one day. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was determined by a TOC analyzer. Irradiation experiments were conducted in a series of 25 mL glass serum bottles with Teflon septa. The present study adopts an orthogonal design. The design involved irradiation with UV at a UV/DOC ratio of 0.5–3.0 and incubating (headspace-free storage for 5–25 sec. A 1 mM phosphate buffer maintained the pH at 6, 7, or 8 respectively, and an incubator maintained the temperature (Temp at 15, 20, or 25 °C respectively. The development of empirical models for DBPs formation used a multivariate regression procedure (stepwise which applied the SPSS System for Windows (Version 16.0. Results:  The results showed that the total DBPs formation ranged between 12.3 and 67.4 mg/l and that control of the levels was primarily due to the reaction time and the dissolved organic carbon level (DOC in the water. Conclusions:  Reaction time and level of DOC concentrations in water exerted a dominant influence on the formation of DBPs during the UV irradiation of water from the Tajan River. The relationships between the measured and predicted values were satisfactory with R 2 values ranging from 0.89 (for Octanal–0.92 (for Formaldehydes. The DOC level in water is the key factor in controlling DBPs formation.

  6. In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Adaptive Stress Responses to Selected Haloacetic Acid and Halobenzoquinone Water Disinfection Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Erik; Escher, Beate I; Plewa, Michael J; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-10-19

    The process of disinfecting drinking water inadvertently leads to the formation of numerous disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Some of these are mutagenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, and cytotoxic, as well as potentially carcinogenic both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the in vitro biological activity of five DBPs: three monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) [chloroacetic acid (CAA), bromoacetic acid (BAA), and iodoacetic acid (IAA)] and two novel halobenzoquinones (HBQs) [2,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (DCBQ) and 2,6-dibromo-p-benzoquinone]. We focused particularly on cytotoxicity and induction of two adaptive stress response pathways: the oxidative stress responsive Nrf2/ARE and DNA-damage responsive p53 pathways. All five DBPs were cytotoxic to the Caco-2 cell line after a 4 h exposure, and all DBPs induced both of the adaptive stress response pathways, Nrf2/ARE and p53, in the micromolar range, as measured by two β-lactamase-based reporter gene assays. The decreasing order of potency for all three endpoints for the five DBPs was IAA ∼ BAA > DCBQ ∼ DBBQ > CAA. Induction of oxidative stress was previously proposed to be the molecular initiating event (MIE) for both classes of DBPs. However, comparing the levels of activation of the two pathways uncovered that the Nrf2/ARE pathway was the more sensitive endpoint for HAAs, whereas the p53 pathway was more sensitive in the case of HBQs. Therefore, the DNA damage-responsive p53 pathway may be an important piece of information to fill in a gap in the adverse outcome pathway framework for the assessment of HBQs. Finally, we cautiously compared the potential risk of the two novel HBQs using a benchmarking approach to that of the well-studied CAA, which suggested that their relative risk may be lower than that of BAA and IAA.

  7. Fingerprinting the reactive toxicity pathways of 50 drinking water disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; O'Malley, Elissa; von Gunten, Urs; Escher, Beate I

    2016-03-15

    A set of nine in vitro cellular bioassays indicative of different stages of the cellular toxicity pathway was applied to 50 disinfection by-products (DBPs) to obtain a better understanding of the commonalities and differences in the molecular mechanisms of reactive toxicity of DBPs. An Eschericia coli test battery revealed reactivity towards proteins/peptides for 64% of the compounds. 98% activated the NRf2-mediated oxidative stress response and 68% induced an adaptive stress response to genotoxic effects as indicated by the activation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. All DBPs reactive towards DNA in the E. coli assay and activating p53 also induced oxidative stress, confirming earlier studies that the latter could trigger DBP's carcinogenicity. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital ELUMO as reactivity descriptor was linearly correlated with oxidative stress induction for trihalomethanes (r(2)=0.98) and haloacetamides (r(2)=0.58), indicating that potency of these DBPs is connected to electrophilicity. However, the descriptive power was poor for haloacetic acids (HAAs) and haloacetonitriles (r(2) (0.80, indicating that HAAs' potency is connected to both, electrophilicity and speciation. Based on the activation of oxidative stress response and the soft electrophilic character of most tested DBPs we hypothesize that indirect genotoxicity-e.g., through oxidative stress induction and/or enzyme inhibition-is more plausible than direct DNA damage for most investigated DBPs. The results provide not only a mechanistic understanding of the cellular effects of DBPs but the effect concentrations may also serve to evaluate mixture effects of DBPs in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glutathione-mediated detoxification of halobenzoquinone drinking water disinfection byproducts in T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongquan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-10-01

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are a new class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and are capable of producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to proteins and DNA in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. However, the exact mechanism of the cytotoxicity of HBQs is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in defense against HBQ-induced cytotoxicity in T24 cells. The HBQs are 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DCMBQ), 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TriCBQ), and 2,6-dibromobenzoquinone (DBBQ). We found that depletion of cellular GSH could sensitize cells to HBQs and extracellular GSH supplementation could attenuate HBQ-induced cytotoxicity. HBQs caused significant cellular GSH depletion and increased cellular GST activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Our mass spectrometry study confirms that HBQs can conjugate with GSH, explaining in part the mechanism of GSH depletion by HBQs. The effects of HBQs on GPx activity are compound dependent; DCMBQ and DBBQ decrease cellular GPx activities, whereas DCBQ and TriCBQ have no significant effects. Pearson correlation analysis shows that the cellular GSH level is inversely correlated with ROS production and cellular GST activity in HBQ-treated cells. These results support a GSH and GSH-related enzyme-mediated detoxification mechanism of HBQs in T24 cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  10. The Occurrence and Toxicity of Disinfection Byproducts in European Drinking Waters in Relation with the HIWATE Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Clara H.; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Siebert, Vincent R.; Anduri, Sridevi; Richardson, Susan D.; Daiber, Eric J.; McKague, A. Bruce; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Goslan, Emma H.; Luo, Wentai; Isabelle, Lorne M.; Pankow, James F.; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Cordier, Sylvaine; Edwards, Susan C.; Righi, Elena; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Plewa, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The HIWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection byproducts in drinking WATEr) project was a systematic analysis that combined the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes and other health effects with long term exposure to low levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the European Union. The present study focused on the relationship of the occurrence and concentration of DBPs with in vitro mammalian cell toxicity. Eleven drinking water samples were collected from 5 European countries. Each sampling location corresponded with an epidemiological study for the HIWATE program. Over 90 DBPs were identified; the range in the number of DBPs and their levels reflected the diverse collection sites, different disinfection processes, and the different characteristics of the source waters. For each sampling site, chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity correlated highly with the numbers of DBPs identified and the levels of DBP chemical classes. Although there was a clear difference in the genotoxic responses among the drinking waters, these data did not correlate as well with the chemical analyses. Thus, the agents responsible for the genomic DNA damage observed in the HIWATE samples may be due to unresolved associations of combinations of identified DBPs, unknown emerging DBPs that were not identified, or other toxic water contaminants. This study represents the first to integrate quantitative in vitro toxicological data with analytical chemistry and human epidemiologic outcomes for drinking water DBPs. PMID:22958121

  11. Do Iodine Contrast Media Compounds Used for Medical Imaging Contribute to the Formation of Iodinated Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have recently gained attention due to their cyto- and genotoxicity and increased formation in drinking water treated with chloramine, which has become an increasingly popular disinfectant in the United States. One of these—iodoacetic acid...

  12. By-products by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Some mining by-products that are currently stockpiled or disposed of could be put to use preventing nutrients from entering river systems, helping reduce the potential for algal blooms. A joint project between CSIRO and the Western Australia (WA) Department of Water investigated a range of spent materials from mining and industry to determine their ability to filter nutrients from natural waters or to treat wastewater. “The largely unexploited by-product materials we generate in Western Australia could be developed as 'designer' contaminant adsorbents,” said CSIRO project leader Dr Grant Douglas. The use of abundant, low-cost wastes generated from mineral processing, in particular, offers a potentially cost- effective and environmentally-friendly strategy for removing nutrients. “The productive use of the by-products also has the potential to reduce the environmental footprint of mining and mineral processing industries by lowering by-product stockpiles,” he said. But the key benefits are in water; not only improving the health of surface waters but, by facilitating reuse, also easing the competition for water resources in an increasingly climate constrained part of the country. Re-use of industrial by-products in WA is currently considered on a case-by-case basis rather than regulated according to established standards. The project aimed to inject some rigour by characterising for the first time the nutrient, trace element uptake and acid neutralising capacity of a range of low-cost by-products (see Fact File). It also underpinned the development of a draft protocol for screening similar by-products in the future. The comprehensive characterisation included identification and procurement, and basic characterisation of by-products included major and trace element geochemistry, mineralogy, radioactivity, geochemical modelling and leachate chemistry and toxicity. These inherent properties and suitability of by-products for potential environmental

  13. Evaluation of associations between lifetime exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and bladder cancer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Lorraine C; Coss, Angela M; Wolkin, Amy F; Flanders, W Dana; Reif, John S

    2008-06-01

    To assess the risk of bladder cancer in dogs from exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and determine whether dogs could serve as sentinels for human bladder cancer associated with such exposures. Case-control study. 100 dogs with cancer of the urinary bladder and 100 control dogs. Case and control dogs were frequency-matched by age (within 2 years) and sex. Owners of dogs enrolled provided verbal informed consent and were interviewed by telephone. The telephone questionnaire included a complete residence history for each dog. Each dog's total exposure history to trihalomethanes was reconstructed from its residence history and corresponding drinking water utility company data. No association was detected between increasing years of exposure to chlorinated drinking water and risk of bladder cancer. Dogs with bladder cancer were exposed to higher total trihalomethanes concentrations than control dogs; however, the difference was not significant. Although humans and their dogs live in the same household, the activity patterns of dogs may lead to lower exposures to household tap water. Thus, although exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water may be a risk factor for human bladder cancer, this may not be true for canine bladder cancer at the concentrations at which dogs are exposed.

  14. Remediation of DDT-contaminated water and soil by using pretreated iron byproducts from the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapanajaru, Tunlawit; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Pengthamkeerati, Patthra

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of different pretreated iron byproducts from the automotive industry to degrade DDT [(1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane] in aqueous solutions and soil slurry. Iron byproducts from automotive manufacturing were pretreated by three different methods (heating, solvent and 0.5N HCl acid washing) prior to experimentation. All pretreated irons were used at 5% (wt v-1) to treat 0.014 mM (5 mgL-1) of DDT in aqueous solution. Among the pretreated irons, acid pretreated iron results in the fastest destruction rates, with a pseudo first-order degradation rate of 0.364 d-1. By lowering the pH of the DDT aqueous solution from 9 to 3, destruction kinetic rates increase more than 20%. In addition, when DDT-contaminated soil slurry (3.54 mg kg-1) was incubated with 5% (wt v-1) acid-pretreated iron, more than 90% destruction of DDT was observed within 8 weeks. Moreover, DDT destruction kinetics were enhanced when Fe(II), Fe(III) or Al(III) sulfate salts were added to the soil slurry, with the following order of destruction kinetics: Al(III) sulfate > Fe(III) sulfate > Fe(II) sulfate. These results provide proof-of concept that inexpensive iron byproducts of the automotive industry can be used to remediate DDT-contaminated water and soil.

  15. Systems evolution of waste and by-product management and bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, L.

    2009-07-01

    Evolutionary economic geography provides an inspiring extension to geographical systems analysis. The objective of this dissertation is to apply the systems approach and theory as an integrative framework of sustainable development, and as a capable analytical tool in the analysis of evolutionary resource management and energy production systems in their geographical contexts. The systems investigated are waste and by-product management and bioenergy production systems located in Finland and Scotland. Industrial ecosystem (IE) indicators are constructed for the analysis of waste and by-product management. They present both direct and indirect environmental, economic and social impacts of local waste management operations. The indicators are further applied in scenarios that dynamise the evolution of systems material and energy flows towards the balanced environmental, economic and social development, i.e. the vision of the industrial ecology. The results indicate that the energy use of waste derived fuels in regional cooperation has much potential in the development towards the optimal roundput model of industrial ecosystem. The business opportunities based on local woodfuels are investigated in the context of Scottish forestry policy. The evolution of institutional environments and arrangements of forest management in the Scottish Highlands enables a new type of rural entrepreneurship. The case study of Finnish heat entrepreneurship constructs a heat energy business model, including both the business architecture for product/service flows and the earning logics. Finally, a synthesis of the evolution of natural resource management systems is presented. The evolution process has many geographical contingent conditions, such as resources, technologies, institutions and organisations. Together with general socio-economic mechanisms, they affect the actors in spatial economic processes and interactions. Realisations of the system evolution are structures of economies

  16. The Dawes Lane coke ovens by-products plant expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Warren [Corus Research Development and Technology (United Kingdom). Teeside Technology Department

    2002-07-01

    A system has been developed to provide comprehensive monitoring of the washer/scrubber processes on the by-products plant at Dawes Lane coke ovens where faulty operation may cause blockage of the gas stream leading to opening of the battery bleeders to release gas to atmosphere. The system developed and the additional instrumentation and practices have met the requirements for improved monitoring to reduce the likelihood of uncontrolled gas emissions. It is planned to further develop the system so that it will contribute towards optimisation of plant operation, and so to generate a financial benefit from the investment made. The paper was presented to the Midland Section of the Coke Oven Managers' Association at Corus Centre, Scunthorpe, UK on 20 May 2001. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Destruction of disinfection byproducts and their precursors in swimming pool water by combined UV treatment and ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Waqas Akram; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    Both UV treatment and ozonation are used to reduce different types of disinfection byproducts (DBP) in swimming pools. UV treatment is most common as it is particularly efficient in removing the repulsive chlorine like smelling chloramines (combined chlorine). UV treatment of a pool water increased...... chlorine reactivity and formation of chlor-organic DBP such as trihalomethanes. Based on the similar selective reactivity of ozone and chlorine we hypothesized that the created reactivity towards chlorine by UV treatment of dissolved organic matter in pool water might also be expressed as an increased...... reactivity towards ozone and that ozonation might saturate the chlorine reactivity created by UV treatment and mitigate the increased DBP formation. By experimentally treating pool water samples, we found that UV treatment makes pool water highly reactive to ozone. The created reactivity towards chlorine...

  18. Arsenic removal using steel manufacturing byproducts as permeable reactive materials in mine tailing containment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joo Sung; Chon, Chul-Min; Moon, Hi-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2003-05-01

    Steel manufacturing byproducts were tested as a means of treating mine tailing leachate with a high As concentration. Byproduct materials can be placed in situ as permeable reactive barriers to control the subsurface release of leachate from tailing containment systems. The tested materials had various compositions of elemental Fe, Fe oxides, Ca-Fe oxides and Ca hydroxides typical of different steel manufacturing processes. Among these materials, evaporation cooler dust (ECD), oxygen gas sludge (OGS), basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) and to a lesser degree, electrostatic precipitator dust (EPD) effectively removed both As(V) and As(III) during batch experiments. ECD, OGS and BOFS reduced As concentrations to <0.5mg/l from 25mg/l As(V) or As(III) solution in 72 h, exhibiting higher removal capacities than zero-valent iron. High Ca concentrations and alkaline conditions (pH ca. 12) provided by the dissolution of Ca hydroxides may promote the formation of stable, sparingly soluble Ca-As compounds. When initial pH conditions were adjusted to 4, As reduction was enhanced, probably by adsorption onto iron oxides. The elution rate of retained As from OGS and ECD decreased with treatment time, and increasing the residence time in a permeable barrier strategy would be beneficial for the immobilization of As. When applied to real tailing leachate, ECD was found to be the most efficient barrier material to increase pH and to remove As and dissolved metals.

  19. Removal of soluble microbial products as the precursors of disinfection by-products in drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Lin; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Water pollution worsens the problem of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water supply. Biodegradation of wastewater organics produces soluble microbial products (SMPs), which can be important DBP precursors. In this laboratory study, a number of enhanced water treatment methods for DBP control, including enhanced coagulation, ozonation, and activated carbon adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in treating SMP-containing water for the DBP reduction purpose. The results show that enhanced coagulation with alum could remove SMPs only marginally and decrease the DBP formation potential (DBPFP) of the water by less than 20%. Although ozone could cause destruction of SMPs in water, the overall DBPFP of the water did not decrease but increased after ozonation. In contrast, adsorption by granular activated carbon could remove the SMP organics from water by more than 60% and reduce the DBPFP by more than 70%. It is apparent that enhanced coagulation and ozonation are not suitable for the removal of SMPs as DBP precursors from polluted water, although enhanced coagulation has been commonly used to reduce the DBP formation caused by natural organic matter. In comparison, activated carbon adsorption is shown as a more effective means to remove the SMP content from water and hence to control the wastewater-derived DBP problem in water supply.

  20. Drinking Water Disinfection By-products, Genetic Polymorphisms, and Birth Outcomes in a European Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Bustamante, Mariona; Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ballester, Ferran; Cordier, Sylvaine; Costet, Nathalie; Espinosa, Ana; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Danileviciute, Asta; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Karadanelli, Maria; Krasner, Stuart; Patelarou, Evridiki; Stephanou, Euripides; Tardón, Adonina; Toledano, Mireille B; Wright, John; Villanueva, Cristina M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes, the most common water disinfection by-products, and birth outcomes in a European cohort study (Health Impacts of Long-Term Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water). We took into account exposure through different water uses, measures of water toxicity, and genetic susceptibility. We enrolled 14,005 mothers (2002-2010) and their children from France, Greece, Lithuania, Spain, and the UK. Information on lifestyle- and water-related activities was recorded. We ascertained residential concentrations of trihalomethanes through regulatory records and ad hoc sampling campaigns and estimated route-specific trihalomethane uptake by trimester and for whole pregnancy. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants in disinfection by-product metabolizing genes in nested case-control studies. Average levels of trihalomethanes ranged from around 10 μg/L to above the regulatory limits in the EU of 100 μg/L between centers. There was no association between birth weight and total trihalomethane exposure during pregnancy (β = 2.2 g in birth weight per 10 μg/L of trihalomethane, 95% confidence interval = 3.3, 7.6). Birth weight was not associated with exposure through different routes or with specific trihalomethane species. Exposure to trihalomethanes was not associated with low birth weight (odds ratio [OR] per 10 μg/L = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.95, 1.10), small-for-gestational age (OR = 0.99, 0.94, 1.03) and preterm births (OR = 0.98, 0.9, 1.05). We found no gene-environment interactions for mother or child polymorphisms in relation to preterm birth or small-for-gestational age. In this large European study, we found no association between birth outcomes and trihalomethane exposures during pregnancy in the total population or in potentially genetically susceptible subgroups. (See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B104.).

  1. Chemical degradation of drinking water disinfection byproducts by millimeter-sized particles of iron-silicon and magnesium-aluminum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyu; Chen, Yongmei; Wan, Pingyu; Fan, Maohong; Yang, X Jin

    2010-03-03

    The candidature of Fe-Si and Mg-Al alloys at millimeter-scale particle sizes for chemical degradation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water systems was substantiated by their enhanced corrosion resistance and catalytic effect on the degradation. The Mg-Al particles supplied electrons for reductive degradation, and the Fe-Si particles acted as a catalyst and provided the sites for the reaction. The alloy particles are obtained by mechanical milling and stable under ambient conditions. The proposed method for chemical degradation of DBPs possesses the advantages of relatively constant degradation performance, long-term durability, no secondary contamination, and ease of handling, storage and maintenance in comparison with nanoparticle systems.

  2. The study of interrelationship between raw water quality parameters, chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Yee, Lim Fang; Ata, Sadia; Abdullah, Abass; Ishak, Basar; Abidin, Khairul Nidzham Zainal

    Disinfection is the most crucial process in the treatment of drinking water supply and is the final barrier against bacteriological impurities in drinking water. Chlorine is the primary disinfectant used in the drinking water treatment process throughout Malaysia. However, the occurrence of various disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids created a major issue on the potential health hazards which may pose adverse health effects in both human and animals. To simulate real water treatment conditions and to represent the conditions inherent in a tropical country, this study was performed at an urbanized water treatment plant with a daily production of about 549,000 m 3 of treated water. The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between the water quality parameters in the raw water with chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products. This study also investigated the possibility of the statistical model applications for the prediction of chlorine demand and the THM formation. Two models were developed to estimate the chlorine demand and the THM formation. For the statistical evaluation, correlation and simple linear regression analysis were conducted using SPSS. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the estimation of goodness-of-fit of the dependent variables of the models to the normal distribution showed that all the dependent variables followed the normal distribution at significance level of 0.05. Good linear correlations were observed between the independent parameters and formation of THM and the chlorine demand. This study also revealed that ammonia and the specific ultraviolet absorbent (SUVA) were the function of chlorine consumption in the treatment process. Chlorine dosage and SUVA increase the yield of THM. Chlorine demand and THM formation was moderately sensitive, but significant to the pH. The level of significance ( α) for the statistical tests and the inclusion of a variable in the

  3. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  4. The Occurrence and Comparative Toxicity of Haloacetaldehyde Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of drinking water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases. However, the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in the source water can lead to an unintended consequence, which is the formation of drinking water disinfe...

  5. Developing a byproduct materials information system for the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Kentucky has numerous coal-fired, electric generating facilities and, as a result, there are abundant byproduct materials being produced from these facilities that have environmental, engineering, and economic potential as materials for use in common...

  6. Bioanalytical assessment of adaptive stress responses in drinking water: A predictive tool to differentiate between micropollutants and disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Armelle; Feliers, Cedric; Lecarpentier, Caroline; Neale, Peta A; Schlichting, Rita; Thibert, Sylvie; Escher, Beate I

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water can contain low levels of micropollutants, as well as disinfection by-products (DBPs) that form from the reaction of disinfectants with organic and inorganic matter in water. Due to the complex mixture of trace chemicals in drinking water, targeted chemical analysis alone is not sufficient for monitoring. The current study aimed to apply in vitro bioassays indicative of adaptive stress responses to monitor the toxicological profiles and the formation of DBPs in three drinking water distribution systems in France. Bioanalysis was complemented with chemical analysis of forty DBPs. All water samples were active in the oxidative stress response assay, but only after considerable sample enrichment. As both micropollutants in source water and DBPs formed during treatment can contribute to the effect, the bioanalytical equivalent concentration (BEQ) approach was applied for the first time to determine the contribution of DBPs, with DBPs found to contribute between 17 and 58% of the oxidative stress response. Further, the BEQ approach was also used to assess the contribution of volatile DBPs to the observed effect, with detected volatile DBPs found to have only a minor contribution as compared to the measured effects of the non-volatile chemicals enriched by solid-phase extraction. The observed effects in the distribution systems were below any level of concern, quantifiable only at high enrichment and not different from bottled mineral water. Integrating bioanalytical tools and the BEQ mixture model for monitoring drinking water quality is an additional assurance that chemical monitoring is not overlooking any unknown chemicals or transformation products and can help to ensure chemically safe drinking water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Disinfection aboard cruise liners and naval units: formation of disinfection by-products using chlorine dioxide in different qualities of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufermann, Petra; Petersen, Hauke; Exner, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The world-wide deployment of cruise liners and naval units has caused an increased need for the disinfection of drinking water. The main cause for this is the unknown quality of drinking water in foreign harbours--besides the formation of bio-films due to the climatically disadvantageous conditions in the operational area. Water conduits on board are currently disinfected with calcium hypochlorite in case of microbiological contamination. Chemical and physical analyses after disinfection with calcium hypochlorite have shown that organic by-products consisting of trihalomethanes develop in considerable amounts during disinfection. Furthermore, the method is susceptible to handling errors and thus often leads to insufficient disinfection results. Hitherto, the use of other disinfection methods allowed by government regulations, especially chlorine dioxide, is not widely spread. Unlike disinfection with calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide does not lead to the formation of trihalomethanes. Typical disinfection by-products (DBP) are the anions chlorite and chlorate, which are formed in oxidative processes. The formation conditions of these anions have not yet been elucidated. For this reason, the probability of the generation of inorganic by-products after disinfection with chlorine dioxide has been determined, and their occurrence in drinking water on board has been examined with respect to a possible correlation between water quality and the formation of chlorate and chlorite. Therefore, a chromatographic method was developed and validated in order to determine the periodical development of chlorate and chlorite from chorine dioxide in purified water at different pH-values as well as in actual drinking water samples from water conduits on board. The formation of the by-products chlorite and chlorate after disinfection with chlorine dioxide is influenced neither by pH-value nor by chemical properties of the disinfected water. Considering the examined conditions

  8. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs......), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl3), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range. THM formation was reduced by decreasing pH but HAN, and NCl3...... formation was investigated and found to follow the same pH dependency as without bromide present, with the overall DBP formation increasing, except for HAAs. Estimation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the chlorinated human exudates showed that among the quantified DBP groups, HAN formation were...

  9. Effect of the Distribution System on Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to characterise the main aspects of water quality deterioration in a distribution system. The effect of residence time on chlorine uptake and the formation and evolution of disinfection by-products in distributed drinking water are discussed.

  10. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  11. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-04-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  12. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okine Abdul Razak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC, which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27 with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively, and their silages (n = 81. These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus, a root tuber source (potato pulp, a fruit source (apple pomace and a cereal source (brewer’s grain, respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3. Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01, with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76 between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  13. Disinfection byproduct formation in reverse-osmosis concentrated and lyophilized natural organic matter from a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Jonathan G; McCurry, Daniel L; Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F

    2012-10-15

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking water research has been limited because the selected NOM sources are atypical of most drinking water sources. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that reconstituted NOM from a lyophilized reverse-osmosis (RO) concentrate of a typical drinking water source closely represents DBP formation in the original NOM. A preliminary experiment assessed DBP formation kinetics and yields in concentrated NOM, which demonstrated that chlorine decays faster in concentrate, in some cases leading to altered DBP speciation. Potential changes in NOM reactivity caused by lyophilization were evaluated by chlorination of lyophilized and reconstituted NOM, its parent RO concentrate, and the source water. Bromide lost during RO concentration was replaced by adding potassium bromide prior to chlorination. Although total measured DBP formation tended to decrease slightly and unidentified halogenated organic formation tended to increase slightly as a result of RO concentration, the changes associated with lyophilization were minor. In lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to source water TOC levels and then chlorinated, the concentrations of 19 of 21 measured DBPs, constituting 96% of the total identified DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the chlorinated source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of 16 of 21 DBPs in lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to the RO concentrate TOC levels, constituting 86% DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the RO concentrate. This study suggests that lyophilization can be used to preserve concentrated NOM without substantially altering the precursors to DBP formation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Toxicological evaluation of mutagenic chlorination by-products during drinking water treatment. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Josui shori ni okeru hen'i genseibusshitsu no dokusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamuro, K [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sayato, Y [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-12-10

    The biological effects of acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, etc. of chlorination by-products detected in drinking water in Japan are discussed. The biological effects of representative chlorination by-products such as trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, haloaldehyde, haloacetonitrile, chlorophenol, chloropicrin, etc. as well as the evaluation of mutagenicity in drinking water purification process, for which Ames Salmonella/microsome assay is used for safety evaluation of drinking water, are discussed. The extent of the contribution of mutagenicity of chlorination disinfection by-products to the mutagenicity of drinking water is investigated. It must be admitted that biological evaluation of the safety of water quality is impossible currently by using only the known chemical substances contained in drinking water. The effects of chlorination and ozone treatment which are often applied to drinking water treatment are different each other. 58 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. What's in The Pool? A Comprehensive Identification Of Disinfection By-Products and Assessment of Mutagenicity of Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pool Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in the water and related that to mutagenicity. We performed a compreh...

  16. What's in the pool? A comprehensive identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, S.D.; Demarini, D.M.; Kogevinas, M.; Fernandez, P.; Marco, E.; Lourencetti, C.; Balleste, C.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Meliefste, K.; McKague, A.B.; Marcos, R.; Font-Ribera, L.; Grimalt, J.O.; Villanueva, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in the water and related that to mutagenicity. OBJECTIVES: We performed a

  17. Genotoxicity of a Low-Dose Nitrosamine Mixture as Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts in NIH3T3 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Qin, Ming; Dong, Lei; Lv, Jia-Ying; Wang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    N - nitrosamines (NAms), which can arise as byproducts of disinfection agents, are reportedly found in drinking water, and their potential carcinogenicity is a concern; however, little research exists regarding the genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of NAms exposure as a low-dose mixture. The three most common NAms components in China's drinking water are N -nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N -nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N -nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA). Thus, we measured the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of these compounds and measured the cell cycle and gene expression. The data show that exposure to the NAms-mixture doubled the revertants in the TA98 and TA100 S. typhimurium strains and increased the DNA double-strand breaks and the micronuclear frequency in the NIH3T3 cells compared to a single exposure. After long-term NAms mixture exposure, a malignant transformation of NIH3T3 and a significantly increased G2/M distribution were observed. Furthermore, P53, CDK1, P38, CDC25A and CyclinB expressions were down-regulated in the NAms-mixture exposure group; however, P21 and GADD45A genes were up-regulated. Interestingly, the CHK1/CHK2 and CDC25A genes had two responses, depending on the NAms concentrations. Thus, we observed mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects after a low-dose NAms-mixture exposure in drinking water, and DNA repair and apoptosis pathways may contribute to these adverse effects.

  18. The Effect of Different Boiling and Filtering Devices on the Concentration of Disinfection By-Products in Tap Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Carrasco-Turigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection by-products (DBPs are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4 (chloroform (TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM, and bromoform (TBM, MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97% and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies.

  19. Drinking-Water Disinfection By-products and Semen Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Li, Yu-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been demonstrated to impair male reproductive health in animals, but human evidence is limited and inconsistent. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to drinking-water DBPs and semen quality in a Chinese population. Methods: We recruited 2,009 men seeking semen analysis from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between April 2011 and May 2012. Each man provided a semen sample and a urine sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm count. As a biomarker of exposure to drinking-water DBPs, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured in the urine samples. Results: The mean (median) urinary TCAA concentration was 9.58 (7.97) μg/L (interquartile range, 6.01–10.96 μg/L). Compared with men with urine TCAA in the lowest quartile, increased adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for below-reference sperm concentration in men with TCAA in the second and fourth quartiles (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.69 and OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31, respectively), for below-reference sperm motility in men with TCAA in the second and third quartiles (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.90 and OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.70, respectively), and for below-reference sperm count in men with TCAA in the second quartile (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.55). Nonmonotonic associations with TCAA quartiles were also estimated for semen parameters modeled as continuous outcomes, although significant negative associations were estimated for all quartiles above the reference level for sperm motility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking-water DBPs may contribute to decreased semen quality in humans. Citation: Zeng Q, Wang YX, Xie SH, Xu L, Chen YZ, Li M, Yue J, Li YF, Liu AL, Lu WQ. 2014. Drinking-water disinfection by-products and semen quality: a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Health Perspect 122:741–746; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  20. Disinfection by-product formation of UV treated swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from 3 indoor swimming pool facilities were tested to evaluate UV-induced effects on swimming pool water chemistry. Concentration change of several DBPs was investigated in experiments including medium pressure UV treatment with and without chlorine and post-UV chlorination. Post-UV...

  1. MUTAGENICITY AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN SURFACE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTED WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this research were to study the influence of peracetic acid (PAA) on the formation of mutagens in surface waters used for human consumption and to assess its potential application for the disinfection of drinking water. The results obtained using PAA were compared to ...

  2. Effects of Alternative Uses of Distillery By-Products on the Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Scottish Malt Whisky Production: A System Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Leinonen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural by-products are an important component of livestock feed. In Scotland, distillery by-products are protein rich and traditionally cost competitive feed ingredients in cattle production. However, during recent years, distilleries in the UK (including Scotch whisky producers have started to use the by-products also as a source of renewable energy, in order to reduce the carbon footprint of alcohol production. In this study, a systems-based material and energy flow analysis was performed to calculate the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of whisky production for two scenarios where distillery by-products were used either (1 as beef cattle feed to replace other protein sources (namely soya bean meal and rapeseed meal; or (2 as anaerobic digester (AD feedstock in order to generate renewable energy (heat and electricity. System expansion was used to quantitatively handle the by-products in the analysis. The results show that considerable reductions in GHG emissions could be achieved by either replacing feed crops with by-products or by using the by-products in AD plants to generate bio-energy. The biggest reductions in the GHG emissions were achieved when by-products were used to replace soya meal in animal feed. However, the results are highly sensitive to methodological choices, including the accounting method of the land use change emissions arising from soya production.

  3. Advanced oxidation of five contaminants in water by UV/TiO2: Reaction kinetics and byproducts identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Corena, Jose R; Bergendahl, John A; Hart, Fred L

    2016-10-01

    The extent and kinetics of degradation of 1,4 dioxane, n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), gemfibrozil, and 17β estradiol in a prepared aqueous matrix by means of UV/TiO2 (ultraviolet light/titanium dioxide) oxidation was evaluated. Degussa P25 TiO2 was employed as a photocatalyst excited by UV light in a 1 L water-jacketed batch photoreactor. The rate of degradation was modeled using a pseudo-first order rate model and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate model with a high correlation. Degradation rate constants were found to be maximum at pH 5.0 and 1.5 g L(-)(1) TiO2 dose. For these conditions first order rate constants, values were as follows: 0.29 min(-1) for 1,4 dioxane, 0.50 min(-1) for NDMA, 0.12 min(-1) for TCEP, 0.61 min(-1) for gemfibrozil, and 0.53 min(-1) for 17β estradiol. While for the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate model, the following constants were found: 0.11 Lmg(-1) and 2.81 mgL(-1) min(-1) for 1,4 dioxane, 0.12 Lmg(-1) and 4.35 mgL(-1) min(-1) for NDMA, 0.06 Lmg(-1) and 1.79 mgL(-1) min(-1) for TCEP, 0.21 Lmg(-1) and 3.27 mgL(-1) min(-1) for gemfibrozil, and 0.15 Lmg(-1) and 3.43 mgL(-1) min(-1) for 17β estradiol. In addition, specific byproducts of degradation were identified using GC/MS analysis. The results obtained from the kinetics analysis showed that UV/TiO2 oxidation is a promising process for treating trace organic contaminants in water, but further research is needed to better understand how to incorporate these findings into pilot and full-scale designs. The toxicity of oxidation byproducts, and their potential for interacting with other compounds should be considered in the treatment of contaminated waters using the UV/TiO2 oxidation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection and occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol a, nonylphenol, and estrogens in drinking water of china: comparison to the parent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhanlan; Hu, Jianying; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    This study applied a sensitive dansylation LC-MS/MS method to the investigation on the occurrence of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), estrogens (E1 and E2), and their 11 chlorinated byproducts in 62 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of 31 major cities across China. BPA (4.7-512 ng/L), NP (8.2-918 ng/L), and E1 (ND-9.9 ng/L) were widely detected in source waters, E2 was detected in less than half of the samples (ND-3.2 ng/L), while chlorinated byproducts were only detected in source waters of two DWTPs. In drinking water, chlorinated BPAs and monochloro-NP (MCNP) were detected in more than half of the samples with concentrations of 0.2-26.7 ng/L for monochloro-BPA (MCBPA), ND-6.3 ng/L for dichloro-BPA (DCBPA), ND-7.7 ng/L for trichloro-BPA (TCBPA), ND-4.8 ng/L for tetrachloro-BPA (TBBPA), and ND-13.3 ng/L for MCNP, while dichloro-E1 (DCE1, ND-0.2 ng/L) and dichloro-NP (DCNP, ND-1.6 ng/L) were less frequently detected (10/62 and 4/62). The production of chlorinated NPs in DWTPs was mainly influenced by the amount of NP in source water and chlorine added, while the concentrations of chlorinated BPAs in drinking waters were only found to be significantly correlated with those of BPA in source waters. Advanced treatment processes could be effective techniques for reducing target chlorinated byproducts in drinking water. This is the first report on the occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of BPA, NP, and estrogens in drinking water, and these chemicals should be considered when assessing the human risk of their parent compounds.

  5. Identification of developmentally toxic drinking water disinfection byproducts and evaluation of data relevant to mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, Joan; Rice, Glenn E.; Wright, J. Michael; Hunter, E. Sidney; Teuschler, Linda K.; Lipscomb, John C.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Fransen, Margaret; Osier, Mark; Narotsky, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Reactions between chemicals used to disinfect drinking water and compounds present in source waters produce chemical mixtures containing hundreds of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although the results have been somewhat inconsistent, some epidemiological studies suggest associations may exist between DBP exposures and adverse developmental outcomes. The potencies of individual DBPs in rodent and rabbit developmental bioassays suggest that no individual DBP can account for the relative risk estimates reported in the positive epidemiologic studies, leading to the hypothesis that these outcomes could result from the toxicity of DBP mixtures. As a first step in a mixtures risk assessment for DBP developmental effects, this paper identifies developmentally toxic DBPs and examines data relevant to the mode of action (MOA) for DBP developmental toxicity. We identified 24 developmentally toxic DBPs and four adverse developmental outcomes associated with human DBP exposures: spontaneous abortion, cardiovascular defects, neural tube defects, and low birth weight infancy. A plausible MOA, involving hormonal disruption of pregnancy, is delineated for spontaneous abortion, which some epidemiologic studies associate with total trihalomethane and bromodichloromethane exposures. The DBP data for the other three outcomes were inadequate to define key MOA steps.

  6. Toxic Byproduct Formation during Electrochemical Treatment of Latrine Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2017-06-20

    Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation. Production of inorganic byproducts (chlorate and perchlorate) and indicator organic byproducts (haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes) during electrolysis dramatically exceeded recommendations for drinking water after one treatment cycle (∼10-30 000 times), raising concerns for contamination of downstream water supplies. Stopping the reaction after ammonium was removed (i.e., the chlorination breakpoint) was a promising method to minimize byproduct formation without compromising disinfection and nutrient removal. Though treatment was accelerated at increased chloride concentrations and current densities, byproduct concentrations remained similar near the breakpoint. On TiO 2 /IrO 2 anodes, haloacetic acids (up to ∼50 μM) and chlorate (up to ∼2 μM) were of most concern. Although boron-doped diamond anodes mineralized haloacetic acids after formation, high production rates of chlorate and perchlorate (up to ∼4 and 25 μM) made them inferior to TiO 2 /IrO 2 anodes in terms of toxic byproduct formation. Organic byproduct formation was similar during chemical chlorination and electrolysis of wastewater, suggesting that organic byproducts are formed by similar pathways in both cases (i.e., reactions with chloramines and free chlorine).

  7. Removal of the precursors of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), an emerging disinfection byproduct, in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is one of the emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts with probable cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. Its potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention but remain to be poorly understood. In this study, changes in NDEA precursors in drinking water treatment process were studied using the trial of its formation potential (FP), and the toxicity induced by NDEA to adult zebrafish was investigated. NDEA FP in the raw water of Taihu Lake ranged from 46.9 to 68.3 ng/L. The NDEA precursors were removed effectively by O 3 /BAC process. Hydrophilic fraction and low-molecular-weight fraction (stress and antioxidant defense to zebrafish metabolism system at concentrations over 5 μg/L. After a 42-day exposure, a significant DNA damage was observed in zebrafish liver cells at NDEA concentrations beyond 500 μg/L. This study investigated NDEA properties in both engineering prospective and toxicity evaluation, thus providing comprehensive information on its control in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity effect on zebrafish as a model animal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of inorganic precursors on disinfection byproduct formation during UV-chlorine/chloramine drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bonnie A; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G; Weinberg, Howard S

    2012-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is being increasingly used in drinking water treatment. It is important to understand how its application to different types of water may influence finished water quality, particularly as anthropogenic activity continues to impact the quality of source waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inorganic precursors on the formation of regulated and unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during UV irradiation of surface waters when combined with chlorination or chloramination. Samples were collected from three drinking water utilities supplied by source waters with varying organic and inorganic precursor content. The filtered samples were treated in the laboratory with a range of UV doses delivered from low pressure (LP, UV output at 253.7 nm) and medium pressure (MP, polychromatic UV output 200-400 nm) mercury lamps followed by chlorination or chloramination, in the presence and absence of additional bromide and nitrate. The regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were not affected by UV pretreatment at disinfection doses (40-186 mJ/cm²). With higher doses (1000 mJ/cm²), trihalomethane formation was increased 30-40%. While most effects on DBPs were only observed with doses much higher than typically used for UV disinfection, there were some effects on unregulated DBPs at lower doses. In nitrate-spiked samples (1-10 mg N/L), chloropicrin formation doubled and increased three- to six-fold with 40 mJ/cm² MP UV followed by chloramination and chlorination, respectively. Bromopicrin formation was increased in samples containing bromide (0.5-1 mg/L) and nitrate (1-10 mg N/L) when pretreated with LP or MP UV (30-60% with 40 mJ/cm² LP UV and four- to ten-fold increase with 40 mJ/cm² MP UV, after subsequent chlorination). The formation of cyanogen chloride doubled and increased three-fold with MP UV doses of 186 and 1000 mJ/cm², respectively, when followed by chloramination in nitrate-spiked samples but

  9. Integrated systems for biopolymers and bioenergy production from organic waste and by-products: a review of microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Giorgia; Ventorino, Valeria; Panico, Antonio; Pepe, Olimpia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) and extracellular (e.g., exopolysaccharides) bioproducts, which are useful for biochemical production. In particular, large numbers of bacteria, including Alcaligenes eutrophus , Alcaligenes latus , Azotobacter vinelandii , Azotobacter chroococcum , Azotobacter beijerincki , methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Rhizobium spp., Nocardia spp., and recombinant Escherichia coli , have been successfully used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates on an industrial scale from different types of organic by-products. Therefore, the development of high-performance microbial strains and the use of by-products and waste as substrates could reasonably make the production costs of biodegradable polymers comparable to those required by petrochemical-derived plastics and promote their use. Many studies have reported use of the same organic substrates as alternative energy sources to produce biogas and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion as well as dark and photofermentation processes under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, concurrently obtaining bioenergy and biopolymers at a reasonable cost through an integrated system is becoming feasible using by-products and waste as organic carbon sources. An overview of the suitable substrates and microbial strains used in low-cost polyhydroxyalkanoates for biohydrogen and biogas

  10. Parameters affecting incorporation and by-product formation during the production of structured phospholipids by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis in solvent free system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    By-product formation is a serious problem in the lipase-catalyzed acyl exchange of phospholipids (PL). By-products are formed due to parallel hydrolysis reactions and acyl migration in the reaction system. A clear elucidation of these side reactions is important for practical operation in order...... to minimize by-products during reaction. In the present study we examined the Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis for the production of structured phospholipids between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid in the solvent free system. A five-factor response surface design was used to evaluate...

  11. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m 3 d −1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L −1 ; n = 5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L −1 ), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L −1 ) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  12. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Larry B. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Hladik, Michelle L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 6000 J Street Placer Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Vajda, Alan M. [University of Colorado, Department of Integrative Biology, CB 171, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Fitzgerald, Kevin C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); AECOM, 500 West Jefferson St., Ste. 1600, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Douville, Chris [City of Boulder, 4049 75th Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m{sup 3} d{sup −1} design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L{sup −1}; n = 5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L{sup −1}), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L{sup −1}) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had

  13. Source Water Management for Disinfection By-Product Control using New York City's Operations Support Tool and On-Line Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. J.; Becker, W.; Schindler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2006 Stage 2 Disinfectant / Disinfection Byproduct Rule (DBPR) for finished drinking waters is intended to reduce overall DBP levels by limiting the levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five of the haloacetic acids (HAA5). Under Stage 2, maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), 80 μg/L for TTHM and 60 μg/L for HAA5, are based on a locational running annual average for individual sites instead of as the system-wide quarterly running annual average of the Stage 1 DBPR. This means compliance will have to be met at sampling locations of peak TTHM and HAA5 concentrations rather than an average across the entire system. Compliance monitoring under the Stage 2 DBPR began on April 1, 2012. The New York City (NYC) Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) began evaluating potential impacts of the Stage 2 DBPR on NYC's unfiltered water supply in 2002 by monitoring TTHM and HAA5 levels at various locations throughout the distribution system. Initial monitoring indicated that HAA5 levels could be of concern in the future, with the potential to intermittently violate the Stage 2 DBPR at specific locations, particularly those with high water age. Because of the uncertainty regarding the long-term prospect for compliance, DEP evaluated alternatives to ensure compliance, including operational changes (reducing chlorine dose, changing flow configurations to minimize water age, altering pH, altering source water withdrawals); changing the residual disinfectant from free chlorine to chloramines; and engineered treatment alternatives. This paper will discuss the potential for using DEP's Operations Support Tool (OST) and enhanced reservoir monitoring to support optimization of source water withdrawals to minimize finished water DBP levels. The OST is a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. It incorporates a water supply system

  14. Pyruvate remediation of cell stress and genotoxicity induced by haloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Azra; Jeong, Clara H; Pals, Justin A; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are a major class of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. We propose a model of toxic action based on monoHAA-mediated inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a target cytosolic enzyme. This model predicts that GAPDH inhibition by the monoHAAs will lead to a severe reduction of cellular ATP levels and repress the generation of pyruvate. A loss of pyruvate will lead to mitochondrial stress and genomic DNA damage. We found a concentration-dependent reduction of ATP in Chinese hamster ovary cells after monoHAA treatment. ATP reduction per pmol monoHAA followed the pattern of iodoacetic acid (IAA) > bromoacetic acid (BAA) > chloroacetic acid (CAA), which is the pattern of potency observed with many toxicological endpoints. Exogenous supplementation with pyruvate enhanced ATP levels and attenuated monoHAA-induced genomic DNA damage as measured with single cell gel electrophoresis. These data were highly correlated with the SN 2 alkylating potentials of the monoHAAs and with the induction of toxicity. The results from this study strongly support the hypothesis that GAPDH inhibition and the possible subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species is linked with the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and neurotoxicity of these DBPs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Seasonal evaluation of the presence of 46 disinfection by-products throughout a drinking water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Maria; Montesinos, Isabel; Cardador, M.J.; Silva, Manuel; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we studied a total of 46 regulated and non-regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) including 10 trihalomethanes (THMs), 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs), 6 halonitromethanes (HNMs), 6 haloacetonitriles (HANs) and 11 aldehydes at different points in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) and its distribution network. Determining an increased number of compounds and using accurate, sensitive analytical methodologies for new DBPs can be useful to overcome some challenges encountered in the comprehensive assessment of the quality and safety of drinking water. This paper provides a detailed picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of DBP concentrations from raw water to distribution network. Samples were collected on a monthly basis at seven different points in the four seasons of a year to acquire robust data for DBPs and supplementary quality-related water parameters. Only 5 aldehydes and 2 HAAs were found in raw water. Chlorine dioxide caused the formation of 3 new aldehydes (benzaldehyde included), 5 HAAs and chloroform. The concentrations of DBPs present in raw water were up to 6 times higher in the warmer seasons (spring and summer). The sedimentation process further increased their concentrations and caused the formation of three new ones. Sand filtration substantially removed aldehydes and HAAs (15–50%), but increased the levels of THMs, HNMs and HANs by up to 70%. Chloramination raised the levels of 8 aldehydes and 7 HAAs; also, it caused the formation of monoiodoacetic acid, dibromochloromethane, dichloroiodomethane and bromochloroacetonitrile. Therefore, this treatment increases the levels of existing DBPs and leads to the formation of new ones to a greater extent than does chlorine dioxide. Except for 5 aldehydes, the 23 DBPs encountered at the DWTP exit were found at increased concentrations in the warmer seasons (HAAs by about 50% and THMs by 350%). - Highlights: • Occurrence of 46 regulated and non-regulated DBPs through a DWTP was

  16. Seasonal evaluation of the presence of 46 disinfection by-products throughout a drinking water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Maria; Montesinos, Isabel; Cardador, M.J.; Silva, Manuel; Gallego, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.gallego@uco.es

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we studied a total of 46 regulated and non-regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) including 10 trihalomethanes (THMs), 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs), 6 halonitromethanes (HNMs), 6 haloacetonitriles (HANs) and 11 aldehydes at different points in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) and its distribution network. Determining an increased number of compounds and using accurate, sensitive analytical methodologies for new DBPs can be useful to overcome some challenges encountered in the comprehensive assessment of the quality and safety of drinking water. This paper provides a detailed picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of DBP concentrations from raw water to distribution network. Samples were collected on a monthly basis at seven different points in the four seasons of a year to acquire robust data for DBPs and supplementary quality-related water parameters. Only 5 aldehydes and 2 HAAs were found in raw water. Chlorine dioxide caused the formation of 3 new aldehydes (benzaldehyde included), 5 HAAs and chloroform. The concentrations of DBPs present in raw water were up to 6 times higher in the warmer seasons (spring and summer). The sedimentation process further increased their concentrations and caused the formation of three new ones. Sand filtration substantially removed aldehydes and HAAs (15–50%), but increased the levels of THMs, HNMs and HANs by up to 70%. Chloramination raised the levels of 8 aldehydes and 7 HAAs; also, it caused the formation of monoiodoacetic acid, dibromochloromethane, dichloroiodomethane and bromochloroacetonitrile. Therefore, this treatment increases the levels of existing DBPs and leads to the formation of new ones to a greater extent than does chlorine dioxide. Except for 5 aldehydes, the 23 DBPs encountered at the DWTP exit were found at increased concentrations in the warmer seasons (HAAs by about 50% and THMs by 350%). - Highlights: • Occurrence of 46 regulated and non-regulated DBPs through a DWTP was

  17. Peracetic acid oxidation of saline waters in the absence and presence of H ₂O ₂: secondary oxidant and disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Salhi, Elisabeth; Höfer, Thomas; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-02-03

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a disinfectant considered for use in ballast water treatment, but its chemical behavior in such systems (i.e., saline waters) is largely unknown. In this study, the reactivity of PAA with halide ions (chloride and bromide) to form secondary oxidants (HOCl, HOBr) was investigated. For the PAA-chloride and PAA-bromide reactions, second-order rate constants of (1.47 ± 0.58) × 10(-5) and 0.24 ± 0.02 M(-1) s(-1) were determined for the formation of HOCl or HOBr, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is always present in PAA solutions, reduced HOCl or HOBr to chloride or bromide, respectively. As a consequence, in PAA-treated solutions with [H2O2] > [PAA], the HOBr (HOCl) steady-state concentrations were low with a limited formation of brominated (chlorinated) disinfection byproducts (DBPs). HOI (formed from the PAA-iodide reaction) affected this process because it can react with H2O2 back to iodide. H2O2 is thus consumed in a catalytic cycle and leads to less efficient HOBr scavenging at even low iodide concentrations (acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), and tribromoacetic acid (TBAA) formed at up to 260, 106, 230, and 89 μg/L, respectively for doses of 2 mM (ca. 150 mg/L) PAA and [H2O2] acid concentrations.

  18. Potential for formation of disinfection by-products from storage of chlorinated surface water in the Basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lico, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Increased pumpage from a basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada, has caused its water levels to decline and has induced changes in the quality of water pumped from the basalt. The aquifer is the sole source of water for municipal supply to the city of Fallon, the Naval Air Station Fallon, and the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. These changes may be mitigated by storage of surface water in the basalt for subsequent use. Because chlorination of the surface water may be required for storage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, made laboratory tests using laboratory carbon-organic-free water, surface-water, ground-water, and basaltic-rock samples to determine the potential for formation of disinfection by-products. Experiments with water samples only (no rock and no chlorine) indicated no change in dissolved-organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations over a 20-day reaction period; whereas, all experiments using rock, water, and no chlorine indicated an increase in DOC concentrations. The greatest increase in DOC concentrations for all three water samples occurred in experiments with the rock samples from outcrops on Rattlesnake Hill. Experiments with water only and chlorine yielded a total trihalomethane (THM) concentration of 97.4 ?g/L for the ground-water sample and 347 ?g/L for the surface-water sample. Experiments with mixtures of water, rocks, and chlorine indicated that reactions with the rock consumed chlorine and released significant amounts of organic carbon from the rock, increasing the DOC concentration in the water. The organic carbon in the rocks likely is associated with the secondary clay minerals that line vesicles and fractures in the rocks. THM concentrations were greatest, from 335 to 909 ?g/L, for surface water equilibrated with rock samples from Rattlesnake Hill. However, the concentration of chlorine required to produce these high THM concentrations ranged from 18 to 84 mg/L. The results of the experiments suggest

  19. Evaluating Evidence for Association of Human Bladder Cancer with Drinking-Water Chlorination Disinfection By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Backer, Lorraine C; Humpage, Andrew R; Krasner, Stuart W; Michaud, Dominique S; Moore, Lee E; Singer, Philip C; Stanford, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (CxDBPs) is prevalent in populations using chlorination-based methods to disinfect public water supplies. Multifaceted research has been directed for decades to identify, characterize, and understand the toxicology of these compounds, control and minimize their formation, and conduct epidemiologic studies related to exposure. Urinary bladder cancer has been the health risk most consistently associated with CxDBPs in epidemiologic studies. An international workshop was held to (1) discuss the qualitative strengths and limitations that inform the association between bladder cancer and CxDBPs in the context of possible causation, (2) identify knowledge gaps for this topic in relation to chlorine/chloramine-based disinfection practice(s) in the United States, and (3) assess the evidence for informing risk management. Epidemiological evidence linking exposures to CxDBPs in drinking water to human bladder cancer risk provides insight into causality. However, because of imprecise, inaccurate, or incomplete estimation of CxDBPs levels in epidemiologic studies, translation from hazard identification directly to risk management and regulatory policy for CxDBPs can be challenging. Quantitative risk estimates derived from toxicological risk assessment for CxDBPs currently cannot be reconciled with those from epidemiologic studies, notwithstanding the complexities involved, making regulatory interpretation difficult. Evidence presented here has both strengths and limitations that require additional studies to resolve and improve the understanding of exposure response relationships. Replication of epidemiologic findings in independent populations with further elaboration of exposure assessment is needed to strengthen the knowledge base needed to better inform effective regulatory approaches.

  20. Evaluating Evidence for Association of Human Bladder Cancer with Drinking-Water Chlorination Disinfection By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Humpage, Andrew R.; Krasner, Stuart W.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Moore, Lee E.; Singer, Philip C.; Stanford, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (CxDBPs) is prevalent in populations using chlorination-based methods to disinfect public water supplies. Multifaceted research has been directed for decades to identify, characterize, and understand the toxicology of these compounds, control and minimize their formation, and conduct epidemiologic studies related to exposure. Urinary bladder cancer has been the health risk most consistently associated with CxDBPs in epidemiologic studies. An international workshop was held to (1) discuss the qualitative strengths and limitations that inform the association between bladder cancer and CxDBPs in the context of possible causation, (2) identify knowledge gaps for this topic in relation to chlorine/chloramine-based disinfection practice(s) in the United States, and (3) assess the evidence for informing risk management. Epidemiological evidence linking exposures to CxDBPs in drinking water to human bladder cancer risk provides insight into causality. However, because of imprecise, inaccurate, or incomplete estimation of CxDBPs levels in epidemiologic studies, translation from hazard identification directly to risk management and regulatory policy for CxDBPs can be challenging. Quantitative risk estimates derived from toxicological risk assessment for CxDBPs currently cannot be reconciled with those from epidemiologic studies, notwithstanding the complexities involved, making regulatory interpretation difficult. Evidence presented here has both strengths and limitations that require additional studies to resolve and improve the understanding of exposure response relationships. Replication of epidemiologic findings in independent populations with further elaboration of exposure assessment is needed to strengthen the knowledge base needed to better inform effective regulatory approaches. PMID:26309063

  1. 78 FR 73858 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Oklahoma has adopted three EPA drinking water rules... and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBP2), and (3) the Ground Water Rule (GWR). EPA has determined that... Protection Agency, Region 6, Drinking Water Section (6WQ-SD), 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200, Dallas, Texas...

  2. Detection, formation and occurrence of 13 new polar phenolic chlorinated and brominated disinfection byproducts in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Wang, Ying; Li, Aimin; Xu, Bin; Xian, Qiming; Shuang, Chendong; Shi, Peng; Zhou, Qing

    2017-04-01

    Recently, 13 new polar phenolic chlorinated and brominated disinfection byproducts (Cl- and Br-DBPs) were identified and quantified in simulated chlorinated drinking water by adopting product ion scan, precursor ion scan, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analyses using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-tqMS). The 13 new DBPs have been drawing increasing concern not only because they possess significantly higher growth inhibition, developmental toxicity, and chronic cytotoxicity than commonly known aliphatic DBPs, but also because they act as intermediate DBPs that can decompose to form the U.S. EPA regulated DBPs. In this study, through MS parameter optimization of the UPLC/ESI-tqMS MRM analysis, the instrument detection and quantitation limits of the 13 new DBPs were substantially lowered to 0.42-6.44 and 1.35-16.51 μg/L, respectively. The total levels of the 13 new DBPs formed in chlorination were much higher than those formed in chloramination within a contact time of 3 d. In chlorination, the 13 new DBPs formed quickly and decomposed rapidly, and their total concentration kept on decreasing with contact time. In chloramination, the levels of the dominant species (i.e., trihalo-phenols) firstly increased and then decreased with contact time, whereas the levels of the other new DBPs were relatively low and kept on increasing with contact time. An increasing of pH from 6.0 to 9.0 decreased the formation of the 13 new DBPs by 57.8% and 62.3% in chlorination and chloramination, respectively. Gallic acid was found to be present in various simulated and real source water samples and was demonstrated to be a precursor of the 13 new DBPs with elucidated formation pathways. Furthermore, 12 of the 13 new DBPs were detected in 16 tap water samples obtained from major cities in East China, at total levels from 9.5 to 329.8 ng/L. The concentrations of the new DBPs were higher in samples

  3. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  4. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  5. The shadow of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), a typical nitrogenous disinfection by-product (N-DBP), in the waterworks and its backwash water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yiwen; Lin, Tao; Jiang, Fuchun; Dong, Jian; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Dongju

    2017-08-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) is one of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) with strong cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. In this study, the formation potential (FP) of DCAN was investigated in the samples of six important water sources located in the Yangtze River Delta. The highest formation concentration of DCAN was 9.05 μg/L in the water sample taken from Taihu Lake with the lowest SUVA value. After the NOM fractionation, the conversion rate of hydrophilic fraction to DCAN was found the highest. Subsequently, a waterworks using Taihu Lake as water source was chosen to research the FP variations of DCAN in the treatment process and backwash water. The results showed that, compared to the conventional treatment process, O/biological activated carbon (BAC) process increased the removal efficiency of DCAN from 21.89% to 50.58% by removing aromatic protein and soluble biological by-products as main precursors of DCAN. The DCAN FP in the effluent of BAC filters using old granular activated carbon was higher than that in the influent and the DCAN FP of its backwash water was lower than that in raw water. In the backwash water of sand filters, the DCAN FP higher than raw water required the recycle ratio less than 5% to avoid the accumulation of DCAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Photolysis of model emerging contaminants in ultra-pure water: kinetics, by-products formation and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Rodriguez, Elena

    2013-02-01

    The photolysis of five frequent emerging contaminants (Benzotriazole, Chlorophene, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET, Methylindole, and Nortriptyline HCl) was investigated in ultrapure water under monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm and by a combination of UV and hydrogen peroxide. The results revealed that the photolysis rates followed first-order kinetics, with rate constant values depending on the nature of the specific compound, the pH, and the presence or absence of the scavenger tert-butanol. Quantum yields were also determined and values in the range of 53.8 × 10⁻³ - 9.4 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Benzotriazole, 525 × 10⁻³ - 469 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Chlorophene, 2.8 × 10⁻³ - 0.9 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for DEET, 108 × 10⁻³ - 165 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Methylindole, and 13.8 × 10⁻³ - 15.0 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Nortriptyline were obtained. The study also found that the UV/H₂O₂ process enhanced the oxidation rate in comparison to direct photolysis. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) technique was applied to the concentrations evaluation and further identification of the parent compounds and their by-products, which allowed the proposal of the degradation pathways for each compound. Finally, in order to assess the aquatic toxicity in the photodegradation of these compounds, the Vibrio fischeri acute toxicity test was used, and the results indicated an initial increase of this parameter in all cases, followed by a decrease in the specific case of Benzotriazole, DEET, Methylindole, and Chlorophene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The alkaline comet assay used in evaluation of genotoxic damage of drinking water disinfection by-products (bromoform and chloroform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaouda Khallef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline comet assay (pH 12.3 is a useful method for monitoring genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in the root nuclei of Allium cepa and various plants; it allows the detection of single- and double-strand breaks, incomplete excision-repair sites and cross-links. It has been introduced to detect even small changes in DNA structure. It is a technically simple, highly sensitive, fast and economic test which detects in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity (DNA integrity and packing mode in any cell types examined, and requires just a few cells for its execution (Liman et al., 2011; Yıldız et al., 2009. Chloroform and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in drinking water. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75and 100µg/ml and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 µg/ml as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed and p<0.05 was accepted as the test of significance. Comet assay results showed that DNA damage was significant at p <0.05 for the different concentrations of chloroform and bromoform compared to the negative control which has a damage rate equal to 3.5 ± 0.7 and the positive control which has damage rate equal to 13.5 ± 2.12. The exposure of root tip cells to these disinfection by-products increases DNA damage. All concentrations examined in this study of bromoform and chloroform cause significant harm, which could be due to DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. The measurement of DNA damage in the nuclei of higher plant tissues is a new area of study with SCGE. This assay could be incorporated into in situ monitoring of atmosphere, water and soil: the comet assay allows a fast detection without

  8. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  9. Reducing Volatile Disinfection By-Products in Treated Drinking Water Using Aeration Technologies (WaterRF Report 4441)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  10. Drinking water disinfection by-products during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development in the INMA Spanish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Julvez, Jordi; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) constitute a complex mixture of prevalent chemicals in drinking water and there is evidence of neurotoxicity for some of them. We evaluated the association between estimates of DBP exposure during pregnancy and child neuropsychological outcomes at 1 and 4-5years of age. We conducted a population-based mother-child cohort study in Spain with recruitment at first trimester of gestation (INMA Project, 2003-2008). Neuropsychological development was measured at 1year of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and at 4-5years with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Modeled tap water concentrations of trihalomethanes (THM) were combined with personal ingestion, showering and bathing habits to estimate exposure as ingestion uptake, all route (showering, bathing, ingestion) uptake (μg/day) and crude levels (μg/l) in the residence. Chloroform, brominated THMs (bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform) and total THMs (chloroform and brominated THMs) were analysed separately. Nine haloacetic acids levels were available in one of the areas. Linear regression was used to estimate associations in 1855 subjects adjusting for covariables. The median concentration of total THMs, chloroform, brominated THMs, total haloacetic acids, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid were, respectively 30.3μg/L, 9.4μg/L, 11.6μg/L, 10.5μg/L, 2.7μg/L, and 3.1μg/L. The associations between THM exposure and neuropsychological outcomes were null, except for total and brominated THM uptake though all routes and the general cognitive score at 4-5years, with a decrease in -0.54 points (95%CI -1.03, -0.05) and -0.64 (95%CI -1.16, -0.12), respectively, for doubling total and brominated THM uptake. A positive association found between dichloroacetic acid and the mental score at 1year did not persist at 4-5years. Minor associations observed between DBP exposure during gestation and child neuropsychological development at 1year

  11. Formation of bromate and halogenated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of dissolved organic matter and CuO

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that significant bromate (BrO3-) can be formed via the CuO-catalyzed disproportionation of hypobromous acid (HOBr) pathway. In this study, the influence of CuO on the formation of BrO3- and halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes, THMs and haloacetic acids, HAAs) during chlorination of six dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates was investigated. Only in the presence of slow reacting DOM (from treated Colorado River water, i.e., CRW-BF-HPO), significant BrO3- formation is observed, which competes with bromination of DOM (i.e., THM and HAA formation). Reactions between HOBr and 12 model compounds in the presence of CuO indicates that CuO-catalyzed HOBr disproportionation is completely inhibited by fast reacting phenols, while it predominates in the presence of practically unreactive compounds (acetone, butanol, propionic, and butyric acids). In the presence of slow reacting di- and tri-carboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids), BrO3- formation varies, depending on its competition with bromoform and dibromoacetic acid formation (i.e., bromination pathway). The latter pathway can be enhanced by CuO due to the activation of HOBr. Therefore, increasing CuO dose (0-0.2 g L-1) in a reaction system containing chlorine, bromide, and CRW-BF-HPO enhances the formation of BrO3-, total THMs and HAAs. Factors including pH and initial reactant concentrations influence the DBP formation. These novel findings have implications for elevated DBP formation during transportation of chlorinated waters in copper-containing distribution systems.

  12. Formation of bromate and halogenated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of dissolved organic matter and CuO

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2015-12-02

    Previous studies showed that significant bromate (BrO3-) can be formed via the CuO-catalyzed disproportionation of hypobromous acid (HOBr) pathway. In this study, the influence of CuO on the formation of BrO3- and halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes, THMs and haloacetic acids, HAAs) during chlorination of six dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates was investigated. Only in the presence of slow reacting DOM (from treated Colorado River water, i.e., CRW-BF-HPO), significant BrO3- formation is observed, which competes with bromination of DOM (i.e., THM and HAA formation). Reactions between HOBr and 12 model compounds in the presence of CuO indicates that CuO-catalyzed HOBr disproportionation is completely inhibited by fast reacting phenols, while it predominates in the presence of practically unreactive compounds (acetone, butanol, propionic, and butyric acids). In the presence of slow reacting di- and tri-carboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids), BrO3- formation varies, depending on its competition with bromoform and dibromoacetic acid formation (i.e., bromination pathway). The latter pathway can be enhanced by CuO due to the activation of HOBr. Therefore, increasing CuO dose (0-0.2 g L-1) in a reaction system containing chlorine, bromide, and CRW-BF-HPO enhances the formation of BrO3-, total THMs and HAAs. Factors including pH and initial reactant concentrations influence the DBP formation. These novel findings have implications for elevated DBP formation during transportation of chlorinated waters in copper-containing distribution systems.

  13. By-product reuse in drinking water softening: influence of operating conditions on calcium carbonate pellet characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Camilla; Rosshaug, P. S.; Kristensen, J. B.

    both socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, optimal implementation of softening requires a holistic approach including e.g. possibilities for by-product reuse. A pellet reactor is one widely used softening technology that may produce up to 350 kg calcium carbonate pellets per 1000 m3...

  14. Effect of medium-pressure UV-lamp treatment on disinfection by-products in chlorinated seawater swimming pool waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Waqas Akram; Manasfi, Tarek; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht

    2017-01-01

    Several brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in chlorinated seawater pools, due to the high concentration of bromide in seawater. UV irradiation is increasingly employed in freshwater pools, because UV treatment photodegrades harmful chloramines. However, in freshwater pools it has...

  15. THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS OF HEALTH CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE DBP OCCURRENCE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The motivation for this Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study was two-fold: First, more than 500 DBPs have been reported in the literature, yet there is almost no quantitative occurrence information for most. As a result, there is significant uncertainty ove...

  16. The impact of iodinated X-ray contrast agents on formation and toxicity of disinfection by-products in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Clara H; Machek, Edward J; Shakeri, Morteza; Duirk, Stephen E; Ternes, Thomas A; Richardson, Susan D; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    The presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) in source waters is of high concern to public health because of their potential to generate highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ICM in source waters and the type of disinfectant on the overall toxicity of DBP mixtures and to determine which ICM and reaction conditions give rise to toxic by-products. Source waters collected from Akron, OH were treated with five different ICMs, including iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, diatrizoate and iomeprol, with or without chlorine or chloramine disinfection. The reaction product mixtures were concentrated with XAD resins and the mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the reaction mixture concentrates was measured. Water containing iopamidol generated an enhanced level of mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after disinfection. While chlorine disinfection with iopamidol resulted in the highest cytotoxicity overall, the relative iopamidol-mediated increase in toxicity was greater when chloramine was used as the disinfectant compared with chlorine. Four other ICMs (iopromide, iohexol, diatrizoate, and iomeprol) expressed some cytotoxicity over the control without any disinfection, and induced higher cytotoxicity when chlorinated. Only iohexol enhanced genotoxicity compared to the chlorinated source water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts 1: Kinetics of Hydrated Electron and Hydroxyl Radical Reactions with Halonitromethanes in Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. J. Mincher; R. V. Fox; S. P. Mezyk; T. Helgeson; S. K. Cole; W. J. Cooper; P. R. Gardinali

    2006-01-01

    Halonitromethanes are disinfection-byproducts formed during ozonation and chlorine/chloramine treatment of waters that contain bromide ion and natural organic matter. In this study, the chemical kinetics of the free-radical-induced degradations of a series of halonitromethanes were determined. Absolute rate constants for hydroxyl radical, OH, and hydrated electron, e aq - , reaction with both chlorinated and brominated halonitromethanes were measured using the techniques of electron pulse radiolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy. The bimolecular rate constants obtained, k (M -1 s -1 ), for e aq - /OH, respectively, were the following: chloronitromethane (3.01 ± 0.40) x 10 10 /(1.94 ± 0.32) x 10 8 ; dichloronitromethane (3.21 ± 0.17) x 10 10 /(5.12 ± 0.77) x 10 8 ; bromonitromethane (3.13 ± 0.06) x 10 10 /(8.36 ± 0.57) x 107; dibromonitromethane (3.07 ± 0.40) x 10 10 /(4.75 ± 0.98) x 10 8 ; tribromonitromethane (2.29 ± 0.39) x 10 10 /(3.25 ± 0.67) x 10 8 ; bromochloronitromethane (2.93 ± 0.47) x 10 10 /(4.2 ± 1.1) x 10 8 ; bromodichloronitromethane (2.68 ± 0.13) x 10 10 /(1.02 ± 0.15) x 10 8 ; and dibromochloronitromethane (2.95 ± 0.43) x 10 10 /(1.80 ± 0.31) x 10 8 at room temperature and pH ∼7. Comparison data were also obtained for hydroxyl radical reaction with bromoform (1.50 ± 0.05) x 10 8 , bromodichloromethane (7.11 ± 0.26) x 10 7 , and chlorodibromomethane (8.31 ± 0.25) x 10 7 M -1 s -1 , respectively. These rate constants are compared to recently obtained data for trichloronitromethane and bromonitromethane, as well as to other established literature data for analogous compounds

  18. Determination of the minor disinfection by-products formed in the water plant of Sant Joan Despi (Barcelona, Spain); Determinacion de los subproductos de desinfeccion minoritarios formados en la planta de Sant Joan Despi (Barcelona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancho, B.; Galceran, M.T. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, F. [AGBAR. Societat General d` Aigues de Barcelona, S.A. (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Chlorine is widely used in drinking water disinfection due to be a powerful and not expense disinfection. Although the benefits of disinfection, the formation of stable disinfection by-products of the health concern, is the result of the interaction of aqueous chlorine with natural organic matter presents in water. Disinfection by-products generated in major concentration are trihalomethane and haloacetic acids. Disinfection by-products generated in minor concentration are haloacetonitriles, haloketones,chloral hydrate and chloropicrin and some new groups such as cyanogen halides and trihaloacetaldydes. In this work two analytical methods.: headspace/gas chromatography/electron capture detector and liquid-liquid microextraction/gas chromatography/electron capture detector are studied and compared to determine the minor by-products and to establish finally, a systematic control of them in the different stages of the Water Treatment Plant of San Joan Despi (Barcelona, Spain). (Author) 12 refs.

  19. SUSTAINABLE TILAPIA PRODUCTION IN A BACKYARD SYSTEM FOR RURAL AREAS USING FISH BY-PRODUCTS IN FORMULATED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando Rueda Lopez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of producing Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticuss, L. with formulated diets containing acid fish silage made with Hancock (Pterigoplichthys multiradiatus by-products in substitution of fishmeal. Thus four treatments containing increasing levels (0, 5, 10 and 15% of acid fish silage to substitute fishmeal were used to feed tilapia juveniles in triplicate groups (average 1.5±0.7 g and 4.3±1.0 cm.  Fish silage was prepared by adding citric and phosphoric acids at 2.6% each resulting in a liquefaction of the chop by-product mixture. After two weeks, the diets were prepared to contain 32-35% protein content. After 50 days of experimental period a total growth increase up to 827% was observed without significant differences among treatments. A specific growth rate from 3.70 to 4.10 and a survival rate from 96 to 99% was observed.  The cost analysis shows a saving on production cost up to 23.87% using the highest incorporation level of fish silage. The use of Aquaculture Recirculation System made with components normally found in a hardware store in rural or semi urban areas is discussed. It is concluded that fish offal shows a promising activity that favors the increase in fish protein production to resolve the demand of cheap protein.

  20. Application of flotational reagents obtained from coke-industry byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.I. Nikitin; I.N. Nikitin; N.I. Toporkova [Khar' kov Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    Today, the operational efficiency of coal-preparation shops at coke plants largely depends on the flotation process, since flotation is the basic method of regenerating the slurry water in the water-slurry systems and the basic enrichment process for small-grain coal slurries. At The Coal-Chemistry Institute, attempts have been made to address the growing demand for readily available and relatively inexpensive flotational reagents. In particular, a list of promising coke-industry byproducts for use as flotational reagents has been compiled, and the possibility of reducing their toxicity has been established. In addition, various industrial byproducts and wastes have been investigated in terms of flotational activity.

  1. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  2. Characteristics of water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge formed during drinking water treatment, including C-, N-disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Hongdi; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2017-03-15

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the characteristics of the water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge generated in the drinking water treatment plant, including formation of C- and N-disinfection by-products (DBPs). Results showed that this 'dewatering water' (DW) had different properties when the sludge was stored at different times. The content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microcystins (MCs) in the DW were low when the sludge was treated or disposed of within 4 days; correspondingly, the C-, N-DBP production was also low. However, due to the damage of algal cells to some extent, the DOM and MC levels increased significantly for storage time longer than 4 days; the production of C-, N-DBPs also increased. There were also obvious differences in the characteristics of the DW from sludges generated with different coagulant species. Due to the better protective effect of FeCl 3 and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) flocs, the DOM and MC levels and the production of C-, N-DBPs in the DW with FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulation were lower than those with AlCl 3 coagulation, even though the sludges were stored for the same amount of time. Furthermore, because of the formation of Al and Fe hydroxides, precipitated onto the surface of flocs, the soluble Al and Fe in the DW decreased with increased storage time, especially in the first four days. Overall, this study revealed the trends in variation of DW quality for cyanobacteria-containing sludges formed with different coagulants, then FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulants are recommended and sludge should be treated or disposed of within 4 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reductive dehalogenation of disinfection byproducts by an activated carbon-based electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Kemper, Jerome M; Datuin, Gwen; Akey, Ann; Mitch, William A; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight, uncharged, halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are poorly removed by the reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation process treatment units often applied for further treatment of municipal wastewater for potable reuse. Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment effectively sorbed 22 halogenated DBPs. Conversion of the GAC to a cathode within an electrolysis cell resulted in significant degradation of the 22 halogenated DBPs by reductive electrolysis at -1 V vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE). The lowest removal efficiency over 6 h electrolysis was for trichloromethane (chloroform; 47%) but removal efficiencies were >90% for 13 of the 22 DBPs. In all cases, DBP degradation was higher than in electrolysis-free controls, and degradation was verified by the production of halides as reduction products. Activated carbons and charcoal were more effective than graphite for electrolysis, with graphite featuring poor sorption for the DBPs. A subset of halogenated DBPs (e.g., haloacetonitriles, chloropicrin) were degraded upon sorption to the GAC, even without electrolysis. Using chloropicrin as a model, experiments indicated that this loss was attributable to the partial reduction of sorbed chloropicrin from reducing equivalents in the GAC. Reducing equivalents depleted by these reactions could be restored when the GAC was treated by reductive electrolysis. GAC treatment of an advanced treatment train effluent for potable reuse effectively reduced the concentrations of chloroform, bromodichloromethane and dichloroacetonitrile measured in the column influent to below the method detection limits. Treatment of the GAC by reductive electrolysis at -1 V vs. SHE over 12 h resulted in significant degradation of the chloroform (63%), bromodichloromethane (96%) and dichloroacetonitrile (99%) accumulated on the GAC. The results suggest that DBPs in advanced treatment train effluents could be captured and degraded continuously by reductive electrolysis

  4. Degradation of emerging contaminants from water under natural sunlight: The effect of season, pH, humic acids and nitrate and identification of photodegradation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Eftaxias, Alexander; Stratogianni, Georgia

    2015-11-01

    Both photodegradation and hydrolysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were investigated in order to evaluate their photochemical fate in aquatic environment and to assess the effect of season and specific characteristics of water (pH, humic acids and nitrate concentration) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through photodegradation. An additional objective was the identification of the photodegradation by-products of specific NSAIDs and their dependence on irradiation time. Selected compounds' transformation was investigated under natural sunlight radiation while control experiments were conducted in the dark. As expected, most of compounds' degradation rate decreased with decreasing light intensity between two different experimental periods. Most of the tested compounds exhibited different rates of degradation during direct and indirect photolysis. The degradation rate of the selected compounds increased in the presence of NO3(-) and the photodegradation rate was higher for some compounds in alkaline than in acidic solution. The effect of humic acids' presence in the water depends on the absorbance spectrum of the compound and the produced photosensitizers. More specifically, humic acids act as inner filter toward most of the selected NSAIDs and as photosensitizers toward most of the EDCs. The results of the irradiation experiments in the presence of both humic acids and NO3(-), indicate that the direct photolysis is much more efficient than indirect photochemical processes. Finally, several degradation by-products of ketoprofen and diclofenac were identified in the samples, exposed to sunlight. The dependence of these by-products on radiation time is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  6. Formation and Occurrence of N-Chloro-2,2-dichloroacetamide, a Previously Overlooked Nitrogenous Disinfection Byproduct in Chlorinated Drinking Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Reckhow, David A

    2017-02-07

    Haloacetamides (HAMs) are a class of newly identified nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) whose occurrence in drinking waters has recently been reported in several DBP surveys. As the most prominent HAM species, it is commonly acknowledged that 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAM) is mainly generated from dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) hydrolysis because the concentrations of these two compounds are often well correlated. Instead of DCAM, a previously unreported N-DBP, N-chloro-2,2-dichloroacetamide (N-Cl-DCAM), was confirmed in this study as the actual DCAN degradation product in chlorinated drinking waters. It is suspected that N-Cl-DCAM has been erroneously identified as DCAM, because its nitrogen-bound chlorine is readily reduced by most commonly used quenching agents. This hypothesis is supported by kinetic studies that indicate almost instantaneous N-chlorination of DCAM even at low chlorine residuals. Therefore, it is unlikely that DCAM can persist as a long-lived DCAN decomposition product in systems using free chlorine as a residual disinfectant. Instead, chlorination of DCAM will lead to the formation of an equal amount of N-Cl-DCAM by forming a hydrogen bond between hypochlorite oxygen and amino hydrogen. Alternatively, N-Cl-DCAM can be produced directly from DCAN chlorination via nucleophilic addition of hypochlorite on the nitrile carbon. Due to its relatively low pK a value, N-Cl-DCAM tends to deprotonate under typical drinking water pH conditions, and the anionic form of N-Cl-DCAM was found to be very stable in the absence of chlorine. N-Cl-DCAM can, however, undergo acid-catalyzed decomposition to form the corresponding dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) when chlorine is present, although those acidic conditions that favor N-Cl-DCAM degradation are generally atypical for finished drinking waters. For these reasons, N-Cl-DCAM is predicted to have very long half-lives in most distribution systems that use free chlorine. Furthermore, an analytical method using

  7. Quantitative analysis for the removal of natural organic matter and degradation by-products from water using cyclodextrin nanoporous polymers.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of water by organic compounds has resulted in an escalation in research efforts to combat this problem. These organics can be harmful to human health and the environment in general, and they pose unique challenges to several industrial applications. Even when present at very low concentrations, they tend to bioaccumulate and interact with endocrine systems. However, due to the chemical nature of these compounds, current technologies are still challenged to effect their remov...

  8. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  9. Liming efficacy and transport in soil of a dry PFBC by-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The by-products of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems are mixtures of coal ash, anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), and unspent alkaline sorbent. Because PFBC by-products are alkaline and contain large concentrations of readily soluble bases (Ca and in some cases Mg) and other essential plant nutrients such as S and K, they have potential use as soil amendments, especially in acidic soils. PFBC by-products (particularly those with large Mg contents) may cause excessively high soluble salt concentrations when applied to soil. This could be detrimental to plant growth and might also impact the release of trace elements from the coal ash component of the by-product. In field experiments on three acidic soils, the liming effectiveness of a PFBC by-product, its effects on corn and alfalfa growth, and its impacts on crop, soil, and water quality were investigated

  10. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

    2013-11-08

    In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100 ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635 mg/kg and 12-6295 mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985 mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation experiments were performed using unchlorinated tap water used for filling municipal swimming pools, actual pool water and pool water polluted by addition of fresh tap water and artificial body fluid to evaluate ozone kinetics and water quality effects on formation of volatile disinfecti...

  12. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  13. Prototype water reuse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    A small-scale water reuse system (150 L/min) was developed to create an environment for observing fish under a variety of temperature regimes. Key concerns of disease control, water quality, temperature control, and efficiency and case of operation were addressed. Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were held at loading densities ranging from 0.11 to 0.97 kg/L per minute and at temperatures from 10 to 20°C for 6 months with no disease problems or degradation ofwater quality in the system. The system required little maintenance during 2 years of operation.

  14. pH neutralization of the by-product sludge waste water generated from waste concrete recycling process using the carbon mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Shin, Hee-young; Bang, Jun Hwan; Ahn, Ji-Whan

    2017-04-01

    About 44 Mt/year of waste concrete is generated in South Korea. More than 95% of this waste concrete is recycled. In the process of regenerating and recycling pulmonary concrete, sludge mixed with fine powder generated during repeated pulverization process and water used for washing the surface and water used for impurity separation occurs. In this way, the solid matter contained in the sludge as a by-product is about 40% of the waste concrete that was input. Due to the cement component embedded in the concrete, the sludge supernatant is very strong alkaline (pH about 12). And it is necessary to neutralization for comply with environmental standards. In this study, carbon mineralization method was applied as a method to neutralize the pH of highly alkaline waste water to under pH 8.5, which is the water quality standard of discharged water. CO2 gas (purity 99%, flow rate 10ml/min.) was injected and reacted with the waste water (Ca concentration about 750mg/L) from which solid matter was removed. As a result of the experiment, the pH converged to about 6.5 within 50 minutes of reaction. The precipitate showed high whiteness. XRD and SEM analysis showed that it was high purity CaCO3. For the application to industry, it is needed further study using lower concentration CO2 gas (about 14%) which generated from power plant.

  15. Investigation on by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient using FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and phyto-toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-07-01

    higher content of K, Ca, P, Na and Mg than their respective solid phase. Application of ash digestates and char is likely to improve adsorptive capacity of soil for water and nutrient due to presence of relatively uniformly distributed porous particles. Liquid fraction of Ipomoea digestates exhibited inhibitory effect on seed germination of greengram (Vigna radiate) with significant reduction of germination index. Inhibitory effects of by-products were found to correlate negatively with their electrical conductivity and ammonia-nitrogen content. Understanding on spectroscopic, morphological and phytotoxic properties of different application options of bioenergy by-products would be useful for assessment of their appropriate use in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  17. Water electrolysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Tadao; Ikehara, Masahisa; Kataoka, Noboru; Ueno, Syuichi; Ishikawa, Nobuhide.

    1996-01-01

    Nissho Iwai Co. and Ebara Co. received an order for hydrogen and oxygen generating system (water electrolysis system) to be installed at Tokai-2 power station of The Japan Atomic Power Company, following the previous order at Tsuruga-1 where the gas injection from FY1996 is planned. Hydrogen gas generated by the system will be injected to coolant of boiling water reactors to improve corrosive environment. The system is being offered by a tripartite party, Nissho Iwai, Ebara, and Norsk Hydro Electrolysers of Norway (NHEL). NHEL provides a electrolyser unit, as a core of the system. Ebara provides procurement, installation, and inspection as well as total engineering work, under the basic design by NHEL which has over 60 years-experience in this field. (author)

  18. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  19. The removal process of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product, in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhou, Dongju; Yu, Shilin; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The removal process of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product (DBP) in conventional drinking water treatment plant (C-DWTP) and advanced DWTP (ADWTP) was studied with newly maximum formation potential (MFP) process. It was demonstrated that the advanced treatment displayed greater removal efficiency towards DCAcAm formation potential (MFP) than the conventional treatment. The hydrophilic natural organic matter and natural organic matter with molecular weight 10 kDa leaded to more DCAcAm formation, and the aromatic protein was inferred as one part of DCAcAm precursor. DCAcAm was found to cause delayed development and malformation to zebrafish embryos at embryonic growth stage. Compared with heart toxicity, it caused a significant neuron toxicity. It also could cause the acute DNA damage to adult zebrafish, which should be extremely cautioned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of medium-pressure UV-lamp treatment on disinfection by-products in chlorinated seawater swimming pool waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Waqas A; Manasfi, Tarek; Kaarsholm, Kamilla M S; Andersen, Henrik R; Boudenne, Jean-Luc

    2017-12-01

    Several brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in chlorinated seawater pools, due to the high concentration of bromide in seawater. UV irradiation is increasingly employed in freshwater pools, because UV treatment photodegrades harmful chloramines. However, in freshwater pools it has been reported that post-UV chlorination promotes the formation of other DBPs. To date, UV-based processes have not been investigated for DBPs in seawater pools. In this study, the effects of UV, followed by chlorination, on the concentration of three groups of DBPs were investigated in laboratory batch experiments using a medium-pressure UV lamp. Chlorine consumption increased following post-UV chlorination, most likely because UV irradiation degraded organic matter in the pool samples to more chlorine-reactive organic matter. Haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations decreased significantly, due to photo-degradation, but the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) increased with post-UV chlorination. Bromine incorporation in HAAs was significantly higher in the control samples chlorinated without UV irradiation but decreased significantly with UV treatment. Bromine incorporation was promoted in THM and HAN after UV and chlorine treatment. Overall, the accumulated bromine incorporation level in DBPs remained essentially unchanged in comparison with the control samples. Toxicity estimates increased with single-dose UV and chlorination, mainly due to increased HAN concentrations. However, brominated HANs are known in the literature to degrade following further UV treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of disinfection by-products formation during sequential or simultaneous disinfection of surface waters with chlorine dioxide and chlor(am)ine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanwei; Ling, Wencui; Qiang, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) oxidation on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during sequential (ClO2 pre-oxidation for 30 min) and simultaneous disinfection processes with free chlorine (FC) or monochloramine (MCA) was investigated. The formation of DBPs from synthetic humic acid (HA) water and three natural surface waters containing low bromide levels (11-27 microg/L) was comparatively examined in the FC-based (single FC, sequential ClO2-FC, and simultaneous ClO2/FC) and MCA-based (single MCA, ClO2-MCA, and ClO2/MCA) disinfection processes. The results showed that much more DBPs were formed from the synthetic HA water than from the three natural surface waters with comparative levels of dissolved organic carbon. In the FC-based processes, ClO2 oxidation could reduce trihalomethanes (THMs) by 27-35% and haloacetic acids (HAAs) by 14-22% in the three natural surface waters, but increased THMs by 19% and HAAs by 31% in the synthetic HA water after an FC contact time of 48 h. In the MCA-based processes, similar trends were observed although DBPs were produced at a much lower level. There was an insignificant difference in DBPs formation between the sequential and simultaneous processes. The presence of a high level of bromide (320 microg/L) remarkably promoted the DBPs formation in the FC-based processes. Therefore, the simultaneous disinfection process of ClO2/MCA is recommended particularly for waters with a high bromide level.

  2. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  3. Detection of chlorinated and brominated byproducts of drinking water disinfection using electrospray ionization-high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, B; Barnett, D A; Froese, K; Purves, R W; Hrudey, S; Guevremont, R

    1999-10-15

    The lower limit of detection for low molecular weight polar and ionic analytes using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is often severely compromised by an intense background that obscures ions of trace components in solution. Recently, a new technique, referred to as high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), has been shown to separate gas-phase ions at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. A FAIMS instrument is an ion filter that may be tuned, by control of electrical voltages, to continuously transmit selected ions from a complex mixture. This capability offers significant advantages when FAIMS is coupled with ESI, a source that generates a wide variety of ions, including solvent clusters and salt adducts. In this report, the tandem arrangement of ESI-FAIMS-MS is used for the analysis of haloacetic acids, a class of disinfection byproducts regulated by the US EPA. FAIMS is shown to effectively discriminate against background ions resulting from the electrospray of tap water solutions containing the haloacetic acids. Consequently, mass spectra are simplified, the selectivity of the method is improved, and the limits of detection are lowered compared with conventional ESI-MS. The detection limits of ESI-FAIMS-MS for six haloacetic acids ranged between 0.5 and 4 ng/mL in 9:1 methanol/tap water (5 and 40 ng/mL in the original tap water samples) with no preconcentration, derivatization, or chromatographic separation prior to analysis.

  4. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  5. Water-Quality Constituents, Dissolved-Organic-Carbon Fractions, and Disinfection By-Product Formation in Water from Community Water-Supply Wells in New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopple, Jessica A.; Barringer, Julia L.; Koleis, Janece

    2007-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 community water-supply wells in New Jersey to assess the chemical quality of the water before and after chlorination, to characterize the types of organic carbon present, and to determine the disinfection by-product formation potential. Water from the selected wells previously had been shown to contain concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that were greater than 0.2 mg/L. Of the selected wells, five are completed in unconfined (or semi-confined) glacial-sediment aquifers of the Piedmont and Highlands (New England) Physiographic Provinces, five are completed in unconfined bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont Physiographic Province, and ten are completed in unconsolidated sediments of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Four of the ten wells in the Coastal Plain are completed in confined parts of the aquifers; the other six are in unconfined aquifers. One or more volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in untreated water from all of the 16 wells in unconfined aquifers, some at concentrations greater than maximum contaminant levels. Those compounds detected included aliphatic compounds such as trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, aromatic compounds such as benzene, the trihalomethane compound, chloroform, and the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Concentrations of sodium and chloride in water from one well in a bedrock aquifer and sulfate in water from another exceeded New Jersey secondary standards for drinking water. The source of the sulfate was geologic materials, but the sodium and chloride probably were derived from human inputs. DOC fractions were separated by passing water samples through XAD resin columns to determine hydrophobic fractions from hydrophilic fractions. Concentrations of hydrophobic acids were slightly lower than those of combined hydrophilic acids, neutral compounds, and low molecular weight compounds in most samples. Water samples from the 20 wells were adjusted

  6. Effects of conventional ozonation and electro-peroxone pretreatment of surface water on disinfection by-product formation during subsequent chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqin; Guo, Di; Yao, Weikun; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yu, Gang; Wang, Yujue

    2018-03-01

    The electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process is an emerging ozone-based electrochemical advanced oxidation process that combines conventional ozonation with in-situ cathodic hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production for oxidative water treatment. In this study, the effects of the E-peroxone pretreatment on disinfection by-product (DBP) formation from chlorination of a synthetic surface water were investigated and compared to conventional ozonation. Results show that due to the enhanced transformation of ozone (O 3 ) to hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electro-generated H 2 O 2 , the E-peroxone process considerably enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abatement and significantly reduced bromate (BrO 3 - ) formation compared to conventional ozonation. However, natural organic matter (NOM) with high UV 254 absorbance, which is the major precursors of chlorination DBPs, was less efficiently abated during the E-peroxone process than conventional ozonation. Consequently, while both conventional ozonation and the E-peroxone process substantially reduced the formation of DBPs (trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids) during post-chlorination, higher DBP concentrations were generally observed during chlorination of the E-peroxone pretreated waters than conventional ozonation treated. In addition, because of conventional ozonation or the E-peroxone treatment, DBPs formed during post-chlorination shifted to more brominated species. The overall yields of brominated DBPs exhibited strong correlations with the bromide concentrations in water. Therefore, while the E-peroxone process can effectively suppress bromide transformation to bromate, it may lead to higher formation of brominated DBPs during post-chlorination compared to conventional ozonation. These results suggest that the E-peroxone process can lead to different DBP formation and speciation during water treatment trains compared to conventional ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Four groups of new aromatic halogenated disinfection byproducts: effect of bromide concentration on their formation and speciation in chlorinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-02-05

    Bromide is naturally present in source waters worldwide. Chlorination of drinking water can generate a variety of chlorinated and brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although substantial efforts have been made to examine the effect of bromide concentration on the formation and speciation of halogenated DBPs, almost all previous studies have focused on trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Given that about 50% of total organic halogen formed in chlorination remains unknown, it is still unclear how bromide concentration affects the formation and speciation of the new/unknown halogenated DBPs. In this study, chlorinated drinking water samples with different bromide concentrations were prepared, and a novel approach-precursor ion scan using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-was adopted for the detection and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in these water samples. With this approach, 11 new putative aromatic halogenated DBPs were identified, and they were classified into four groups: dihalo-4-hydroxybenzaldehydes, dihalo-4-hydroxybenzoic acids, dihalo-salicylic acids, and trihalo-phenols. A mechanism for the formation of the four groups of new aromatic halogenated DBPs was proposed. It was found that increasing the bromide concentration shifted the entire polar halogenated DBPs as well as the four groups of new DBPs from being less brominated to being more brominated; these new aromatic halogenated DBPs might be important intermediate DBPs formed in drinking water chlorination. Moreover, the speciation of the four groups of new DBPs was modeled: the speciation patterns of the four groups of new DBPs well matched those determined from the model equations, and the reactivity differences between HOBr and HOCl in reactions forming the four groups of new DBPs were larger than those in reactions forming trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.

  8. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m3 d−1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L−1; n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L−1), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L−1) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  9. Impact of Nitrification on the Formation of N-Nitrosamines and Halogenated Disinfection Byproducts within Distribution System Storage Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-03-15

    Distribution system storage facilities are a critical, yet often overlooked, component of the urban water infrastructure. This study showed elevated concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), total N-nitrosamines (TONO), regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloacetamides (HAMs) in waters with ongoing nitrification as compared to non-nitrifying waters in storage facilities within five different chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. The concentrations of NDMA, TONO, HANs, and HAMs in the nitrifying waters further increased upon application of simulated distribution system chloramination. The addition of a nitrifying biofilm sample collected from a nitrifying facility to its non-nitrifying influent water led to increases in N-nitrosamine and halogenated DBP formation, suggesting the release of precursors from nitrifying biofilms. Periodic treatment of two nitrifying facilities with breakpoint chlorination (BPC) temporarily suppressed nitrification and reduced precursor levels for N-nitrosamines, HANs, and HAMs, as reflected by lower concentrations of these DBPs measured after re-establishment of a chloramine residual within the facilities than prior to the BPC treatment. However, BPC promoted the formation of halogenated DBPs while a free chlorine residual was maintained. Strategies that minimize application of free chlorine while preventing nitrification are needed to control DBP precursor release in storage facilities.

  10. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  11. Optical monitoring of Disinfection By-product Precursors with Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping (F-EEM): Practical Application Issues for Drinking, Waste and Reuse Water Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water, wastewater and reuse plants must deal with regulations associated with bacterial contamination and halogen disinfection procedures that can generate harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HOAAs) and other compounds. The natural fluorescent chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is regulated as the major DBP precursor. This study outlines the advantages and current limitations associated with optical monitoring of water treatment processes using tcontemporary Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping (F-EEM). The F-EEM method coupled with practical peak indexing and multi-variate analyses is potentially superior in terms of cost, speed and sensitivity over conventional total organic carbon (TOC) meters and specific UV-absorbance (SUVA) measurements. Hence there is strong interest in developing revised environmental regulations around the F-EEM technique instruments which can incidentally simultaneously measure the SUVA and DOC parameters. Importantly, the F-EEM technique, compared to the single-point TOC and SUVA signals can resolve CDOM classes distinguishing those that strongly cause DBPs. The F-EEM DBP prediction method can be applied to surface water sources to evaluate DBP potential as a function of the point sources and reservoir depth profiles. It can also be applied in-line to rapidly adjust DOC removal processes including sedimentation-flocculation, microfiltration, reverse-osmosis, and ozonation. Limitations and interferences for F-EEMs are discussed including those common to SUVA and TOC in contrast to the advantages including that F-EEMs are less prone to interferences from inorganic carbon and metal contaminations and require little if any chemical preparation. In conclusion, the F-EEM method is discussed in terms of not only the DBP problem but also as a means of predicting (concurrent to DBP monitoring) organic membrane fouling in water-reuse and desalination plants.

  12. Use of industrial by-products and natural media to adsorb nutrients, metals and organic carbon from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Maebh A; Healy, Mark G; Clifford, Eoghan

    2015-06-15

    Filtration technology is well established in the water sector but is limited by inability to remove targeted contaminants, found in surface and groundwater, which can be damaging to human health. This study optimises the design of filters by examining the efficacy of seven media (fly ash, bottom ash, Bayer residue, granular blast furnace slag (GBS), pyritic fill, granular activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite), to adsorb nitrate, ammonium, total organic carbon (TOC), aluminium, copper (Cu) and phosphorus. Each medium and contaminant was modelled to a Langmuir, Freundlich or Temkin adsorption isotherm, and the impact of pH and temperature (ranging from 10 °C to 29 °C) on their performance was quantified. As retention time within water filters is important in contaminant removal, kinetic studies were carried out to observe the adsorption behaviour over a 24h period. Fly ash and Bayer residue had good TOC, nutrient and Cu adsorption capacity. Granular blast furnace slag and pyritic fill, previously un-investigated in water treatment, showed adsorption potential for all contaminants. In general, pH or temperature adjustment was not necessary to achieve effective adsorption. Kinetic studies showed that at least 60% of adsorption had occurred after 8h for all media. These media show potential for use in a multifunctional water treatment unit for the targeted treatment of specific contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water and Evaluation of Potential Health Risks of Long-Term Exposure in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nsikak U; Akintokun, Oyeronke A; Adedapo, Adebusayo E

    2017-01-01

    Levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water from water treatment plants (WTPs) in Nigeria were studied using a gas chromatograph (GC Agilent 7890A with autosampler Agilent 7683B) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The mean concentrations of the trihalomethanes ranged from zero in raw water samples to 950  μ g/L in treated water samples. Average concentration values of THMs in primary and secondary disinfection samples exceeded the standard maximum contaminant levels. Results for the average THMs concentrations followed the order TCM > BDCM > DBCM > TBM. EPA-developed models were adopted for the estimation of chronic daily intakes (CDI) and excess cancer incidence through ingestion pathway. Higher average intake was observed in adults (4.52 × 10 -2  mg/kg-day), while the ingestion in children (3.99 × 10 -2  mg/kg-day) showed comparable values. The total lifetime cancer incidence rate was relatively higher in adults than children with median values 244 and 199 times the negligible risk level.

  14. Application of effect-directed analysis to identify mutagenic nitrogenous disinfection by-products of advanced oxidation drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vughs, D.; Baken, K.A.; Kolkman, A.; Martijn, A.J.; de Voogt, P.

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants in (drinking) water treatment. It is however known that medium pressure UV/H2O2 treatment may lead to mutagenicity in the Ames test, which is no longer present after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Many

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  16. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  17. Comparative cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of 13 drinking water disinfection by-products using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Miao, Dong-Yue; Tan, Li; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The implications of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in drinking water are of public health concern because of their potential mutagenic, carcinogenic and other toxic effects on humans. In this study, we selected 13 main DBPs found in drinking water to quantitatively analyse their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. With the developed SOS/umu test, eight DBPs: 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-fura3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-[5H]-furanone (MX), dibromoacetonitrile (DBN), iodoacetic acid (IA), bromochloroacetonitrile (BCN), bromoacetic acid (BA), trichloroacetonitrile (TCN), dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) were significantly genotoxic to S. typhimurium. Three DBPs: chloroacetic acid (CA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCN) were weakly genotoxic, whereas the remaining DBPs: chloroacetonitrile (CN) and chloral hydrate (CH) were negative. The rank order in decreasing genotoxicity was as follows: MX > DBN > IA > BCN > BA > TCN > DBA > DCA > CA, TCA, DCN > CN, CH. MX was approximately 370 000 times more genotoxic than DCA. In the microplate-based cytotoxicity assay, cytotoxic potencies of the 13 DBPs were compared and ranked in decreasing order as follows: MX > IA > DBN > BCN > BA > TCN > DCN > CA > DCA > DBA > CN > TCA > CH. MX was approximately 19 200 times more cytotoxic than CH. A statistically significant correlation was found between cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the 13 DBPs in S. typhimurium. Results suggest that microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and the developed SOS/umu assay are feasible tools for analysing the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DBPs, particularly for comparing their toxic intensities quantitatively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  18. Removal of alachlor, diuron and isoproturon in water in a falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor combined with adsorption on activated carbon textile: Reaction mechanisms and oxidation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Wardenier, Niels; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Nikiforov, Anton; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Leys, Christophe; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-03

    A falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor combined with adsorption on activated carbon textile material was optimized to minimize the formation of hazardous oxidation by-products from the treatment of persistent pesticides (alachlor, diuron and isoproturon) in water. The formation of by-products and the reaction mechanism was investigated by HPLC-TOF-MS. The maximum concentration of each by-product was at least two orders of magnitude below the initial pesticide concentration, during the first 10 min of treatment. After 30 min of treatment, the individual by-product concentrations had decreased to values of at least three orders of magnitude below the initial pesticide concentration. The proposed oxidation pathways revealed five main oxidation steps: dechlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation, addition of a double-bonded oxygen and nitrification. The latter is one of the main oxidation mechanisms of diuron and isoproturon for air plasma treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the formation of nitrificated intermediates is reported for the plasma treatment of non-phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated Water-Purification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  20. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  1. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  2. Technology for recovery of byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyl, H.H.

    1983-02-01

    In this paper, a byproduct is considered to be any product from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant other than the principal products of uranium and plutonium. Those which have been recovered on a large scale include: 237 Np, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and 144 Ce. Other byproducts which have been recovered in small amounts during development efforts are: Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Xe. This paper reviews the byproducts of interest, compares and contrasts byproduct recovery with waste management, describes current and past byproduct recovery operations, development status of alternative processes, and bases for selection among alternative processes in developing an integrated byproduct recovery plant

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  4. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground

  5. MODERATING INFLUENCE OF THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT DIBROMOACETIC ACID ON A DITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE IN FEMALE RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfection by-product dibromoacetic acid (DBA) has been found in female rats to increase circulating concentrations of both estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). This effect is apparently due, at least in part, to a suppression in hepatic catabolism. The present study investigat...

  6. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  7. Pressurized water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Design and mode of operation of the main PWR components are described: reactor core, pressure vessel and internals, cooling systems with pumps and steam generators, ancillary systems, and waste processing. (TK) [de

  8. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  9. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  10. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  11. Changes in blood lead levels associated with use of chloramines in water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P; Paul, Christopher J; Galeano, M Alicia Overstreet

    2007-02-01

    More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents.

  12. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Sun; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The scope of this study consists of : in relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A., a determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material, a tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  13. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  14. Toxicity of fluorescent tracers and their degradation byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gombert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracer tests are frequently used to delineate catchment area of water supply springs in karstic zones. In the karstic chalk of Normandy, the main tracers used are fluorescent: uranine, sulforhodamine B, naphtionate, and Tinopal®. In this area, a statistical analysis shows that less than half of the injected tracers joins the monitored restitution points and enters the drinking water system where they undergo chlorination. Most of the injected tracers is absorbed in the rock matrix or is thrown out of the aquifer via karstic springs: then it can join superficial waters where it is degraded due to the sun and air action. The paper presents firstly the laboratory degradation of a first batch of fluorescent tracers in contact with chlorine, in order to simulate their passage through a water treatment system for human consumption. A second batch of the same tracers is subjected to agents of natural degradation: ultraviolet illumination, sunlight and air sparging. Most tracers is degraded, and toxicity and ecotoxicity tests (on rats, daphniae and algae are performed on degradation byproducts. These tests do not show any acute toxicity but a low to moderate ecotoxicity. In conclusion, the most used fluorescent tracers of the Normandy karstic chalk and their artificial and natural degradation byproducts do not exhibit significant toxicity to humans and the aquatic environment, at the concentrations generally noted at the restitution points.

  15. Lethal and sub-lethal evaluation of Indigo Carmine dye and byproducts after TiO2 photocatalysis in the immune system of Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genázio Pereira, Patrícia Christina; Reimão, Roberta Valoura; Pavesi, Thelma; Saggioro, Enrico Mendes; Moreira, Josino Costa; Veríssimo Correia, Fábio

    2017-09-01

    The Indigo carmine (IC) dye has been widely used in textile industries, even though it has been considered toxic for rats, pigs and humans. Owing to its toxicity, wastes containing this compound should be treated to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the biota. As an alternative to wastewater treatment, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been highlighted due to their high capacity to destruct organic molecules. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate Indigo Carmine toxicity to soil organisms using the earthworm Eisenia andrei as a model-organism and also verify the efficiency of AOP in reducing its toxicity to these organisms. To this end, lethal (mortality) and sub-lethal (loss or gain of biomass, reproduction, behavior, morphological changes and immune system cells) effects caused by this substance and its degradation products in these annelids were evaluated. Morphological changes were observed even in organisms exposed to low concentrations, while mortality was the major effect observed in individuals exposed to high levels of indigo carmine dye. The organisms exposed to the IC during the contact test showed mortality after 72h of exposure (LC 50 = 75.79mgcm - 2 ), while those exposed to photoproducts showed mortality after 48h (LC 50 = 243min). In the chronic study, the organisms displayed a mortality rate of 14%, while those exposed to the photoproduct reached up to 32.7%. A negative influence of the dye on the reproduction rate was observed, while by-products affected juvenile survival. A loss of viability and alterations in the cellular proportion was verified during the chronic test. However, the compounds did not alter the behavior of the annelids in the leak test (RL ranged from 20% to 30%). Although photocatalysis has been presented as an alternative technology for the treatment of waste containing the indigo carmine dye, this process produced byproducts even more toxic than the original compounds to E. andrei. Copyright © 2017

  16. The toxicity of a new disinfection by-product, 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its occurrence in the chlorinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shilin; Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei; Tao, Hui

    2015-11-01

    The detection method of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product (DBP) in chlorinated drinking water, was established using a gas chromatograph coupled with a micro-electron capture detector. The chlorinated water samples were taken from ten drinking water treatment plants around Yangtze River or Taihu Lake in China. The concentration of DCAcAm was detected ranging from 0.5 to 1.8μg/L in the waterworks around Yangtze River, and 1.5-2.6μg/L around Taihu Lake. The toxicity of DCAcAm on adult zebrafish was assessed by investigating the metabolism damage with multiple metabolic biomarkers and the accumulation capability with bio-concentration factor. The results showed that DCAcAm could cause the acute metabolism damage and was easily accumulated in zebrafish, and should be extremely cautioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drinking-water monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring system was developed by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for monitoring the quality of drinking-water. It is based on the experience made with the installation of UWEDAT (registered trademark) environmental monitoring networks in several Austrian provinces and regions. The standard version of the drinking-water monitoring system comprises sensors for measuring chemical parameters in water, radioactivity in water and air, and meteorological values of the environment. Further measuring gauges, e.g. for air pollutants, can be connected at any time, according to customers' requirements. For integration into regional and supraregional networks, station computers take over the following tasks: Collection of data and status signals transmitted by the subsystem, object protection, intermediate storage and communication of data to the host or several subcentres via Datex-P postal service, permanent lines or radiotransmission

  18. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  19. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  20. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  1. Evaluation of the water disinfection by-product dichloroacetonitrile-induced biochemical, oxidative, histopathological, and mitochondrial functional alterations: Subacute oral toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Fang; Shen, Haijun; Lu, Rongzhu; Yin, Siqi; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhuangfa; Wang, Suhua

    2018-03-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), an emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-product, is more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the currently regulated carbonaceous disinfection by-products such as haloacetic acids. Few mechanistic studies have been conducted on the hepatic and renal toxicities of DCAN. This study examined the clinical biochemical, hematological, histopathological, oxidative, and mitochondrial functional alterations to evaluate the systematic toxicity after subacute oral exposure of 11 or 44 mg/kg/day in rats for 28 days. Body and spleen weights were lower, and organ-to-body weight ratios of the liver and kidney were higher in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN than in controls. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of blood serum urea nitrogen and retinol-binding protein were increased in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN compared with those of controls, thereby indicating hepatic and renal damage in this group. This was confirmed by histopathological alterations, including hepatic sinus dilation, extensive hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration in the liver and glomerulus hemorrhage, and renal tubular swelling, in DCAN-exposed rats. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN induced hepatic oxidative damage shown by the significant increase in malonaldehyde levels, a poisonous product of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN significantly increased hepatic glutathione content and mitochondrial bioenergy as noted by the elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c oxidase activity, which might be attributed to compensatory pathophysiologic responses to DCAN-induced hepatic mitochondrial damage.

  2. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  4. An integrated membrane system for the biocatalytic production of 3′-sialyllactose from dairy by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Morthensen, Sofie Thage

    2014-01-01

    An integrated membrane system was investigated for the production of 30-sialyllactose by an engineered sialidase using casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and lactose as substrates. CGMP was purified by ultrafiltration (UF) to remove any small molecules present and then an enzymatic membrane reactor ...

  5. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-11

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.

  6. Propulsion Systems in Water Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Fujisawa

    1995-01-01

    agreement with the field experiment with prototype craft. Measurements are also made for the losses in the intake and the nozzle. The optimization study of the water jet systems is conducted by simulating the change of the nozzle outlet diameter with the variable nozzle arrangement. It is suggested that the nozzle outlet diameter should be decreased as the craft velocity increases to obtain an optimum propulsive efficiency in a wide range of craft velocity.

  7. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  8. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  9. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  10. The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Hanh Nguyen; Nassim Sebaibi; Mohamed Boutouil; Lydia Leleyter; Fabienne Baraud

    2013-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems. Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervi...

  11. Man-made organic compounds in source water of nine community water systems that withdraw from streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2008-01-01

    Initial findings from a national study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterize the occurrence of about 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water (defined as water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment) at nine community water systems in nine States in the Nation. The organic compounds analyzed in this study are primarily man-made and include pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. The study also describes and compares the occurrence of selected compounds detected in source water with their occurrence in finished water, which is defined as water that has passed through treatment processes but prior to distribution. This fact sheet summarizes major findings and implications of the study and serves as a companion product to two USGS reports that present more detailed and technical information for the nine systems studied during 2002-05 (Carter and others, 2007; Kingsbury and others, 2008).

  12. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  13. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  14. Water management - management actions applied to water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovski, Ljupcho; Tanchev, Ljubomir

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented a general description of water resource systems, a systematisation of the management tasks and the approaches for solution, including a review of methods used for solution of water management tasks and the fundamental postulates in the management. The management of water resources is a synonym for the management actions applied to water resource systems. It is a general term that unites planning and exploitation of the systems. The modern planning assumes separating the water racecourse part from the hydro technical part of the project. The water resource study is concerned with the solution for the resource problem. This means the parameters of the system are determined in parallel with the definition of the water utilisation regime. The hydro-technical part of the project is the design of structures necessary for the water resource solution. (Original)

  15. Methodology for the modeling of an interface monitoring system for petroleum by-products in poly ducts using gamma radiation attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William Luna

    2018-01-01

    Pipelines are interconnected ducts systems used to transport large quantities of petroleum and its by-products, are more economical, eliminate the need for stocks and, in addition, present great safety in operation minimizing the possibility of loss or theft. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same transport line is used to carry more than one type of product (poliduct), such as: gasoline, diesel and kerosene. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of volume of the previous product thus occurring contaminations. The traditional solution is to discard all this volume; however it is important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. This work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in the precise identification of the interface region by optimizing the transportation of petroleum by - products into polyducts. The study considered geometry composed of a source of 137 Cs, an acrylic tubing measuring 8.0 cm in diameter and a 1 x 1 “NaI (T1) detector, a position diametrically opposed to a radiation source to measure the transmitted beam. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo method with the MCNPX code, measurement geometry with the highest sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions was proposed. The pertinent technical data (dimensions and materials) to perform the simulation of the detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations and the results show that it is possible to identify the interface region with an accuracy of 1%. (author)

  16. Monte-Carlo and multi-exposure assessment for the derivation of criteria for disinfection byproducts and volatile organic compounds in drinking water: Allocation factors and liter-equivalents per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Megumi; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kido, Junki; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2018-06-01

    The probability distributions of total potential doses of disinfection byproducts and volatile organic compounds via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure were estimated with Monte Carlo simulations, after conducting physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations to takes into account the differences in availability between the three exposures. If the criterion that the 95th percentile estimate equals the TDI (tolerable daily intake) is regarded as protecting the majority of a population, the drinking water criteria would be 140 (trichloromethane), 66 (bromodichloromethane), 157 (dibromochloromethane), 203 (tribromomethane), 140 (dichloroacetic acid), 78 (trichloroacetic acid), 6.55 (trichloroethylene, TCE), and 22 μg/L (perchloroethylene). The TCE criterion was lower than the Japanese Drinking Water Quality Standard (10 μg/L). The latter would allow the intake of 20% of the population to exceed the TDI. Indirect inhalation via evaporation from water, especially in bathrooms, was the major route of exposure to compounds other than haloacetic acids (HAAs) and accounted for 1.2-9 liter-equivalents/day for the median-exposure subpopulation. The ingestion of food was a major indirect route of exposure to HAAs. Contributions of direct water intake were not very different for trihalomethanes (30-45% of TDIs) and HAAs (45-52% of TDIs). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  18. Heavy water upgrading system in the Fugen heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Susaki, S.

    1980-01-01

    The heavy water upgrading system, which is installed in the Fugen heavy water reactor (HWR) was designed to reuse degraded heavy water generated from the deuteration-dedeuteration of resin in the ion exchange column of the moderator purification system. The electrolysis method has been applied in this system on the basis of the predicted generation rate and concentration of degraded heavy water. The structural feature of the electrolytic cell is that it consists of dual cylindrical electrodes, instead of a diaphragm as in the case of conventional water electrolysis. 2 refs

  19. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems (CWSs) in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that is treated and ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before entering the distribution system. SWQA studies are conducted in two phases, and the objectives of SWQA studies are twofold: (1) to determine the occurrence and, for rivers, seasonal changes in concentrations of a broad list of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in aquifers and rivers that have some of the largest withdrawals for drinking-water supply (phase 1), and (2) for those AOCs found to occur most frequently in source water, characterize the extent to which these compounds are present in finished water (phase 2). These objectives were met for SWQA studies by collecting ground-water and surface-water (source) samples and analyzing these samples for 258 AOCs during phase 1. Samples from a subset of wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production in the watershed were analyzed for 19 additional AOCs, for a total of 277 compounds analyzed for SWQA studies. The 277 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and

  20. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  1. Alternative disinfection technology for water purification systems; Josui shori ni okeru enso daitai shodoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, T. [The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    This paper describes chlorination substituting disinfection technologies used in water purification systems. Chloramine treatment is regarded as effective in reducing trihalomethane (THM). Chlorine is injected in the initial stage in the form of free chlorine to disinfect pathogenic microorganisms in a short time, which is then added with ammonia to convert it into chloramine for further utilization. Chlorine dioxide has not been used in Japan, but introduced in Europe and America to treat THM. Ozone has the strongest oxidizing power, and is used for disinfection, virus inactivation, decomposition of THM precursors, and removal of fungus odor. The ozone treatment will produce aldehyde if an organic matter is present, but aldehyde can be removed by treatment using organismic activated carbon. Ultraviolet ray treatment has an advantage of being difficult of producing byproducts. This system was experimentally compared with free chlorine treatment on disinfection effect, mutagenicity, suppression of producing THM byproducts, and odor removal. In order to assure reliability of microorganismic and chemical safety in tap water supply systems, assurance by considering the entire system is important, not only by operating the disinfection units, but also combining such physical water purifying technologies as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and membrane treatment. The use of chlorine substituting disinfectants is also a part of the conception. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  3. A Decision Support System for Drinking Water Production Integrating Health Risks Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T.; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G.; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. PMID:25046634

  4. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  5. Ames and random amplified polymorphic DNA tests for the validation of the mutagenic and/or genotoxic potential of the drinking water disinfection by-products chloroform and bromoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallef, Messaouda; Cenkci, Süleyman; Akyil, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu; Konuk, Muhsin; Benouareth, Djamel Eddine

    2018-01-28

    Chloroform and Bromoform are two abundant trihalomethanes found in Algerian drinking water. The investigation of the mutagenic hazard of these disinfection by-products was studied by Ames test as prokaryotic bioassay to show their mutagenic effects. For this, Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains were employed. Both chloroform and bromoform showed a direct mutagenic effect since the number of revertant colonies gradually increase in dose-dependent manner with all concentrations tested with the two bacterial strains and these were both in the absence and presence of S9 metabolic activation. The genotoxic hazard was also studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA test on the root cells of Allium cepa as eukaryotic bioassay. DNA extracted from the roots of the onion were incubated at different concentrations of chloroform and bromoform and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction. This was based on demonstrating a major effect of disappearance of bands compared to roots incubated in the negative control (distilled water). The results showed that these two compounds affected genomic DNA by breaks although by mutations.

  6. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  7. Silver disinfection in water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestry Rodriguez, Nadia

    Silver was evaluated as disinfectant to maintain water quality in water distribution system. It was used to inhibit growth of two opportunistic bacteria in planktonik form and in biofilm formation in Robbins devices with stainless steel and PVC surfaces. The results of this work show that silver is a potential secondary disinfectant to be used in water distribution systems.

  8. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  9. Greening the global water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  10. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study is to develop the technical criteria and regulatory system for establishing the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally. Up to this point, domestically, though many byproduct materials are distributed and used already, it seems that there are no related technical criteria and regulatory system and it becomes an obstacle in the development of relating industry. Since this kind of situation may give negative impact on the proper recognizance of the radiation to public, it is very urgent to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material. In relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A. A determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material. A tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  11. Power System Operations With Water Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The interdependency between water and energy, although known for many decades, has not received enough attention until recent events under extreme weather conditions (especially droughts). On one hand, water and several types of energy supplies have become increasingly scarce; the demand on water and energy continues to grow. On the other hand, the climate change has become more and more disruptive (i.e., intensity and frequency of extreme events), causing severe challenges to both systems simultaneously. Water and energy systems have become deeply coupled and challenges from extreme weather events must be addressed in a coordinated way across the two systems.In this work, we will build quantitative models to capture the interactions between water and energy systems. We will incorporate water constraints in power system operations and study the impact of water scarcity on power system resilience.

  12. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  13. Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System (AMWAS) recovers and purifies water from Mars soils for oxygen and fuel production, life support, food production, and...

  14. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  15. OZONATION BY-PRODUCTS 2. IMPROVEMENT OF AN AQUEOUS- PHASE DERIVITIZATION METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF FORMALDEHYDE AND OTHER CARBONYL COMPOUNDS FORMED BY THE OZONATION OF DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the determination of low molecular weight aldehydes in water using aqueous-phase derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride has been improved by the use of high-resolution capillary GC. Detection limits with GC/ECD and GC/MS with ...

  16. 77 FR 8865 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Illinois is also applying its Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection... for Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection By-product..., Ground Water and Drinking Water Branch (WG-15J), 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. FOR...

  17. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... accordance with the provisions of section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and... Water Treatment Rule, Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule and Ground Water Rule that correspond to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) in 40 CFR part 141 and 142. The EPA has...

  18. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  19. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  20. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  1. The advanced EctoSys electrolysis as an integral part of a ballast water treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echardt, J; Kornmueller, A

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale 500 m(3)/h ballast water treatment system was tested according to the landbased type approval procedure of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The system consists of disc filters followed by the advanced EctoSys electrolysis as an integral part for disinfection. The test water quality exceeded by far the minimum requirements for type approval testing. Due to the properties of the special electrodes used together with the striking disinfection effect, the disinfectants assumed to be produced inline by the EctoSys cell in river water were hydroxyl radicals, while in brackish water additionally chlorine and consequently the more stable bromine were formed. In river water, no residual oxidants could be detected in accordance with the assumed production of not responding, highly-reactive and short-living hydroxyl radicals. Accordingly, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation was very low and close to the limit of quantification in river water. While in brackish water, initial residual oxidant concentrations were maximum 2 mg/L as chlorine and mostly brominated DBP (especially bromoform and bromate) were found. Overall considering this worst case test approach, the DBP concentrations of the treated effluents were below or in the range of the WHO Drinking Water Guideline values and therefore evaluated as acceptable for discharge to the environment. The stringent discharge standard by IMO concerning viable organisms was fully met in river and brackish water, proving the disinfection efficiency of the EctoSys electrolysis against smaller plankton and bacteria.

  2. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.W. [Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  4. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  5. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  7. Gaseous byproducts from high-temperature thermal conversion elemental analysis of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds with considerations for δ2H and δ18O analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsinger, Glendon B; Tipple, Christopher A; Stern, Libby A

    2013-07-30

    High-temperature, conversion-reduction (HTC) systems convert hydrogen and oxygen in materials into H2 and CO for δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. HTC of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing materials produces unintended byproduct gases that could affect isotope analyses by: (1) allowing isotope exchange reactions downstream of the HTC reactor, (2) creating isobaric or co-elution interferences, and (3) causing deterioration of the chromatography. This study characterizes these HTC byproducts. A HTC system (ThermoFinnigan TC/EA) was directly connected to a gas chromatograph/quadrupole mass spectrometer in scan mode (m/z 8 to 88) to identify the volatile products generated by HTC at conversion temperatures of 1350 °C and 1450 °C for a range of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing solids [keratin powder, horse hair, caffeine, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea, and three nitrated organic explosives (PETN, RDX, and TNT)]. The prominent HTC byproduct gases include carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, methane, acetylene, and water for all nitrogen-bearing compounds, as well as carbon disulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide for sulfur-bearing compounds. The 1450 °C reactor temperature reduced the abundance of most byproduct gases, but increased the significant byproduct, hydrogen cyanide. Inclusion of a post-reactor chemical trap containing Ascarite II and Sicapent, in series, eliminated the majority of byproducts. This study identified numerous gaseous HTC byproducts. The potential adverse effects of these gases on isotope ratio analyses are unknown but may be mitigated by higher HTC reactor temperatures and purifying the products with a purge-and-trap system or with chemical traps. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    controllers, centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, leak detection sensors, and the use of harvested water (i.e., rainwater and air condition water ...include ET functionality with soil moisture sensor, and leak detection via flow meter. ESTCP Final Report Smart Water Conservation System 58... leakage . The minimum static pressure was not achieved because tank water levels were less than 10 feet in the selected low profile tank.) Adjust break

  9. Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1982-01-01

    The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

  10. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  11. Biochar-based water treatment systems as a potential low-cost and sustainable technology for clean water provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chaukura, Nhamo; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Mukome, Fungai N D

    2017-07-15

    Approximately 600 million people lack access to safe drinking water, hence achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030) calls for rapid translation of recent research into practical and frugal solutions within the remaining 13 years. Biochars, with excellent capacity to remove several contaminants from aqueous solutions, constitute an untapped technology for drinking water treatment. Biochar water treatment has several potential merits compared to existing low-cost methods (i.e., sand filtration, boiling, solar disinfection, chlorination): (1) biochar is a low-cost and renewable adsorbent made using readily available biomaterials and skills, making it appropriate for low-income communities; (2) existing methods predominantly remove pathogens, but biochars remove chemical, biological and physical contaminants; (3) biochars maintain organoleptic properties of water, while existing methods generate carcinogenic by-products (e.g., chlorination) and/or increase concentrations of chemical contaminants (e.g., boiling). Biochars have co-benefits including provision of clean energy for household heating and cooking, and soil application of spent biochar improves soil quality and crop yields. Integrating biochar into the water and sanitation system transforms linear material flows into looped material cycles, consistent with terra preta sanitation. Lack of design information on biochar water treatment, and environmental and public health risks constrain the biochar technology. Seven hypotheses for future research are highlighted under three themes: (1) design and optimization of biochar water treatment; (2) ecotoxicology and human health risks associated with contaminant transfer along the biochar-soil-food-human pathway, and (3) life cycle analyses of carbon and energy footprints of biochar water treatment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Defect and Innovation of Water Rights System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bin

    2008-01-01

    The rare deposition of water resources conflicts with its limitless demand. This determined the existence of the water rights transaction system. The implementation of the water rights transaction system requires clarifying the definition of water re-source fight above all distinctly. At present, it is a kind of common right system arrangement which needs the Chinese government to dispose of water resources. Though a series of management sys-tems guaranteed the government's supply of water resource, it hindered the development of the water market seriously and caused the utilization of water resources to stay in the inefficient or low efficient state for a long time. Thus, we should change the government's leading role in the resource distribution and really rely on the market to carry on the water rights trade and transac-tion. In this way, the water rights could become a kind of private property right relatively, and circulate freely in the market. As a result of this, we should overcome the defects of common right, make its external performance internalized maximally and achieve the optimized water resource disposition and use it more effec-tively.

  13. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  14. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  15. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  16. Rotating Ceramic Water Filter Discs System for Water Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to design, construct and operate a new laboratory scale water filtration system. This system was used to examine the efficiency of two ceramic filter discs as a medium for water filtration. These filters were made from two different ceramic mixtures of local red clay, sawdust, and water. The filtration system was designed with two rotating interfered modules of these filters. Rotating these modules generates shear force between water and the surfaces of filter discs of the filtration modules that works to reduce thickness of layer of rejected materials on the filters surfaces. Each module consists of seven filtration units and each unit consists of two ceramic filter discs. The average measured hydraulic conductivity of the first module was 13.7mm/day and that for the second module was 50mm/day. Results showed that the water filtration system can be operated continuously with a constant flow rate and the filtration process was controlled by a skin thin layer of rejected materials. The ceramic water filters of both filtration modules have high removal efficiency of total suspended solids up to 100% and of turbidity up to 99.94%.

  17. Organic chloramines in chlorine-based disinfected water systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Zuo Tong; Kristiana, Ina; Busetti, Francesco; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A

    2017-08-01

    This paper is a critical review of current knowledge of organic chloramines in water systems, including their formation, stability, toxicity, analytical methods for detection, and their impact on drinking water treatment and quality. The term organic chloramines may refer to any halogenated organic compounds measured as part of combined chlorine (the difference between the measured free and total chlorine concentrations), and may include N-chloramines, N-chloramino acids, N-chloraldimines and N-chloramides. Organic chloramines can form when dissolved organic nitrogen or dissolved organic carbon react with either free chlorine or inorganic chloramines. They are potentially harmful to humans and may exist as an intermediate for other disinfection by-products. However, little information is available on the formation or occurrence of organic chloramines in water due to a number of challenges. One of the biggest challenges for the identification and quantification of organic chloramines in water systems is the lack of appropriate analytical methods. In addition, many of the organic chloramines that form during disinfection are unstable, which results in difficulties in sampling and detection. To date research has focussed on the study of organic monochloramines. However, given that breakpoint chlorination is commonly undertaken in water treatment systems, the formation of organic dichloramines should also be considered. Organic chloramines can be formed from many different precursors and pathways. Therefore, studying the occurrence of their precursors in water systems would enable better prediction and management of their formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  19. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  20. Water system integration of a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Pingyou; Feng Xiao; Qian Feng; Cao Dianliang

    2006-01-01

    Water system integration can minimize both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge of a plant. In industrial applications, it is the key to determine reasonably the contaminants and the limiting concentrations, which will decide the freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge of the system. In this paper, some rules to determine the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are proposed. As a case study, the water system in a chemical plant that produces sodium hydroxide and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is integrated. The plant consumes a large amount of freshwater and discharges a large amount of wastewater, so minimization of both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge is very important to it. According to the requirements of each water using process on the water used in it, the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are determined. Then, the optimal water reuse scheme is firstly studied based on the water network with internal water mains. To reduce the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge further, decentralized regeneration recycling is considered. The water using network is simplified by mixing some of the used water. After the water system integration, the freshwater consumption is reduced 25.5%, and the wastewater discharge is reduced 48%

  1. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  2. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  3. PWR secondary water chemistry diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Hattori, T.; Yamauchi, S.; Kato, A.; Suganuma, S.; Yoshikawa, T.

    1989-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the most important tasks in order to maintain the reliability of plant equipments and extend operating life of the plant. We developed an advanced water chemistry management system which is able to monitor and diagnose secondary water chemistry. A prototype system had been installed at one plant in Japan since Nov. 1986 in order to evaluate system performance and man-machine interface. The diagnosis system has been successfully tested off line using synthesized plant data for various cases. We are continuing to improve the applicability and develop new technology which make it evaluate steam generator crevice chemistry. (author)

  4. Water turbine system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  5. Experimental cancer studies of chlorinated by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    Chlorinated drinking water contains a number of different by-products formed during the chlorination process from organic matter. The carcinogenicity of only a fraction of them have been evaluated in experimental animals. The focus has been on compounds and groups of compounds that are most abundant in chlorinated drinking water or the in vitro toxicity data have suggested genotoxic potential. From trihalomethanes, chloroform causes liver tumors in mice and female rats and renal tumors in male mice and rats. Tumor formation by chloroform is strongly associated with cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation in tissues and that has been considered to be one determinant of its carcinogenicity. From halogenic acetic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichlotoacetic acid (TCA) are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and DCA in male rats. Their genotoxicity is equivocal and nongenotoxic mechanisms, such as peroxisome proliferation and hypomethylation of DNA in the liver, likely contribute to tumor development. From chlorinated furanones (CHFs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) is a multisite carcinogen in rats (e.g. in thyroid glands and liver) and it has caused DNA damage in vivo. MX may be a complete carcinogen because it also has promoter properties in vitro. Chlorinated drinking water may also contain brominated by-products providing the raw water contains bromide. At least some of them (bromodichloromethane, bromoform) have been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Altogether, although several by-products have been shown to have carcinogenic potential in laboratory animals, it not yet possible to state which compounds or groups of by-products cause the cancer risk in chlorinated drinking water. The cellular mechanisms of their effects and these effects at low concentrations are still poorly understood. The few studies with mixtures of these by-products suggest that the mixture effects may be complex and unpredictable (inhibitory

  6. Water hammer analysis in a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twyman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The solution to water hammer in a water distribution system (WDS is shown by applying three hybrid methods (HM based on the Box’s scheme, McCormack's method and Diffusive Scheme. Each HM formulation in conjunction with their relative advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. The analyzed WDS has pipes with different lengths, diameters and wave speeds, being the Courant number different in each pipe according to the adopted discretization. The HM results are compared with the results obtained by the Method of Characteristics (MOC. In reviewing the numerical attenuation, second order schemes based on Box and McCormack are more conservative from a numerical point of view, being recommendable their application in the analysis of water hammer in water distribution systems.

  7. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  8. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, P.

    1997-09-01

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made

  9. Impact of Hybrid Water Supply on the Centralised Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitzenfrei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional (technical concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination with their short-sighted planning and design. A combination of (existing centralised and decentralised infrastructure is expected to be more reliable and sustainable. However, the impact of increasing implementation of decentralised technologies on the local technical performance in sewer or water supply networks and the interaction with the urban form has rarely been addressed in the literature. In this work, an approach which couples the UrbanBEATS model for the planning of decentralised strategies together with a water supply modelling approach is developed and applied to a demonstration case. With this novel approach, critical but also favourable areas for such implementations can be identified. For example, low density areas, which have high potential for rainwater harvesting, can result in local water quality problems in the supply network when further reducing usually low pipe velocities in these areas. On the contrary, in high demand areas (e.g., high density urban forms there is less effect of rainwater harvesting due to the limited available space. In these high density areas, water efficiency measures result in the highest savings in water volume, but do not cause significant problems in the technical performance of the potable water supply network. For a more generalised and case-independent conclusion, further analyses are performed for semi-virtual benchmark networks to answer the question of an appropriate representation of the water distribution system in a computational model for such an analysis. Inappropriate hydraulic model assumptions and characteristics were identified for the stated problem, which have more

  10. Proposal of a integrated system for the complete usage of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakao, Shin-ichi; Kato, Shigeru; Tsuji, Masamichi; Sugi, Jiro.

    1995-01-01

    Very severe troubles of scale formation might be expected to occur when recovery of water from sea water increases. The main constituents of the scale are CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, all of which are salts of alkaline earth metals. Therefore, if a key technology is developed by which the main constituents of the scale, alkaline earth metal ions mentioned above, can be removed and/or separated from sea water, the recovery of desalted water from raw sea water by high-pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) can be increased up to 75-80%, the solubility limit of the remaining scale components. Then it will be possible to make use of all valuable materials existing in sea water, by an integrated system which combines conventional recovery technologies with a set of the proposed technologies such as HPRO, alkaline earth metal ions removal process, inorganic ion-exchangers for recovery of trace elements and so on. Furthermore, almost complete usage of sea water may be accomplished by irrigation of the brackish water by-product for salt-resistant plants such as mangrove, salt bush and, if possible, gene-recombinated plants. (author)

  11. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  12. INfluence of vinasse on water movement in soil, using automatic acquisition and handling data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de

    1986-01-01

    The vinasse, by-product of ethylic alcohol industry from the sugar cane juice or molasses yeast fermentation, has been incorporated in the soil as fertilizer, due to the its hight organic matter (2-6%), potassium and sulphate (0,1-0,5%) and other nutrient contents. By employing monoenergetic gamma-ray beam attenuation technique (241Am; 59,5 keV; 100 mCi) the influence of vinasse on the water movement in the soil was studied. For this, an automatic acquisition and handling data system was used, based in multichannel analyser, multi-scaling mode operated, coupled to a personal microcomputer and plotter. Despite the small depth studied (6 cm), it was observed that vinasse decreases the water infiltration velocity in the soil. (Author) [pt

  13. Models of the Water Systems in Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    Criteria for sustainable development in terms of managing a nation's water resources include the availability of water in required quantity and appropriate quality. This paper presents a set of water models developed for the IIASA/UNFPA Mauritius Project for use as an integral part of a system of models including demographic, economic, and land use models. The paper identifies the most important factors determining the available freshwater resources in Mauritius (climate, geology, hydrology),...

  14. Corrosion evaluation of service water system materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.A.; Felder, C.M.; Martin, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The availability and reliability of the service water system is critical for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. Degradation of the system piping and components has forced utilities to re-evaluate the corrosion behavior of current and alternative system materials, to support assessments of the remaining service life of the service water system, selection of replacement materials, implementation of corrosion protection methods and corrosion monitoring programs, and identification of maintenance and operational constraints consistent with the materials used. TU Electric and Stone and Webster developed a service water materials evaluation program for the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Because of the length of exposure and the generic interest in this program by the nuclear power industry, EPRI joined TU to co-sponsor the test program. The program was designed to evaluate the corrosion behavior of current system materials and candidate replacement materials and to determine the operational and design changes which could improve the corrosion performance of the system. Although the test program was designed to be representative of service water system materials and environments targeted to conditions at Comanche Peak, these conditions are typical of and relevant to other fresh water cooled nuclear service water systems. Testing was performed in raw water and water treated with biocide under typical service water operating conditions including continuous flow, intermittent flow, and stagnant conditions. The test program evaluated the 300 Series and 6% molybdenum stainless steels, copper-nickel, titanium, carbon steel, and a formed-in-place nonmetallic pipe lining to determine susceptibility to general, crevice, and microbiologically influenced corrosion and pitting attack. This report presents the results of the test program after 4 years of exposure

  15. Spatial and temporal occurrence of N-nitrosamines in seven drinking water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Isabelle J; Levallois, Patrick; Tremblay, Hélène; Sérodes, Jean; Deblois, Christian; Charrois, Jeffrey; Taguchi, Vincent; Boyd, Jessica; Li, Xingfang; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2013-09-01

    The spatiotemporal presence of eight N-nitrosamines in the water of seven supply systems in Quebec considered to be susceptible to these emerging disinfection by-products was evaluated. This is the first study on the presence of N-nitrosamines in drinking water utilities in Quebec. Seven sampling campaigns were carried out at several sampling points in each of the systems over a period of 1 year. The results show that N-nitrosamines, primarily N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), were not commonly detected in the water of the facilities under study (10 % of samples). The concentrations measured were lower than those reported in recent North American studies. None of the 195 samples taken exceeded the Ontario standard of 9 ng/L for NDMA (maximum value observed of 3.3 ng/L). N-nitrosomethylethylamine and N-nitrosopiperidine were detected once, with concentrations of 3.7 and 6.0 ng/L, respectively. Chloramination was identified as being the main risk factor regarding the presence of N-nitrosamines, but water quality and some operating parameters, in particular disinfectant residual, also seem to be related to their presence. NDMA concentrations at the end of the distribution systems were generally higher than water leaving the plant. No seasonal trends were observed for the formation of N-nitrosamines in the investigated supply systems. Finally, an association between the presence of N-nitrosamines and the levels of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids was observed in some facilities.

  16. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  17. Ecotoxicity of ketoprofen, diclofenac, atenolol and their photolysis byproducts in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, M.S., E-mail: mesd@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Salgado, R., E-mail: r.salgado@campus.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); ESTS-IPS, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Rua Vale de Chaves, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setúbal (Portugal); Pereira, V.J., E-mail: vanessap@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), Av. da República (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB)—Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Estação Agronómica Nacional, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Carvalho, G., E-mail: gs.carvalho@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), Av. da República (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Oehmen, A., E-mail: a.oehmen@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Reis, M.A.M., E-mail: amr@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Noronha, J.P., E-mail: jpnoronha@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters has been detected worldwide, constituting a potential risk for aquatic ecosystems. Adult zebrafish, of both sexes, were exposed to three common pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and their UV photolysis by-products over seven days. The results show that diclofenac was removed to concentrations < LOD after 5 min of UV irradiation. The oxidative stress response of zebrafish to pharmaceuticals and their photolysis by-products was evaluated through oxidative stress enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase) and lipid peroxidation. Results suggest that the photolysis by-products of diclofenac were more toxic than those from the other compounds tested, showing an increase in GST and CAT levels, which are also supported by higher MDA levels. Overall, the toxicity of waters containing atenolol and ketoprofen was reduced after the parent compounds were transformed by photolysis, whereas the toxicity increased significantly from the by-products generated through diclofenac photolysis. Therefore, diclofenac photolysis would possibly necessitate higher irradiation time to ensure that the associated by-products are completely degraded to harmless form(s). - Highlights: • Toxicity evaluated for 3 common pharmaceuticals (atenolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac). • Toxicity assessed for the pharmaceuticals and UV photolysis by-products in zebrafish. • Diclofenac photolysis by-products are more toxic than the parent compound. • Ketoprofen and atenolol show stronger oxidative stress response than by-products. • UV photolysis should ensure full removal of diclofenac metabolites to avoid toxicity.

  18. Ecotoxicity of ketoprofen, diclofenac, atenolol and their photolysis byproducts in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, M.S.; Salgado, R.; Pereira, V.J.; Carvalho, G.; Oehmen, A.; Reis, M.A.M.; Noronha, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters has been detected worldwide, constituting a potential risk for aquatic ecosystems. Adult zebrafish, of both sexes, were exposed to three common pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and their UV photolysis by-products over seven days. The results show that diclofenac was removed to concentrations < LOD after 5 min of UV irradiation. The oxidative stress response of zebrafish to pharmaceuticals and their photolysis by-products was evaluated through oxidative stress enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase) and lipid peroxidation. Results suggest that the photolysis by-products of diclofenac were more toxic than those from the other compounds tested, showing an increase in GST and CAT levels, which are also supported by higher MDA levels. Overall, the toxicity of waters containing atenolol and ketoprofen was reduced after the parent compounds were transformed by photolysis, whereas the toxicity increased significantly from the by-products generated through diclofenac photolysis. Therefore, diclofenac photolysis would possibly necessitate higher irradiation time to ensure that the associated by-products are completely degraded to harmless form(s). - Highlights: • Toxicity evaluated for 3 common pharmaceuticals (atenolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac). • Toxicity assessed for the pharmaceuticals and UV photolysis by-products in zebrafish. • Diclofenac photolysis by-products are more toxic than the parent compound. • Ketoprofen and atenolol show stronger oxidative stress response than by-products. • UV photolysis should ensure full removal of diclofenac metabolites to avoid toxicity

  19. Water masers in the Kronian system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco; Fernández, J. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Prialnik, D.; Schulz, R.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star (Hansen et al. 2006). Prompted by this discovery, we

  20. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  1. APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of the Photovoltaic system for water pumping is explored. .... employed to advantage for rural Ethiopia are solar energy, wind ... Kwh/sq.m/day and with a yearly average of about .... equator. Well Data : Total head 62m ... Investment return in photovoltaic potable water ... without any considerable change in performance.

  2. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  3. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  4. Shower Water Reuse System-Expanded Operations to Laundry Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    mixture, dimethylamine, has the potential to be converted to nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ) when reacted with nitrogen oxides, nitrous acid or nitrite salts...conditions which are likely present during the SWRS process. NDMA is classified as Group B2, probable human carcinogen and has an inhalation unit risk...treatment byproduct, nitrosodimethylamine. While it is likely that the NDMA will be below the detection limit and below a threshold of concern, its

  5. Light water reactor safeguards system evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Bennett, H.A.; Hulme, B.L.; Daniel, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology for assessing the effectiveness of safeguards systems was developed in this study and was applied to a typical light water reactor plant. The relative importance of detection systems, barriers, response forces and other safeguards system components was examined in extensive parameter variation studies. (author)

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system

  7. Life Support Systems: Wastewater Processing and Water Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Wastewater Processing and Water Management task: Within an integrated life support system, water...

  8. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  9. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  10. Effects of byproducts on intestinal microbiota and the immune modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Yoon Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although the efficacy of Rubus coreanus (RC byproducts as a feed additive has been recognized, its effects on intestinal microorganisms and the immune system are still unknown. Methods Six-week-old male rats were treated with 0.5% RC (T1, 1.0% RC (T2, and 1.5% RC (T3 for 4 weeks. Results We found that treatment with RC byproducts significantly increased the daily gain of body weight and feed intake. Treg-cell differentiation was enhanced in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen from the rats fed with RC byproducts. Illumina sequencing showed that bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes decreased and while those in the phylum Bacteroidetes increased in RC-treated groups. Particularly, the pathogenic microorganisms in the family Peptococcaceae decreased, and the non-pathogenic families Lachnospiraceae and S24-7 increased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the RC byproducts increased the lactic acid bacteria Bifidobacterium spp., Oscillospira spp., Leuconostoc citreum, and Weissella cibaria in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion RC byproducts may be effective in immunomodulation by affecting intestinal microorganisms.

  11. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ht ly M or e W or kl oa d; 5 -M or e W or kl oa d; 6 -S ig ni fic an lty M or...install the water harvesting and pump system was captured from the contractor cost proposal. 7.1.3 Water Cost Water purchased from the Port Hueneme Water...818) 737-2734 KDuke@valleycrest.com Contractor Tom Santoianni 1205 Mill Rd. Bldg. 1430 Public Works, Ventura (805) 982-4075 Tom.Santoianni@navy.mil Energy Manager

  12. The Impact of Commercially Treated Oil and Gas Produced Water Discharges on Bromide Concentrations and Modeled Brominated Trihalomethane Disinfection Byproducts at two Downstream Municipal Drinking Water Plants in the Upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species were observed in finished water at several Western Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in br...

  13. Adjustable speed drives improve circulating water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, R.A.; Dicic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    This paper illustrates the integration of electrical and mechanical engineering requirements to produce a solution to past problems and future operating demands. The application of adjustable speed drives in the modifications of the circulating water system at Indian Point No. 3 Nuclear Power Plant provided increased operating flexibility, efficiency and avoided otherwise costly renovations to the plant electrical systems. Rectification of the original inadequate design of the circulating water system, in addition to maximizing plant efficiency consistent with environmental considerations, formed the basis for this modification. This entailed replacement of all six circulating water pumps and motors and physical modifications to the intake system. This paper details the methodology used in this engineering task. The new system was installed successfully and has been operating reliably and economically for the past eight years

  14. Power generation and heating performances of integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Guo, Zhanwei; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Jiafeng; Hua, Junye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) is investigated. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle is operated for cogenerating room heating-water in winter. • Kalina cycle with higher efficiency is operated for power generation in other seasons. • Power recovery efficiency accounts thermal efficiency and waste heat absorbing ratio. • Heating water with 70 °C and capacity of 55% total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. - Abstract: An integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) for power generation and heating is introduced. The Kalina cycle has large temperature difference during evaporation and small one during condensation therefore with high thermal efficiency for power generation, while the ammonia–water Rankine cycle has large temperature difference during condensation as well as evaporation, thus it can be adopted to generate heating-water as a by-product in winter. The integrated system is based on the Kalina cycle and converted to the Rankine cycle with a set of valves. The performances of the AWKRC system in different seasons with corresponding cycle loops were studied and analyzed. When the temperatures of waste heat and cooling water are 300 °C and 25 °C respectively, the thermal efficiency and power recovery efficiency of Kalina cycle are 20.9% and 17.4% respectively in the non-heating seasons, while these efficiencies of the ammonia–water Rankine cycle are 17.1% and 13.1% respectively with additional 55.3% heating recovery ratio or with comprehensive efficiency 23.7% higher than that of the Kalina cycle in heating season

  15. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  16. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K.; Pickering, K.

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO 3 - and NO 2 - as the e - acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities considering a closed loop

  17. 77 FR 58132 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... accordance with the provisions of Section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2... 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule that correspond to the National Primary Drinking... Administrator, c/o Robert Clement, Drinking Water Unit (8P-W-DW), U.S. EPA, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street...

  18. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of an innovative liquid desiccant air conditioning system to supply potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Gandhidasan, P.; Zubair, Syed M.; Bahaidarah, Haitham M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The study objective is to reduce the energy consumption of desiccant AC system. • Heat and mass losses are recovered in the proposed system using a condenser. • The conventional and the proposed systems are compared in terms of COP. • The proposed system performance is better than the conventional system. • The proposed system produces freshwater in addition to space cooling. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air conditioning systems are cost-effective, environmentally friendly and energy efficient techniques, especially in coastal areas. In the conventional liquid desiccant air conditioning system, the scavenging air is expelled into the atmosphere carrying a considerable amount of energy and water vapor. Thus, there is plenty of room to improve the system performance by recovering these losses. The proposed system consists of a conventional liquid desiccant air conditioning system plus a condenser. The aim of this study is to reduce the energy consumption by recovering the heat from the scavenging air using the condenser while also producing freshwater in addition to space cooling. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is used as the liquid desiccant for this study. The mathematical formulation for simultaneous heat and mass transfer between the condenser and the regenerator was developed to establish a comparison between the performance of the conventional and modified systems. Using the generated model, it is found that the modified system performance is 11.25% better than the conventional system and that it produces 86.4 kg of freshwater per hour as a by-product under the given conditions.

  20. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  1. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  2. BIOFILMS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtually anywhere a surface comes into contact with the water in a distribution system, one can find biofilms. Biofilms are formed in distribution system pipelines when microbial cells attach to pipe surfaces and multiply to form a film or slime layer on the pipe. Probably withi...

  3. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  4. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  5. Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-15

    As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Service water system aging assessment - Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, D.B.; Zimmerman, P.W.; Gore, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Service Water System (SWS) represents the final heat transfer loop between decay heat generated in the nuclear core and the safe dispersal of that heat energy in the environment. It is the objective of this investigation to demonstrate that aging phenomena can be identified and quantified such that aging degradation of system components can be detected and mitigated prior to the reduction of system availability to below an acceptable threshold. The approach used during the Phase I task was to (1) perform a literature search of government and private sector reports which relate to service water, aging related degradation, and potential methodologies for analysis; (2) assemble a data base which contains all the commercial power plants in the US, their Service Water System configuration, characteristics, and water source; (3) obtain and examine the available service water data from large generic data bases, i.e. NPRDS, LER, NPE, inspection reports, and other relevant plant reference data; (4) perform a fault tree analysis of a typical plant service water systems to examine failure propagation and understand specific input requirements of probabilistic risk analyses; (5) develop an in-depth questionnaire protocol for examining the information resource at a power plant which is not available through data base query and visit a central station power plant and solicit the required information; (6) analyze the information obtained from the in-depth plant interrogation and draw contrasts and conclusions with the data base information; (7) utilize the plant information to perform an interim assessment of service water system degradation mechanisms and focus future investigations. This paper addresses the elements of this task plan numbered 1, 3, 6, and 7. The remaining items are detailed in the phase-I report

  7. Agricultural by-products with bioactive effects: A multivariate approach to evaluate microbial and physicochemical changes in a fresh pork sausage enriched with phenolic compounds from olive vegetation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Carraro, Lisa; Facco, Pierantonio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Balzan, Stefania; Taticchi, Agnese; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Montemurro, Filomena; Martino, Maria Elena; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Novelli, Enrico

    2016-07-02

    The use of phenolic compounds derived from agricultural by-products could be considered as an eco-friendly strategy for food preservation. In this study a purified phenol extract from olive vegetation water (PEOVW) was explored as a potential bioactive ingredient for meat products using Italian fresh sausage as food model. The research was developed in two steps: first, an in vitro delineation of the extract antimicrobial activities was performed, then, the PEOVW was tested in the food model to investigate the possible application in food manufacturing. The in vitro tests showed that PEOVW clearly inhibits the growth of food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The major part of Gram-positive strains was inhibited at the low concentrations (0.375-3mg/mL). In the production of raw sausages, two concentrates of PEOVW (L1: 0.075% and L2: 0.15%) were used taking into account both organoleptic traits and the bactericidal effects. A multivariate statistical approach allowed the definition of the microbial and physicochemical changes of sausages during the shelf life (14days). In general, the inclusion of the L2 concentration reduced the growth of several microbial targets, especially Staphylococcus spp. and LABs (2log10CFU/g reduction), while the increasing the growth of yeasts was observed. The reduction of microbial growth could be involved in the reduced lipolysis of raw sausages supplemented with PEOVW as highlighted by the lower amount of diacylglycerols. Moisture and aw had a significant effect on the variability of microbiological features, while food matrix (the sausages' environment) can mask the effects of PEOVW on other targets (e.g. Pseudomonas). Moreover, the molecular identification of the main representative taxa collected during the experimentation allowed the evaluation of the effects of phenols on the selection of bacteria. Genetic data suggested a possible strain selection based on storage time and the addition of

  8. Radon in water aeration system operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    North East Environmental Products, Inc. is a manufacturer of residential scale aeration systems for removal of radon and volatile organic chemicals from private water supplies. This paper is a review of the operational history of residential scale point of entry (POE) radon aeration systems. Emphasis is placed on the difficulties and solutions encountered in actual installations caused by both mechanical difficulties and water quality parameters. A summary of radon reduction efficiency is presented for wells with radon concentrations from 21,000 to 2,600,000 pCi/L. A discussion of customer concerns and attitudes is presented along with other areas for further technical improvement. Training techniques for dealers and installers are also discussed. An update of the current status of the radon in water industry includes current sales volumes as compared to the potential market and an update on the radon in water MCL standard setting process from an industry perspective

  9. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  10. Water maser emission from exoplanetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmovici, C. B.; Pogrebenko, S.

    2018-01-01

    Since the first discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet in 1995 more than 2000 exo-planets have been found to exist around main sequence stars. The detection techniques are based on the radial velocity method (which involves the measurement of the star's wobbling induced by the gravitational field of the orbiting giant planets) or on transit photometry by using space telescopes (Kepler, Corot, Hubble and Spitzer) outside the absorbing Earth atmosphere. From the ground, as infrared observations are strongly limited by atmospheric absorption, radioastronomy offers almost the only possible way to search for water presence and abundance in the planetary atmospheres of terrestrial-type planets where life may evolve. Following the discovery in 1994 of the first water maser emission in the atmosphere of Jupiter induced by a cometary impact, our measurements have shown that the water maser line at 22 GHz (1.35 cm) can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool for water search outside the solar system, as comets are able to deliver considerable amounts of water to planets raising the fascinating possibility of extraterrestrial life evolution. Thus in 1999 we started the systematic search for water on 35 different targets up to 50 light years away from the Sun. Here we report the first detection of the water maser emission from the exoplanetary systems Epsilon Eridani, Lalande 21185 and Gliese 581. We have shown the peculiar feasibility of water detection and its importance in the search for exoplanetary systems especially for the Astrobiology programs, given the possibility of long period observations using powerful radiotelescopes equipped with adequate spectrometers.

  11. Chemistry management of generator stator water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, N.; Santhanam, V.S.; Ayyar, S.R.; Umapathi, P.; Jeena, P.; Hari Krishna, K.; Rajendran, D.

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry management of water cooled turbine generators with hollow copper conductors is very essential to avoid possible re-deposition of released copper oxides on stator windings, which otherwise may cause flow restrictions by partial plugging of copper hollow conductors and impair cooling. The phenomenon which is of more concern is not strictly of corrosion failure, but the consequences caused by the re-deposition of copper oxides that were formed by reaction of copper with oxygen. There were also some Operating experiences (OE) related to Copper oxide fouling in the system resulting shut down/off-line of plants. In Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), the turbine generator stator windings are of Copper material and cooled by demineralized water passing through the hollow conductors. The heated water from the stator is cooled by process water. A part of the stator water is continuously passed through a mixed bed polisher to remove any soluble ionic contaminants to maintain the purity of system water and also maintain copper content as low as possible to avoid possible re-deposition of released copper oxides on stator windings. The chemistry regime employed is neutral water with dissolved oxygen content between 1000-2000 ppb. Chemistry management of Stator water system was reviewed to know its effectiveness. Detailed chemical analyses of the spent resins from the polishing unit were carried out in various campaigns which indicated only part exhaustion of the polishing unit resins and reasonably low levels of copper entrapment in the resins, thus highlighting the effectiveness of the in-practice chemistry regime. (author)

  12. Ecotoxicological assessment of TiO{sub 2} byproducts on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Foucaud, Laurent [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Lapied, Emmanuel [Bioforsk, Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Labille, Jerome; Botta, Celine [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Sirguey, Catherine [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Falla, Jairo [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rose, Jerome [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Joner, Erik J. [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Rodius, Francois; Nahmani, Johanne [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France)

    2011-10-15

    The increasing production of nanomaterials will in turn increase the release of nanosized byproducts to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour, uptake and ecotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} byproducts in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Worms were exposed to suspensions containing 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L of byproducts for 24 h. Size of TiO{sub 2} byproducts showed aggregation of particles up to 700 {mu}m with laser diffraction. Only worms exposed at 10 mg/L showed bioaccumulation of titanium (ICP-AES), increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA (Real-time PCR) and induction of apoptotic activity (Apostain and TUNEL). TiO{sub 2} byproducts did not induce cytotoxicity on coelomocytes, but a significant decrease of phagocytosis was observed starting from 0.1 mg/L. In conclusion, bioaccumulation of byproducts and their production of reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the alteration of the antioxidant system in worms. - Highlights: > Aggregation of TiO{sub 2} byproducts up to 700 {mu}m in the medium of exposure. > Bioaccumulation of titanium in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA. > Induction of apoptotic activity in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Decrease of coelomocytes phagocytosis starting from 0.1 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. - A short time exposure to TiO{sub 2} byproducts can induce sublethal effects on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

  13. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifurrahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  14. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  15. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  16. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  17. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  18. Power Plant Bromide Discharges and Downstream Drinking Water Systems in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-10-17

    Coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been implicated in increasing bromide levels and subsequent increases in disinfection byproducts at downstream drinking water plants. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and to assess the potential for bromide discharge effects. Twenty-two (22) public drinking water systems serving 2.5 million people were identified as being downstream of at least one wet FGD discharge. During mean August conditions (generally low-flow, minimal dilution) in receiving rivers, the median predicted bromide concentrations contributed by wet FGD at Pennsylvania intake locations ranged from 5.2 to 62 μg/L for the Base scenario (including only natural bromide in coal) and from 16 to 190 μg/L for the Bromide Addition scenario (natural plus added bromide for mercury control); ranges depend on bromide loads and receiving stream dilution capacity.

  19. Water electrolysis system refurbishment and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    The electrolytic oxygen generator for the back-up water electrolysis system in a 90-day manned test was refurbished, improved and subjected to a 182-day bench test. The performance of the system during the test demonstrated the soundness of the basic electrolysis concept, the high development status of the automatic controls which allowed completely hands-off operation, and the capability for orbital operation. Some design improvements are indicated.

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  1. [Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-01-01

    Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality.

  2. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning me...

  3. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  4. Water distribution systems design optimisation using metaheuristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topic of multi-objective water distribution systems (WDS) design optimisation using metaheuristics is investigated, comparing numerous modern metaheuristics, including several multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, an estimation of distribution algorithm and a recent hyperheuristic named AMALGAM (an evolutionary ...

  5. Water column separation in power plant circulating water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, C.N.

    1977-01-01

    Power plant circulating water system condensers operate with a siphon. Column separation is a common occurence in such condensers during low pressure transients. The assumptions that no gas evolves from solution leads to very conservative values of maximum pressures upon rejoining of separated column. A less conservative method led to the development of a macroscopic mathematical model including the presence of air and vapor in a cavity which forms at the top of the condenser. The method of characteristics is used to solve the equations. A case study is analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the developed mathematical model and to provide comparisons of the results obtained

  6. Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Factors Affecting Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water distribution systems with ammonia present from either naturally occurring ammonia or ammonia addition during chloramination are at risk for nitrification. Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is undesirable and may result in water quality degradatio...

  7. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

    2004-06-03

    This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to

  8. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  9. Drinking Water Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water utilities in the US using chloramine as disinfectant treatment in their distribution systems have experienced nitrification episodes, which detrimentally impact the water quality. A chloraminated drinking water distribution system (DWDS) simulator was operated throug...

  10. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic... 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Final...-9684-8] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule...

  11. Energy-Water System Solutions | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Solutions Energy-Water System Solutions NREL has been a pioneer in the development of energy -water system solutions that explicitly address and optimize energy-water tradeoffs. NREL has evaluated energy-water system solutions for Department of Defense bases, islands, communities recovering from

  12. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  13. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  14. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  15. The origin of inner Solar System water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M O'D

    2017-05-28

    Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model). To test these models, at present the H isotopes of water are the most promising indicators of formation location because they should have become increasingly D-rich with distance from the Sun. The estimated initial H isotopic compositions of water accreted by the CI, CM, CR and Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrites were much more D-poor than measured outer Solar System objects. A similar pattern is seen for N isotopes. The D-poor compositions reflect incomplete re-equilibration with H 2 in the inner Solar System, which is also consistent with the O isotopes of chondritic water. On balance, it seems that the carbonaceous chondrites and their water did not form very far out in the disc, almost certainly not beyond the orbit of Saturn when its moons formed (approx. 3-7 AU in the Grand Tack model) and possibly close to where they are found today.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Monitoring nitrosamines in large water distribution systems and their removal using cyclodextrin polyurethanes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.Sc. The disinfection of drinking water is an important step in the water treatment process. However, toxic (unwanted) disinfection by-products (DBPs) are often produced during the disinfection of drinking water. One such group of DBPs are the nitrosamines such as N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Nitrosamines, particularly NDMA, are highly carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) placed these compounds into the group B2, which indicates compoun...

  17. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  18. Process and system for treating waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  19. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  20. Biofouling and biocorrosion in industrial water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetser, S E; Cloete, T E

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion associated with microorganisms has been recognized for over 50 years and yet the study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is relatively new. MIC can occur in diverse environments and is not limited to aqueous corrosion under submerged conditions, but also takes place in humid atmospheres. Biofouling of industrial water systems is the phenomenon whereby surfaces in contact with water are colonized by microorganisms, which are ubiquitous in our environment. However, the economic implications of biofouling in industrial water systems are much greater than many people realize. In a survey conducted by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers of the United States ten years ago, it was found that many corrosion engineer did not accept the role of bacteria in corrosion, and many of then that did, could not recognize and mitigate the problem. Biofouling can be described in terms of its effects on processes and products such as material degradation (bio-corossion), product contamination, mechanical blockages, and impedance of heat transfer. Microorganisms distinguish themselves from other industrial water contaminants by their ability to utilize available nutrient sources, reproduce, and generate intra- and extracellular organic and inorganic substances in water. A sound understanding of the molecular and physiological activities of the microorganisms involved is necessary before strategies for the long term control of biofouling can be format. Traditional water treatment strategies however, have largely failed to address those factors that promote biofouling activities and lead to biocorrosion. Some of the major developments in recent years have been a redefinition of biofilm architecture and the realization that MIC of metals can be best understood as biomineralization.

  1. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent,

  2. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water purification... Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction water purification systems are devices specifically intended to generate high quality...

  4. Water in micro- and nanofluidics systems described using the water potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    This Tutorial Review shows the behaviour of water in micro- and nanofluidic systems. The chemical potential of water (‘water potential’) conveniently describes the energy level of the water at different locations in and around the system, both in the liquid and gaseous state. Since water moves from

  5. 78 FR 47697 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ...: 1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), 2) the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBP2), and 3) the Lead and Copper Rule Short-Term Revisions and Clarifications...: Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health, Bienville Building, 628 4th Street...

  6. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  7. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying facility deionized water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) de-ionized water system. The de-ionized water system is used to provide clean, conditioned water, free from contaminants, chlorides and iron for the CVD Facility. Potable water is supplied to the deionized water system, isolated by a backflow prevention device. After the de-ionization process is complete, via a packaged de-ionization unit, de-ionized water is supplied to the process deionization unit

  9. By-products of the oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol formed during the treatment of waste waters; Subproductos de oxidacion del 2,4-diclorofenol formados durante el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardos, M.; Alfonso, M. A.; Ormad, P.; Ovelleiro, J. L. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, new technologies for the elimination of toxic and persistent substances present in industrial processes wastewater are being developed. One of these technologies uses the Fenton's reactive (iron salts and hydrogen peroxide) and UV light. In this work, it has been made an study about by-products generated and their formation mechanism, when an oxidation treatment is apply to a synthetic sample of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aquatic medium. During the treatment it is detected the aromatic ring dehalogenation, the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated organic compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, and acids) and an important decreasing of the toxicity. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potable water systems. 1250.82 Section 1250.82... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.82 Potable water systems. The following conditions must be met by vessel water systems used for the storage and distribution of water which has met...

  12. Radioecological models for inland water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Popov, A.; Zheleznyak, M.J.

    1998-04-01

    Following a nuclear accident, radioactivity may either be directly discharged into rivers, lakes and reservoirs or - after the re-mobilisation of dry and wet deposited material by rain events - may result in the contamination of surface water bodies. These so-called aquatic exposure pathways are still missing in the decision support system IMIS/PARK. Therefore, a study was launched to analyse aquatic and radioecological models with respect to their applicability for assessing the radiation exposure of the population. The computer codes should fulfil the following requirements: 1. to quantify the impact of radionuclides in water systems from direct deposition and via runoff, both dependent on time and space, 2. to forecast the activity concentration in water systems (rivers and lakes) and sediment, both dependent on time and space, and 3. to assess the time dependent activity concentration in fish. To that purpose, a literature survey was conducted to collect a list of all relevant computer models potentially suitable for these tasks. In addition, a detailed overview of the key physical process was provided, which should be considered in the models. Based on the three main processes, 9 codes were selected for the runoff from large watersheds, 19 codes for the river transport and 14 for lakes. (orig.) [de

  13. A Systems Approach to Manage Drinking Water Quality through Integrated Model Projections, Adaptive Monitoring and Process Optimization - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water supplies can be vulnerable to impacts from short-term weather events, long-term changes in land-use and climate, and water quality controls in treatment and distribution. Disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in drinking water is a prominent example to illustrate...

  14. A Systems Approach to Manage Drinking Water Quality through Integrated Model Projections, Adaptive Monitoring and Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water supplies can be vulnerable to impacts from short-term weather events, long-term changes in land-use and climate, and water quality controls in treatment and distribution. Disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in drinking water is a prominent example to illustrate...

  15. A water flow calorimeter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Neutral beam systems are instrumented by several water flow calorimeter systems, and some means is needed to verify the accuracy of such systems and diagnose their failures. This report describes a calibration system for these calorimeters. The calibrator consists of two 24 kilowatt circulation water heaters, with associated controls and instrumentation. The unit can supply power from 0 to 48 kW in five coarse steps and one fine range. Energy is controlled by varying the power and the time of operation of the heaters. The power is measured by means of precision power transducers, and the energy is measured by integrating the power with respect to time. The accuracy of the energy measurement is better than 0.5% when the power supplied is near full scale, and the energy resolution is better than 1 kilojoule. The maximum energy delivered is approximately 50 megajoules. The calorimetry loop to be calibrated is opened, and the calibrator is put in series with the calorimeter heat source. The calorimeter is then operated in its normal fashion, with the calibrator used as the heat source. The calibrator can also be used in a stand alone mode to calibrate calorimeter sensors removed from systems

  16. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions...... giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm(-3) and 7 gN dm(-3) respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 degrees C, sterilization: 133 degrees C, and alkali...

  17. Operator Support System for Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie; Shen Shifei

    1996-01-01

    Operator Support System for Pressurized Water Reactor (OSSPWR) has been developed under the sponsorship of IAEA from August 1994. The project is being carried out by the Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. The Design concepts of the operator support functions have been established. The prototype systems of OSSPWR has been developed as well. The primary goal of the project is to create an advanced operator support system by applying new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, advanced communication technologies, etc. Recently, the advanced man-machine interface for nuclear power plant operators has been developed. It is connected to the modern computer systems and utilizes new high performance graphic displays. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  18. Integrated engineering and cost model for management of coal combustion byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States); Renninger, S. [US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    1998-07-01

    An integrated engineering and cost model has been developed as a part of an overall research project for exploring the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts and flue gas desulfurisation products in underground coal mines in Illinois. The features of the model have been keyed in user-friendly software. In this paper, the purpose and the structure of the model are described. The capabilities of the software are illustrated through an example involving transportation of byproducts in containers from a power plant to a mine site, and subsequent placement of the byproducts in a abandoned underground coal mine using a hydraulic injection system. 3 refs.

  19. The influence of biomass supply chains and by-products on the greenhouse gas emissions from gasification-based bio-SNG production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Berntsson, Thore S.; Andersson, Eva; Rydberg, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the impact on the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of the raw material supply chain, the utilisation of excess heat and CO 2 storage for a bio-SNG (biomass gasification-based synthetic natural gas) system by applying a consequential life cycle assessment approach. The impact of the biomass supply chain is analysed by assessing GHG emissions of locally produced woodchips and pellets with regional or transatlantic origin. Results show that the supply area for the gasification plant can be substantially increased with only modest increases in overall GHG emissions (3–5%) by using regionally produced pellets. The transatlantic pellet chains contribute to significantly higher GHG emissions. Utilising excess heat for power generation or steam delivery for industrial use contributes to lower emissions from the system, whereas delivery of district heating can contribute to either increased or decreased emissions. The production technology of the replaced heat and the carbon intensity of the reference power production were decisive for the benefits of the heat deliveries. Finally, the storage of CO 2 separated from the syngas upgrading and from the flue gases of the gasifier can nearly double the GHG emission reduction potential of the bio-SNG system. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission evaluation of gasification-based bio-SNG system is made. • The impact of biomass supply chains and utilisation of excess heat is in focus. • Locally produced woodchips result in lowest overall greenhouse gas emissions. • Regionally produced pellets have small impact on overall greenhouse gas emissions. • Storing separated CO 2 from the bio-SNG process reduces the GHG impact significantly.

  20. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Amy, Gary

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily

  1. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Noviello, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  2. Investigating the role of biofilms in trihalomethane formation in water distribution systems with a multicomponent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in the pipes of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), and recent experimental studies revealed that the chlorination of the microbial carbon associated with the biofilm contributes to the total disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation with distinct mechanisms from those formed from precursors derived from natural organic matter (NOM). A multiple species reactive-transport model was developed to explain the role of biofilms in DBPs formation by accounting for the simultaneous transport and interactions of disinfectants, organic compounds, and biomass. Using parameter values from experimental studies in the literature, the model equations were solved to predict chlorine decay and microbial regrowth dynamics in an actual DWDS, and trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in a pilot-scale distribution system simulator. The model's capability of reproducing the measured concentrations of free chlorine, suspended biomass, and THMs under different hydrodynamic and temperature conditions was demonstrated. The contribution of bacteria-derived precursors to the total THMs production was found to have a significant dependence on the system's hydraulics, seasonal variables, and the quality of the treated drinking water. Under system conditions that promoted fast bacterial re-growth, the transformation of non-microbial into microbial carbon DBP precursors by the biofilms showed a noticeable effect on the kinetics of THMs formation, especially when a high initial chlorine dose was applied. These conditions included elevated water temperature and high concentrations of nutrients in the influent water. The fraction of THMs formed from microbial sources was found to reach a peak of 12% of the total produced THMs under the investigated scenarios. The results demonstrated the importance of integrating bacterial regrowth dynamics in predictive DBPs formation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirataki, K; Wada, H

    1978-11-18

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system.

  4. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirataki, Koji; Wada, Hozumi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system. (Yoshihara, H.)

  5. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  6. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems : A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the

  7. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive (Olea europaea pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250–500 μg mL−1, IC50 = 361 (279–438 μg mL−1, IC90 = 467 (398–615 μg mL−1. Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds.

  8. Water quality diagnosis system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Fukumoto, Toshihiko

    1991-01-01

    An AI diagnose system for the water quality control of a BWR type reactor is divided into a general diagnosing section for generally classifying the water quality conditions of the plant depending on a causal relation between the symptom of the water quality abnormality and its causes, generally diagnosing the position and the cause of the abnormality and ranking the items considered to be the cause, and a detail diagnosing section for a further diagnosis based on the result of the diagnosis in the former section. The general diagnosing section provides a plurality of threshold values showing the extent of the abnormality depending on the cause to the causal relation between the causes and the forecast events previously formed depending on the data of process sensors in the plant. Since the diagnosis for the abnormality and normality is given not only as an ON or OFF mode but also as the extent thereof, it can enter the detailed diagnosis in the most plausible order, based on a plurality of estimated causes, to enable to find the case and take a counter-measure in an early stage. (N.H.)

  9. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  10. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  11. Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses available information on nitrification occurrence in drinking water chloraminated distribution systems. Chapter 4 provides an introduction to causes and controls for nitrification in chloraminated drinking water systems. Both chapters are intended to serve ...

  12. Solar system design for water pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hadidi; Mohammed, Yaichi

    2018-05-01

    In our days, it seems to us that nobody can suspect it on the importance of water and energy for the human needs. With technological advances, the energy need does not cease increasing. This problem of energy is even more sensitive in the isolated sites where the use of the traditional resources proves often very expensive. Indeed, several constraints, like the transport of fuel and the routine maintenances of the diesel engines, return the search for an essential alternative energy source for this type of sites. It summer necessary to seek other resources of energy of replacement. Renewable energies, like photovoltaic energy, wind or hydraulic, represent a replacement solution par excellence and they are used more and more in our days more especially as the national territory has one of the solar layers highest with the world. The duration of insolation can reach the 3900 hours/year on the Sahara. The energy acquired daily on a horizontal surface of 1m2 is about 5kWh, that is to say meadows of 2263kWh/m2/year in the south of the country. The photovoltaic energy utilization for pumping of water is well adapted for more the share of the arid and semi-arid areas because of the existence in these areas of an underground hydraulic potential not very major. Another very important coincidence supports the use of this type of energy for the water pumping is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, reached its maximum in hot weather and dryness where it is precisely the moment when one has access to the maximum of solar energy. The goal to see an outline on the general composition of a photovoltaic system of pumping, as well as the theoretical elements making it possible to dimension the current pumping stations.

  13. Solar system design for water pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Hadidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In our days, it seems to us that nobody can suspect it on the importance of water and energy for the human needs. With technological advances, the energy need does not cease increasing. This problem of energy is even more sensitive in the isolated sites where the use of the traditional resources proves often very expensive. Indeed, several constraints, like the transport of fuel and the routine maintenances of the diesel engines, return the search for an essential alternative energy source for this type of sites. It summer necessary to seek other resources of energy of replacement. Renewable energies, like photovoltaic energy, wind or hydraulic, represent a replacement solution par excellence and they are used more and more in our days more especially as the national territory has one of the solar layers highest with the world. The duration of insolation can reach the 3900 hours/year on the Sahara. The energy acquired daily on a horizontal surface of 1m2 is about 5kWh, that is to say meadows of 2263kWh/m2/year in the south of the country. The photovoltaic energy utilization for pumping of water is well adapted for more the share of the arid and semi-arid areas because of the existence in these areas of an underground hydraulic potential not very major. Another very important coincidence supports the use of this type of energy for the water pumping is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, reached its maximum in hot weather and dryness where it is precisely the moment when one has access to the maximum of solar energy. The goal to see an outline on the general composition of a photovoltaic system of pumping, as well as the theoretical elements making it possible to dimension the current pumping stations.

  14. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  15. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  16. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  17. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  18. DBP formation in hot and cold water across a simulated distribution system: effect of incubation time, heating time, pH, chlorine dose, and incubation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2013-10-15

    This paper demonstrates that disinfection byproducts (DBP) concentration profiles in heated water were quite different from the DBP concentrations in the cold tap water. Chloroform concentrations in the heated water remained constant or even decreased slightly with increasing distribution system water age. The amount of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was much higher in the heated water than in the cold water; however, the maximum levels in heated water with different distribution system water ages did not differ substantially. The levels of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in the heated water were similar to the TCAA levels in the tap water, and a slight reduction was observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. Regardless of water age, significant reductions of nonregulated DBPs were observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. For tap water with lower water ages, there were significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), chloropicrin (CP), and 1,1-dichloropropane (1,1-DCP) after a short period of heating. Heating of the tap water with low pH led to a more significant increase of chloroform and a more significant short-term increase of DCAN. High pH accelerated the loss of the nonregulated DBPs in the heated water. The results indicated that as the chlorine doses increased, levels of chloroform and DCAA in the heated water increased significantly. However, for TCAA, the thermally induced increase in concentration was only notable for the chlorinated water with very high chlorine dose. Finally, heating may lead to higher DBP concentrations in chlorinated water with lower distribution system temperatures.

  19. Boron availability to plants from coal combustion by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukier, U.; Sumner, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Agronomic use of coal combustion by-products is often associated with boron (B) excess in amended soils and subsequently in plants. A greenhouse study with corn (Zea mays L.) as test plant was conducted to determine safe application rates of five fly ashes and one flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FDG). All by-products increased soil and corn tissue B concentration, in some cases above toxicity levels which are 5 mg hot water soluble B (hwsB)kg -1 soil and 100 mg B kg -1 in corn tissue. Acceptable application rates varied from 4 to 100 Mg ha -1 for different by-products. Leaching and weathering of a high B fly ash under ponding conditions decreased its B content and that of corn grown in fly ash amended soil, while leaching of the same fly ash under laboratory conditions increased fly ash B availability to corn in comparison to the fresh fly ash. Hot water soluble B in fly ash or FDG amended soil correlated very well with corn tissue B. Hot water soluble B in fly ash amended soil could be predicted based on soil pH and B solubility in ash at different pH values but not so in the case of FDG. Another greenhouse study was conducted to compare the influence of FDG and Ca(OH 2 ) on B concentration in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves grown in soil amended with the high B fly ash. The Ca(OH) 2 significantly decreased tissue B content, while FDG did not affect B uptake from fly ash amended soil. 41 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project

  2. Life cycle management of service water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, Geoffrey R.; Besuner, Philip M.; Mahajan, Sat P.

    2004-01-01

    As nuclear plants age, more attention must focus on age and time dependent degradation mechanisms such as corrosion, erosion, fatigue, etc. These degradation mechanisms can best be managed by developing a life cycle management plan which integrates past historical data, current conditions and future performance needs. In this paper we present two examples of life cycle management. In the first example, the 20-year maintenance history of a sea water cooling system (cement-lined, cast iron) is reviewed to develop attributes like maintenance cost, spare part inventory, corrosion, and repair data. Based on this information, the future expected damage rate was forecast. The cost of managing the future damage was compared with the cost to replace (in kind and with upgraded materials. A decision optimization scheme was developed to choose the least cost option from: a) Run as-is and repair; b) replace in kind; or c) replace with upgraded material and better design. In the second example, life cycle management techniques were developed for a ceilcote lined steel pipe cooling water system. Screens (fixed and traveling), filters, pumps, motors, valves, and piping were evaluated. (author)

  3. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  4. Technology for recovery of by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuy, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Products of conventional nuclear fuel processing plants are uranium and plutonium, and any other recovered material is considered to be a by-product. Some by-products have been recovered from past nuclear fuel processing operations, either as a normal mode of operation or by special campaigns. Routing recovery over an extended period has been limited to neptunium, but extended campaigns were used at Hanford to recover strontium for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Krypton is recovered at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on a campaign basis, and isotope separation of krypton is done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Past campaigns at Hanford PUREX have recovered cesium, promethium, amercium, cerium, and technetium. Past by-product recovery efforts were usually severely constrained by the status of flowsheet development and availability of existing facilities at the time decisions wee made to recover the by-products. Additional processes were developed to accommodate other unit operations and in response to changes in waste management objectives or user requirements. Now an impressive variety of recovery technology is available for most potential by-products, with varying degrees of demonstration under conditions which satisfy today's environmental protection and waste management constraints

  5. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  7. A simple high efficiency solar water purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, W.S.; Hodgson, D.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A new passive solar water pasteurization system based on density difference flow principles has been designed, built and tested. The system contains no valves and regulates flow based on the density difference between two columns of water. The new system eliminates boiling problems encountered in previous designs. Boiling is undesirable because it may contaminate treated water. The system with a total absorber area of 0.45 m2 has achieved a peak flow rate of 19.3 kg/h of treated water. Experiments with the prototype systems presented in this paper show that density driven systems are an attractive option to existing solar water pasteurization approaches. (author)

  8. Real-time ArcGIS and heterotrophic plate count based chloramine disinfectant control in water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhi, Xinghua; Zhu, Huifeng; Meng, Mingqun; Zhang, Mingde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of chloramine residual on bacteria growth and regrowth and the relationship between heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) and the concentration of chloramine residual in the Shanghai drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this study, models to control HPCs in the water distribution system and consumer taps are also developed. Real-time ArcGIS was applied to show the distribution and changed results of the chloramine residual concentration in the pipe system by using these models. Residual regression analysis was used to get a reasonable range of the threshold values that allows the chloramine residual to efficiently inhibit bacteria growth in the Shanghai DWDS; the threshold values should be between 0.45 and 0.5 mg/L in pipe water and 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L in tap water. The low residual chloramine value (0.05 mg/L) of the Chinese drinking water quality standard may pose a potential health risk for microorganisms that should be improved. Disinfection by-products (DBPs) were detected, but no health risk was identified.

  9. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  10. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  11. Maximising water supply system yield subject to multiple reliability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximising water supply system yield subject to multiple reliability constraints via simulation-optimisation. ... Water supply systems have to satisfy different demands that each require various levels of reliability ... and monthly operating rules that maximise the yield of a water supply system subject to ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O; Klinga, J [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J; Mihalik, M [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  13. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  14. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  15. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Grazl, K.; Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M.

    1995-01-01

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.)

  16. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  17. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  18. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  19. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  20. Detection system for continuous 222Rn monitoring in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Patschova, E.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution presents one of the high-sensitive systems of continuous radon monitoring in waters. The device can be used for the continual control of 222 Rn activity concentration in water sources, for a study of the daily and seasonal variations of radon activity concentration in water systems, for the determination of the infiltration time of surface water into the ground water and for the next untraditional applications. (authors)

  1. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  2. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  3. A study of Cirus heavy water system isotopic purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Shibu; Sahu, A.K.; Unni, V.K.P.; Pant, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cirus uses heavy water as moderator and helium as cover gas. Approximately one tonne of heavy water was added to the system every year for routine make up. Isotopic purity (IP) of this water used for addition was always higher than that of the system. Though this should increase IP of heavy water in the system, it has remained almost at the same level, over the years. A study was carried out to estimate the extent of improvement in IP of heavy water in the system that should have occurred because of this and other factors in last 30 years. Reasons for non-occurrence of such an improvement were explored. Ion exchange resins used for purification of heavy water and air ingress into helium cover gas system appear to be the principal sources of entry of light water into heavy water system. (author)

  4. Enhanced monitor system for water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Rodriquez, Jr., Miguel [Oak Ridge, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2009-09-22

    An automatic, self-contained device for detecting toxic agents in a water supply includes an analyzer for detecting at least one toxic agent in a water sample, introducing a means for introducing a water sample into the analyzer and discharging the water sample from the analyzer, holding means for holding a water sample for a pre-selected period of time before the water sample is introduced into the analyzer, and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the analyzer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one toxic agent in the water sample.

  5. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  6. Assessment of the performance of waste water treatment systems; Valoracion sobre el rendimiento de los sistemas de depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, R.

    2004-07-01

    This article sets out to examine the performance standard required of treatment systems in a hydro graphic basin from an overall viewpoint taking into account existing environmental requirements. The growing pressure on resources and the environment has reached the point where treatment has begun to be a problem not of the number of treatment plants, but of the performance of the technology employed. Without going into the issue of the byproducts of refuse generated by the best-performing technologies, a conceptual analysis is made of the impact of performance in solving waste water treatment needs. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Disinfection Technologies Used in Small Drinking Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher H; Shilling, Elizabeth G; Linden, Karl G; Cook, Sherri M

    2018-03-06

    Small drinking water systems serve a fifth of the U.S. population and rely heavily on disinfection. While chlorine disinfection is common, there is interest in minimizing chemical addition, especially due to carcinogenic disinfection byproducts and chlorine-resistant pathogens, by using ultraviolet technologies; however, the relative, broader environmental impacts of these technologies are not well established, especially in the context of small (environmental trade-offs between chlorine and ultraviolet disinfection via comparative life cycle assessment. The functional unit was the production of 1 m 3 of drinking water to U.S. Treatment included cartridge filtration followed by either chlorine disinfection or ultraviolet disinfection with chlorine residual addition. Environmental performance was evaluated for various chlorine contact zone materials (plastic, concrete, steel), ultraviolet validation factors (1.2 to 4.4), and electricity sources (renewable; U.S. average, high, and low impact grids). Performance was also evaluated when filtration and chlorine residual were not required. From a life cycle assessment perspective, replacing chlorine with UV was preferred only in a limited number of cases (i.e., high pumping pressure but filtration is not required). In all others, chlorine was environmentally preferred, although some contact zone materials and energy sources had an impact on the comparison. Utilities can use these data to inform their disinfection technology selection and operation to minimize environmental and human health impacts.

  8. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.; Meeuwsen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  9. Monitoring Performance of a combined water recycling system

    OpenAIRE

    Castleton, H.F.; Hathway, E.A.; Murphy, E.; Beck, S.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Global water demand is expected to outstrip supply dramatically by 2030, making water recycling an important tool for future water security. A large combined grey water and rainwater recycling system has been monitored in response to an identified knowledge gap of the in-use performance of such systems. The water saving efficiency of the system was calculated at −8ṡ5% in 2011 and –10% in 2012 compared to the predicted 36%. This was due to a lower quantity of grey water and rainwater being col...

  10. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  11. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  13. Water chemistry diagnosis system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Koya, Hiroshi; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1990-01-01

    The water quality control for the BWRs in Japan has advanced rapidly recently, and as to the dose reduction due to the decrease of radioactivity, Japan takes the position leading the world. In the background of the advanced water quality control like this and the increase of nuclear power plants in operation, the automation of arranging a large quantity of water quality control information and the heightening of its reliability have been demanded. Hitachi group developed the water quality synthetic control system which comprises the water quality data management system to process a large quantity of water quality data with a computer and the water quality diagnosis system to evaluate the state of operation of the plants by the minute change of water quality and to carry out the operational guide in the aspect of water quality control. To this water quality diagnosis system, high speed fuzzy inference is applied in order to do rapid diagnosis with fuzzy data. The trend of development of water quality control system, the construction of the water quality synthetic control system, the configuration of the water quality diagnosis system and the development of algorithm and the improvement of the reliability of maintenance are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Formation of trihalomethanes as disinfection byproducts in herbal spa pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2018-04-09

    Herbal spa treatments are favorite recreational activities throughout the world. The water in spas is often disinfected to control pathogenic microorganisms and guarantee hygiene. However, chlorinated water may cause the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although there have been many studies on DBP formation in swimming pools, the role of organic matter derived from herbal medicines applied in herbal spa water has been largely neglected. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effect of herbal medicines on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in simulated herbal spa water. Water samples were collected from a spa pool, and then, disinfection and herbal addition experiments were performed in a laboratory. The results showed that the organic molecules introduced by the herbal medicines are significant precursors to the formation of THMs in spa pool water. Since at least 50% of THMs were produced within the first six hours of the reaction time, the presence of herbal medicines in spa water could present a parallel route for THM exposure. Therefore, despite the undeniable benefits of herbal spas, the effect of applied herbs on DBP formation in chlorinated water should be considered to improve the water quality and health benefits of spa facilities.

  15. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  16. Information Theory for Risk-based Water System Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Operational management of water resources needs predictions of future behavior of water systems, to anticipate shortage or excess of water in a timely manner. Because the natural systems that are part of the hydrological cycle are complex, the predictions inevitably are subject to considerable

  17. Optimal water meter selection system | Johnson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic/financial analysis based on an income statement together with capital budgeting techniques assist with the determination of the financial suitability of investing in a new replacement water meter. This financial analysis includes various potential income and expenditure components that will result from the ...

  18. A two-stage predictive model to simultaneous control of trihalomethanes in water treatment plants and distribution systems: adaptability to treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, Antonio; Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    The trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and others disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in drinking water by the reaction of chlorine with organic precursors contained in the source water, in two consecutive and linked stages, that starts at the treatment plant and continues in second stage along the distribution system (DS) by reaction of residual chlorine with organic precursors not removed. Following this approach, this study aimed at developing a two-stage empirical model for predicting the formation of TTHMs in the water treatment plant and subsequently their evolution along the water distribution system (WDS). The aim of the two-stage model was to improve the predictive capability for a wide range of scenarios of water treatments and distribution systems. The two-stage model was developed using multiple regression analysis from a database (January 2007 to July 2012) using three different treatment processes (conventional and advanced) in the water supply system of Aljaraque area (southwest of Spain). Then, the new model was validated using a recent database from the same water supply system (January 2011 to May 2015). The validation results indicated no significant difference in the predictive and observed values of TTHM (R 2 0.874, analytical variance distribution systems studied, proving the adaptability of the new model to the boundary conditions. Finally the predictive capability of the new model was compared with 17 other models selected from the literature, showing satisfactory results prediction and excellent adaptability to treatment processes.

  19. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered.

  20. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  1. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  2. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  3. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  4. Water removal from a dry barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.; Ankeny, M.D.; Tansey, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulations reveal that horizontal air flow through the coarse with reasonable pressure gradients can remove large quantities of water from the cover system. Initially, the water removal from the cover system is dominated by the evaporation and advection of water vapor out of the coarse layer. Once the coarse layer is dry, removal of water by evaporation near the fine/coarse layer interface reduces the local water content and water potential, and water moves toward the fine-coarse layer interface and becomes available for evaporation. This result is important in that it suggests the fine layer water content may be moderated by air flow in the coarse layer. Incorporating diffusion of water vapor from the fine layer into the coarse layer substantially increases the water movement out of the fine layer

  5. Drying of heavy water system and works of charging heavy water in Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Iijima, Setsuo

    1980-01-01

    The advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'' is the first heavy water-moderated, boiling light water-cooled nuclear reactor for power generation in Japan. It is a large heavy water reactor having about 130 m 3 of heavy water inventory and about 300 m 3 of helium space as the cover gas of the heavy water system. The heavy water required was purchased from FRG, which had been used for the power output test in the KKN, and the quality was 99.82 mol % mean heavy water concentration. The concentration of heavy water for Fugen used for the nuclear design is 99.70 mol%, and it was investigated how heavy water can be charged without lowering the concentration. The matters of investigation include the method of bringing the heavy water and helium system to perfect dryness after washing and light water test, the method of confirming the sufficient dryness to prevent the deterioration, and the method of charging heavy water safely from its containers. On the basis of the results of investigation, the actual works were started. The works of drying the heavy water and helium system by vacuum drying, the works of sampling heavy water and the result of the degree of deterioration, and the works of charging heavy water and the measures to the heavy water remaing in the containers are described. All the works were completed safely and smoothly. (J.P.N.)

  6. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  7. Water Information Management & Analysis System (WIMAS) v 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Water Information Management and Analysis System (WIMAS) is an ArcView based GIS application that allows users to query Kansas water right data maintained by the...

  8. Underground Water Distribution System, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Leak Detection Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The survey was conducted by myself, Donald Muir, Operations Coordinator, and required 12.25 working days. This was not a survey of the entire water distribution system but instead a survey of water mains 8 inch and larger...

  9. [Water-saving mechanisms of intercropping system in improving cropland water use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Yun; Wu, Pu-Te; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Cheng, Xue-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Based on the multi-disciplinary researches, and in terms of the transformation efficiency of surface water to soil water, availability of cropland soil water, crop canopy structure, total irrigation volume needed on a given area, and crop yield, this paper discussed the water-saving mechanisms of intercropping system in improving cropland water use efficiency. Intercropping system could promote the full use of cropland water by plant roots, increase the water storage in root zone, reduce the inter-row evaporation and control excessive transpiration, and create a special microclimate advantageous to the plant growth and development. In addition, intercropping system could optimize source-sink relationship, provide a sound foundation for intensively utilizing resources temporally and spatially, and increase the crop yield per unit area greatly without increase of water consumption, so as to promote the crop water use efficiency effectively.

  10. Full Scale Drinking Water System Decontamination at the Water Security Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA’s Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) facility is a full-scale representation of a drinking water distribution system. In collaboration with the Idaho National...

  11. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  12. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  13. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A

    2016-01-15

    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Dai; Rung-Ching Chen; Shun-Zhi Zhu; Chung-Yi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and a...

  15. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  16. Studies on the possibilities of using a by-product resulting during the extraction of the volatile oils from conifer twigs and needles in the leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirita, A.; Toma, A.R.; Cocis, V.

    1979-01-01

    Organic by-products containing 19-40% tannin from the water extraction of volatile oils from spruce bark, twigs, and needles were useful when mixed in a 1:1 ratio with BCF synthetic tannin auxiliary to tan hide, and similar by-products containing 16-31% reducing substances could be used to replace glucose as reducing agent in chrome tanning.

  17. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  18. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  19. Water supply method to the fuel cell cooling water system; Nenryo denchi reikyakusuikei eno kyusui hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, S. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-17

    The conventional fuel cell has long cooling water piping ranging from the fuel cell exit to the steam separator; in addition, the supply water is cooler than the cooling water. When the amount of supply water increases, the temperature of the cooling water is lowered, and the pressure fluctuation in the steam separator becomes larger. This invention relates to the water supply method of opening the supply water valve and supplying water from the supply water system to the cooling water system in accordance with the signal of the level sensor of the steam separator, wherein opening and closing of the supply valve are repeated during water supply. According to the method the pressure drop in every water supply becomes negligibly small; therefore, the pressure fluctuation of the cooling water system can be made small. The interval of the supply water valve from opening to closing is preferably from 3 seconds to 2 minutes. The method is effective when equipment for recovering heat from the cooling water is installed in the downstream pipeline of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  20. Significance of losses in water distribution systems in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, V.

    1983-01-01

    Effective management of water supply systems consists in supplying adequate quantities of clean water to the population. Detailed pilot studies of water distribution systems were carried out in 9 cities in India during 1971-81 to establish the feasibility of a programme of assessment, detection, and control of water losses from supply systems. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out. Water losses from mains and service pipes in the areas studied amounted to 20-35% of the total flow in the sys...

  1. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich; Komarov Anatoliy Sergeevich; Mel’nikov Fedor Alekseevich; Serov Aleksandr Evgen’evich

    2015-01-01

    Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold) as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of ...

  2. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  3. Bacterial communities associated with an occurrence of colored water in an urban drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ting; Mi, Zi Long; Zhang, Jing Xu; Chen, Chao; Xie, Shu Guang

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate bacterial community in an urban drinking water distribution system (DWDS) during an occurrence of colored water. Variation in the bacterial community diversity and structure was observed among the different waters, with the predominance of Proteobacteria. While Verrucomicrobia was also a major phylum group in colored water. Limnobacter was the major genus group in colored water, but Undibacterium predominated in normal tap water. The coexistence of Limnobacter as well as Sediminibacterium and Aquabacterium might contribute to the formation of colored water. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with cancer risk, and a recent study found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether swimming in pools is associated with ...

  5. CONTROL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS): COST AND PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is in the process of developing a sophisticated regulatory strategy in an attempt to balance the complex trade-offs in risks associated with controlling disinfectants and disinfection by-products (D/DBPs) in drinking water. EPA first attempted to control DBPs in 1974, w...

  6. Environmental and personal determinants of the uptake of disinfection by-products during swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Schmalz, Christina; Zwiener, Christian; Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Mitch, William; Critelli, Rossana; Naccarati, Alessio; Heederik, Dick; Spithoven, Jack; Arjona, Lourdes; de Bont, Jeroen; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Villanueva, Cristina M

    BACKGROUND: Trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine are internal dose biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. OBJECTIVE: We assessed how these biomarkers reflect the levels of a battery of DBPs in pool water and

  7. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  8. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and ambient temperature as the input factors and daily water intake values as the output factor. The reasoning mechanism of the fuzzy system can calculate the recommended value of daily water intake. Finally, the system will compare the actual recommended values with our system to determine the usefulness. The experimental results show that this recommendation system is effective in actual application.

  9. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  10. Deterioration and optimal rehabilitation modelling for urban water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Pipe failures in water distribution systems can have a serious impact and hence it’s important to maintain the condition and integrity of the distribution system. This book presents a whole-life cost optimisation model for the rehabilitation of water distribution systems. It combines a pipe breakage

  11. Use of ozone in a water reuse system for salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.C.; Hughes, S.G.; Rumsey, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A water reuse system is described in which ozone is used in addition to biological filters to remove toxic metabolic wastes from the water. The system functions at a higher rate of efficiency than has been reported for other reuse systems and supports excellent growth of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  12. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  13. Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Cyanobacterial System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyman, Philip D [J. Craig Venter Institute; Smith, Hamillton O.

    2014-12-03

    Photobiological processes are attractive routes to renewable H2 production. With the input of solar energy, photosynthetic microbes such as cyanobacteria and green algae carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, using sunlight energy to extract protons and high energy electrons from water. These protons and high energy electrons can be fed to a hydrogenase system yielding H2. However, most hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases are inhibited by O2, which is an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The rate of H2 production is thus limited. Certain photosynthetic bacteria are reported to have an O2-tolerant evolving hydrogenase, yet these microbes do not split water, and require other more expensive feedstocks. To overcome these difficulties, the goal of this work has been to construct novel microbial hybrids by genetically transferring O2-tolerant hydrogenases from other bacteria into a class of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria. These hybrid organisms will use the photosynthetic machinery of the cyanobacterial hosts to perform the water-oxidation reaction with the input of solar energy, and couple the resulting protons and high energy electrons to the O2-tolerant bacterial hydrogenase, all within the same microbe (Fig. 1). The ultimate goal of this work has been to overcome the sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme to O2 and address one of the key technological hurdles to cost-effective photobiological H2 production which currently limits the production of hydrogen in algal systems. In pursuit of this goal, work on this project has successfully completed many subtasks leading to a greatly increased understanding of the complicated [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. At the beginning of this project, [NiFe] hydrogenases had never been successfully moved across wide species barriers and had never been heterologously expressed in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, the idea that whole, functional genes could be extracted from complicated, mixed-sequence meta-genomes was not

  14. Heat exchangers in heavy water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Important features of some major heat exchange components of pressurized heavy water reactors and DHRUVA research reactor are presented. Design considerations and nuclear service classifications are discussed

  15. Quantification of Water Flux in Vesicular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesschläger, Christof; Barta, Thomas; Siligan, Christine; Horner, Andreas

    2018-06-04

    Water transport across lipid membranes is fundamental to all forms of life and plays a major role in health and disease. However, not only typical water facilitators like aquaporins facilitate water flux, but also transporters, ion channels or receptors represent potent water pathways. The efforts directed towards a mechanistic understanding of water conductivity determinants in transmembrane proteins, the development of water flow inhibitors, and the creation of biomimetic membranes with incorporated membrane proteins or artificial water channels depend on reliable and accurate ways of quantifying water permeabilities P f . A conventional method is to subject vesicles to an osmotic gradient in a stopped-flow device: Fast recordings of scattered light intensity are converted into the time course of vesicle volume change. Even though an analytical solution accurately acquiring P f from scattered light intensities exists, approximations potentially misjudging P f by orders of magnitude are used. By means of computational and experimental data we point out that erroneous results such as that the single channel water permeability p f depends on the osmotic gradient are direct results of such approximations. Finally, we propose an empirical solution of which calculated permeability values closely match those calculated with the analytical solution in the relevant range of parameters.

  16. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  17. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER — BASIN WATER HIGH EFFICIENCY ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Basin Water System was conducted over a 54-day period between April 4, 2005 and May 28, 2005. The test was conducted at the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District (EVMWD) Corydon Street Well in Lake Elsinore, California. The source water was a raw gr...

  18. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  19. Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Saha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the largest consumer of water among all crops in California. It is generally flood-irrigated, so any system that decreases runoff can improve irrigation efficiency and conserve water. To more accurately manage the water flow at the tail (bottom end of the field in surface-irrigated alfalfa crops, we developed a system that consists of wetting-front sensors, a cellular communication system and a water advance model. This system detects the wetting front, determines its advance rate and generates a cell-phone alert to the irrigator when the water supply needs to be cut off, so that tail water drainage is minimized. To test its feasibility, we conducted field tests during the 2008 and 2009 alfalfa growing seasons. The field experiments successfully validated the methodology, producing zero tail water drainage.

  20. Drinking water distribution systems: assessing and reducing risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    .... Distribution systems -- consisting of pipes, pumps, valves, storage tanks, reservoirs, meters, fittings, and other hydraulic appurtenances -- carry drinking water from a centralized treatment plant...

  1. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  2. A transportable system for radioactivity contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated water treatment system called SARRY for retrieval and recovery of water in operation at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant since August 2011 has been modified by compacting the system size to develop a mobile system SARRY-Aqua that can process Cs-contaminated water (one ton/hour) to the level of 10 Bq/kg. Installing the system in a small container with dimensions conforming to the international standards facilitates transportation by truck and enables the contaminated water treatment occurring in a variety of locations. (S. Ohno)

  3. Alternative disinfectant in drinking water systems. The peracetic acid; Disinfettanti alternativi in potabilizzazione. L`acido peracetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragazzo, Patrizia; Navazio, Giancarlo [Padua, Univ. (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. dei Processi Chimici dell`Ingegneria; Cavadore, Alberto [Solvay Interox, Rosignano (Italy); Babato, Ferdinando [Consorzio per l`Acquedotto del Basso Piave, S. Dona` di Piave (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    The need to use oxidation techniques in mains water systems, especially when treating surface water, has brought about a greater awareness as to the health risks associated to the presence of residual chemical compounds or disinfection by-products (DBP), which are commonly found in water supplies treated by means of traditional disinfectants (i.e. Cl{sub 2}, ClO{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}Cl, O{sub 3}, etc.). As a consequence, legislative standards have had to define greater restrictions regarding their use. In the light of this situation, the authors have set out to examine the feasibility of employing peracetic acid (PAA), which features low production of DBPs, as an alternative disinfectant. Preliminary experimental tests have been carried out on water samples taken from several process points within a water treatment plant at the Basso Piave mains water system, located in Jesolo, near Venice in Italy. These samples were treated with batch PAA doses ranging from 1 to 5 ppm for a variety of different exposition periods, also with varying temperature, pH and water properties. These experiments made it possible to asses the decay kinetics of PAA as well as reduction of characteristic microbiological parameters in raw and treated incoming and outgoing water throughout the various stages of the treatment process. The results achieved during these tests appear to provide ample evidence regarding the possibilities of use for PAA (with medium dosage of 1.5 to 2 ppm, contact times from 30` to 60` and abatement up to 95 %), after having assessed its compatibility, especially in order to the increase of the assimilable organic carbon, with the characteristics of the plant and distribution network, by continuous reactors and pilot plants.

  4. Developing Fluorescence Sensor Systems for Early Detection of Nitrification Events in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of nitrification events in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification events ...

  5. Privatisation of water systems: Crime against humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus R. Mobie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasises the importance of water resources, which are vital to the sustenance of life. Water is essential for various reasons: for drinking, for personal hygiene, for cooking, for watering crops, for cleaning our homes etc. One can therefore conclude that, without this vital resource, there is no life. It is for this reason that God, giver of life, gave water as a gift – free – both to humanity and to the rest of creation, so that we may all achieve fullness of life. This article challenges the fact that, because of the insistence of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the privatisation of water supplies where the poorest of the poor are unable to pay, these people are cut off from water supplies and are deprived of the right to the fullness of life. The author emphasises that there is no life without water, that water resources are a gift from the creator and should therefore be made accessible to all, rich and poor alike.

  6. Integrated Solution Support System for Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassahun, A.; Blind, M.; Krause, A.U.M.; Roosenschoon, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    Solving water management problems involves technical, social, economic, political and legal challenges and thus requires an integrated approach involving people from different backgrounds and roles. The integrated approach has been given a prominent role within the European Union¿s Water Framework

  7. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  8. Innovated feed water distributing system of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Sousek, P.; Simo, T.; Lehota, M.; Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.

    2000-01-01

    Defects in feed water distributing system due to corrosion-erosion effects have been observed at many VVER 440 steam generators (SG). Therefore analysis of defects origin and consequently design development and testing of a new feed water distributing system were performed. System tests in-situ supported by calculations and comparison of measured and calculated data were focused on demonstration of long term reliable operation, definition of water flow and water chemical characteristics at the SG secondary side and their measurements and study of dynamic characteristics needed for the innovated feed water distributing system seismic features approval. The innovated feed water distributing system was installed in the SGs of two VVER units already. (author)

  9. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mertz

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10{sup -3} that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  10. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Mertz Jason Cardon Mike Salmon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10 -3 that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  11. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  12. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  13. System analysis of membrane facilitated water generation from air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S.J.; Lange, de H.C.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of water vapor selective membranes can reduce the energy requirement for extracting water out of humid air by more than 50%. We performed a system analysis of a proposed unit, that uses membranes to separate water vapor from other atmospheric gases. This concentrated vapor can then be

  14. Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems. ... method has been used to study heavy metal interaction in model lake water in KNO3 ... is of no consequential effect because in its normal state, the [OH-] of the lake water is ...

  15. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  16. Effects of chicken by-product gelatin on the physicochemical properties and texture of chocolate spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Poliana Fernandes; Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Chocolate spread has a fat-based formulation and the application of gelatin as a fat replacement is related to the demand for healthier foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelatin as a by-product from the poultry industry in the fat replacement of chocolate spread. Vegetable fat was replaced (15, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with gelatin (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2%) using a central composite rotatable design and the effects were evaluated by a response surface methodology. Formulations with a greater proportion of fat were lighter, of higher volume and lower density. As expected, water activity was intensified in low-fat formulations. The consistency was controlled mainly by the properties of the gelatin phase. The formulations with 50 and 75% fat replacement and 0.5-1.0% gelatin had satisfactory spreadability at 10C. All formulations were spreadable at 20C. Low-fat samples with low gelatin concentrations, at 30C, had very low consistency. Statistically, the properties were significantly influenced by the factors analyzed according to the mathematical models. Although several studies have been conducted on obtaining alternative gelatin sources for mammals, the extracted gelatin from poultry by-product is still little explored and the knowledge on the application in food products, particularly in complex systems such as emulsions, has not been well established. The development of a low-fat food should take into account the complexity of the system involved, such as the emulsion spreads. The incorporation of gelatin in aqueous solution is a challenging task because the physical properties and the rheological behavior can be strongly influenced. Given the nutritional and functional properties of the gelatin and chocolate and its wide acceptability among the consumers, the incorporation of these two ingredients in the development of a new product sets up a promising study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced the formation of other by-products. With alumina ethene showed a lower tendency to form HCN as compared to propene and water addition further suppressed by-product formation. This contrasts the findings with Cu/ZSM-5, where HCN production was not significantly altered by the presence of water. On this catalyst HNCO was found additionally for dry feeds, whereas ammonia appeared in the presence of water in the same temperature range. Under special feed gas compositions further by-products, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons, were found over Cu/ZSM-5, whereas none of these compounds were observed over {gamma}-alumina

  18. The Pluralistic Water Research Concept: A New Human-Water System Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Evers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use and management of water systems is influenced by a number of factors, such as economic growth, global change (e.g., urbanization, hydrological-climatic changes, politics, history and culture. Despite noteworthy efforts to develop integrative approaches to analyze water-related problems, human-water research remains a major challenge for scholars and decision makers due to the increasing complexity of human and water systems interactions. Although existing concepts try to integrate the social and water dimensions, they usually have a disciplinary starting point and perspective, which can represent an obstacle to true integration in human-water research. Hence, a pluralistic approach is required to better understand the interactions between human and water systems. This paper discusses prominent human-water concepts (Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM, socio-hydrology, and political ecology/hydrosocial approach and presents a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR. This is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach which aims to coherently and comprehensively integrate human-water dimensions. The different concepts are illustrated in a synopsis, and diverse framing of research questions are exemplified. The PWR concept integrates physical and social sciences, which enables a comprehensive analysis of human-water interactions and relations. This can lead to a better understanding of water-related issues and potentially sustainable trajectories.

  19. Influences of water quality and climate on the water-energy nexus: A spatial comparison of two water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Shannon; Wang, Haiying; Gardner, Kevin H; Mo, Weiwei

    2018-07-15

    As drinking water supply systems plan for sustainable management practices, impacts from future water quality and climate changes are a major concern. This study aims to understand the intraannual changes of energy consumption for water treatment, investigate the relative importance of water quality and climate indicators on energy consumption for water treatment, and predict the effects of climate change on the embodied energy of treated, potable water at two municipal drinking water systems located in the northeast and southeast US. To achieve this goal, a life cycle assessment was first performed to quantify the monthly energy consumption in the two drinking water systems. Regression and relative importance analyses were then performed between climate indicators, raw water quality indicators, and chemical and energy usages in the treatment processes to determine their correlations. These relationships were then used to project changes in embodied energy associated with the plants' processes, and the results were compared between the two regions. The projections of the southeastern US water plant were for an increase in energy demand resulted from an increase of treatment chemical usages. The northeastern US plant was projected to decrease its energy demand due to a reduced demand for heating the plant's infrastructure. The findings indicate that geographic location and treatment process may determine the way climate change affects drinking water systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.