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Sample records for water suspended particulate

  1. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  2. Spatial distribution of organic contaminants in three rivers of Southern England bound to suspended particulate material and dissolved in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Hooda, Peter S; Swinden, Julian; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other emerging contaminants (ECs) such as plasticisers, perflourinated compounds (PFCs) and illicit drug metabolites in water and bound to suspended particulate material (SPM) is not well-understood. Here, we quantify levels of thirteen selected contaminants in water (n=88) and their partition to suspended particulate material (SPM, n=16) in three previously-unstudied rivers of Greater London and Southern England during a key reproduction/spawning period. Analysis was conducted using an in-house validated method for Solid Phase Extraction followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass-Spectrometry. Analytes were extracted from SPM using an optimised method for ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction. Detection frequencies of contaminants dissolved in water ranged from 3% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (bisphenol-A). Overall mean concentrations in the aqueous-phase ranged from 14.7ng/L (benzoylecgonine) to 159ng/L (bisphenol-A). Sewage treatment works (STW) effluent was the predominant source of pharmaceuticals, while plasticisers/perfluorinated compounds may additionally enter rivers via other sources. In SPM, detection frequencies ranged from 44% (PFOA) to 94% (hydroxyacetophenone). Mean quantifiable levels of analytes bound to SPM ranged from 13.5ng/g dry SPM (0.33ng bound/L water) perfluorononanoic acid to 2830ng/g dry SPM (14.3ng bound/L water) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Long chain (>C7) amphipathic and acidic PFCs were found to more preferentially bind to SPM than short chain PFCs and other contaminants (Kd=34.1-75.5 vs work (n=104) enabled ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD post-hoc tests to establish significant trends in PPCP/EC spatial distribution from headwaters through downstream stretches of studied rivers. Novel findings include environmental Kd calculations, the occurrence of contaminants in river headwaters, increases in contaminant metabolite concentrations

  3. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react with the dissolved oxygen in the water, which can result in oxygen depletion. Toxic metals and organics...

  4. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface water concentrations of inorganic nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) components from Mtwapa and Shirazi creeks in Kenya were measured and compared. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of phytoplankton carbon, particulate organic carbon (POC) and detritus on the total SPM pool, and ...

  5. Fluvial fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter, and nutrients and potential impacts on tropical coastal water Biogeochemistry: Oahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D.J.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    Baseflow and storm runoff fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and nutrients (N and P) were assessed in conservation, urban, and agricultural streams discharging to coastal waters around the tropical island of Oahu, Hawai'i. Despite unusually low storm frequency and intensity during the study, storms accounted for 8-77% (median 30%) of discharge, 57-99% (median 93%) of SPM fluxes, 11-79% (median 36%) of dissolved nutrient fluxes and 52-99% (median 85%) of particulate nutrient fluxes to coastal waters. Fluvial nutrient concentrations varied with hydrologic conditions and land use; land use also affected water and particulate fluxes at some sites. Reactive dissolved N:P ratios typically were ???16 (the 'Redfield ratio' for marine phytoplankton), indicating that inputs could support new production by coastal phytoplankton, but uptake of dissolved nutrients is probably inefficient due to rapid dilution and export of fluvial dissolved inputs. Particulate N and P fluxes were similar to or larger than dissolved fluxes at all sites (median 49% of total nitrogen, range 22-82%; median 69% of total phosphorus, range 49-93%). Impacts of particulate nutrients on coastal ecosystems will depend on how efficiently SPM is retained in nearshore areas, and on the timing and degree of transformation to reactive dissolved forms. Nevertheless, the magnitude of particulate nutrient fluxes suggests that they represent a significant nutrient source for many coastal ecosystems over relatively long time scales (weeks-years), and that reductions in particulate nutrient loading actually may have negative impacts on some coastal ecosystems.

  6. Isotope fractionation between dissolved and suspended particulate Fe in the oxic and anoxic water column of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Staubwasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe isotope ratios and concentrations of dissolved Fe (Fedis, < 0.45 μm and of suspended particulate Fe (FeSPM were analyzed from a depth profile through the anoxic Eastern Gotland Basin water column, Baltic Sea. Results show a sharp gradient in δ56Fedis across the ferruginous layer with δ56Fedis = −0.4‰ in the euxinic deep basin and δ56Fedis = +0.3‰ in the oxic upper water column. The isotopic gradient overlaps with a strong concentration gradient of Fedis, a concentration maximum in FeSPM and lower δ56FeSPM values than δ56Fedis. These features indicate preferential loss of light Fe isotopes from solution to suspended iron-oxyhydroxides (FeIOH during typical oxidative precipitation across the redox interface. The sign of the overall fractionation, Δ56FeIOH-Fe(II(aq < 0‰, is in contrast to similar, mostly non-marine redox environments, where Δ56FeIOH-Fe(II(aq > 0‰. The difference appears to be the result of isotope exchange dominated by reaction kinetics in the marine water column, rather than equilibrium fractionation generally inferred for oxidative Fe precipitation elsewhere. High residual δ56Fedis immediately above the oxic–ferruginous interface and throughout the oxic water column suggests that any potential dissolved Fe export from marine reducing waters into the oxic open water column is enriched in the heavy isotopes. In the deep, mildly euxinic water column above the level of Fe sulfide saturation, a decreasing δ56FeSPM trend with depth and a generally low δ56Fedis are comparable to trends generally observed in marine anoxic sediment profiles where microbial reductive Fe dissolution occurs. The isotope composition of the redox-cycled Fe

  7. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  8. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  9. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  10. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  11. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on post-dredging metal re-contamination across the sediment-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Fan, Chengxin; Shen, Qiushi; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Qilin

    2016-02-01

    Environmental dredging is often used in river mouth areas to remove heavy metals. However, following dredging, high levels of metal-adsorbed suspended particulate matter (SPM) originating from polluted inflowing rivers might adversely affect the sediment-water interface (SWI). Here, we conducted a 360-day-long experiment investigating whether the riverine SPM adversely affects dredging outcome in a bay area of Lake Chaohu, China. We found that the heavy metal concentrations in the post-dredging surface sediment increased to pre-dredging levels for all metals studied (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) after the addition of SPM. In addition, the increased concentrations were mostly detected in the relatively bioavailable non-residual fractions. Of the metals studied, the rate of increase was the greatest for Zn and Cd (482.98% and 261.07%, respectively), mostly in the weak acid extractable fraction. These results were probably due to certain characteristics of SPM (fine grain size, and high concentrations of organic matter and heavy metals) and the good oxic conditions of the SWI. Furthermore, As was the only metal for which we observed an increasing trend of diffusive flux across the SWI. However, the flux was still significantly lower than that measured before dredging. In conclusion, the quantity and character of riverine metal-adsorbed SPM affect metal re-contamination across the post-dredging SWI, and this information should be incorporated into the management schemes of dredging projects dedicated to reducing metal contamination in similar areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  13. Origins of suspended particulate matter based on sterol distribution in low salinity water mass observed in the offshore East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Jin, Yongnu; Han, Gi Myeong; Lee, Taehee; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Dong-Lim; Kannan, Narayanan

    2016-07-15

    The molecular composition and distribution of sterols were investigated in the East China Sea to identify the origins of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in offshore waters influenced by Changjiang River Diluted Water (CRDW). Total sterol concentrations ranged from 3200 to 31,900pgL(-1) and 663 to 5690pgL(-1) in the particulate and dissolved phases, respectively. Marine sterols dominated representing 71% and 66% in the particulate and dissolved phases, respectively. Typical sewage markers, such as coprostanol, were usually absent at ~250km offshore. However, sterols from allochthonous terrestrial plants were still detected at these sites. A negative relationship was observed between salinity and concentrations of terrestrial sterols in SPM, suggesting that significant amounts of terrestrial particulate matter traveled long distance offshore in the East China Sea, and the Changjiang River Diluted Water (CRDW) was an effective carrier of land-derived particulate organic matter to the offshore East China Sea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel concepts for preparation of reference materials as whole water samples for priority substances at nanogram-per-liter level using model suspended particulate matter and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elordui-Zapatarietxe, Saioa; Fettig, Ina; Philipp, Rosemarie; Gantois, Fanny; Lalère, Béatrice; Swart, Claudia; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Vanermen, Guido; Boom, Gerard; Emteborg, Håkan

    2015-04-01

    One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations. In the present study, three different types of ready-to-use water test materials were developed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tributyltin (TBT) at nanogram-per-liter levels. The first type simulated the dissolved phase in the water and comprised of a solution of humic acids (HA) at 5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a spike of the target compounds. The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water. To this end, model suspended particulate matter (SPM) with a realistic particle size was produced by jet milling soil and sediments containing known amounts of PAHs, PBDEs and TBT and added as slurry to mineral water. The most complex test materials mimicked "whole water" consequently containing both phases, the model SPM and the HA solution with the target analytes strongly bound to the SPM. In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

  15. Seasonal characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols in total suspended particulate matter at a rural semi-arid site, Kadapa (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begam, G Reshma; Vachaspati, C Viswanatha; Ahammed, Y Nazeer; Kumar, K Raghavendra; Reddy, R R; Sharma, S K; Saxena, Mohit; Mandal, T K

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the sources as well as characterization of regional aerosols at a rural semi-arid region Kadapa (India), size-resolved composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations was sampled and analysed. This was carried out by using the Anderson low-pressure impactor for a period of 2 years during March 2013-February 2015. Also, the variations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble inorganic ion components (WSICs) present in total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were studied over the measurement site. From the statistical analysis, the PM mass concentration showed a higher abundance of coarse mode particles than the fine mode during pre-monsoon season. In contrast, fine mode particles in the PM concentration showed dominance over coarse mode particle contribution during the winter. During the post-monsoon season, the percentage contributions of coarse and fine fractions were equal, whereas during the monsoon, coarse mode fraction was approximately 26 % higher than the fine mode. This distinct feature in the case of fine mode particles during the studied period is mainly attributed to large-scale anthropogenic activities and regional prevailing meteorological conditions. Further, the potential sources of PM have been identified qualitatively by using the ratios of certain ions. A high sulphate (SO4) concentration at the measurement site was observed during the studied period which is caused by the nearby/surrounding mining activity. Carbon fractions (OC and EC) were also analysed from the TSPM, and the results indicated (OC/EC ratio of ~4.2) the formation of a secondary organic aerosol. At last, the cluster backward trajectory analyses were also performed at Kadapa for different seasons to reveal the origin of sources from long-range transport during the study period.

  16. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in sea water. Part 3. Practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Majchrowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to a close our cycle of articles on modelling the light absorption properties of particulate organic matter (POM in the sea. In the first two parts of this cycle (Woźniaket al. 2005a,b we discussed these properties with reference to various model chemical classes and physical types of POM. We have put these results into practice in the present third part. As a result of the appropriate theoretical speculations, logically underpinned by empirical knowledge, we selected 25 morphological variants of marine organic detritus, to which we ascribed definite chemical compositions and physical types. On this basis and using known spectra of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by various naturally occurring organic substances (systematised in Parts 1 and 2, we determined the absorption properties of these 25 morphological groups of particles, that is, the spectra of the imaginary part of the refractive index n'p(λ (in the 200-700 nm range of the particulate matter. They can be applied, with the aid of Mie's or some other similar theory, to calculate the bulk optical properties (absorbing and scattering of such sets of particles in the sea.

  17. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyun Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP, from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM, and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  18. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyun; Jia, Rui; Yang, Shengke

    2015-11-06

    Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP), from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM), and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene) and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene) reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  19. Occurrence and seasonal loads of pesticides in surface water and suspended particulate matter from a wetland of worldwide interest--the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2015-11-01

    Two novel methods were developed to extract and quantify 56 pesticides in surface waters, considering their content in both dissolved aqueous phase (DAP) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) fractions. These procedures were applied to coastal samples taken seasonally during 2012-2013, from three strategic sampling sites along the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south of Portugal). Briefly, 500 mL of water samples were filtrated, separating both fractions. The DAP fraction was extracted and pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE), while the SPM was extracted using ultrasonic extraction technique (USE). Both fractions were then analyzed, and the pesticides were quantified and identified, within 35 min, by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-MS/MS), respectively. The extraction of pesticides from the SPM fraction showed average recoveries of 102%, detection limits below 2.2 ng/L, and quantification limits ranging from 0.3 to 6.6 ng/L. Considering the real water samples, 73% of the selected pesticides were quantified in both DAP and SPM fractions (ΣDAP+SPM 2.3 μg/L) and their maximum levels were measured in autumn and winter. By category, the global loads of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides were ≈407, ≈323, and ≈1.6 μg/L, respectively. Thirty-one percent of the quantified pesticides exceeded the European directives levels (2008/105/EC and 98/83/EC). From the total loads, the SPM fraction contribution was 32%, showing the importance of measuring pesticides in that fraction. The water physicochemical parameters revealed that the total nitrogen amounts were very high relatively to the legal required values, mainly close to the city of Faro (2.6 mg/L). In light of the above, measures are in need to meet European directives and protect both fauna and humans that use this area for leisure.

  20. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The particulate samples from where the metals were characterized and quantified, were collected between December 2007 and March 2008, using a Gravimetric technique a portable SKC 506673 High volume Gravimetric sampler. The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor ...

  1. Development of a Semi-Analytical Algorithm for the Retrieval of Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Clear to Very Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of suspended particulate matter, SPM, from space has long been used to assess its spatio-temporal variability in various coastal areas. The associated algorithms were generally site specific or developed over a relatively narrow range of concentration, which make them inappropriate for global applications (or at least over broad SPM range. In the frame of the GlobCoast project, a large in situ data set of SPM and remote sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ, has been built gathering together measurements from various coastal areas around Europe, French Guiana, North Canada, Vietnam, and China. This data set covers various contrasting coastal environments diversely affected by different biogeochemical and physical processes such as sediment resuspension, phytoplankton bloom events, and rivers discharges (Amazon, Mekong, Yellow river, MacKenzie, etc.. The SPM concentration spans about four orders of magnitude, from 0.15 to 2626 g·m−3. Different empirical and semi-analytical approaches developed to assess SPM from Rrs(λ were tested over this in situ data set. As none of them provides satisfactory results over the whole SPM range, a generic semi-analytical approach has been developed. This algorithm is based on two standard semi-analytical equations calibrated for low-to-medium and highly turbid waters, respectively. A mixing law has also been developed for intermediate environments. Sources of uncertainties in SPM retrieval such as the bio-optical variability, atmospheric correction errors, and spectral bandwidth have been evaluated. The coefficients involved in these different algorithms have been calculated for ocean color (SeaWiFS, MODIS-A/T, MERIS/OLCI, VIIRS and high spatial resolution (LandSat8-OLI, and Sentinel2-MSI sensors. The performance of the proposed algorithm varies only slightly from one sensor to another demonstrating the great potential applicability of the proposed approach over global and contrasting coastal waters.

  2. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  3. [Grain Size Distribution Characteristics of Suspended Particulate Matter as Influenced by the Apparent Pollution in the Eutrophic Urban Landscape Water Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dan-yan; Pan, Yang; Huang, Yong; Bao, Wei; Li, Qian-qian

    2016-03-15

    Grain size distribution characteristics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) reflects the apparent polluted condition of the urban landscape water. In order to explore the internal relationship between the eutrophication of urban landscape water's apparent pollution and grain size distribution of SPM, and its influencing factors, this paper selected five representative sampling sites in Feng Jin River which is a typical eutrophication river in Suzhou City, measured the grain size distribution of SPM, sensation pollution index (SPI) and water quality index, and analyzed their correlation. The results showed that: The rich nutrient water possessed a similar characteristics in grain size distribution. The grain size distribution of SPM in water was multimodal, and the the peak position was roughly the same; the grain size distribution of SPM was composed by multiple components. It could be roughly divided into six parts with the particle size range of every group being 516 µm. The component III was superior (with an average volume fraction of 38.3%-43.2%), and its volume fraction had a significant positive relation with the SPI value and the Chl-a content. The increase of component III volume fraction was the reflection of particle size's result of increasing SPI value. The increase of component III volume fraction was mainly derived from the increasing algal content. The volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V was significantly higher under the condition of exogenous enter. When there was no exogenous component, the volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V had a significant negative correlation with SPI value; when there were exogenous components, the volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V had a weak positive correlation with SPI value, but the correlation did not reach a significant level. Environmental factors (Fv/Fm and DO) and exogenous factors had an influence by functioning on the algal content which signified the polluted material

  4. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 green and red band imagery supplemented by U-2 photographs provides synoptic views of turbid, nearshore, near-surface bodies of water which adds to the body of knowledge about the coastal ocean necessary for a thorough understanding of the dynamic environment. Tubidity and suspended sediment measurements made in the Gulf of the Farallones correlate well with water tonal patterns visible on satellite imagery. Three successively seaward zones of turbid water could be delineated. Secchi disc visibility tests were the most definitive, ranging from or = 2 meters in the main plume, to almost 3 meters in the second zone of turbid water, to 4 meters in the furthest seaward zone of turbid water measured. These variations in water clarity were reinforced by suspended sediment concentrations which ranged from 26-28 mg/1, to 20-24 mg/1, to 11-15 mg/1, respectively, in each of the three masses of water. Transmissiometer readings were basically in agreement with the suspended sediment and Secchi disc values measured. Satellite imagery and U-2 photographs of the California coastal zone taken early in April 1973 show numerous plumes of suspended sediment being deflected southward. This indicates a southward flow of the nearshore, near-surface waters, a reversal from that noted in January 1973.

  5. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean. [California coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator); Janda, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Release-recovery paths of drift cards released in conjunction with ERTS-1 overflight show that nearshore surface currents along the central and northern California coast flowed southward at an average rate in excess of 10 cm/sec (8.5 km/day) during August and September 1973 (California Current). By the middle of October 1973, the nearshore surface currents had reversed and the dominant flow velocity was northward at an average rate in excess of 20 cm/sec (17 km/ day) (Davidson Current). The August-September data suggested the presence of counterclockwise gyres in Monterey Bay and the Gulf of the Farallones, but by the middle of October, the gyres were no longer evident. Imagery of April 1973 showed well developed plumes of suspended sediment in Monterey Bay from the Salinas River and in the Gulf of the Farallones from San Francisco Bay. ERTS-1 imagery provides an effective means of monitoring timber harvest in the redwood forest along the northern California coast. ERTS-1 imagery also clearly portrays contrasting topographic belts characterized by fluvial erosion and by mass movement. The most visually apparent and most persistent river mouth suspended sediment plumes are associated with those rivers that drain belts of topography that appear to have been eroded primarily by mass movement.

  6. Optical and Gravimetric Partitioning of Coastal Ocean Suspended Particulate Inorganic Matter (PIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavn, R. H.; Zhang, X.; Falster, A. U.; Gray, D. J.; Rick, J. J.; Gould, R. W., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work on the composition of suspended particulates of estuarine and coastal waters increases our capabilities to investigate the biogeochemal processes occurring in these waters. The biogeochemical properties associated with the particulates involve primarily sorption/desorption of dissolved matter onto the particle surfaces, which vary with the types of particulates. Therefore, the breakdown into chemical components of suspended matter will greatly expand the biogeochemistry of the coastal ocean region. The gravimetric techniques for these studies are here expanded and refined. In addition, new optical inversions greatly expand our capabilities to study spatial extent of the components of suspended particulate matter. The partitioning of a gravimetric PIM determination into clay minerals and amorphous silica is aided by electron microprobe analysis. The amorphous silica is further partitioned into contributions by detrital material and by the tests of living diatoms based on an empirical formula relating the chlorophyll content of cultured living diatoms in log phase growth to their frustules determined after gravimetric analysis of the ashed diatom residue. The optical inversion of composition of suspended particulates is based on the entire volume scattering function (VSF) measured in the field with a Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter and a LISST 100 meter. The VSF is partitioned into an optimal combination of contributions by particle subpopulations, each of which is uniquely represented by a refractive index and a log-normal size distribution. These subpopulations are aggregated to represent the two components of PIM using the corresponding refractive indices and sizes which also yield a particle size distribution for the two components. The gravimetric results of partitioning PIM into clay minerals and amorphous silica confirm the optical inversions from the VSF.

  7. Assessment of CO, CO2 and Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Isah ABDULKARIM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carbon oxides (CO and CO2 and suspended particulate matter at Benue Cement Company (BCC and Tse-Kucha community was investigated. Results obtained, shows that concentrations of carbon dioxide of 34.40ppm, 39.50 ppm, 48.50 ppm, 78.55 ppm, 65.25 ppm, 26.80 ppm and 29.5 ppm for quarry, raw mill, cement mill, Kiln, packing house, limestone stockpile and Tse-Kucha community respectively were below the maximum standard natural concentration of CO2 in atmosphere of 600ppm while concentrations of CO (1.25ppm - 4.00ppm measured in all the sample stations were below the Nigerian Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and WHO max limit of 10 ppm - 20 ppm for an 8-hourly average time. Lastly, the concentrations of suspended particulate matter of 375 μg/m3, 338 μg/m3 and 290 μg/m3 at the cement mill, packing house and raw mill respectively were also above the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Guidelines and Standards for Ambient Air Quality which stipulates a range of 150 μg/m3 to 230 μg/m3 for a 24- hourly average.

  8. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  9. Distribution and sources of suspended particulate matter in the Kara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kravchishina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentration in the Kara Sea was analysed based on ship and satellite data during the lowest ice cover periods in the Arctic (2007 and 2011. The distance of the river runoff with terrigenous SPM was recognized up to at least 76–76.5° N on the basis of isotope data and SPM concentrations and composition. The complex studies of SPM in the water column and in the benthic boundary layer provided new information about the supply and transformation of particles in the marine ecosystem.

  10. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  11. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended particulate matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the surface Bay of Bengal (BOB) at 24 different locations during pre- (April-May 2003) and post- (September-October 2002) monsoon...

  12. A review of the effects of particle types on oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) can form naturally when oil and particles interact. The interaction between oil and suspended particulate matter makes oil less sticky, and facilitates its dispersion in the water column. The high oil-water surface contact enhances the biodegradation of oil and thus increases the efficiency of remediation processes. There are many factors that affect OSA formation, but, particle type is one of the most important. Because different particle types have different physical, chemical, and biological properties, their interactions with oil differ greatly. Particle properties such as interlayer spaces, hydrophobicity, surface charges, polarity, organic content, and size affect the interactions between materials and oil. These different interactions determine the type, buoyancy, size, and stability of OSA that forms, thus determining its fate in the environment. This review provides a current understanding of (1) OSA formation mechanisms, (2) sources and classes of marine materials, (3) oil-particle interactions, (4) material properties and their effects on oil interaction, and (5) future research needs.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Lead in Suspended Particulate Matter Collected From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the sample as follows: 7.2.1.5.1 Rinse watch glass and sides of beaker with D.I. water. 7.2.1.5.2.... 1.1 Ambient air suspended particulate matter is collected on a glass-fiber filter for 24 hours using... lead content of the sample is analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame...

  14. Oil-suspended particulate material aggregates as a tool in preventing potential ecotoxicological impacts in the São Paulo river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of salinity and suspended particulate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Lorena S; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Santos, Carlito P; Pinheiro, Samires M M; Oliveira, Lua M L; Martins, Adriele B O; Filho, Milton S C

    2016-11-15

    Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of a natural process of interaction between oil droplets and suspended particulate material, resulting in the formation of aggregates which are dispersed in the water column, known as oil-suspended particulate material aggregates (OSAs). The experiments aimed to investigate the contribution of OSAS in indicating where most likely is the oil sedimentation in the São Paulo river, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, in order to predict possible ecotoxicological risks caused by oil spills. The results showed that salinity and MPS concentration interfere on the formation of aggregates. In addition, the point 3 was nominated as the most vulnerable area to the potential ecotoxicological impacts of oil spills and should be treated as a priority area for the application of preventive and mitigating techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of the transport of suspended particulate matter in the Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausstein, H.

    2008-11-06

    Numerical simulations of the transport of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Rio de la Plata estuary were performed with a three dimensional model for coastal waters driven by wave sand currents. Aturbulence based flocculation approach is implemented to the model. The model is for the first time applied under heavy conditions, since the Rio de la Plata has discharges up to 25000 m{sup 3}/s and SPM concentrations up to 300-400 mg/l. Such concentrations are also difficult to compute from satellite measurements. SeaWiFs satellite images served for the validation of the model results. The model is able to reproduce the shape and the position of the front as well as the zone of the turbidity maximum. It also identifies the zones of erosion and deposition which is of significant importance because of the dense ship traffic along the navigational channels towards Buenos Aires and the cities upstream the rivers. (orig.)

  16. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy..., the State must repromulgate Regulation No. 1 to satisfy reasonably available control technology...

  17. Distribution and partitioning of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment in harbours of the West coastal of the Gulf of Tunis (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzoughi, Nadia; Chouba, Lassaad

    2011-03-01

    Harbours of La Goulette, Rades and Sidi Bou Said are considered as the principal largest and most important port in the Gulf of Tunis characterised by a direct influence of different activities (sailing, industry and fishing) to the Mediterranean Sea. Due to their social and economic impact, a comprehensive assessment of the spatial distribution and partitioning of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 18 aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in summer and in winter among overlying water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments is essential. Distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in abiotic compartments is important for describing their transfer and fate in aquatic ecosystems and to identify the potential danger due to mobilization of contaminants produced by managing of the same sediments. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between 4.3% and 6.5%, with an average value of 5.9% in summer, and between 2.3% and 9.6%, with an average value of 6.1% in winter. The average concentrations of ΣPAH in winter and in summer were respectively 703.1 ng L⁻¹ and 378.4 ng L⁻¹ in seawater, 4599.1 ng g⁻¹ and 3114 ng g⁻¹ in SPM, and 1507.6 ng g⁻¹ dw (dry weight) and 1294.6 ng g⁻¹ dw in surface sediment. For ΣAH the average concentrations in winter and in summer were respectively 701 ng L⁻¹ and 741.7 ng L⁻¹ in seawater, 6743.5 ng g⁻¹ and 6282.9 ng g⁻¹ in SPM, and 4971.3 ng g⁻¹ and 4588.1 ng g⁻¹ in surface sediment. Higher PAH and AH concentrations were observed in SPM than in surface sediment. SPM and water were dominated by PAH with low molecular weight, while for sediment low and high molecular weight PAHs were present. PAH and AH fingerprint ratios, such as pristane to phytane (Pr/Ph), phenanthrene to anthracene (Phe/An) and fluoranthene to pyrene (Fl/Py), suggest that hydrocarbons in all harbours may originate from both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources derived from discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater

  18. Turbidity-based methods for continuous estimates of suspended sediment, particulate carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Alsuliman, Malek; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A good evaluation of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and sampling frequencies. Carbon and nutrient monitoring at finer time intervals is still very difficult and expensive. Therefore, establishing relationships between grab sampling and continuous commonly available data can be considered as a favorable solution to turn this problem. The aim of this study was to develop a method to continuously estimate instream sediment, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations based on high resolution measurement of turbidity, discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentration. To achieve our gaols, high frequency data (30 min interval) were generated during 3 years at the UFZ- TERENO platform Bode (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories). Samples were analysed for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), particulate organic carbon (POC), total organic carbon (TOC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorus (PP) using simple and multiple linear regression models. For this study, measurements from six sub-catchments with different geographical characteristics were considered. The available data sets were divided into two years (2010-2012) calibration and one year (2012-2013) validation periods. Results revealed that the turbidity was the most predictor variable in all models, particularly for suspended sediment concentrations. For all gauging stations, the SSC could be explained using simple linear regression model by the turbidity with a lowest correlation coefficient of 0.93. The non-uniqueness of the simple linear equation obtained between the stations reflected the sensitivity of the turbidity signal to the differences in land use and agriculture management between the sub-catchments. Best predictions of POC, TOC, PP and PN were achieved when multiple linear regression models were used including discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentrations as predictor variables in addition to turbidity (lowest

  19. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, M.; Polo, M. J.; Suhyp Salama, Mhd.

    2015-05-01

    Earth observations (EOs) following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents' concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ɛ(4,5) .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ɛ(4,5)) to 0.86 (two ɛ( 4,5)) on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  20. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carpintero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Earth observations (EOs following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents’ concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ε(4,5 .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ε(4,5 to 0.86 (two ε( 4,5 on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  1. 78 FR 22425 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total... is taking direct final action to delete certain area designations for total suspended particulate... the attainment or unclassifiable areas for total suspended particulate in Clark County as well as the...

  2. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total... proposing to delete certain area designations for total suspended particulate within the State of Nevada... unclassifiable areas for total suspended particulate in Clark County as well as the following nonattainment areas...

  3. Trace metals in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Severnaya Dvina estuary, Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koukina, S.E.; Calafat-Frau, A.; Hummel, H.; Palerud, R.

    2001-01-01

    A geochemical study of the Severnaya Dvina estuary was carried out during two oceanographic cruises to the White Sea. The amount and distribution of trace (Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and major (Al and Fe) elements in suspended particulate matter and sediments were determined. The main source of

  4. Personal exposure to total suspended particulates of adolescents living in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Terblanche, APS

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal monitoring of exposure to air pollution is becoming increasingly important in health studies as a method of characterizing total exposure. We monitored the exposure of 31 teenagers to total suspended particulates (TSP) over a 12-hour period...

  5. Levels of As, Pb, Cd and Fe in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) collected from three different artisans' workshops was analyzed for As, Cd, Pb and Fe by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The range of SPM concentrations for the three workshops was 583-20,166Bg/m3. The highest concentrations of these elements were observed in Motor ...

  6. Seasonal changes in suspended particulate component in Bombay High oil field (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, K.L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Venkat, K.

    of phytoplankton biomass. Ratio of silicate and nitrate to phosphate was 16:16:1 for monsoon and postmonsoon periods. Annual values of particulate carbohydrates, particulate proteins and particulate lipids in surface waters ranged from 40 to 265 mu g l sup(-1), 21...

  7. Determination of suspended particulate matter concentration from turbidity measurements: particle size effects and calibration procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, J.; Schmidt, A.

    2003-07-01

    Measurements of suspended particulate matter concentration and turbidity point towards the possibility of a site-specific algorithm (SPM), relating SPM to nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). In this paper regression models are presented that account for changes in the relationship of SPM and NTU as a result of changes in particle properties. The models have been developed by the use of daily measurements of SPM concentration and a continuous record of turbidity for the period from June 1996 to February 2001 in the River Elbe, a major river in the eastern part of Germany.The effect of changes in the particle properties with increasing water discharge was taken into account by varying the slope of a linear regression equation according to a logistic function. Water discharge, Q, was defined to be the only variable of this function - as an adequate substitute of the parameter bottom shear stress, which cannot be measured directly. Measurements of flow velocity in the River Elbe show that bottom shear stress is related almost linearly to water discharge up to bankful discharges.Regression models with slopes varying continuously with hydraulic parameters may account for the effects resulting from changes of particle characteristics and thus may have some advantages compared with models with a constant slope or models calibrated for different seasons.

  8. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water; Caracterizacion y morfologia de solidos suspendidos en agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy.

  10. Suspended particulate matter collection methods influence the quantification of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhelou, Fayez; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Catteloin, Delphine; Collin, Valéry; Bauer, Allan; Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Gley, Renaud; Manceau, Luc; Thomas, Fabien; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle

    2017-08-16

    In this study, we compared the influence of two different collection methods, filtration (FT) and continuous flow field centrifugation (CFC), on the concentration and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) occurring in river waters. SPM samples were collected simultaneously with FT and CFC from a river during six sampling campaigns over 2 years, covering different hydrological contexts. SPM samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of PACs including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 11 oxygenated PACs (O-PACs), and 5 nitrogen PACs (N-PACs). Results showed significant differences between the two separation methods. In half of the sampling campaigns, PAC concentrations differed from a factor 2 to 30 comparing FT and CFC-collected SPMs. The PAC distributions were also affected by the separation method. FT-collected SPM were enriched in 2-3 ring PACs whereas CFC-collected SPM had PAC distributions dominated by medium to high molecular weight compounds typical of combustion processes. This could be explained by distinct cut-off threshold of the two separation methods and strongly suggested the retention of colloidal and/or fine matter on glass-fiber filters particularly enriched in low molecular PACs. These differences between FT and CFC were not systematic but rather enhanced by high water flow rates.

  11. Horizontal distributions of biogenic and lithogenic elements of suspended particulate matter in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, N. B.; Brand, T.; Pates, J. M.; Mowbray, S.; Theocharis, A.; Civitarese, G.; Miserocchi, S.; Heussner, S.; Lindsay, F.

    1999-08-01

    A study has been made of the distribution of terrigenous (Al and Mn ex, Fe ex) and biogenic (POC, PN tot, P org, Si bio, Ba ex) elements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on a series of transects in three marginal areas of the Mediterranean Sea; the NW Mediterranean, the western Adriatic to the Strait of Otranto and the southern (Cretan) and northern Aegean Sea, with the intention of assessing the influence that river discharges have on their concentrations. In the Adriatic, high Al concentrations (60-200 μgl -1) occur as a consequence of direct discharge from the River Po but importantly from sediment resuspension the amount of which, under steady state conditions, is also related to riverine discharge. In the Otranto Strait high Al concentrations overlie its western shelf and slope. On the NW Mediterranean only waters influenced by the River Rhone, as off Banyuls-sur-mer, show high Al. Particulate Mn is mostly river derived, but principally exists in marginal areas from redox cycling in surficial sediments, a consequence of high biological production induced by nutrient discharges from rivers. High particulate Mn ex concentrations were measured in the northern Adriatic, off Banyuls-sur-mer and the northern Aegean, where there are strong river influences. In contrast, the more oligotrophic seawaters off Marseilles, the Balearics and the Cretan Sea show lower concentrations of Mn ex, and depth profiles of Mn ex especially in the latter area are similar to those found in ocean waters. Of the biogenic elements studied, the assumed presence of terrigenous organic carbon, especially on the Adriatic shelf, largely precludes POC concentrations from being an indicator of marine production. A better guide to productivity induced by river nutrient discharges is seen in the distribution of P org and Si bio concentrations, which show a gradual southward reduction along the Adriatic shelf and higher concentrations off Banyuls-sur-mer than on other transects in the NW

  12. 2010 Lead (Pb) Air Monitoring Requirements & 2013 Method for Determination of Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulate Matter Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a variety of fact sheets and other documents that are supplementary to the 2010 final revisions to lead (Pb) ambient air monitoring requirements and the 2013 final method for determination of Pb in total suspended particulate matter.

  13. Suspended particulate matter and vertical fluxes of sedimentary material in bays of the Murmansk (Barents Sea) and Karelian (White Sea) coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityaev, M. V.; Gerasimova, M. V.; Berger, V. Ja.

    2017-03-01

    Synchronous measurement of the total suspended organic and mineral particulate matter, together with vertical sedimentary matter flux, carried out in various areas of Yarnyschnaya Inlet (Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea) and Chupa Inlet (Karelian coast of the White Sea) revealed that the seston organic component plays no part in sedimentation, being almost completely utilized in the water column, while the majority of mineral matter is transported out of the bay. The total amount of suspended matter and its components in the water column is estimated, as well as the total flux of sedimentary matter to the bottom of Chupa and Yarnyschnaya inlets.

  14. Particulate flux calculation based on metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations relationship: case study of turbid alpine river (Isere, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutordoir, Solene; Nemery, Julien; Guedron, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jérémy; Minaudo, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Landas-Maneval, Jacqueline; Rivière, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the context of increasing stress on aquatic environment, the improvement of pollutant flux quantification in large rivers presents a strong stake. Isere at Grenoble city (5570 km2) is an alpine river in the Northern French Alps with high suspended sediment transport reaching 10 to 20 g L-1 during floods. It is known that for elements like P, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe et Al, most of river transport is done under particulate forms. Isere River is susceptible to transport particulate pollutants such as metals, given mining history and industrial activities at the upstream watershed. Moreover, this river receives Grenoble city's effluents (500 000 inhabitants) and stormwaters during rain events. Three metals (Hg, Ni, Pb) identified as priority substances regarding European Water Framework Directive and As known to be one of the most metal of concern were chosen in this study. High frequency samplings of suspended sediments were realized between 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the temporal variation of metals contents and to determine geochemical background during high flow periods. In the same sampling site (situated upstream urban effluents of Grenoble city), discharge and suspended sediment concentration by turbidity were measured at 30 min frequency by a monitoring station. The use of historical and new databases ranging between low and high discharge (10 years return flood) allowed determining relationships between metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations and discharges. Results show a good correlation for the studied metals and permit to defined the geochemical backgrounds for each metals measured above 0.5 g L-1, (Hg = 68 +/- 48 ng g-1, Ni = 30 +/- 10 mg g-1, Pb = 43 +/-13 mg g-1, As = 15 +/- 4 mg g-1). These models were validated on a separated period than the one used for the calibration and applied to calculate particulate metals concentrations and associated incertitude at 30 min frequency using SSC and discharge database. Cumulative 30 minutes

  15. How much suspended particulate matter enters long-term in-channel storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Kleisinger, Carmen; Kehl, Nora; Schubert, Birgit; Hillebrand, Gudrun

    2017-04-01

    The route of suspended particulate matter (SPM) downstream rivers strongly depends on discharge conditions and involves transport times and periods with resting times in deposits e.g. at areas with low-flow conditions near the channel bed. It is, however, difficult to estimate the contribution of SPM on the bed load. In this study, particle-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were released by an incident in the Elbe river (Central Europe) in spring 2015, could be used as unique tracer for transport pathways of SPM along the whole river stretch (over 700 km length), including low mountain ranges, lowlands, and the estuary. In 2015 the Elbe River was characterized by low-discharge conditions. Thus, the export of SPM on flood plains was strongly limited. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from ten monitoring stations (settling tanks) are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal (hereafter PCB6 ratio). We demonstrate that both the load of PCB as well as its chemical fingerprint allows the estimation of transport durations for the transport processes involved. Only a little part of the suspension has been transported via wash load. The PCB6 ratio is used to estimate mean transport velocities of the wash load fraction. A direct transport of wash load via the mean flow velocity of the water was not observed. Shortly after the incident, the PCB6 ratio was monitored 257 km downstream of the incident site in April 2015, in May first occurrence was monitored 514 km downstream of

  16. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  17. Mass transfer within electrostatic precipitators: in-flight adsorption of mercury by charged suspended particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2006-06-01

    Electrostatic precipitation is the dominant method of particulate control used for coal combustion, and varying degrees of mercury capture and transformation have been reported across ESPs. Nevertheless, the fate of gas-phase mercury within an ESP remains poorly understood. The present analysis focuses on the gas-particle mass transfer that occurs within a charged aerosol in an ESP. As a necessary step in gas-phase mercury adsorption or transformation, gas-particle mass transfer-particularly in configurations other than fixed beds-has received far less attention than studies of adsorption kinetics. Our previous analysis showed that only a small fraction of gas-phase mercury entering an ESP is likelyto be adsorbed by collected particulate matter on the plate electrodes. The present simplified analysis provides insight into gas-particle mass transfer within an ESP under two limiting conditions: laminar and turbulent fluid flows. The analysis reveals that during the process of particulate collection, gas-particle mass transfer can be quite high, easily exceeding the mass transfer to ESP plate electrodes in most cases. Decreasing particle size, increasing particle mass loading, and increasing temperature all result in increased gas-particle mass transfer. The analysis predicts significantly greater gas-particle mass transfer in the laminar limitthan in the turbulent limit; however, the differences become negligible under conditions where other factors, such as total mass of suspended particulates, are the controlling mass transfer parameters. Results are compared to selected pilot- and full-scale sorbent injection data.

  18. Chemical composition of sediments, suspended matter, river water and ground water of the Nile (Aswan-Sohag traverse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, V M; Komy, Z; Araújo, F; Van Put, A; Van Grieken, R

    1997-08-18

    Sediment, suspended matter, river water and ground water samples were collected at twelve sites in the drainage valley of the Nile River, around Sohag (Central Egypt) and close to the Aswan High Dam. Elemental composition of the river water (27 elements), ground water (eight elements), suspended matter (12 elements) and sediments (12 elements) was studied. Aswan High Dam construction, agricultural and industrial human activities have led to dramatic changes in the Nile River chemistry. Nowadays, the Nile River has the highest dissolved salt content among the major African rivers. Dissolved transport is a major process for Ca, K, Sr, Zn, Cu, Ni and V. Manganese, Fe and Cr are mainly carried by suspended matter. The Nile suspended matter is exhausted in almost all elements studied (except for Mn) compared to the world average river suspended matter. Along the course of the river, the distribution of elements in the suspended matter and sediments is generally controlled by natural processes: the relative importance of elemental transport phases; and the oxidation, precipitation and sedimentation of mineral species through the varying physico-chemical conditions of the environment. Pollution input in the Nile particulate load is not major, as compared to the natural inputs. Eight genetic particle types describe the composition of the Nile suspended matter and sediments: (1) biogenous-aeolian (or silica); (2) terrigenous (Fe-aluminosilicate); (3) authigenic (calcium carbonate); (4) biogenous (apatite); (5) authigenous-terrigenous (Fe-oxyhydroxide-montmorillonite); (6) diagenetic (iron-sulfide); (7) terrigenous (titanium oxide); (8) authigenous (Mn-Fe-oxyhydroxide).

  19. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  20. Distribution and geochemical composition of suspended particulate material in the shallow embayment of northern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanoglou, K.; Anagnostou, Ch.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Pagou, K.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Pavlidou, A.; Albanakis, K.; Tsirambides, A.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution and the chemical composition of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), in the northern Thermaikos Gulf, were studied during an annual experiment, carried out from June 2004 to June 2005. Water samples were collected at three depths (1 m below surface, 10 m depth, and 2 m above bottom) and filtered to obtain SPM, particulate organic carbon (POC), total particulate nitrogen (PNtot) and particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations. SPM and POC concentrations exhibited strong spatial and temporal variations, related to the different environmental characteristics in the study area such as river network, biological productivity, anthropogenic interferences, wind regime, and resuspension of the bottom sediments. The highest SPM concentrations were recorded at the surface (mean = 1.45 ± 0.75 mg/l, maximum value = 11.60 mg/l) and close to the bottom (mean = 1.49 ± 0.67 mg/l, maximum value = 11.72 mg/l), creating surface and bottom nepheloid layers (SNL and BNL), respectively. The maximum values were recorded close to the river mouths; the rivers are identified as the major sources of SPM. The Axios and Aliakmon rivers supplied the gulf with particulate matter, during the entire sampling period. Chemical analysis has revealed the significant correlation among the elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti, K, V, Mg and Ba suggesting the presence of terrigenous aluminosilicate minerals. Silica and Ca have terrigenous origin, but also come from autochthonous biogenic fraction. Chromium, Ni and Co, are of natural origin and derived from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Axios and Aliakmon watersheds. Copper and Zn are correlated with each other and their distributions follow that of POC; these two metals are derived from partially treated domestic and industrial effluents. The vertical distribution of organic matter implies increased primary production within the upper layer of the water column. Phosphorus is present mainly in an organic form. During the sampling period, the water

  1. Influence of Hydrodynamic Sorting on the Composition and Age of Yellow River Suspended Particulate Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Haghipour, N.; Montluçon, D. B.; Wacker, L.; Hou, P.; Zhao, M.

    2016-12-01

    The transport of organic carbon (OC) by rivers to coastal oceans is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The Yellow River (YR), the second largest river in China, transports large amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the Chinese marginal seas, with fossil and pre-aged (ca, 1600 yr) OC comprising the dominant components. However, the influence of hydrodynamic processes on the origin, composition and age of POC exported by the YR remains poorly understood, yet these processes likely ultimately play an important role in determining OC fate in the Chinese marginal seas. We address this question through bulk, biomarker and carbon isotopic (δ13C and Δ14C) characterization of organic matter associated with different grain size fractions of total suspended particles (TSP) in the YR. Surface TSP samples were collected in the spring, summer, fall and during the Water-Sediment Regulation period (WSR, July) of 2015. TSP samples were separated into five grain-size fractions (63μm) for organic geochemical and isotope analysis. Generally, the 16-32 and 32-63μm fractions contributed most of the TSP mass and the majority of OC resided in 16-32μm fraction. TOC% decreased with increasing grain size and 14C ages exhibited significant variability, ranging from 3,335 yr (63μm fraction in autumn), but did not show any systematic trend among grain size fractions or across sampling times. In contrast, compound-specific 14C analysis of long-chain n-fatty acids (C26-30 FAs) revealed two clear patterns: first, C26-30 FAs age decreased with increasing grain size for all sampling times; second, the C26-30 FAs age difference was the largest among the different size fractions during the WSR period, and smallest after the WSR. These findings have important implications for our understanding of riverine POC transport mechanisms and their influence on the dispersal and burial efficiency of terrestrial OC in coastal oceans.

  2. Suspended particulate composition: evolution along a river linear and influence of regime flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Mathieu; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bauer, Allan; Gley, Renaud; Migot, Sylvie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Villièras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Suspended Particulate Matters are recognized to play a crucial role in the transport and fate of chemicals like trace metal elements. The affinity of trace metals with natural SPM is influenced by (i) the nature of metal (ii) physical-chemical conditions of the water column (iii) SPM physical characteristics (grain size, surface area) (iiii) SPM chemical characteristics (elemental composition, mineralogy, organic composition). Some authors observed that the SPM composition was the predominant factor controlling the affinity of trace metals with natural SPM. One purpose of this work is to follow the physical and chemical characteristics of SPM along the river linear in order to better understand the affinity between SPM and heavy metals. One other purpose is to study the influence of regime flow on SPM physical and chemical composition in order to detect any variation of SPM composition with regime flow. SPM were sampled along Moselle river (North East of France) following an urbanization gradient. Two tributaries were also sampled, the Madon river which drains an agricultural catchment and the Fensch stream which flows through an ancient steel-making basin. SPM were sampled several times during high flow and low flow. Particulate matter was extracted on field using continuous flow field centrifuge. Frozen-dried samples were then characterized in terms of size distribution, elemental composition (ICP - AES, ICP - MS), mineralogy (XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM), surface properties (gas adsorption techniques) and organic composition (Py-GC-MS and GC-MS). Grain size distribution evidenced the presence of coarser particles during high flow but no difference in the grain size distribution could be evidenced between the different stations. The grain size distribution of collected SPM appeared globally identical, although the increase of conductivity due to the junction of Meurthe river . In terms of composition, major element contents in SPM are characterized by the predominance of

  3. Quantifying the response of optical backscatter devices and transmissometers to variations in suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Jamie A. C.; Larcombe, Piers; Jago, Colin F.

    1999-07-01

    Optical instruments have been used effectively in studies of sediment dynamics for several decades. Without accurate instrument calibrations, calculated concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) may be unreliable, with implications for interpretations of sedimentary processes and sediment fluxes. This review aims to quantify the effect of variations in SPM characteristics on the response of optical instruments (optical backscatter sensors OBS and transmissometers) and to note the implications for users of these instruments. A number of factors have a significant impact on instrument response, for example; a change in grain size from medium sands to fine silts may lead to a×100 increase in instrument response; flocculation of fine particles may decrease instrument response by×2; and the presence of plankton in suspension may lead to poor instrument calibrations of SPM concentration. Calibrations carried out in environments either with multi-modal bottom sediments, where flocculation of fine-grained sediments is likely, or where the hydrodynamics or grain type are highly variable must also include a determination of the changing nature of the suspended load in space and time. A more complete understanding of instrument response to SPM and of calibration requirements may enable optical devices to be used to a greater potential as long-term measures of SPM concentration, and also enable improvements in calculations of net sediment fluxes.

  4. Improving the description of the suspended particulate matter concentrations in the southern North Sea through assimilating remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Serafy, G.Y.; Eleveld, M.A.; Blaas, M.; van Kessel, T.; Gaytan Aguilar, S.; van der Woerd, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of remote sensing data of suspended particulate matter (SPM) into numerical models is useful to improve the understanding of the temporal and spatial behaviour of SPM in dynamic shelf seas. In this paper a generic method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) for assimilating

  5. Bacteriohopanepolyol distribution in Yenisei River and Kara Sea suspended particulate matter and sediments traces terrigenous organic matter input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C.; Talbot, H.M.; Bischoff, J.; Cherkashov, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are ubiquitous bacterial membrane lipids, encountered in soils, river and marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Their abundance and distribution provides a direct means to identify bacterial inputs and can be used to trace soil-derived bacterial

  6. Spatial distribution of suspended particulate matter in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: inferences on the estuarine turbidity maximum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suja, S.; Kessarkar, P.M; Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Fernandes, L.L.

    The present study estimate the suspended particulate matter in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. samples were collected from the Mandovi (M0A–M9) and Zuari (Z0–Z8) estuaries and Cumbarjua canal (C0–C3).The spatial distribution of SPM in the Ma...

  7. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite GF-1/WFV Imagery and Quantitative Estimation of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Shang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Multispectral Wide Field of View (WFV camera on the Chinese GF-1 satellite, launched in 2013, has advantages of high spatial resolution (16 m, short revisit period (4 days and wide scene swath (800 km compared to the Landsat-8/OLI, which make it an ideal means of monitoring spatial-temporal changes of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM in large estuaries like the Yangtze Estuary. However, a lack of proper atmospheric correction methods has limited its application in water quality assessment. We propose an atmospheric correction method based on a look up table coupled by the atmosphere radiative transfer model (6S and the water semi-empirical radiative transfer (SERT model for inversion of water-leaving reflectance from GF-1 top-of-atmosphere radiance, and then retrieving SPM concentration from water-leaving radiance reflectance of the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent sea. Results are validated by the Landsat-8/OLI imagery together with autonomous fixed station data, and influences of human activities (e.g., waterway construction and shipping on SPM distribution are analyzed.

  8. A new protocol for the analysis of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and hormones in sediments and suspended particulate matter from rivers and municipal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwano, Hicham; Duy, Sung Vo; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    We developed a protocol to quantify 12 emerging contaminants (ECs) (pharmaceuticals and hormones) and pesticides extracted from suspended particulate matter (SPM) of river water and municipal wastewaters samples as well as river sediments. The separation of suspended solids was realized using filtration of water samples. We tested a series of six different filter types. The effect of filtration on the concentrations of dissolved contaminants was evaluated to minimize losses of target compounds. The river sediment samples were lyophilized, and both SPM and sediment samples were subjected to ultrasonic extraction combined with C18 cartridge clean-up. Quantifications were realized using mass spectrometry. The method recoveries of all compounds ranged from 38 to 112 % in all studied matrices; poorer recoveries were achieved for sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac (as low as 38 %), whereas the recoveries for all other compounds in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) samples were between 68 and 111 %. The detection limits in sediments and SPM from river samples for the 12 analytes varied from 0.7 to 9.4 ng g(-1) and from 21 to 92 ng g(-1) for WWTP SPM samples. All targeted ECs were detected with concentrations ranging from 3 to 5,440 ng g(-1) in the studied matrices with the highest concentrations observed in WWTP SPM samples. A significant portion of the contaminants in a water sample is clearly associated with the suspended particulates. Optimization of water-treatment processes and environmental fate must absolutely consider the fraction of contaminants that is particulate-bound if one hopes to have a reasonable mass balance.

  9. Circulation and suspended particulate matter transport in a tidally dominated estuary: caravelas estuary, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto França Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and transport of suspended particulate matter in the Caravelas Estuary are assessed. Nearly-synoptic hourly hydrographic, current (ADCP velocity and volume transport and suspended particulate matter data were collected during a full semidiurnal spring tide, on the two transects Boca do Tomba and Barra Velha and on longitudinal sections at low and high tide. On the first transect the peak ebb currents (-1.5 ms-1 were almost twice as strong as those of the wider and shallow Barra Velha inlet (-0.80 ms-1 and the peak flood currents were 0.75 and 0.60 ms-1, respectively. Due to the strong tidal currents both inlets had weak vertical salinity stratification and were classified with the Stratification-circulation Diagram as Type 2a (partially mixed-weakly stratified and Type 1a (well mixed. Volume transports were very close, ranging from -3,500 to 3,100 m³s-1 at the ebb and flood, respectively, with a residual -630 m³s-1. The concentration of the suspended particulate matter was closely related to the tidal variation and decreased landwards from 50 mg.L-1 at the estuary mouth, to 10 mg.L-1 at distances of 9 and 16 km for the low and high tide experiments, respectively. The total residual SPM transport was out of the estuary at rates of -18 tons per tidal cycle.A circulação e o transporte de material particulado em suspensão no Estuário de Caravelas são pesquisados. Dados quase-sinóticos hidrográficos, de correntes (velocidade e transporte de volume com ADCP e de material particulado em suspensão, foram medidos em intervalos horários durante um ciclo semidiurno de maré de sizígia, em duas seções transversais na Boca do Tomba e na Barra Velha e também em seções longitudinais na baixa-mar e na preamar. Na primeira transversal as correntes máximas de vazante (-1,50 m s-1 foram quase duas vezes mais intensas do que na seção transversal mais larga e rasa Barra Velha, (-0,80 m s-1 e as maiores velocidades das correntes de

  10. Biogenic vanadium in total suspended particulate matter from Cabo Frio upwelling region, Southeast, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Silvia M.; Neves, Alessandra F.; Moreira, Josino Costa; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    In this work total suspended particulate (TSP) was collected during a year, in two municipalities located in a coastal region of Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast, Brazil, from February 2004 to January 2005. Two sites were chosen: site 1 located in front of the sea and representative of sea salt spray influence; site 2 in a tall booth of a highway representing vehicle exhaust influence. Samples were collected in glass fibre filters using Hi-Vol samplers and stored. 1/8 of those loaded filters were cut and digested in a microwave oven. The extract obtained was used to determine metal Ca, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ti, V, Zn and K concentration in the atmosphere. The results showed that TSP levels in site 1 (23.1-659 μg m -3) was higher than in site 2 (24.5-55.6 μg m -3) due to marine aerosol which is responsible for particle emissions with higher diameter. Vanadium was the only element studied whose concentration were higher in site 1 (0.840-20.9 ng m -3) compared to site 2 (0.655-7.07 ng m -3). The highest vanadium concentrations in site 1 were obtained during upwelling events, with NE winds predominance at high speed, which indicates the influence of this phenomena in V presence in the atmosphere. Principal components analysis was able to identify atmospheric particulate sources distributed in four factors. In site 1, those factors explain 86.5% of total data variance and indicate two sources: continental and marine. In site 2, those factors explain 89.2% of total data variance and indicate that vehicle exhaust is the main metals source in the atmosphere.

  11. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  12. Land-use impacts on fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter along a larger tropical river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boëchat, Iola; Krüger, Angela; Chavez, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    .8 and 10.2 mg dry weight (DW) L− 1 and between 130.6 and 268.2 μg DW L− 1, respectively, in our study. Urbanization was the only land-use category correlating with both FA composition and concentrations, despite its low contribution to whole catchment (1.5–5.6%) and riparian buffer land cover (1......Land-use change, such as agricultural expansion and urbanization, can affect riverine biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Identifying the major stressors associated with catchment land-use change is a prerequisite for devising successful river conservation and restoration strategies....... Here, we analyzed land-use effects on the fatty acid (FA) composition and concentrations in suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) along a fourth-order tropical river, the Rio das Mortes. Thereby, we aimed at testing the potential of fatty acids in riverine suspended particulate organic matter...

  13. A MODIS-Based Retrieval Model of Suspended Particulate Matter Concentration for the Two Largest Freshwater Lakes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter concentration (CSPM is a key parameter describing case-II water quality. Empirical and semi-empirical models are frequently developed and applied for estimating CSPM values from remote sensing images; however, they are usually region- or season-dependent. This study aimed to develop a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-based retrieval model of CSPM for Poyang and Dongting Lake together. The 89 CSPM measurements in Poyang and Dongting Lake as well as their corresponding MODIS Terra images were used to calibrate CSPM retrieval models, and the calibration results showed that the exponential models of MODIS red band and red minus shortwave infrared (SWIR band at 1240 nm both explained about 76% of the variation of CSPM of Poyang and Dongting Lake together. When the two models were applied to the validation datasets, the results indicated that the exponential model of red band obtained more stable CSPM estimations with no bias at a significance level of 0.05 in both lakes. The MODIS red-band-based model achieved acceptable results for estimating CSPM in both Poyang and Dongting Lake, and it provided a foundation for obtaining comparable spatiotemporal information of CSPM, which will be helpful for comparing, understanding, managing, and protecting the two aquatic ecosystems.

  14. REE in suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Zuari estuary and adjacent shelf, western India: Influence of mining and estuarine turbidity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Parthiban, G.; Balakrishnan, S.; Narvekar, T.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and rare earth elements (REE) were measured in 122 samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and 70 surficial sediments from the Zuari estuary and the adjacent shelf to understand their distribution, provenance...

  15. Characterisation of the suspended particulate matter in a stratified estuarine environment employing complementary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luis P.; Marino, Beatriz M.; Szupiany, Ricardo N.; Gallo, Marcos N.

    2017-09-01

    The ability to predict the sediment and nutrient circulation within estuarine waters is of significant economic and ecological importance. In these complex systems, flocculation is a dynamically active process that is directly affected by the prevalent environmental conditions. Consequently, the floc properties continuously change, which greatly complicates the characterisation of the suspended particle matter (SPM). In the present study, three different techniques are combined in a stratified estuary under quiet weather conditions and with a low river discharge to search for a solution to this problem. The challenge is to obtain the concentration, size and flux of suspended elements through selected cross-sections using the method based on the simultaneous backscatter records of 1200 and 600 kHz ADCPs, isokinetic sampling data and LISST-25X measurements. The two-ADCP method is highly effective for determining the SPM size distributions in a non-intrusive way. The isokinetic sampling and the LISST-25X diffractometer offer point measurements at specific depths, which are especially useful for calibrating the ADCP backscatter intensity as a function of the SPM concentration and size, and providing complementary information on the sites where acoustic records are not available. Limitations and potentials of the techniques applied are discussed.

  16. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  17. Laboratory investigation of oil–suspended particulate matter aggregation under different mixing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Juan, E-mail: juan.sun@upc.edu.cn [College of Chemistry Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266580 (China); Khelifa, Ali [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A0H3 (Canada); Zhao, Chaocheng; Zhao, Dongfeng [College of Chemistry Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266580 (China); Wang, Zhendi [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A0H3 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    Oil–suspended particulate matter aggregation (OSA) has been recognized by the oil spill remediation community to effectively enhance the cleansing of spilled oil in the marine environment. While studies have investigated the application of mineral fines as an effective method to facilitate oil dispersion, decision-makers still lack information on the role of mixing energy in OSA formation and its significance to oil dispersion in real spills. This work studied the effect of level and duration of mixing energy on OSA formation using the standard reference material 1941b and Arabian light crude oil. The results showed that dispersed small oil droplets increased with an increase of both the level and duration of mixing energy to form multi-droplet OSAs. The sizes of the dispersed droplets varied between 5 and 10 μm under different conditions studied. The maximum oil trapping efficiency increased from 23% to 33%, the oil to sediment ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.43 g oil/g sediment, and the required shaking time decreased from 2.3 to 1.1 h as the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. Based on the size measurement results, a breakage effect on the formed OSAs and sediment flocs was confirmed under high mixing energy level. - Highlights: • Dispersed oil droplets increased as the mixing energy increased. • Size of dispersed droplets increased from 5 to 10 μm as the mixing time increased. • Both level and duration of mixing energy increased the oil trapping efficiency. • The oil to sediment ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.5 as the mixing energy increased. • The higher the mixing energy, the stronger the breakage effect on formed aggregates exists.

  18. Suspended Particulates Concentration (PM10 under Unstable Atmospheric Conditions over Subtropical Urban Area (Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Nouby Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the suspended particulates (PM10 in the atmosphere under unstable atmospheric conditions. The variation of PM10 was investigated and primary statistics were employed. The results show that, the PM10 concentrations values ranged from 6.00 to 646.74 μg m−3. The average value of PM10 is equal to 114.32 μg m−3. The high values were recorded in April and May (155.17 μg m−3 and 171.82 μg m−3, respectively and the low values were noted in February and December (73.86 μg m−3 and 74.05 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of PM10 of the hot season (125.35 × 10−6 g m−3 was higher than its value for the cold season (89.27 μg m−3. In addition, the effect of weather elements (air temperature, humidity and wind on the concentration of PM10 was determined. The multiple R between PM10 and these elements ranged from 0.05 to 0.47 and its value increased to reach 0.73 for the monthly average of the database used. Finally, the PM10 concentrations were grouped depending on their associated atmospheric stability class. These average values were equal to 122.80 ± 9 μg m−3 (highly unstable or convective, 109.37 ± 12 μg m−3 (moderately unstable and 104.42 ± 15 μg m−3 (slightly unstable.

  19. The chemistry of suspended particulate material in a highly contaminated embayment of Port Jackson (Australia) under quiescent, high-wind and heavy-rainfall conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Gavin; O'Hea, Laura

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated physico-chemical characteristics of the water column and chemistry of suspended particulate material (SPM) under quiescent, high-wind and high-wind/heavy-rainfall conditions in Homebush Bay, a highly contaminated embayment of Port Jackson (Australia) to distinguish source and possible adverse effects to benthic and pelagic animals. Mean concentrations in surficial sediment were chemistry indicated these metals had multiple sources, i.e. the estuary, stormwater and industry. Mean total suspended solids (TSS) were 7, 17 and 20 mg L-1 during quiescent, high-rainfall and heavy rainfall/high wind conditions, respectively, whereas SPM Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations varied between 13-25, 166-259, 127-198, 38-82, 236-305 and 605-865 μg g-1, respectively under these conditions. TSS and total water metal concentrations were lowest during quiescent conditions. High TSS and metal loads in surface water characterised high-rainfall events. Wind-induced resuspension contributed the greatest mass of SPM and metals to the water column. Benthic animals may be adversely affected by Pb and Zn in sediment. Total water Cu and Zn concentrations may pose a risk to filter-feeding animals in the water column due to resuspension of contaminated sediment.

  20. Short-term Influences on Suspended Particulate Matter Distribution in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Satellite and Model Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S. Ko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Energetic meteorological events such as frontal passages and hurricanes often impact coastal regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico that influence geochemical processes in the region. Satellite remote sensing data such as winds from QuikSCAT, suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations derived from SeaWiFS and the outputs (sea level and surface ocean currents of a nested navy coastal ocean model (NCOM were combined to assess the effects of frontal passages between 23-28 March 2005 on the physical properties and the SPM characteristics in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Typical changes in wind speed and direction associated with frontal passages were observed in the latest 12.5 km wind product from QuikSCAT with easterly winds before the frontal passage undergoing systematic shifts in direction and speed and turning northerly, northwesterly during a weak and a strong front on 23 and 27 March, respectively. A quantitative comparison of model sea level results with tide gauge observations suggest better correlations near the delta than in the western part of the Gulf with elevated sea levels along the coast before the frontal passage and a large drop in sea level following the frontal passage on 27 March. Model results of surface currents suggested strong response to wind forcing with westward and onshore currents before the frontal passage reversing into eastward, southeastward direction over a six day period from 23 to 28 March 2005. Surface SPM distribution derived from SeaWiFS ocean color data for two clear days on 23 and 28 March 2005 indicated SPM plumes to be oriented with the current field with increasing concentrations in nearshore waters due to resuspension and discharge from the rivers and bays and its seaward transport following the frontal passage. The backscattering spectral slope γ, a parameter sensitive to particle size distribution also indicated lower γ values (larger particles in nearshore waters that decreased

  1. Suspended Sediment and Phosphorus Removal in a Woodchip Filter System Treating Agricultural Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Tahina; Robertson, Will Dean; Finnigan, Darryl S

    2016-05-01

    Woodchip filters have received attention in recent years for their ability to sustain denitrification activity across multiyear time frames. However, in some freshwater aquatic ecosystems, P rather than N is the nutrient considered most responsible for eutrophication. Previous studies have indicated that woodchip filters have limited ability to remove dissolved P, but in agricultural terrain, P export in watercourses is often dominated by particulate P (PP). Woodchip media, because of their high porosity and permeability and the surface roughness of the particles, could be effective for PP removal. In this study, we tested a woodchip filter for its ability to remove suspended sediment and associated PP at a farm in southern Ontario, Canada, where vegetable wash water with extremely high total suspended solids (TSS) was generated. The treatment system consisted of a 12.3-m concrete sedimentation tank and a slightly larger woodchip filter (16.1 m) installed in a subsurface trench. During 7 mo of full-scale operation, treating 10.8 m d, the filter system removed 71% of influent total P (TP) averaging 8.8 mg L and 99% of TSS averaging 5800 mg L, with most of the removal occurring in the tank and a lesser amount (6-16%) occurring in the woodchip filter. Almost all of the TP removal was associated with PP (91% removal) because dissolved P, averaging 1.5 mg L in the wash water, was little changed. Woodchip filters, when coupled with a solids settling tank, have the potential to provide high-capacity, low-maintenance treatment of suspended solids and associated particulate P in turbid waters. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. The distribution of tritium between water and suspended matter in a laboratory experiment exposing sediment to tritiated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

    2013-02-01

    Following recent suggestions regarding the strong affinity of tritiated water for organic matter in suspended particulates and sediments, two equilibration experiments between sediment organic matter (dry and fresh) and tritiated water were performed to look for potential tritium bio-concentration. The T/H ratios measured at the end of both experiments are lower in the sediment organic matter than in the water, indicating that only a fraction of the hydrogen pool (between 14% and 20%) within the sediment equilibrated with the tritiated water. These results are consistent with the widely used concept of exchangeable and non-exchangeable tritium pools in organic matter and show no sign of tritium bio-accumulation in the sediment relative to water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and evaluation of a low-volume total suspended particulate sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regulation of particulate matter (PM) emitted by agricultural sources, e.g., cotton gins, feed mills, and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), is based on downwind concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 'm (PM10 and PM2.5) aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED). Both...

  4. Chromium in water, suspended particles, sediments and biota in the Iraja River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; de Lacerda, L.D.; van Weerfelt, M.; Carbonell, N.

    1982-11-01

    Analyses of chromium concentrations in waters, suspended particles, bottom sediments, fish (Poecilia reticulata), plants (Paspalum vaginatum, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Philoxeros vermicularis), soils and barnacles (Balanus sp.) were performed from August 1976 to September 1980 in samples collected from the Iraja River and inside its estuary in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Sediments and water from the Iraja River showed chromium concentrations of 17536 and 23.39 ppm--a thousand times higher than the published data for freshwater systems. Chromium removed from solution by bottom sediments reaches Guanabara Bay linked to particulate matter. Fish and emergent grass inside the river concentrate chromium from water and/or sediment, returning the metal to the system as detritus. Soil and plants inside the estuary concentrate chromium thirty and ten times higher than in the control area. The vegetal community exhibits a concentration factor smaller than that related to soil and prevents the return of chromium to the estuarine waters. Inside the Guanabara Bay, Balanus sp. appears to be an effective biological monitor as it concentrates chromium in soft tissues 10/sup 3/ times higher than values found in suspended particles (0.012 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/).

  5. Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surficial sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material in Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sander D; Landrum, Peter F; Van Hoof, Patricia L; Eadie, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    A unique time series of surface sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) samples were collected at a 45-m deep site off Grand Haven (MI, USA) over a 14-month period. Both concentrations and congener distributions remained constant for the sediments, although there were seasonal and interannual variability in the other matrices. Trapped settling material and suspended particulate material PCB concentrations were substantially lower (~50%) in 1997 than in the samples from December 1997 through July 1998. The cause could not be determined from the data collected, but there were some very large storms during the winter-spring period of 1998, resulting in major sediment resuspension throughout the southern basin. Observed seasonal variation in PCB concentration and congener distribution on particles likely was due to the changes in particle composition. These include particle size and the source of particles (such as the amount of resuspended sediment in trapped settling material), and the role of diagenesis of the organic matter on particles.

  6. Water column particulate matter: A key contributor to phosphorus regeneration in a coastal eutrophic environment, the Chesapeake Bay: Particulate phosphorus in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiying [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Reardon, Patrick [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Now at NMR Facility, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; McKinley, James P. [Geochemistry Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Joshi, Sunendra R. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Bai, Yuge [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Bear, Kristi [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Jaisi, Deb P. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA

    2017-04-01

    Particulate phosphorus (PP) in the water column is an essential component of phosphorus (P) cycling in aquatic ecosystems yet its composition and transformations remain largely uncharacterized. To understand the roles of suspended particulates on regeneration of inorganic P (Pi) into the water column as well as sequestration into more stable mineral precipitates, we studied seasonal variation in both organic and inorganic P speciation in suspended particles in three sites in the Chesapeake Bay using sequential P extraction, 1D (31P) and 2D (1H-31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and electron microprobe analyses (EMPA). Remineralization efficiency of particulate P average 8% and 56% in shallow and deep sites respectively, suggesting the importance of PP remineralization is in resupplying water column Pi. Strong temporal and spatial variability of organic P composition, distributions, and remineralization efficiency were observed relating to water column parameters such as temperature and redox conditions: concentration of orthophosphate monoesters and diesters, and diester-to-monoester (D/M) ratios decreased with depth. Both esters and the D/M ratios were lower in the hypoxic July and September. In contrast, pyrophosphate and orthophosphate increased with depth, and polyphosphates was high in the anoxic water column. Sequential extraction and EMPA analyses of the suspended particles suggest presence of Ca-bound phosphate in the water column. We hypothesize authigenic precipitation of carbonate fluorapatite and/or its precursor mineral(s) in Pi rich water column, supported by our thermodynamic calculations. Our results, overall, reveal the important role suspended particles play in P remineralization and P sequestration in the Chesapeake Bay water column, provide important implications on P bioavailability and P sinks in similar eutrophic coastal environments.

  7. Particulate matter from re-suspended mineral dust and emergency cause-specific respiratory hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Vivian C.; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai

    2017-09-01

    While contribution from non-exhaust particulate matter (PM) emissions towards traffic-related emissions is increasing, few epidemiologic evidence of their health impact is available. We examined the association of short-term exposure to PM10 apportioned to re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for three major respiratory causes in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2008. Time-series regression model was constructed to examine association of PM10 from re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for upper respiratory infection (URI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma at exposure lag 0-5 days, adjusting for time trends, seasonality, temperature and relative humidity. An interquartile range (6.8 μg/m3) increment in re-suspended mineral dust on previous day was associated with 0.66% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.98) increase in total respiratory hospitalizations, and 1.01% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.88) increase in URI hospitalizations. A significant 0.66%-0.80% increases in risk of COPD hospitalizations were found after exposure to re-suspended mineral dust at lag 3 or later. Exposure to mineral dust at lag 4 was linked to 1.71% increase (95% CI: 0.14, 2.22) in asthma hospitalizations. Associations from single-pollutant models remained significant in multi-pollutant models, which additionally adjusted for PM10 contributing from vehicle exhaust, regional combustion, residual oil, fresh sea salt, aged sea salt, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, or gaseous pollutants (i.e., nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or ozone), respectively. Our findings provide insight into the biological mechanism by which non-exhaust pollution may be associated with risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, and also stress the needs for strategies to reduce emission and re-suspension of mineral dust. More research is warranted to assess the health effects of different non-exhaust PM emissions under various roadway conditions and vehicle fleets.

  8. Effectiveness of dust control methods for crystalline silica and respirable suspended particulate matter exposure during manual concrete surface grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Milz, Sheryl A; Wagner, Cynthia D; Bisesi, Michael S; Ames, April L; Khuder, Sadik; Susi, Pam; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Mahboubeh

    2010-12-01

    Concrete grinding exposes workers to unacceptable levels of crystalline silica dust, known to cause diseases such as silicosis and possibly lung cancer. This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory. Air was monitored during 201 concrete grinding sessions while using a variety of grinders, accessories, and existing dust control methods, including general ventilation (GV), local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and wet grinding. Task-specific geometric mean (GM) of respirable crystalline silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled-grinding, while GV was off/on, were 0.17/0.09, 0.57/0.13, 1.11/0.44, and 23.1/6.80, respectively. Silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ using 100-125 mm (4-5 inch) and 180 mm (7 inch) grinding cups were 0.53/0.22 and 2.43/0.56, respectively. GM concentrations of silica dust were significantly lower for (1) GV on (66.0%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (99.0%), LEV:Shop-vac- (98.1%) or wet- (94.4%) vs. uncontrolled-grinding. Task-specific GM of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled grinding, while GV was off/on, were 1.58/0.63, 7.20/1.15, 9.52/4.13, and 152/47.8, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP using 100-125 mm and 180 mm grinding cups were 4.78/1.62 and 22.2/5.06, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP were significantly lower for (1) GV on (70.2%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (98.9%), LEV:Shop-vac- (96.9%) or wet- (92.6%) vs. uncontrolled grinding. Silica dust and RSP were not significantly affected by (1) orientation of grinding surfaces (vertical vs. inclined); (2) water flow rates for wet grinding; (3) length of task-specific sampling time; or, (4) among cup sizes of 100, 115 or 125 mm. No combination of factors or control methods reduced an 8-hr exposure level to below the

  9. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  10. A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breier, J. A.; Rauch, C. G.; McCartney, K.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; White, S. N.; German, C. R.

    2010-06-22

    To enable detailed investigations of early stage hydrothermal plume formation and abiotic and biotic plume processes we developed a new oceanographic tool. The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampling system has been designed to collect geochemical and microbial samples from the rising portion of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. It can be deployed on a remotely operated vehicle for sampling rising plumes, on a wire-deployed water rosette for spatially discrete sampling of non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, or on a fixed mooring in a hydrothermal vent field for time series sampling. It has performed successfully during both its first mooring deployment at the East Pacific Rise and its first remotely-operated vehicle deployments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is currently capable of rapidly filtering 24 discrete large-water-volume samples (30-100 L per sample) for suspended particles during a single deployment (e.g. >90 L per sample at 4-7 L per minute through 1 {mu}m pore diameter polycarbonate filters). The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampler has been designed with a long-term goal of seafloor observatory deployments, where it can be used to collect samples in response to tectonic or other events. It is compatible with in situ optical sensors, such as laser Raman or visible reflectance spectroscopy systems, enabling in situ particle analysis immediately after sample collection and before the particles alter or degrade.

  11. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: perez@lnls.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  12. Seasonal trends of benzo(apyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(apyrene (BaP concentration in total suspended particles (TSP in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade’s Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particleshave been collected (as 24 h sample once per month at selected onitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP. Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

  13. Temporal variation of suspended particulate matter and turbulence in a high energy, tide-stirred, coastal sea: Relative contributions of resuspension and disaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Sykes, P.; Rippeth, T.

    2006-11-01

    Measurements of turbulence and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were measured over a 50 h period at a site in high tidal energy, mixed waters of the Irish Sea, NW European shelf. Turbulence parameters included both production (variance method from seabed ADCP) and dissipation (FLY profiler); SPM parameters included mass and volume concentrations and particle size (LISST 100 C). It is shown that the resultant SPM time series was due to a combination of time-varying turbulence at the measurement site and space-varying turbulence advecting through the site. Time asymmetry in turbulence at the site produced an asymmetric M 4 signal in SPM volume concentration due to resuspension and disaggregation of flocs at times of peak turbulent energy. In terms of mass, the disaggregation contribution was 43% as much as the resuspension contribution near the bed, and 20% as much integrated throughout the water column. There was aggregation of flocs at high and low slack waters but the largest flocs occurred at low slack waters. Space-varying ambient turbulence was responsible for a horizontal gradient in floc size with small and large flocs at the high and low ends of the gradient, respectively; this generated a M 2 signal in SPM properties. SPM concentrations and properties at any time resulted from combination of M 2 and M 4 variations which are responsible for the well-known twin peaks signature seen in transmissometer time series in tidal waters.

  14. Intergrating cavity absorption meter measurements of dissolved substances and suspended particles in ocean water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Robin M.; Weidemann, Alan D.; Fry, Edward S.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new device to measure the separate contributions to the spectral absorption coefficient due to a pure liquid, due to the particles suspended in it, and due to the substances dissolved in it. This device, the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM), is essentially independent of scattering effects in the sample. In April 1993, a prototype of the ICAM was field tested on board the research vessel USNS Bartlett. A major part of the cruise track included criss-crossing the area where the Mississippi flows into the Gulf of Mexico at various ranges from the mouth of the river; thus samples were collected from areas of blue, green, and brown/black water. We evaluated 35 seawater samples collected with 5-l Niskin bottles from 22 locations to determine absorption spectra (380-700 nm) of suspended particles and dissolved substances (gelbstoff). Results validate the ICAM as a viable tool for marine optical absorption research. Gelbstoff absorption at 432.5 nm ranged from 0.024 to 0.603 m -1. Over the spectral region 380→560 nm, gelbstoff absorption by each of the samples could be accurately fit to a decaying exponential. The particle absorption spectra are generally characteristic of those of phytoplankton and exhibit a local maximum at 430-440 nm. Absorption values at 432.5 nm ranged from ˜zero to ˜1.0 m -1. Some samples with moderate particulate absorption, however, did not show the characteristic local maximum of phytoplankton in the blue and instead resembled the characteristic decaying exponential of detritus with a shape similar to that observed in the gelbstoff. The ratio of gelbstoff to particulate absorption at 432.5 nm ranged from 0.46 to 152.

  15. Bacteriohopanepolyol distribution in Yenisei River and Kara Sea suspended particulate matter and sediments traces terrigenous organic matter input and submerged permafrost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Talbot, Helen M.; Bischoff, Juliane; Stadnitskaia, A.N.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are ubiquitous bacterial membrane lipids, encountered in soils, river and marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Their abundance and distribution provides a direct means to identify bacterial inputs and can be used to trace soil-derived bacterial

  16. Observations on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and microalgae in the Dollard Estuary, The Netherlands: Importance of late winter ice cover of the intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, N.; De Deckere, E.; Kornman, B.; van der Lee, W.; Termaat, R.; Terwindt, J.; de Winder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Three years of combined physical and biological measurements in the Dollard tidal basin showed that in the early spring of 1996, suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were low compared to observations in spring 1995 and 1997. Since in 1996 the duration of ice formation on the tidal flats

  17. Suspended particulate variations and mass size distributions of incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in Taiwan, Taichung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Yang, Chang-Ju; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2002-11-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. This is characteristic place of incense burning and indoor air pollution sampling site. A universal sampler, micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler and dry deposition plate were used to measure particulate concentrations. Tzu Yun Yen temple is a typical famous Buddhist-Taoist combined temple, where many pilgrims come from different areas and various belief systems indicating the eclecticism of the temple. The average number of people visiting this temple is above 5000 per day. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged between 31.2 and 87.4% and averaged 69.6+/-12.3% during the incense-burning period, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the fine particulates concentrations (PM2.5) constituted the majority of indoor-suspended particulates at Tzu Yun Yen temple. PM10 concentration was 110.1 microg m(-3) for Zhong Yuan Jie (A festival on the seventh full moon in a lunar year, otherwise known as a summer lantern festival and (or) the commemoration of the dead. Almost all temples have maximum pilgrims for the commemoration of the dead on this day.) and the 1st or 15th of nong li (Nong li is a Chinese lunar calendar system in which 1 year is divided into fixed periods, and the beginning and end of a year is determined. The new moon and full moon are the 1st and 15th, respectively of each month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Many pilgrims appeared at each temple for blessing and good luck for themselves on the 1st and 15th of each Chinese lunar month.) with numbers higher than non-Zhong Yuan Jie and non-1st or -15th day of nong li (average = 85.5 microg m(-3)). In general, the average dry deposition flux (49.4 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in the indoor environment is lower than those measured in the outdoor environment (184.0 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in this study. The mean dry deposition flux of indoor/outdoor ratio was 46.2%. The average mass size distributions were bimodal

  18. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  19. Effect of the resuspension technique on distribution of the heavy metals in sediment and suspended particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabadehei, Mehdi; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2016-06-01

    Harbour areas play important roles in the economy worldwide. Human activities, however, in those areas, generate contamination, which mostly accumulates in sediments. On the other hand, harbour areas have been facing deposition of significant amounts of sediment each year. As a consequence, shallowness and accumulation of contaminants in sediment become challenging issues in harbours. Among the various management options for remediation of contaminated sediments in harbours, resuspension technique was introduced as a new approach to address those issues. The concept of the resuspension method is that finer sediments have a greater tendency to adsorb the contamination. Therefore, removing the finer sediments instead of dredging the whole contaminated area is the main goal of the resuspension technique. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of the resuspension method on reducing the concentration of contamination and distribution of heavy metals in sediment and suspended particulate matter. The resuspension method was successful in reducing the concentration of seven selected heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) by removing just 4% of the contaminated sediment. The contamination intensity in the sediment, presented by geoaccumulation index, was reduced for Cd and Pb as the main contaminants by 26 and 28 percent and the rest of the selected heavy metals returned to the natural level. The results of the sequential extraction tests and enrichment factor implied that the resuspension technique is capable of decreasing the risk of remobilization of heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional composition of suspended particulate matter in a tropical mangrove creek during a tidal cycle (Can Gio, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Frank; Marchand, Cyril; Taillardat, Pierre; Thành-Nho, Nguyễn; Meziane, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems and mangrove-derived organic matter has generally been assumed to play a basal role in sustaining coastal food webs. However, the mechanisms of mangrove-derived organic matter utilisation by consumers are not fully understood. In this study, we were interested in hourly changes in the nutritional quality of suspended particulate matter (SPM) entering and departing a mangrove creek during a tidal cycle. We determined the fatty acid composition and δ13C stable isotope signature of SPM during a 26 h tidal cycle in a creek of the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve (Southern Vietnam). Regarding fatty acids, the nutritional quality of SPM was low during most of the tidal cycle. However, it greatly increased during the first part of the strongest flood tide, occurring during daytime. The pulse of highly nutritive organic matter brought to the ecosystem was mostly composed of algal cells growing in specific shallow zones of the mangrove, that use nutrients and CO2 exported during the preceding ebb tide and originating from the mineralisation of mangrove-derived organic matter, as evidenced by their δ13C signatures. This study confirms that mangrove-derived carbon plays a basal role in sustaining trophic webs of mangrove tidal creeks, but that its nutritive value is greatly enhanced when a first step of mineralisation is achieved and CO2 is photosynthesised by algal cells.

  1. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  2. 78 FR 8066 - Method for the Determination of Lead in Total Suspended Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... fountain or eye wash bottle be available during performance of this method. An eye wash bottle has a spout that covers the eye. If acid or any other corrosive gets into the eye, the water in this bottle is... threaded caps for extraction and storage, SCP Science DigiTUBE Item No. 010- 500-063, or equivalent...

  3. Analysis of Suspended Particulate Matter and Its Drivers in Sahelian Ponds and Lakes by Remote Sensing (Landsat and MODIS: Gourma Region, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sahelian region is characterized by significant variations in precipitation, impacting water quantity and quality. Suspended particulate matter (SPM dynamics has a significant impact on inland water ecology and water resource management. In-situ data in this region are scarce and, consequently, the environmental factors triggering SPM variability are yet to be understood. This study addresses these issues using remote sensing optical data. Turbidity and SPM of the Agoufou Lake in Sahelian Mali were measured from October 2014 to present, providing a large range of `values (SPM ranging from 106 to 4178 mg/L. These data are compared to satellite reflectance from Landsat (ETM+, OLI and MODIS (MOD09GQ, MYD09GQ. For each of these sensors, a spectral band in the near infrared region is found to be well suited to retrieve turbidity and SPM, up to very high values (R2 = 0.70 seldom addressed by remote sensing studies. The satellite estimates are then employed to assess the SPM dynamics in the main lakes and ponds of the Gourma region and its links to environmental and anthropogenic factors. The main SPM seasonal peak is observed in the rainy season (June to September in relation to precipitation and sediment transport. A second important peak occurs during the dry season, highlighting the importance of resuspension mechanisms in maintaining high values of SPM. Three different periods are observed: first, a relatively low winds period in the early dry season, when SPM decreases rapidly due to deposition; then, a period of wind-driven resuspension in January‒March; and lastly, an SPM deposition period in April–May, when the monsoon replaces the winter trade wind. Overall, a significant increase of 27% in SPM values is observed between 2000 and 2016 in the Agoufou Lake. The significant spatio-temporal variability in SPM revealed by this study highlights the importance of high resolution optical sensors for continuous monitoring of water quality in

  4. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in seawater. Part 2. Modelling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Model spectra of mass-specific absorption coefficients a*OM(λ were established for 26 naturally occurring organic substances or their possible mixtures, capable of forming particulate organic matter (POM in the sea. An algorithm was constructed, and the set of spectra of a*OM(λ was used to determine the spectra of the imaginary part of the complex refractive index n'p(λ characteristic of different physical types and chemical classes of POM commonly occurring in sea water. The variability in the spectra and absolute values of n'p for the various model classes and types of POM was shown to range over many orders of magnitude. This implies that modelling the optical properties of sea water requires a multi-component approach that takes account of the numerous living and non-living fractions of POM, each of which has a different value of n'p.

  5. PAH occurrence in chalk river systems from the Jura region (France). Pertinence of suspended particulate matter and sediment as matrices for river quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffre, Axelle; Degiorgi, François; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Bolard, Audrey; Chanez, Etienne; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment upstream and downstream of the discharges of two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Relationships between the levels of PAHs in these different matrices were also investigated. The sum of 16 US EPA PAHs ranged from 73.5 to 728.0 ng L(-1) in surface water and from 85.4 to 313.1 ng L(-1) in effluent. In SPM and sediment, ∑16PAHs ranged from 749.6 to 2,463 μg kg(-1) and from 690.7 μg kg(-1) to 3,625.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. Investigations performed upstream and downstream of both studied WWTPs showed that WWTP discharges may contribute to the overall PAH contaminations in the Loue and the Doubs rivers. Comparison between gammarid populations upstream and downstream of WWTP discharge showed that biota was impacted by the WWTP effluents. When based only on surface water samples, the assessment of freshwater quality did not provide evidence for a marked PAH contamination in either of the rivers studied. However, using SPM and sediment samples, we found PAH contents exceeding sediment quality guidelines. We conclude that sediment and SPM are relevant matrices to assess overall PAH contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a positive linear correlation between PAH contents of SPM and sediment, showing that SPM represents an integrating matrix which is able to provide meaningful data about the overall contamination over a given time span.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty in the measurement of arsenic in suspended particulate matter by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with hydride generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja Tarushee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic is the toxic element, which creates several problems in human being specially when inhaled through air. So the accurate and precise measurement of arsenic in suspended particulate matter (SPM is of prime importance as it gives information about the level of toxicity in the environment, and preventive measures could be taken in the effective areas. Quality assurance is equally important in the measurement of arsenic in SPM samples before making any decision. The quality and reliability of the data of such volatile elements depends upon the measurement of uncertainty of each step involved from sampling to analysis. The analytical results quantifying uncertainty gives a measure of the confidence level of the concerned laboratory. So the main objective of this study was to determine arsenic content in SPM samples with uncertainty budget and to find out various potential sources of uncertainty, which affects the results. Keeping these facts, we have selected seven diverse sites of Delhi (National Capital of India for quantification of arsenic content in SPM samples with uncertainty budget following sampling by HVS to analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer-Hydride Generator (AAS-HG. In the measurement of arsenic in SPM samples so many steps are involved from sampling to final result and we have considered various potential sources of uncertainties. The calculation of uncertainty is based on ISO/IEC17025: 2005 document and EURACHEM guideline. It has been found that the final results mostly depend on the uncertainty in measurement mainly due to repeatability, final volume prepared for analysis, weighing balance and sampling by HVS. After the analysis of data of seven diverse sites of Delhi, it has been concluded that during the period from 31st Jan. 2008 to 7th Feb. 2008 the arsenic concentration varies from 1.44 ± 0.25 to 5.58 ± 0.55 ng/m3 with 95% confidence level (k = 2.

  7. Particulate nitrogen and phosphorus in the East China Sea and its adjacent Kuroshio waters and evaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiulong; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in suspended particles are important to the cycles of N and P in marine ecosystem. Suspended particles were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) and its adjacent Kuroshio waters to investigate the composing and distribution characteristics of particulate inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus (PIN, PIP, PON and POP, respectively). The particulate N and P concentrations were fairly low in the Kuroshio water but much higher in the ECS water, especially in nearshore waters. PON and PIP were the dominant forms of particulate N and P, with an exception that POP was the major form of particulate P in the Kuroshio upper water. The regime of particulate N and P in the ECS was strongly influenced by riverine input, oceanic input, ocean current and photosynthesis. Among them, PON and POP were mainly from biogenic source, while PIN and PIP were originated from biogenic and external sources. And sedimentation, remineralization and resuspension were important influencing factors for the vertical distributions of particulate N and P. The budgets of particulate N and P for the ECS Shelf during rainy season (May-October) were also evaluated. The total particulate N and P (TPN and TPP) fluxes from oceanic input are respectively 10.99 and 2.49 times of those from riverine input. And oceanic input contains more POP, which is liable to be decomposed into phosphate, than riverine input. Furthermore, particulate nutrients fluxes from photosynthesis are the overriding source of total influxes for the ECS Shelf, accounting for 90.93% of TPN and 89.37% of TPP influxes. As for the photosynthetic fixed N and P, only 6.17% and 7.60% of them can reach the seafloor, while up to 87.73% and 60.06% of them are likely to be remineralized. The POP-rich oceanic input and the intensive photosynthesis and remineralization processes play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of N and P in the ECS.

  8. Using VIIRS/NPP and MODIS/Aqua data to provide a continuous record of suspended particulate matter in a highly turbid inland lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Duan, Hongtao; Shen, Ming; Ma, Ronghua; Xue, Kun; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Qitao

    2018-02-01

    Inland lakes are generally an important source of drinking water, and information on their water quality needs to be obtained in real time. To date, Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have played a critical, effective and long-term role in fulfilling this function. However, the MODIS instruments on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites have operated beyond their designed five-year mission lifespans (Terra was launched in 1999, whereas Aqua was launched in 2002), and these instruments may stop running at any time in the near future. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP, which was launched in Oct 2011) is expected to provide a consistent, long-term data record and continue the series of observations initiated by MODIS. To date, few evaluations of the consistency between VIIRS and MODIS have been conducted for turbid inland waters. In this study, we first used synchronous MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data (±1 h) collected during 2012-2015 to evaluate the consistency of Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc) observations over Lake Hongze (the fourth-largest freshwater lake in China), since accurate remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) values cannot be acquired over turbid inland waters. Second, we used recently developed algorithms based on Rrc in the red band to estimate the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data. Finally, we assessed the consistency of the SPM products derived from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP. The results show the following. (1) The differences in Rrc among the green (VIIRS 551 nm and MODIS 555 nm) and red bands (VIIRS 671 nm and MODIS 645 nm) indicate a satisfactory consistency, and the unbiased percentage difference (UPD) is products obtained using MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP have a satisfactory degree of consistency (0-150 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.81, UPD < 16% and 0-80 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.85, UPD < 12%, respectively

  9. Natural, anthropogenic and fossil organic matter in river sediments and suspended particulate matter: a multi-molecular marker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Köster, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-02-01

    Different classes of organic matter (OM) have been systematically investigated in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) along the Danube River in order to understand causes of compositional changes. Analytical pyrolysis revealed the dominance of natural organic matter (NOM) in most of the samples. The predominance of aquatic biomass is evident mainly from the abundance of organonitrogen compounds and phenol distributions. As the river enters a forested gorge, the terrestrial component of the NOM in sediments is more significant. This is reflected in abundant methoxyphenols and a very high carbon preference index. SPM sample from a tributary shows a unique geochemical signature. It contains abundant carboxylic acids, amines, isoprenoids in the pyrolyzate, and is dominated by phytol and 24-methyl-cholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3β-ol in the extract, produced by a diatom bloom. Wax esters with a relatively high proportion of short, methyl-branched alkyl-chains appear together with abundant phytadienes and n-C(17) alkane in some samples, suggesting a microbial origin. Anthropogenic OM from runoff and atmospheric deposition was evident from a minor input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from mixed combustion sources. Multivariate analysis using PAH data led us to define simple molecular ratios to distinguish the PAH composition in sand and silty sediments. The newly defined ratios are the alkylated phenanthrenes and anthracenes ratio (APA; C(1)-C(3)/C(0)-C(3) phenanthrenes and anthracenes) and the PAH ring number ratio (RN; 5-6 ring parent PAHs/all parent PAHs). This demonstrates that alkylated, as well as 5-6 ring PAHs are better preserved in the finer than in coarser grained sediments. A ubiquitous, but minor input of petroleum-related contamination with a uniform composition was evident in all samples as revealed by the analysis of petroleum biomarkers. This study demonstrates that the investigation of different classes of riverine OM

  10. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle–water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiyi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Global Bioresources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyunji [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seunghee, E-mail: shan@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle–water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a] < 0.6 μg L{sup −1}, the bacterial number, instead of chlorophyll-a concentration in particle, showed a positive correlation with the particle–water partition coefficient of Hg. Overall, microbial abundance seems to play a critical role in particle scavenging of Hg in coastal water. Taking this result in light of Hg in pristine coastal zones, we predict that increases in algal biomass amplify the potential for algae to transfer Hg to marine food chains. - Highlights: • Abundance of phytoplankton and bacteria influenced particle–water partitioning of Hg. • More Hg partitioned toward particles when microorganism biomass in particle is large. • Increases of algal biomass may enhance Hg bioaccumulation in coastal ecosystem.

  11. Dispersal and sink pathways of suspended particulate matter from the orographically enhanced SWM regime of the SE Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Kader, U.S.A.; Vaidya, P.; Rajawat, A.S.; Ajai; Ramakrishnan, R.

    suspended matter (TSM) into the continental margin of the SE Arabian Sea has been evaluated from subweekly synoptic variations in TSM and its advection rates, currents and winds during the southwest monsoon (SWM) and postmonsoon season. Our study endorses...

  12. Assessment of suspended particulate matters and their heavy metal content in the ambient air of Mobarakeh city, Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Avazali Saririan Mobarakeh; Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi; Mahnaz Nikaeen; Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Kazem Nadafi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the quality of Mobarakeh ambient air in terms of suspended particles and heavy metals. Material and Methods: The current study was carried out in Mobarakeh city, Isfahan, Iran. Air sampling was performed in three sites for a 1-year period (in 2007). Measurement of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals was achieved using high volume air sampler with fiberglass filter. The concentration of heavy metals, including Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe, and ...

  13. Estimating total suspended matter concentration in tropical waters of the Berau estuary, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwulan, W.; Verhoef, W.; Mannaerts, C.M.; Salama, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the application of a semi-empirical approach, based on the Kubelka–Munk (K-M) model, to retrieve the total suspended matter (TSM) concentration of water bodies from ocean colour remote sensing. This approach is validated with in situ data sets compiled from the tropical waters of

  14. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.

    2008-04-10

    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  15. Quantifying uncertainty in measurement of mercury in suspended particulate matter by cold vapor technique using atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar; Ahuja, Tarushee; Ojha, Vijay Narain; Soni, Daya; Tripathy, S Swarupa; Leito, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    As a result of rapid industrialization several chemical forms of organic and inorganic mercury are constantly introduced to the environment and affect humans and animals directly. All forms of mercury have toxic effects; therefore accurate measurement of mercury is of prime importance especially in suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected through high volume sampler (HVS). In the quantification of mercury in SPM samples several steps are involved from sampling to final result. The quality, reliability and confidence level of the analyzed data depends upon the measurement uncertainty of the whole process. Evaluation of measurement uncertainty of results is one of the requirements of the standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (European Standard EN IS/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, issue1:1-28, 2006). In the presented study the uncertainty estimation in mercury determination in suspended particulate matter (SPM) has been carried out using cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometer-Hydride Generator (AAS-HG) technique followed by wet chemical digestion process. For the calculation of uncertainty, we have considered many general potential sources of uncertainty. After the analysis of data of seven diverse sites of Delhi, it has been concluded that the mercury concentration varies from 1.59 ± 0.37 to 14.5 ± 2.9 ng/m(3) with 95% confidence level (k = 2).

  16. Recent Trends in Suspended Sediment Load & Water Quality in the Upper Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L. A.; Ackleson, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Chesapeake Bay spans several major cities on the US east coast and drains a large watershed (164,200 km2) to the Atlantic Ocean. Upstream deforestation and agriculture have led to a major decline in water quality (increased sediment and nutrient load) of the Bay over the past century. Sediment flux into the Chesapeake Bay is a natural process, but has become an environmental concern as land use changes have exacerbated natural suspended sediment loads and saturated the capacity of the estuary to filter and remove sediments. In situ measurements of suspended sediments and surface reflectance from the Potomac, Patapsco, and Severn River were used to develop algorithms that convert surface reflectance from Landsat (1-3, 4-5, 7, 8) imagery to suspended sediment concentration for the entire Chesapeake Bay. A unique time series of suspended sediment load in the Chesapeake Bay was compiled from Landsat imagery dating from 1977-2015. Particular focus is given to the upper Chesapeake Bay near Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD to understand urban effects. In particular, the Potomac, Patapsco, and Severn River are examined from both remote sensing and in situ measurements. Landsat imagery combined with in situ monitoring provides environmental scientists and resource managers with detailed trends in sediment distribution and concentration, a key measure of water quality. Trends of suspended sediment load in several rivers and the upper Chesapeake Bay will be presented, along with a discussion of suspended sediment algorithms for Landsat imagery. Advantages of Landsat 8 (improved signal-to-noise performance and more bands) versus previous sensors will be examined for suspended sediment applications.

  17. Minimal water requirements for suspending powdered antidotal charcoals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, D O

    1995-12-01

    The minimal amounts of water needed to assure complete suspension of 50 g of 4 different antidotal charcoals were determined. The water volumes ranged from 170-192 ml. The total suspension volumes (water + charcoal) ranged from 201-221 ml. Since manufacturers package 50 g charcoal formulations with a total volume of 8 fluid ounces (237 ml) there is only 16-36 ml of water beyond the minimal amounts needed for suspension. It is recommended that water in an amount of 10% or more of the total volume (ie 24 ml or more) be added by manufacturers to help prevent compaction during storage, or be added by users to aid in resuspension and to increase the suspension flow rate during delivery through tubes.

  18. Method for analysis of psychopharmaceuticals in real industrial wastewater and groundwater with suspended organic particulate matter using solid phase extraction disks extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křesinová, Zdena; Linhartová, Lucie; Petrů, Klára; Krejčová, Lucie; Šrédlová, Kamila; Lhotský, Ondřej; Kameník, Zdeněk; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of psychopharmaceuticals, their precursors and by-products in real contaminated samples from a pharmaceutical company in Olomouc (Czech Republic), based on SPE disk extraction and detection by ultra performance liquid chromatography, combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The target compounds were quantified in the real whole-water samples (water including suspended particles), both in the presence of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and high concentrations of other organic pollutants. A total of nine compounds were analyzed which consisted of three commonly used antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics), one antitussive agent and five by-products or precursors. At first, the SPE disk method was developed for the extraction of water samples (dissolved analytes, recovery 84-104%) and pressurised liquid extraction technique was verified for solid matrices (sludge samples, recovery 81-95%). In order to evaluate the SPE disk technique for whole water samples containing SPM, non contaminated groundwater samples were also loaded with different amounts (100 and 300mgL(-1)) of real contaminated sludge originating from the same locality. The recoveries from the whole-water samples obtained by SPE disk method ranged between 67 and 119% after the addition of the most contaminated sludge. The final method was applied to several real groundwater (whole-water) samples from the industrial area and high concentrations (up to 10(3)μgL(-1)) of the target compounds were detected. The results of this study document and indicate the feasibility of the SPE disk method for analysis of groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Size-selective sampling performance of six low-volume “total” suspended particulate (TSP) inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several low-volume inlets (flow rates ≤ 16.7 liters per minute (Lpm)) are commercially available as components of low-cost, portable ambient particulate matter samplers. Because the inlets themselves do not contain internal fractionators, they are often assumed to representati...

  20. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Francken, Frederic; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Lancker, Vera; Martens, Chantal; Michielsen, Tinne

    2011-02-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub-sampling, was applied to evaluate the effect. The data revealed that the SPM concentration near the bed was on average more than two times higher during the dredging experiment. The disposed material was mainly transported in the benthic layer and resulted in a long-term increase of SPM concentration and formation of fluid mud layers. The study shows that SPM concentration can be used as an indicator of environmental changes if representative time series are available. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of suspended bacteria from processing units in an advanced drinking water treatment plant of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Weiying; Zhang, Junpeng; Qi, Wanqi; Zhou, Yanyan; Xiang, Yuan; Shi, Nuo

    2017-05-01

    For the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), the organic pollutant removal was the primary focus, while the suspended bacterial was always neglected. In this study, the suspended bacteria from each processing unit in a DWTP employing an ozone-biological activated carbon process was mainly characterized by using heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs), a flow cytometer, and 454-pyrosequencing methods. The results showed that an adverse changing tendency of HPC and total cell counts was observed in the sand filtration tank (SFT), where the cultivability of suspended bacteria increased to 34%. However, the cultivability level of other units stayed below 3% except for ozone contact tank (OCT, 13.5%) and activated carbon filtration tank (ACFT, 34.39%). It meant that filtration processes promoted the increase in cultivability of suspended bacteria remarkably, which indicated biodegrading capability. In the unit of OCT, microbial diversity indexes declined drastically, and the dominant bacteria were affiliated to Proteobacteria phylum (99.9%) and Betaproteobacteria class (86.3%), which were also the dominant bacteria in the effluent of other units. Besides, the primary genus was Limnohabitans in the effluents of SFT (17.4%) as well as ACFT (25.6%), which was inferred to be the crucial contributors for the biodegradable function in the filtration units. Overall, this paper provided an overview of community composition of each processing units in a DWTP as well as reference for better developing microbial function for drinking water treatment in the future.

  2. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined technology for observing, understanding and predicting suspended particle transport and fate from anthropogenic discharges in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    The combined observation, understanding and prediction of suspended particle transport and fate in coastal waters is essential for assessing environmental stresses that originate from anthropogenic sources. We present a toolbox consisting of an optics-based instrument suite, post-processing and analysis tools, and numerical models for understanding particle transport and fate, and its effect on the marine environment. We show results from a combined measurement and modelling campaign, focussed on understanding the transport of flocculating particulate material discharged into a Norwegian fjord, and demonstrate the application of this approach to real-time monitoring of drilling discharges in the vicinity of coral reefs. Unique measurements and images of suspended particulates, obtained from multiple water column profiles within a fjord, are presented. Initial model predictions of particle transport were used to highlight target areas for the field campaign, where model uncertainty was highest. Regular discharges of flocculating material were released into the fjord, requiring particle observations to span several orders of magnitude in size and concentration. This was achieved by combining data from a LISST-100, LISST-HOLO, and a bespoke Silhouette particle imaging system. Together, these instruments produced size distributions ranging from 2.5-10000microns. In-situ imaging proved essential in providing a realistic picture of the nature of the flocculated material, with many long, string-like flocs of several cm in length being advected hundreds of metres from their discharge location. Observations surrounding the discharge within this fjord system are used to help validate an improved particle transport model aimed at accurately accounting for flocculation, subsequent sedimentation and modifications to seabed bathymetry. The numerical formulation enhanced by this combined measurement and modelling approach is applicable for a wide variety of scenarios where human

  4. Urban sewage lipids in the suspended particulate matter of a coral reef under river influence in the South West Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Palau, Laura; Parrish, Christopher C; Pérez-España, Horacio

    2017-10-15

    Nutritional quality of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and the degree of human fecal pollution in the largest coral reef system in the southwest Gulf of Mexico were evaluated using lipid classes, fatty acids (FA) and sterols in the dry and rainy seasons. High proportions of triacylglycerols and saturated and monounsaturated FA were detected in the SPM however it was considered poor quality because it had low proportions of highly unsaturated FA which can be used to determine production of marine biogenic material of dietary value to pelagic and benthic organisms. Urban sewage organic carbon was traced with coprostanol. The reference value of coprostanol from the point source of pollution was set using two samples from a sewage treatment plant processing waste from >140,000 people near the coral reef system, and it was contrasted with one river station and nine marine stations including six coral reefs. The concentration of coprostanol in the SPM was 3621 ± 98 ng L-1 comprising 26% of total sterols. During the dry season, the river was contaminated upstream with human feces as evidenced by coprostanol at 1823 ng L-1, the 5β-coprostanol: cholesterol ratio at 0.5, and 5β-coprostanol: [5α-cholestanol+5β-coprostanol] at 0.7. In contrast, marine stations had concentrations of coprostanol lower than a suggested regulation limit for tropical marine coastal waters (30 ng L-1), ranging between 6 and 28 ng L-1. During the rainy season a dilution effect was detected in the river, however significantly higher concentrations of coprostanol in the marine stations were detected ranging between 15 and 215 ng L-1, higher than the tentative tropical regulation range (30-100 ng L-1). Among the reefs, the nearshore one, 14.3 km from the treatment plant, was more exposed to human-fecal pollution, and offshore reefs, >17.3 km from the plant, had a lower degree of contamination. Finally, only three stations were clearly uncontaminated during both seasons including

  5. Seasonal dynamics of particulate organic matter in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal waters illustrated by amino acid enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zongguang; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Total suspended matter (TSM) was collected in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent areas of the East China Sea in July, August, and November 2011, to study the composition and fate of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) during an August typhoon event and bottom trawling activities. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and hydrolyzable particulate amino acids (PAA, D- and L-enantiomers) were higher during July and August than during November; however, D-arginine and alanine levels were significantly higher in November. Seasonal trends in the composition of PAAs indicate that in situ production is a key factor in their temporal distribution. No significant increase in TSM or decrease in labile organic matter was observed during the transit period following a typhoon event in August. In contrast, higher primary production was observed at this time as a result of the penetration of Changjiang Diluted Water caused by the typhoon event. Trawling effects were studied by comparing the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November) at similar sampling sites. The effect of trawling on the composition of bottom organic matter was studied by comparing D-amino acids concentrations and C/N ratios in the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November). A substantial contribution of microbial organic matter during the November cruise was indicated by a decrease in glutamic acid, an increase in TSM and D-alanine, and a lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In shallow coastal regions, anthropogenic activities (bottom trawling) may enhance the transfer of low-nutritional-value particulate organic matter into the benthic food chain.

  6. Particulate organic constituents of surface waters of east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Bhat, K.L.; Parulekar, A.H.

    protein (PP) and particulate lipid (PL) fractions. High values of chlorophyll a (chl-a) characterized the coastal waters. In coastal waters, POC was dominatEd. by PCHO containing detrital matter, whereas actively growing phytoplankton significantly...

  7. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in seawater.Part 1. Model description, classification of organic particles, and example spectra of the light absorption coefficient and the imaginary part of the refractive index of particulate matter for phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on organic substances in the sea are applied to distinguish hypothetical chemical classes and physical types of suspended particulate organic matter (POM in seawater. Spectra of the light absorption coefficients of particulate matter apm(λ and the imaginary refractive index n'p(λ, are assessed for some of these classes and types of POM in seawater, that is, for live phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-like particles. The spectral characteristics of these coefficients are established and the probable ranges of variability of their absolute magnitudes defined on the basis of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by the various organic substances forming the particles. Also presented are mathematical relationships linking the coefficients apm(λ and n'p(λ for the various chemical classes of POM with their physical parameters, such as the relative contents of organic matter, water, air or some other gas. This article is part of a bio-optical study undertaken by the authors, the objective of which is to implement remote sensing techniques in the investigation of Baltic ecosystems (Woźniak et al. 2004.

  8. Mutagenicity of organic pollutants adsorbed on suspended particulate matter in the center of Wrocław (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełcik, Maciej; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Galas, Ewa; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Mutagenicity of pollutants adsorbed on suspended dust of the PM10 fraction, collected in winter and summer season alike over the Wrocław city centre (Poland) was studied using the standard Salmonella assay (plate-incorporation) and the Kado modified assay (microsuspension method). The dust was collected using Staplex high volume air sampler. Further on it was extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus. PAH content in extracts was determined by the high performance liquid chromatography technique using fluorescence detection, whereas the nitro-PAH content- by the gas chromatography using mass detection. Two Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA98 and YG1041, were used in the assays. The assays were conducted with and without a metabolic activation. Investigated air pollution extracts differed against each other with regard to a total content as well as to a percentage of individual compounds, depending on the sampling season. Both the total PAH content and the nitro-PAH content in the tested samples, and their spectrum as well, were found the highest in winter season. Higher mutagenic effect was noted for the dust extract from samples collected in wintertime than from those collected in summer. Pollutants directly affecting the genetic material and those showing such indirect action were present in the examined samples. The YG1041 strain turned out to be the most sensitive, which was the sign that large amounts of nitro-aromatic compounds were present in the tested samples. Obtained results proved that the Kado modified Salmonella assay would be useful for the atmospheric air pollution monitoring in urban agglomerations. Mutagenic effect in assays conducted according to the Kado procedure was obtained by using in the assays lower concentrations of tested extracts, compared to the classical assay.

  9. The influence of air-suspended particulate concentration on the incidence of suicide attempts and exacerbation of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the concentration of solid air-suspended particles (SSP) in the incidence of mental disorders. The study is based on 1,871 cases, registered in the Beer-Sheva Mental Health Center (BS-MHC) at Ben-Gurion University (Israel) during a 16-month period from 2001 to 2002; 1,445 persons were hospitalized due to exacerbation of schizophrenia (ICD-10: F20-F29) and 426 after committing a suicide attempt using a variety of means as coded in the ICD-10 (ICD-10: X60-X84). Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p 0.3, p 0.2). A trend towards positive correlation ( ρ > 0.2, p psychotic attack ( N PS ) in periods with dominant eastern winds (4-9 am, local time) has been observed, while in the afternoon and evening hours (1-8 pm local time) with dominant western winds, N C and N PS are not correlated (p > 0.1). Obviously, concentration of SSP is not the one and only parameter of air pollution state determining meteorological-biological impact, involving incidence of mental disorders, although its role can scarcely be overstated. However, since it is one of the simplest measured parameters, it could be widely used and helpful in the daily struggle for human life comfort in semi-arid areas as well as urban and industrial surroundings, where air pollution reaches crucial values. This study may permit determination of the limits for different external factors, which do not overcome threshold values (without provoking avalanche situations), to single out the group of people at increased risk (with according degree of statistic probability), whose reactions to the weather violations can involve the outbreak of frustration points and prevent or alleviate detrimental mental effects.

  10. N-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in total suspended particulates from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau: concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Hongmei; Arimoto, Richard; Wang, Gehui; Han, Yongming; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guohui

    2014-02-01

    Sixty-two suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected from Lulang on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau from July 2008 and July 2009 to investigate the concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were analyzed using thermal-deposition gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentrations of particulate total n-alkanes ranged from 0.10 to 21.83 ng m(-3), with an annual mean of 1.25 ng m(-3); the PAHs ranged from 0.06 to 2.53, with a mean of 0.59 ng m(-3). Up to 70% of PAHs were 5- and 6-ring compounds. The n-alkanes and PAHs both showed higher concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer. Analyses of diagnostic ratios indicate that 6.4% to 58.9% (mean 24.9%) of the n-alkanes were from plant waxes. Source characterization studies, i.e. diagnostic ratio and positive factor matrix analysis, suggest that the PAHs were from biomass burning as well as from fossil fuel combustion. Backward trajectory analysis suggests that the biomass mass burning pollutants could be from South Asia and western China via long distance transport. The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources of n-alkanes and PAHs in a remote background area in Tibetan Plateau. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic Ocean suspended particulate alkenones: An alternative regression model and discussion of possible sampling bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jessica; Kienast, Markus; Dowd, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Alkenone unsaturation, expressed as the UK37' index, is closely related to growth temperature of prymnesiophytes, thus providing a reliable proxy to infer past sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here we address two lingering uncertainties related to this SST proxy. First, calibration models developed for core-top sediments and those developed for surface suspended particulates organic material (SPOM) show systematic offsets, raising concerns regarding the transfer of the primary signal into the sedimentary record. Second, questions remain regarding changes in slope of the UK37' vs. growth temperature relationship at the temperature extremes. Based on (re)analysis of 31 new and 394 previously published SPOM UK37' data from the Atlantic Ocean, a new regression model to relate UK37' to SST is introduced; the Richards curve (Richards, 1959). This non-linear regression model provides a robust calibration of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic SPOM samples and uniquely accounts for both the fact that the UK37' index is a proportion, and so must lie between 0 and 1, as well as for the observed reduction in slope at the warm and cold ends of the temperature range. As with prior fits of SPOM UK37' vs. SST, the Richards model is offset from traditional regression models of sedimentary UK37' vs. SST. We posit that (some of) this offset can be attributed to the seasonally and depth biased sampling of SPOM material.

  12. A critical and comparative appraisal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and suspended particulate material from a large South American subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Martins, César C

    2016-07-01

    The Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) is an important socioeconomic estuary of the Brazilian coast that is influenced by the input of pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because of the apparent lack of comparative studies involving PAHs in different estuarine compartments, the aim of this study was to determine and compare PAH concentrations in surface sediment and suspended particulate material (SPM) in the PEC to evaluate their behaviour, compositions, sources and spatial distributions. The total PAH concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.6 to 63.8 ng g(-1) (dry weight), whereas in the SPM these concentrations ranged from 391 to 4164 ng g(-1). Diagnostic ratios suggest distinct sources of PAHs to sediments (i.e., pyrolytic sources) and SPM (i.e., petrogenic sources such as vessel traffic). Thus, the recent introduction of PAHs is more clearly indicated in the SPM since oil related-compounds (e.g., alkyl-PAHs) remain present in similar concentrations. Further, this matrix may better reflect the current state of the environment at the time of sampling because of the absence of significant degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human health risk assessment based on trace metals in suspended air particulates, surface dust, and floor dust from e-waste recycling workshops in Hong Kong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winifred Ka Yan; Liang, Peng; Man, Yu Bon; Chung, Shan Shan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated health risks exerted on electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workers exposed to cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in Hong Kong. E-waste recycling workshops were classified into eight working areas: 1 = office, 2 = repair, 3 = dismantling, 4 = storage, 5 = desoldering, 6 = loading, 7 = cable shredding, and 8 = chemical waste. The aforementioned metal concentrations were analyzed in suspended air particulates, surface dust and floor dust collected from the above study areas in five workshops. Elevated Pb levels were measured in dismantling and desoldering areas (582 and 486 μg/100 cm(2) in surface and 3,610 and 19,172 mg/kg in floor dust, respectively). Blood lead levels of 10 and 39.5 μg/dl were estimated using United States Environmental Protection Agency's Adult Lead Model as a result of exposure to the floor dust from these two areas. Human health risk assessments were conducted to evaluate cancer and noncancer risks resulting from exposure to floor dust through the combined pathways of ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Findings indicated that workers may be exposed to cancer risks above the acceptable range at 147 in a million at the 95th percentile in the dismantling area. Workers should be informed of associated risks to safeguard their health.

  14. Inherent optical properties and particulate matter distribution in summer season in waters of Hornsund and Kongsfjordenen, Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Spitsbergen fjords, Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, are known for being under different hydrological regimes. The first is cold, separated from warm Atlantic water by East Spitsbergen Current, while Kongsfjorden is frequently penetrated by relatively warm Atlantic water. On the other hand, both are under strong influence of water discharge from glaciers and land freshwater input. During the period of observation in both fjords a dominant water mass was Surface Water, which originates mainly from glacial melt. The presence of suspended matter introduced with melt water in Surface Water is reflected by highest values of light attenuation and absorption coefficients recorded in areas close to glacier both in Hornsund and Kongsfjorden. In Hornsund the maximum light attenuation coefficient cpg(555 was 5.817 m−1 and coefficient of light absorption by particles ap(676 = 0.10 m−1. In Kongsfjorden the corresponding values were 26.5 m−1 and 0.223 m−1. In Kongsfjorden suspended matter of the size class 20–200 μm dominated over fractions smaller than 20 μm while in Hornsund dominating size fraction was 2–20 μm. The results provide an evidence of considerable range of variability of the optical properties mainly due to glacial and riverine runoff. The scale of variability of particulate matter in Kongsfjorden is bigger than in Hornsund. Most of the variability in Hornsund can be attributed to glaciers discharge and a presence of particles of mineral origin, while in Kongsfjorden the organic and mineral particles contribute almost equally to defining the optical properties of water.

  15. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aine Marie Gormley-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05 for Mn (r2 = 0.0063, Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021, Ni (r2 = 0.0023, Cd (r2 = 0.00001, Co (r2 = 0.096, Hg (r2 = 0.116 or Pb (r2 = 0.164. The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  16. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley-Gallagher, Aine Marie; Douglas, Richard William; Rippey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic) lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05) for Mn (r2 = 0.0063), Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021), Ni (r2 = 0.0023), Cd (r2 = 0.00001), Co (r2 = 0.096), Hg (r2 = 0.116) or Pb (r2 = 0.164). The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing) fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  17. Suspended matter in surface waters of the Atlantic continental margin from Cape Cod to the Florida keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Meade, R.H.; Bond, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable amounts of suspended matter (> 1.0 milligram per liter) in surface waters are restricted to within a few kilometers of the Atlantic coast. Particles that escape estuaries or are discharged by rivers into the shelf region tend to travel longshoreward rather than seaward. Suspended matter farther offshore, chiefly amorphous organic particles, totals 0.1 milligram per liter or less. Soot, fly ash, processed cellulose, and other pollutants are widespread.

  18. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2001

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; DeSouza, F.P.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    and Sri Lanka on the west and by the Andaman?Nicobar islands and Burma on the east. The uniqueness of the Bay is the reversing monsoons that cause seasonal changes in circulation and weather. Furthermore, the Bay receives large quantities of fresh water...) and reversed phase Shim-Pack HRC-ODS analytical column (4.6 mm ID, 15 cm length, 5?m particle size) was used. A binary solvent system consisting of 50mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 3% of tetrahydrofuran as solvent A and methanol as solvent B...

  19. Distribution of suspended particulate matter in the waters of eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.

    material in the nearshore region and off Godavari. Distribution pattern of TSM indicates that it closely follows the circulation pattern during the study period (August-September 1976). Combustible organic matter varies from 5 to 80% and these compositional...

  20. Confirmatory sediment analyses and solid and suspended particulate phase bioassays on sediment from Oakland Inner Harbor, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Apts, C.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Hyland, J.L.; Campbell, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the US Congress to deepen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California. During review of the environmental impact statement required for this dredging and disposal project, a panel of national experts approved the open-water disposal of dredged sediment from selected areas within the Inner Harbor, subject to results of confirmatory solid phase bioassays. The San Francisco District of the Corps requested the Battle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct these confirmatory studies. The studies provided technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of this project. Within extremely narrow time constraints, these studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of the Oakland Inner Harbor and turning basin sediment for ocean disposal. 23 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs.

  1. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  2. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  3. The relationship between Suspended Particulate Matter and Turbidity at a mooring station in a coastal environment: consequences for satellite-derived products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madihah Jafar-Sidik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From a data set of observations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM concentration, Turbidity in Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU and fluorescence-derived chlorophyll-a at a mooring station in Liverpool Bay, in the Irish Sea, we investigate the seasonal variation of the SPM:Turbidity ratio. This ratio changes from a value of around 1 in winter (minimum in January–February to 2 in summer (maximum in May–June. This seasonal change can be understood in terms of the cycle of turbulence and of the phytoplankton population that affects the nature, shape and size of the particles responsible for the Turbidity. The data suggest a direct effect of phytoplankton on the SPM:Turbidity ratio during the spring bloom occurring in April and May and a delayed effect, likely due to aggregation of particles, in July and August. Based on the hypothesis that only SPM concentration varies, but not the mass-specific backscattering coefficient of particles bbp*, semi-analytical algorithms aiming at retrieving SPM from satellite radiance ignore the seasonal variability of bbp* which is likely to be inversely correlated to the SPM:Turbidity ratio. A simple sinusoidal modulation of the relationship between Turbidity and SPM with time helps to correct this effect at the location of the mooring. Without applying a seasonal modulation to bbp*, there is an underestimation of SPM in summer by the Ifremer semi-analytical algorithm (Gohin et al., 2015 we tested. SPM derived from this algorithm, as expected from any semi-analytical algorithm, appears to be more related to in situ Turbidity than to in situ SPM throughout the year.

  4. Fusion of Landsat-8/OLI and GOCI Data for Hourly Mapping of Suspended Particulate Matter at High Spatial Resolution: A Case Study in the Yangtze (Changjiang Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqun Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations ([SPM] in the Yangtze estuary, which has third-order bifurcations and four outlets, exhibit large spatial and temporal variations. Studying the characteristics of these variations in [SPM] is important for understanding sediment transport and pollutant diffusion in the estuary as well as for the construction of port and estuarine engineering structures. The 1-h revisit frequency of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI sensor and the 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (L8/OLI provide a new opportunity to study the large spatial and temporal variations in the [SPM] in the Yangtze estuary. In this study, [SPM] images with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 30 m are generated through the product-level fusion of [SPM] data derived from L8/OLI and GOCI images using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM. The results show that the details and accuracy of the spatial and temporal variations are maintained well in the [SPM] images that are predicted based on the fused images. Compared to the [SPM] observations at fixed field stations, the mean relative error (MRE of the predicted SPM is 17.7%, which is lower than that of the GOCI-derived [SPM] (27.5%. In addition, thanks to the derived high-resolution [SPM] with high spatiotemporal dynamic changes, both natural phenomena (dynamic variation of the maximum turbid zone and human engineering changes leading to the dynamic variability of SPM in the channel are observed.

  5. Multi-temporal dynamics of suspended particulate matter in a macro-tidal river Plume (the Gironde) as observed by satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Sorin; Doxaran, David; Derkacheva, Anna; Novoa, Stéfani; Lavigne, Héloïse

    2018-03-01

    The Gironde River plume area is unique in terms of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) dynamics. Multiple factors contribute to the variations of SPM at multiple time scales, from river outputs to wind stress, currents and tidal cycles. The formation and evolution of the Maximum Turbidity Zone (MTZ) inside the estuary also plays a significant role. Thus, detailed analyses and monitoring of the region is important for better understanding the mechanisms governing the turbid plume dynamics, for proper future management and monitoring of SPM export from the estuary to the coastal ocean. In this study we use an unprecedented volume of satellite data to capture and better understand the dynamics of the river plume. We combine two types of satellite information in order to achieve these goals: data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensors. The integrated information allows accounting for multiple time scales, i.e. from seasonal to diurnal cycles. We show and parameterize the overall effects of river discharge rates over the plume extension. Seasonal variations are also analyzed and an overall relationship between river discharge rates and plume magnitude is computed. For the first time, we clearly observe and explain the diurnal cycle of SPM dynamics in the river plume. Despite the limited capabilities of the SEVIRI sensor, geostationary data was successfully used to derive such information and results similar to in-situ datasets were obtained. The same patterns are observed, with significant increase in SPM plume during spring/ebb tide periods. Results from our study can be further used to refine sediment transport models and to gain a better perspective on the ecological implications of the sediment output in the continental shelf area.

  6. ESR signal intensity of quartz in the fine-silt fraction of riverbed sediments from the Yangtze River: a provenance tracer for suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keita; Tada, Ryuji; Zheng, Hongbo; Irino, Tomohisa; Luo, Chao; He, Mengying; Wang, Ke; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    2017-12-01

    The Asian summer monsoon exerts a strong influence on the hydrologic cycle in East Asia. Moreover, the distribution of heavy precipitation in the Yangtze River basin, which covers a large area of South China, is sensitive to changes in monsoon intensity. Thus, the paleo-distribution of heavy precipitation in the Yangtze basin is key in reconstructing the paleo-monsoon intensity. In this study, we established proxies for distinguishing sediments from the northwestern and southeastern parts of the Yangtze River basin, with the goal of using them to reconstruct the paleo-distribution of heavy precipitation in the basin based on changes in the provenance of detrital sediments, as determined using sediment records at the river mouth. The proxies included the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity and the crystallinity index (CI) of quartz in modern riverbed sediments along the mainstream and tributaries of the Yangtze River. The data revealed that the fine-silt fraction of the sediments (which represents suspended particulate matter, SPM) from each major tributary can be distinguished on the basis of ESR signal intensity and CI values. The values for each tributary reflect the age and type of bedrock in the tributary basin and show distinct regional variations according to the distribution of geological blocks within the Yangtze basin. In addition, the analyzed ESR signal intensity and CI values of the fine-silt fraction of riverbed sediments below mainstream-tributary junctions agree well with values calculated according to a simple mixing model of SPM discharged from the tributaries and the mainstream.

  7. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  8. Discharge, suspended sediment, bedload, and water quality in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Savard, Charles S.

    2015-09-30

    Clear Creek is a small stream that drains the eastern Sierra Nevada near Lake Tahoe, flows roughly parallel to the U.S. Highway 50 corridor, and discharges to the Carson River near Carson City, Nevada. Historical and ongoing development in the drainage basin is thought to be affecting Clear Creek and its sediment-transport characteristics. A baseline study from water years 2004–07 collected and evaluated data at three Clear Creek sampling sites. These data included discharge, selected water-quality parameters, and suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, and yields. This study builds on what was learned from the baseline study in water years 2004–07 and serves as a continuation of the data collection and analyses of the Clear Creek discharge regime and associated water-quality and sediment concentrations and loads during water years 2010–12.

  9. Monitoring of the radiocesium in river water in Fukushima using rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved radiocesium in water with nonwoven fabric cartridge filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, H.; Yasutaka, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Kondo, Y. [Japan Vilene Company, Ltd (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Centre (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The environmental monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium in river became important after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Traditional monitoring methods, such as evaporative concentration, require time for pre-processing because the concentration of dissolved radiocesium of river water in Fukushima prefecture is currently very low, averagely 0.001 - 0.1 Bq/L. Our research group has developed a monitoring method to investigate the radiocesium concentration in water by each existence form. Yasutaka et al. (2013) and Tsuji et al.(2013) developed a method for rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved radiocesium in water with nonwoven fabric cartridge filters. This method uses pleated polypropylene nonwoven fabric filter with a pore size of 1-μm to collect particulate radiocesium, and nonwoven fabric impregnated with Prussian blue (PB) to absorb dissolved radiocesium. The fabric was placed into cylindrical plastic cartridges (SS-cartridge and PB-cartridge). This method could catch the 99% of the suspended solid (SS) and absorb 95% of dissolved radiocesium separately in 20 L water within 40 minutes. This device was applied to monitor the water in Abukuma River (January 2013) and upper area of Kuchibuto river (May 2013) at 12 locations, and the results were compared with those obtained by the filtrating and evaporative concentration method. The SS concentration and radioactivity of SS in the Abukuma river water, calculated by weight gain of the SS-cartridge and by sediment weight after filtration with a 0.45-μm membrane filter, agreed well without one location.The radioactivity of the dissolved {sup 137}Cs also agreed well between these two methods. In the Abukuma River, dissolved {sup 137}Cs was 0.006-0.025 Bq/L and particulate {sup 137}Cs was 0.008-0.070 Bq/L by the presented method in January 2013. In addition, the required time for pre-processing was reduced by more than 10 times that by filtrating and

  10. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.

    2017-11-01

    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  11. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the melt water of Icelandic glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Reiss, Martin

    2017-04-01

    the filtered water samples were measured using a TOC analyzer using high-temperature combustion of organic matter (OM) followed by thermal detection of CO2 (TOC-L, Shimadzu, Japan). POC was measured by determining mass lost upon combustion of the samples. Therefore all glass fiber membranes were dried after sampling at 65°C to a constant weight, reweighed to calculate the total suspended solids (TSS), combusted via heating the filter to 550° C and finally reweighed to calculate the amount of particulate organic matter. Spectroscopic characteristics were detected by using a spectrophotometer (ThermoFisher, Genesys 10S) for UV-VIS analysis and a fluorescence spectrometer (Shimadzu RF-6000) for fluorescence analysis. Spectroscopic indices will be calculated based on these UV-VIS and fluorescence data. First results show that the DOC-concentrations are very low and range from 0.113 mg/l to 0.937 mg/l. These concentrations are comparable with values measured in the melt water in other regions (Alaska, Greenland and European Alps) (Hood et al. 2015). POC concentrations range from 0.667 mg/l to 173.333 mg/l and exceed the DOC-concentration at every sampling location. This differences can be compared with results of the Greenland Ice Sheet, but not with some small glaciers in the European Alps, where the concentrations of DOC and POC more or less equal (Hood et al. 2015). Nevertheless, the export of POC plays a very important factor within the organic carbon export budget of glaciers in Iceland and further measurements are required. Hood, E., Battin, T. J., Fellman, J., O'Neel, S., & Spencer, R. G. (2015). Storage and release of organic carbon from glaciers and ice sheets. Nature Geoscience, 8(2), 91-96.

  12. Pesticide survey in water and suspended solids from the Uruguay River Basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williman, Celia; Munitz, Martín S; Montti, María I T; Medina, María B; Navarro, Agustín F; Ronco, Alicia E

    2017-06-01

    The Uruguay River is receptor of pollutants, such as pesticides, from agriculture activities along its course. The present study reports concentration levels of organochlorinate, organophosphorus, and other pesticides in water and suspended solids in nine sampling sites of the Uruguay River. Data analyses included principal component analysis (PCA) to assess differences between sampling sites contamination. Most of the tested pesticides were ubiquitous due to the widely use in the chemical control of pests implemented in the region. Detected concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, 4,4'-DDT, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methyl-parathion, and malathion were found to be over regional and international concentration level guidelines, according to the European Union, the US Environmental Protection Agency, or the Argentinean Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development. For this reason, future studies in Uruguay River Basin are needed.

  13. Phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge ash suspended in water in a two-compartment electrodialytic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2016-01-01

    was suspended in water in the anolyte, which was separated from the catholyte by a cation exchange membrane. Electrolysis at the anode acidified the SSA suspension, and hereby P, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn were extracted. The heavy metal ions electromigrated into the catholyte and were thus separated from the filtrate......Phosphorus (P) is indispensable for all forms of life on Earth and as P is a finite resource, it is highly important to increase recovery of P from secondary resources. This investigation is focused on P recovery from sewage sludge ash (SSA) by a two-compartment electrodialytic separation (EDS......) technique. Two SSAs are included in the investigation and they contained slightly less P than phosphate rock used in commercial fertilizer production and more heavy metals. The two-compartment electrodialytic technique enabled simultaneous recovery of P and separation of heavy metals. During EDS the SSA...

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  15. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba, and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji. In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations. The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if < 1 FTU, it is recalculated using an algorithm based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412. On our data set, this algorithm is suitable for the 0.2-25 FTU turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU. This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach.

  16. International Odra project (IOP) 'Interdisciplinary German Polish studies on the behaviour of pollutants in the Oder system'. Sub project 4: the state of suspended particulate matter in the Odra River system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.H.; Damke, H.; Kasbohm, J.; Puff, T.; Breitenbach, E.; Theel, O.; Kiessling, A.

    2001-05-20

    The purpose of the present project was to characterise the pollutant freight of suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments in the Oder river system on the basis of large samples drawn at selected sampling sites. One of the major goals was to assess and draw up a balance of the transport regime of suspended matter between the compartments water, suspended matter and sediments. Special attention was given to the composition and structure of suspended matter as well as to the distribution of trace elements in the various components. Furthermore, the study was intended to provide ecology-related information on the basis of selected biogenic components. Statements on the time course of pollution of estuarine waters and the Baltic Sea by way of the Oder can be derived from a characterisation of current fluviatile solids (suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments) and determination of their quantitative proportions. The following research strategy was derived from these goals: for a characterisation of suspended matter in terms of composition, structure and biogenic origin it is necessary to determine the concentration of suspended matter, its granulometric composition, carbon and sulphur content, biogenic opal content, mineral content, phase composition, metal content, structure of suspended flakes and association of diatoms in the suspended flakes and on the periphyton. [German] Das Vorhaben ist darauf ausgerichtet, den Belastungszustand der Schwebstoffe und schwebstoffbuertigen Sedimente im Oderflusssystem anhand von Grossproben ausgewaehlter Probenahmeorte zu charakterisieren. Ein wesentliches Ziel ist die Beurteilung des Transportregimes der Schwebstoffe zwischen den Kompartimenten Wasser, Schwebstoff und Sediment sowie seine Bilanzierung. Dabei gilt die besondere Aufmerksamkeit der Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Schwebstoffe sowie die Spurenelementspeziation an die unterschiedlichen Bestandteile. Weiterhin werden oekologische Aussagen

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO/sub 2/ exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, G L; Abbey, D E; Magie, A R; Hodgkin, J E

    1987-01-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7,445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO2 exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  19. Chemical concentrations in water and suspended sediment, Green River to Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Chapman, Elena A.

    2018-01-05

    From August 2016 to March 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected representative samples of filtered and unfiltered water and suspended sediment (including the colloidal fraction) at USGS streamgage 12113390 (Duwamish River at Golf Course, at Tukwila, Washington) during 13 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, butyltins, the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, water-quality field parameters were measured, and representative water samples were collected and analyzed for river suspended-sediment concentration and particle-size distribution. The results provide new data that can be used to estimate sediment and chemical loads transported by the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway.

  20. Monitoring of Free Water and Particulate Contamination of F-24 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION OF F-24 FUEL INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 480...14. ABSTRACT A study was conducted on the contaminant detection methods of fuel sensors which are capable of quantifying both free water (0...of free water contamination from fuel particle counts. 4.1 CO-SOLVENT TESTING PROFILE The system was operated at approximately 105.7 GPM. The Jet A

  1. Particle size distribution of suspended solids in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and adjacent shelf waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, M. R.; Oertel, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of suspended solids, including total suspended matter, total suspended inorganics, total suspended organics, particle size distribution, and the presence of the ten most prominent particle types were determined. Four research vessels simultaneously collected samples along four transects. Samples were collected within a 2-hour period that coincided with the maximum ebb penetration of Chesapeake Bay outwelling. The distribution of primary and secondary particle size modes indicate the presence of a surface or near-surface plume, possibly associated with three sources: (1) runoff, (2) resuspension of material within the Bay, and/or (3) resuspension of material in the area of shoals at the Bay mouth. Additional supportive evidence for this conclusion is illustrated with ocean color scanner data.

  2. Assessing the origin of suspended particulate matter in the Rhône River from the geochemical signature of the particulate residual fraction and hydro-sedimentary numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrin, Aymeric; Bretier, Marie; Dugué, Violaine; Masson, Matthieu; Le-Bescond, Chloé; Panay, Josselin; Le Coz, Jérôme; Coquery, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport through rivers is a major vector for nutrient and pollutant fluxes to continental shelf areas. Since physico-chemical properties of SPM from each sub-catchment will determine pollutant reactivity, it is necessary to obtain relevant information on the origin of SPM, in order to apply effective strategies for sediment management. Fingerprinting approaches based on the concentrations of trace metals, rare earth elements, mineralogy or radionuclides, have been developed allowing identifying SPM at the sub-catchment scale. However, confounding factors such as non-conservative behavior and enrichment/depletion of elements during the sediment delivery process represent a main concern. In this way, few studies addressed SPM origin in large river systems from the upstream part to the coastal environment by applying multi-tracer signatures. This is probably due to evolution of non-conservative element signatures during transport linked to biogeochemical processes (e.g. organic matter degradation, flocculation, desorption). To avoid the problem of non-conservative element signatures, we propose a significant improvement of fingerprinting approaches based on the concentrations of major elements and trace metals measured in the residual (conservative) fraction of SPM. The aim of our study was to apply this original geochemical approach to the upper part of the Rhône River (France). This approach was used to estimate, at each given time in the Rhône River, the SPM inputs contribution of several sub-basins (Arve, Ain, Fier, Guiers and Bourbre rivers). The concentrations in the residual fraction were estimated by the difference of concentrations obtained after two different extraction methods on SPM (a total extraction by using a mixture of HN03, HCl and HF acids; and a soft extraction by applying only HCl 1M). By this method, we were able to determine a geochemical signature typical of each sub-basin which should be conservative in

  3. Effect of suspended kelp culture on water exchange as estimated by in situ current measurement in Sanggou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dingyong; Huang, Daji; Qiao, Xudong; He, Yuqing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-09-01

    Water exchange between Sanggou Bay and the Yellow Sea in China was estimated based on current profiles measured by four bottom-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers at the entrance of the bay during the kelp seeding and kelp harvesting periods. Hydrodynamics in the bay were dominated by tidal currents, especially semi-diurnal constituents. The effect of suspended kelp culture on the water exchange was investigated in terms of the tidal flux and tidal prism of the bay during a semi-diurnal period. Suspended kelp culture was found to significantly affect water exchange by changing the spatial pattern of the tidal flux but not the tidal prism. The inward tidal flux was reduced by 10% to 70% in the upper layers in the kelp seeding to kelp harvesting periods. Meanwhile, the inward tidal flux was increased by 10% to 140% in the lower layers. The mean inward tidal prism was 2.31 × 108 m3 and 2.17 × 108 m3 during the kelp seeding period and kelp harvesting period, respectively. Comparing with previous numerical simulations, our results did not show a prominent reduction in total water exchange across the entrance of the bay by suspended kelp culture.

  4. MEASURING THE PARTICULATE BACKSCATTERING OF INLAND WATERS: A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campbell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine whether the standard particulate backscattering IOP (Inherent Optical Properties measurement method could be simplified. IOP measurements are essential for parameterising several forms of algorithms used to estimate water quality parameters from airborne and satellite images. Field measurements of the backscattering IOPs are more difficult to make than absorption measurements as correction of the raw Hydroscat-6 backscattering sensor observations is required to allow for the systematic errors associated with the water and water quality parameter absorption. The standard approach involves making simultaneous measurement of the absorption and attenuation of the water with an absorption and attenuation meter (ac-9 or making assumptions about the particulate backscattering probability. Recently, a number of papers have been published that use an alternative method to retrieve the particulate backscattering spectrum by using laboratory measured absorption values and in situ spectroradiometric observations. The alternative method inverts a model of reflectance iteratively using non-linear least squares fitting to solve for the particulate backscattering at 532 nm (bbp0(532 and the particulate backscattering spectral slope (γ. In this paper, eleven observations made at Burdekin Falls Dam, Australia are used to compare the alternative reflectance method to the conventional corrected Hydroscat-6 observations. Assessment of the alternative reflectance method showed that the result of the inversions were highly dependent on the starting conditions. To overcome this limitation, Particle Swarm Optimisation, a stochastic search technique which includes a random element in the search approach, was used. It was found that when compared to the conventionally corrected Hydroscat-6 observations, the alternative reflectance method underestimated bbp0(532 by approximately 50% and overestimated γ by approximately 40

  5. Responses of water environment to tidal flat reduction in Xiangshan Bay: Part II locally re-suspended sediment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guan, Weibing; He, Zhiguo; Yao, Yanming; Xia, Yuezhang

    2017-11-01

    Xiangshan Bay is a semi-enclosed bay in China, in which tidal flats have been substantially reclaimed to support the development of local economies and society over previous decades. The loss of tidal flats has led to changes of tides and locally suspended sediment in the bay. The effects of tidal flat reduction on locally suspended sediment dynamics was investigated using a numerical model forced by tidal data and calibrated by observed tidal elevation and currents. The model satisfactorily reproduces observed water levels, currents, and suspended sediment concentration in the estuary, and therefore is subsequently applied to analyze the impact of tidal flat reclamation on locally suspended sediment transport. After the loss of the tidal flats from 1963 to 2010, the suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) at the bottom boundary layer were reduced/increased in the outer bay/tidal flat areas due to weakened tidal currents. In the inner bay, the SSC values near the bottom level increased from 1963 to 2003 due to the narrowed bathymetry, and then decreased from 2003 to 2010 because of the reduced tidal prism. The model scenarios suggest that: (1) a reduction of tidal flat areas appears to be the main factor for enhancing the transport of sediments up-estuary, due to the increased Eulerian velocity and tidal pumping; (2) A reduction of tidal flat areas impacts on spatial and temporal SSC distribution: reducing the SSC values in the water areas due to the reduced current; and (3) a tidal flat reduction influences the net sediment fluxes: lessening the erosion and inducing higher/lower landward/seaward sediment transportation.

  6. Vertical gradients for particulate Cu fractions in estuarine water over tidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hummel, H.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The speciation of particulate copper was determined at several depths (0, 5 and 15 cm above the sediment surface) in the water column above intertidal flat systems in the polluted estuary Westerschelde (WS) and the relatively un-polluted Oosterschelde sea-arm (OS), in order to assess differences in

  7. Particulate fingerprinting of water quality in the distribution system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particles in the distribution system play an important role in the perception? Not clear what is meant) of drinking water quality, particularly in association with discolouration. In The Netherlands the water quality in the distribution system is traditionally monitored by turbidity measurements. However, turbidity is hard to quantify ...

  8. Seasonal and interannual variabilities of coccolithophore blooms in the Bay of Biscay and the Celtic Sea observed from a 18-year time-series of non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Laurie; Gohin, Francis; Ruiz-Pino, Diana; Lampert, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophores belong to the nano-phytoplankton size-class and produce CaCO3 scales called coccoliths which form the «shell» of the algae cell. Coccoliths are in the size range of a few μm and can also be detached from the cell in the water. This phytoplankton group has an ubiquitous distribution in all oceans but blooms only in some oceanic regions, like the North East Atlantic ocean and the South Western Atlantic (Patagonian Sea). At a global scale coccolithopore blooms are studied in regard of CaCO3 production and three potential feedback on climate change: albedo modification by the way of dimethylsulfide (DMS) production and atmospheric CO2 source by calcification and a CO2 pump by photosynthesis. As the oceans are more and more acidified by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, coccolithophores generally are expected to be negatively affected. However, recent studies have shown an increase in coccolithophore occurrence in the North Atlantic. A poleward expansion of the coccolithophore Emiliana Huxleyi has also been pointed out. By using a simplified fuzzy method applied to a 18-year time series of SeaWiFS (1998-2002) and MODIS (2003-2015) spectral reflectance, we assessed the seasonal and inter-annual variability of coccolithophore blooms in the vicinity of the shelf break in the Bay of Biscay and the Celtic Sea After identification of the coccolith pixels by applying the fuzzy method, the abundance of coccoliths is assessed from a database of non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). Although a regular pattern in the phenology of the blooms is observed, starting south in April in Biscay and moving northwards until July in Ireland, there is a high seasonal and interannual variability in the extent of the blooms. Year 2014 shows very low concentrations of detached coccoliths (twice less than average) from space and anomalies point out the maximum level in 2001. Non-algal SPM, derived from a procedure defined for the continental shelf, appears to be well

  9. Effect of particle size and composition of suspended sediment on denitrification in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhimei; Liu, Ting; Xia, Xinghui, E-mail: xiaxh@bnu.edu.cn; Xia, Na

    2016-01-15

    Rivers with high suspended sediment (SPS) concentration are common worldwide, and previous studies reported the occurrence of denitrification on SPS. In this work, effect of particle size and composition of SPS on denitrification in river water was studied in laboratory. The {sup 15}N isotope tracer technique was used to investigate the denitrification in water containing 8 g L{sup −1} SPS with different particle sizes, including < 20 μm, 20–50 μm, 50–100 μm, and 100–200 μm. The results showed that the denitrification rate was negatively related to particle size, and the SPS with particle size below 20 μm had the highest {sup 15}N{sub 2} emission rate of 0.27 mg-N/m{sup 3}·d, which was twice that of 100–200 μm. The denitrifying bacteria population in the system decreased with the increase of particle size, which was positively correlated with denitrification rate (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between organic carbon content of SPS and denitrifying bacteria population (p < 0.01), indicating that organic carbon is a key factor influencing denitrifying bacteria. Different from the {sup 15}N{sub 2} production, {sup 15}N{sub 2}O emission rate reached the highest of 1.02 μg-N/m{sup 3}·d in the system containing SPS of 20–50 μm, which was 14.8 times that of 100–200 μm. This was due to the difference in denitrifying bacteria species in different systems due to different oxic/anoxic conditions around SPS. This study suggests that not only the SPS concentration but also the SPS size and composition should be considered in studying the nitrogen cycle in river systems, especially for the production of N{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • Denitrification rate was negatively related to particle size of SPS. • Denitrification in the < 20 μm SPS had the highest N{sub 2} emission rate of 0.27 mg-N/m{sup 3} d. • {sup 15}N{sub 2}O production in the system with SPS of 20–50 μm was 14.8 times that of 100–200 μm. • The denitrifying bacteria

  10. Development of Directly Suspended Droplet Micro Extraction Method for Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kamal Rajabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient directly suspended droplet micro extraction in conjunction with gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD has been developed for extraction and determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from water samples. In this technique a micro drop of 1-dodecanol is delivered to the surface of an aqueous sample while being agitated by a stirring bar in the bulk of solution. Factors relevant to the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. The optimized extraction conditions were extraction solvent: 1-dodecanol; extraction temperature: 60◦C; NaCl concentration: 0.5M; solvent extraction volume: 10 µL; stirring rate: 800rpm and the extraction time: 20 min. The detection limits of the method were in the range of 0.066–1.85 ngL−1, relation standard deviation (n=5 range were 0.102 - 0.964. A good linearity (r 2 ≥0.995 and a relatively broad dynamic linear range (25–2600ng.L−1 were obtained and recoveries of method were in the range of 90.729% - 102.343%. Finally, the proposedmethod was successfully utilized for pre concentration and determination of OCPs in different real samples.We successfully developed a method based on the DSDME technique combined with capillary GC-ECD for the analysis of OCPs in the water samples and compared with the conventional sample preparation method such as LPME. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  11. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  13. Molecular Distribution of Particulate Carbohydrates In Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, C.; Lafont, R.; Sempéré, R.

    Particulate samples were collected by using floating sediment traps (50-300 m) and in situ pumps (30 and 200 m) collected in the southern Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. They were studied for monosaccharide composition after acid hydrolysis (HCl 0.09 M, 20 h, 100 °C) by using High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography followed by Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC- PAD) (1). The initial chemical composition of particles greatly varied between the Subtropical Zone (SZ), the Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and the Agulhas Front Zone (AFZ) with sugars being more abundant in SZ (5-20 % of POC) than in PFZ (5-8 % of POC) and AFZ (4-5 % of POC). Similar contributions were also found for Atlantic Ocean particles (3-5% of POC) whereas in Mediterranean particles total aldoses represented 7-12% of POC. Ribose was the most abundant aldose in PFZ and AFZ in all samples and contributed 20-36 % of total monosaccharides followed by galactose (15-26 %) or glucose (15-16 %) (2). In SZ, glucose was the dominant aldose (38-54 %) followed by galactose (13-21 %) and xylose (9-13%). Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean samples were characterized by a predominance of glucose (23-59 %) followed by galactose (8-35%) and ribose (3-17 %). Total carbohydrate (TCHO) fluxes were in same order of magnitude for all the study areas including Mediterranean Sea (0.12-1.36 mg m-2 d-1), Southern Indian Ocean (0.18- 0.42 mg m-2 d-1) and Atlantic Ocean (0.27-0.37 mg m-2 d-1). Particles collected from AFZ and PFZ were distinguishable in term of mannose and (arabinose+galactose) relative abundances which may suggest different organic matter origine. Experimental studies performed with large particles (fucose+rhamnose increased indicating that deoxysugars are better preserved during organic matter decomposition. (1) Panagiotopoulos, C., Sempéré, R., Lafont, R., Kerhervé, P., 2001. Sub-ambient temperature effects on separation of monosaccharides by HPAEC-PAD. Application to marine chemistry

  14. Spatial patterns and environmental controls of particulate organic carbon in surface waters in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong; Xu, Xingya; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Smith, Richard A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Duan, Shuiwang

    2016-06-01

    Carbon stocks and fluxes in inland waters have been identified as important, but poorly constrained components of the global carbon cycle. In this study, we compile and analyze particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration data from 1145 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic stations to investigate the spatial variability and environmental controls of POC concentration. We observe substantial spatial variability in POC concentration (1.43 ± 2.56 mg C/ L, Mean ± Standard Deviation), with the Upper Mississippi River basin and the Piedmont region in the eastern U.S. having the highest POC concentration. Further, we employ generalized linear regression models to analyze the impacts of sediment transport and algae growth as well as twenty-one other environmental factors on the POC variability. Suspended sediment and chlorophyll-a explain 26% and 17% of the variability in POC concentration, respectively. At the national level, the twenty-one selected environmental factors combined can explain ca. 40% of the spatial variance in POC concentration. Overall, urban area and soil clay content show significant negative correlation with POC concentration, while soil water content and soil bulk density correlate positively with POC. In addition, total phosphorus concentration and dam density covariate positively with POC concentration. Furthermore, regional scale analyses reveal substantial variation in environmental controls determining POC concentration across the 18 major water resource regions in the U.S. The POC concentration and associated environmental controls also vary non-monotonically with river order. These findings indicate complex interactions among multiple factors in regulating POC production over different spatial scales and across various sections of the river networks. This complexity together with the large unexplained uncertainty highlight the need for consideration of non-linear processes that control them and developing appropriate methodologies to

  15. Impact of atmospheric deposition on particulate iron flux and distribution in northwestern Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R.; Remoudaki, Emmanouela; Davies, Joanne E.; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Fowler, Scott W.; Lambert, Claude E.; Bergametti, Gilles; Buat-Ménard, Patrick

    1993-05-01

    Iron distribution can be significantly influenced b the interactions between atmospheric inputs and internal recycling within the water column. This question was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea as part of the French DYFAMED program. Sediment traps were moored at 80, 200 and 1000 m depth at 42°44'N, 8°31'E during 1986-1987 to collect settling particles in which iron was analysed. During the same sampling period, concurrent atmospheric deposition fluxes of iron were measured at Capo Cavallo, Corsica, 20 nautical from our marine sampling site. Some short but intense atmospheric inputs (1.5-2.4 mg m -2 day -1 during 5-20 consecutive days) of mineral matter from Africa are shown to be sufficient to explain the yearly particulate iron flux leaving surface waters at 200 m depth. Zooplanktonic grazing activity, particularly intense from April to June, is mostly responsible for the sedimentation of iron. Faecal pellets control the total iron flux because they incorporate both iron associated with aluminosilicates (refractory particulate iron) and most of iron associated with biological material (biogenic iron).There was anout 3300 ppm of iron in the organic matter collected by the sediment traps at 200 m during summer and fall. At 1000 m depth this concentration was greater by a factor of 2. During the same period, the calculated ratio of refractory particulate iron (Fe REFR) to particulate aluminium for the large particles at 80 and 200 m depth ((Fe REFRA1) TRAP = 0.43), was lower than the Fe/A1 ratio usually measured in the Saharan aerosol (0.5 < Fe/A1 < 0.7). This observation is underscored by the amplitude of the dissolved/particulate exchanges and suggests that most of the iron associated with sinking organic matter is provided by atmospheric input.

  16. Occurrence and behaviour of dissolved, nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron in waste waters and treatment systems: new insights from electrochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, R; Aplin, A C; Horrocks, B R; Mudashiru, L K

    2012-04-01

    Cyclic-, Differential Pulse- and Steady-state Microdisc Voltammetry (CV, DPV, SMV) techniques have been used to quantify the occurrence and fate of dissolved Fe(ii)/Fe(iii), nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron over a 12 month period in a series of net-acidic and net-alkaline coal mine drainages and passive treatment systems. Total iron in the mine waters is typically 10-100 mg L(-1), with values up to 2100 mg L(-1). Between 30 and 80% of the total iron occurs as solid phase, of which 20 to 80% is nano-particulate. Nano-particulate iron comprises 20 to 70% of the nominally "dissolved" (i.e. systems. Oxidation, hydrolysis, precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation occur in all treatment systems and - independent of water chemistry and the type of treatment system - hydroxides and oxyhydroxysulfates are the main iron sinks. The electrochemical data thus reveal the rationale for incomplete iron retention in individual systems and can thus inform future design criteria. The successful application of this low cost and rapid electrochemical method demonstrates its significant potential for real-time, on-site monitoring of iron-enriched waters and may in future substitute traditional analytical methods.

  17. Suspended sediment dynamics in a large-scale turbidity current: Direct measurements from the deep-water Congo Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.; Azpiroz, M.; Cartigny, M.; Clare, M. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Turbidity currents that transport sediment to the deep ocean deposit a greater volume of sediment than any other process on Earth. To date, only a handful of studies have directly measured turbidity currents, with flow durations ranging from a few minutes to a few hours. Our understanding of turbidity current dynamics is therefore largely derived from scaled laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. Recent years have seen the first field-scale measurements of depth-resolved velocity profiles, but sediment concentration (a key parameter for turbidity currents) remains elusive. Here, we present high resolution measurements of deep-water turbidity currents from the Congo Canyon; one of the world's largest submarine canyons. Direct measurements using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) show that flows can last for many days, rather than hours as seen elsewhere, and provide the first quantification of concentration and grain size within deep-water turbidity currents.Velocity and backscatter were measured at 5 second intervals by an ADCP suspended 80 m above the canyon floor, at 2000 m water depth. A novel inversion method using multiple ADCP frequencies enabled quantification of sediment concentration and grain size within the flows. We identify high concentrations of coarse sediment within a thin frontal cell, which outruns a thicker, trailing body. Thus, the flows grow in length while propagating down-canyon. This is distinct from classical models and other field-scale measurements of turbidity currents. The slow-moving body is dominated by suspended fine-grained sediment. The body mixes with the surrounding fluid leaving diffuse clouds of sediment that persist for days after initial entrainment. Ambient tidal flow also controls the mixing within the body and the surrounding fluid. Our results provide a new quantification of suspended sediment within flows and the interaction with the surrounding fluid.

  18. Developing a semi-analytical algorithm to estimate particulate organic carbon (POC) levels in inland eutrophic turbid water based on MERIS images: A case study of Lake Taihu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Wang, Yannan; Jin, Qi; Shi, Lei; Li, Yunmei; Wang, Qiao

    2017-10-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water due to its biological pump process. In the open ocean, algorithms can accurately estimate the surface POC concentration. However, no suitable POC-estimation algorithm based on MERIS bands is available for inland turbid eutrophic water. A total of 228 field samples were collected from Lake Taihu in different seasons between 2013 and 2015. At each site, the optical parameters and water quality were analyzed. Using in situ data, it was found that POC-estimation algorithms developed for the open ocean and coastal waters using remote sensing reflectance were not suitable for inland turbid eutrophic water. The organic suspended matter (OSM) concentration was found to be the best indicator of the POC concentration, and POC has an exponential relationship with the OSM concentration. Through an analysis of the POC concentration and optical parameters, it was found that the absorption peak of total suspended matter (TSM) at 665 nm was the optimum parameter to estimate POC. As a result, MERIS band 7, MERIS band 10 and MERIS band 12 were used to derive the absorption coefficient of TSM at 665 nm, and then, a semi-analytical algorithm was used to estimate the POC concentration for inland turbid eutrophic water. An accuracy assessment showed that the developed semi-analytical algorithm could be successfully applied with a MAPE of 31.82% and RMSE of 2.68 mg/L. The developed algorithm was successfully applied to a MERIS image, and two full-resolution MERIS images, acquired on August 13, 2010, and December 7, 2010, were used to map the POC spatial distribution in Lake Taihu in summer and winter.

  19. Impact of sampling frequency on mean concentrations and estimated loads of suspended sediment in a Norwegian river: implications for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarbøvik, Eva; Stålnacke, Per; Bogen, Jim; Bønsnes, Truls E

    2012-09-01

    Reliable estimates of mean concentrations and loads of pollutants in rivers have become increasingly important for management purposes, particularly with the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). Here, the Numedalslågen River (5500 km(2)) in southern Norway was used as a case study to evaluate the effects of sampling frequency on mean concentrations and estimated loads of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Daily monitoring data from five seasons (April/June-October/November 2001-2005) were analyzed, and three different load estimation techniques were tested: rating curves, linear interpolation, and the ratio method. The reliability of mean SPM concentrations improved with increasing sampling frequency, but even weekly sampling gave error rates as high as 70% in seasons with elevated sediment loads. Load estimates varied considerably depending on both the sampling frequency and the calculation method used. None of the methods provided consistently good results, but the lowest error rate was achieved when using the rating curve on data from fortnightly sampling and additional sampling during floods. Sampling at monthly intervals gave the highest error rates and cannot be recommended for any of the calculation methods applied here. SPM concentrations were correlated (r(2)>0.5) with arsenic, lead, nickel, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus in the Numedalslågen River. Therefore, the current findings may also have implications for substances other than SPM. The discussion considers examples from actual use of infrequently collected data, and it is advised that managers account for uncertainties in both concentration means and load estimates when assessing the state of a water body or planning mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated...

  1. High temporal resolution mapping of total suspended matter in Belgian coastal waters with SEVIRI data: a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    G. Neukermans; Ruddick, K.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the potential of The Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) of the ‘Meteosat Second Generation’ (MSG) geostationary satellite system for suspended matter mapping in Belgian Coastal Waters. The SEVIRI radiometer has 12 spectral channels with a spatial resolution of 3km in all channels except the High Resolution Visual (HRV) channel, where the resolution is 1km. Data is available in near real time every 15 minutes. A test data set was obtained from...

  2. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water; Composicion quimica, forma y tamano de solidos suspendidos en la atmosfera acarreados por el agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  3. Magnesium, Iron and Aluminum in LLNL Air Particulate and Rain Samples with Reference to Magnesium in Industrial Storm Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, Craig [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Storm water runoff from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) main site and Site 300 periodically exceeds the Discharge Permit Numeric Action Level (NAL) for Magnesium (Mg) under the Industrial General Permit (IGP) Order No. 2014-0057-DWQ. Of particular interest is the source of magnesium in storm water runoff from the site. This special study compares new metals data from air particulate and precipitation samples from the LLNL main site and Site 300 to previous metals data for storm water from the main site and Site 300 and alluvial sediment from the main site to investigate the potential source of elevated Mg in storm water runoff. Data for three metals (Mg, Iron {Fe}, and Aluminum {Al}) were available from all media; data for additional metals, such as Europium (Eu), were available from rain, air particulates, and alluvial sediment. To attribute source, this study compared metals concentration data (for Mg, Al, and Fe) in storm water and rain; metal-metal correlations (Mg with Fe, Mg with Al, Al with Fe, Mg with Eu, Eu with Fe, and Eu with Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates, and sediments; and metal-metal ratios ((Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Al/Fe, Mg/Eu, Eu/Fe, and Eu/Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates and sediments. The results presented in this study are consistent with a simple conceptual model where the source of Mg in storm water runoff is air particulate matter that has dry-deposited on impervious surfaces and subsequently entrained in runoff during precipitation events. Such a conceptual model is consistent with 1) higher concentrations of metals in storm water runoff than in precipitation, 2) the strong correlation of Mg with Aluminum (Al) and Iron (Fe) in both storm water and air particulates, and 3) the similarity in metal mass ratios between storm water and air particulates in contrast to the dissimilarity of metal mass ratios between storm water and precipitation or alluvial sediment. The strong correlation of Mg with Fe and Al

  4. Pharmaceuticals in settleable particulate material in urban and non-urban waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Marja; Oikari, Aimo

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are important sources of settleable particulate material (SPM), heading to sediments with natural suspended solids. To date, there is little information about the fate of pharmaceuticals in sediment systems. In this study, the objective was to determine if pharmaceuticals are detected in SPM at locations near WWTPs or even in rural areas, thus being susceptible for sedimentation. SPM samples were collected from 10 sites in Finland, grouped as reference, rural and wastewater effluent sites. SPM collectors were placed about 35 cm above bottom for about 2 months during summer. After extraction, a set of 17 pharmaceuticals was analyzed. Several pharmaceuticals were detected in SPM accumulated at sites next to WWTPs. The concentration of citalopram was notably high (300-1350 ng g⁻¹ dw). Also bisoprolol and ciprofloxacin were detected at high concentrations (6-325 and 9-390 ng g⁻¹ dw, respectively). In contrast, none of the pharmaceuticals were detected from reference sites and only two were found from a single rural site. There is no previous information about the presence of pharmaceuticals in SPM. The results showed that pharmaceuticals are sorbed to particles in WWTP and nearby, eventually ending up in sediments. These results also indicate that pharmaceuticals are not markedly contaminating sediments of rural areas in Finland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Appropriate maximum holding times for analysis of total suspended solids concentration in water samples taken from open-channel waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudyn, Frederik W; Lyons, David J; Pringle, M J

    2012-01-01

    Many scientific laboratories follow, as standard practice, a relatively short maximum holding time (within 7 days) for the analysis of total suspended solids (TSS) in environmental water samples. In this study we have subsampled from bulk water samples stored at ∼4 °C in the dark, then analysed for TSS at time intervals up to 105 days after collection. The nonsignificant differences in TSS results observed over time demonstrates that storage at ∼4 °C in the dark is an effective method of preserving samples for TSS analysis, far past the 7-day standard practice. Extending the maximum holding time will ease the pressure on sample collectors and laboratory staff who until now have had to determine TSS within an impractically short period.

  6. Effects of dispersed particulates on the rheology of water ice at planetary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, William B.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Stern, Laura A.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the initial grain size and the hard particulate impurities on the transient and the steady state flows of water ice I were investigated under laboratory conditions selected as appropriate for simulating those of the surfaces and interiors of large moons. The samples were molded with particulate volume fraction, phi, of 0.001 to 0.56 and particle sizes of 1 to 150 microns; deformation experiments were conducted at constant shortening rates of 4.4 x 10 exp -7 to 4.9 x 10 exp -4 per sec at pressures of 50 and 100 MPa and temperatures 77 to 223 K. The results obtained suggest that viscous drag occurs in the ice as it flows around hard particulates. Mixed-phase ice was found to be tougher than pure ice, extending the range of bulk plastic deformation vs. faulting to lower temperatures and higher strain rates. It is suggested that bulk planetary compositions of ice + rock (phi = 0.4-0.5) are roughly 2 orders of magnitude more viscous than pure ice, leading to thermal instability inside giant icy moons and possibly explaining the retention of crater topography on icy planetary surfaces.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Fecal Coliform and Associated with Suspended Solids and Water within Five Northern California Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Pereira, Maria das Graças C; Bond, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Fecal coliform and associated with suspended solids (SS) and water in five northern California estuaries were studied to document process influences and water quality monitoring biases affecting indicator bacteria concentrations. We collected and analyzed 2371 samples during 10 sampling events for the five studied estuaries. Concentrations during wet-season stormflow conditions were greater than during wet-season base flow and dry-season base flow conditions. Results also document concentration gradients across the length of the studied estuaries and with depth of sample collection. Highest concentrations were associated with shallow samples collected furthest inland. Corresponding decreases occurred the deeper and closer to the estuary mouth a sample was collected. Results also identify direct relationships of wind speed and discharge velocity and indirect relationship of tide stage to indicator bacteria concentrations. Bacteria associated with suspended solids (SS), after conversion to the same units of measurement (mass), were three orders of magnitude greater than in the water fraction. However, the mean proportion contributed by SS to composite water sample concentrations was 8% (SE 0.3) for fecal coliform and 7% (SE 0.3) for . Bacteria from the SS proportion is related to seasonality, tide stage, and discharge velocity that are consistent with mechanisms for entrainment, transport of SS, and reduced particle settling. These results are important for both managing and monitoring these systems by improving sample spatial and temporal context and corresponding bacteria concentration values across the freshwater-saltwater interface. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Use of an oxidative destruction and quadrupole mass spectrometric (QMS) detection for the determination of the organic elemental composition of suspended matter in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, H.F.R.; Onderdelinden, D.; Visser, M.G.; Griepink, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the applicability of a system consisting of a combustion followed by QMS-detection for the determination of the elemental composition of organic matter suspended in surface water. The solid material obtained from several types of water was collected by centrifugation. The results

  9. Changes in toxicity and Ah receptor agonist activity of suspended particulate matter during flood events at the rivers Neckar and Rhine - a mass balance approach using in vitro methods and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölz, Jan; Engwall, Magnus; Maletz, Sibylle; Olsman Takner, Helena; van Bavel, Bert; Kammann, Ulrike; Klempt, Martin; Weber, Roland; Braunbeck, Thomas; Hollert, Henner

    2008-10-01

    As a consequence of flood events, runoff and remobilized sediments may cause an increase of ecotoxicologically relevant effects from contaminant reservoirs. Aquatic and terrestrial organisms as well as cattle and areas of settlement are exposed to dislocated contaminants during and after flood events. In this study, the impacts of two flood events triggered by intense rain at the rivers Neckar and Rhine (Southern Germany) were studied. Effects in correlation to flood flow were assessed at the river Neckar using samples collected at frequent intervals. River Rhine suspended particulate matter (SPM) was sampled over a longer period at normal flow and during a flood event. Three cell lines (H4L1.1c4, GPC.2D.Luc, RTL-W1) were used to compare Ah receptor agonist activity in different biotest systems. Multilayer fractionation was performed to identify causative compounds, focusing on persistent organic contaminants. Native water and SPM of flood events were collected at the river Neckar and at the monitoring station (Rheinguetestation, Worms, Germany) of the river Rhine. Water samples were XAD-extracted. SPM were freeze-dried and Soxhlet-extracted using acetone and finally dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Resulting crude extracts were analyzed for cytotoxicity with the neutral red assay. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity was measured in a set of biological test systems (DR-CALUX, GPC.2D, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay) and different cell lines. In addition, crude extracts were fractionated using a combined method of multilayer (sequence of acidified silica layers) and carbon fractionation. Fractions from the multilayer fractionation contained persistent organic compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)); fractions from the carbon fractionation were separated into a PCDD/F and a PCB fraction. Dioxin-like activity of multilayer and

  10. Particulate organic matter in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa and its relationship with phytoplankton production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Qasim, S.Z.

    In the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa, particulate organic carbon (POC) varied from 0.52 to 2.51 mg l-1 and from 0.28 to 5.24 mg l-1 and particulate phosphorus (PP) varied from 0.71 to 5.18 mu g l-1 and from 0.78 to 20.34 mu g l-1, respectively...

  11. An inversion of the estuarine circulation by sluice water discharge and its impact on suspended sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirstin; Gerkema, Theo

    2018-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is characterized by a complex topography of branching channels and intertidal flats, in which the interplay between fresh water discharges, wind forcing and the tidal current causes sediment transport rates and direction to be highly variable in space and time. During three field campaigns, indications of a negative estuarine circulation have been found in a channel adjacent to the coast in the Western Dutch Wadden Sea. Contrary to the classical picture of estuarine circulation, a periodic density stratification was observed that builds up during flood and breaks down during ebb. This can be related to a large freshwater source at the mouth of the channel, the sluice in Kornwerderzand. In this study, observations of this phenomenon are presented, and with the help of a numerical model the different drivers for residual suspended matter transport in this area, namely tidal asymmetries in the current velocity and the above mentioned periodic stratification, are investigated. It is found that the residual current in the area of interest points in ebb direction, caused by both the elongated ebb flow phase and the periodic stratification. On the contrary, the stronger flood currents cause a transport of suspended matter in flood direction. This transport is counteracted and therefore diminished by the effects of the sluice discharge.

  12. On the origin and variability of suspended particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kizas, Christos; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean (EM) lies at the crossroad of three different continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa). EM is a densely populated region including several cities with 3M inhabitants or more (e.g. Athens, Istanbul, Izmir, and Cairo). It has been identified as the most polluted area in Europe with respect to particulate matter (PM) mainly due to the combination of high photochemical activity, which causes pollutants to oxidize and partitioning in the particle phase, with the elevated pollutants emissions from neighboring regions. In addition, the proximity to Africa and the Middle East allows frequent transport of dust particles. At the center of the Eastern Mediterranean lies the island of Cyprus, which has received very little attention regarding its PM levels despite being the location in Europe most frequently impacted by air masses from the Middle East. Herewith, we present a historical PM archive that spans 2 decades. It involves ongoing monitoring on a daily basis of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 μm (PM10), 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and 1 μm (PM1) conducted in at least one, of the 12 currently existing air quality stations in Cyprus since 1997, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The most extended PM datasets correspond a) to the Agia Marina Xyliatou (AMX) monitoring station established at a remote area at the foothills of mount Troodos and b) that of the inland capital, Nicosia. Based on this long-term dataset, the diurnal, temporal and annual variability is assessed. Prior to 2010, PM10 concentration at all sites remained relatively constant, but at different levels, violating the annual EU legislated PM10 limit of 40 μg m-3. Since 2010, coarse mode levels have decreased at all sites. The reported decrease was equal to 30% at AMX. As a result, since 2010 the observed levels comply with the EU legislation threshold. Satellite observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA

  13. Particulate-free porous silicon networks for efficient capacitive deionization water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metke, Thomas; Westover, Andrew S.; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Douglas, Anna; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficient water desalination processes employing low-cost and earth-abundant materials is a critical step to sustainably manage future human needs for clean water resources. Here we demonstrate that porous silicon – a material harnessing earth abundance, cost, and environmental/biological compatibility is a candidate material for water desalination. With appropriate surface passivation of the porous silicon material to prevent surface corrosion in aqueous environments, we show that porous silicon templates can enable salt removal in capacitive deionization (CDI) ranging from 0.36% by mass at the onset from fresh to brackish water (10 mM, or 0.06% salinity) to 0.52% in ocean water salt concentrations (500 mM, or ~0.3% salinity). This is on par with reports of most carbon nanomaterial based CDI systems based on particulate electrodes and covers the full salinity range required of a CDI system with a total ocean-to-fresh water required energy input of ~1.45 Wh/L. The use of porous silicon for CDI enables new routes to directly couple water desalination technology with microfluidic systems and photovoltaics that natively use silicon materials, while mitigating adverse effects of water contamination occurring from nanoparticulate-based CDI electrodes. PMID:27101809

  14. Simple statistical formulas for estimating biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea potentially useful for optical remote sensing applications* Financial support for this research was provided by Statutory Research Programme No. I.1 at the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, by research grant No. N N306 2838 33 awarded to Sławomir B. Woźniak by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, and by the ‘SatBałtyk’ project funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled ‘The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir B. Woźniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple statistical formulas for estimating various biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea are presented in this paper. These include formulas for estimating mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM, particulate organic matter (POM, particulate organic carbon (POC and total chlorophyll a (Chl a. Two different approaches have been adopted. The first approach was to use the available empirical material (the results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of discrete water samples and find statistical formulas for estimating the biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter from those of inherent optical properties (IOPs, which are potentially retrievable from remote sensing measurements. The second approach was to find formulas that would enable biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter to be estimated directly from spectral values of the remote-sensing reflectance Rrs. The latter was based on statistical analyses of a synthetic data set of Rrs obtained from numerical simulations of radiative transfer for which the available empirical material on seawater IOPs and biogeochemistry served as input data. Among the empirical formulas based on seawater IOPs that could be used as a step in two-stage remote sensing algorithms (the other step is estimating certain IOPs from reflectance, the best error statistics are found for estimates of SPM and POM from the particulate backscattering coefficient bbp in the blue region of light wavelengths (443 nm, and for estimates of POC and Chl a from the coefficient of light absorption by the sum of all non-water (i.e. suspended and dissolved constituents of seawater an, in the blue (443 nm and green (555 nm parts of the spectrum respectively. For the semi-empirical formulas under consideration, which could serve as starting points in the development of local onestage (direct remote sensing algorithms, the best error

  15. A teacher as researcher study of high school chemistry student ideas about the particulate nature of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Robert Fredrick

    The objective of this study was to advance the pedagogical content knowledge base for teaching high school chemistry by conducting qualitative research on students' scientific understanding of water prior to, during, and after formal instruction on the particulate nature of matter. The study was conducted within a constructivist theoretical framework, with an emphasis on John Dewey's pragmatic social constructivism. The teacher-as-researcher conducted three sets of clinical interviews based on three related contexts: representation of water in the liquid state, interaction of water with a solute, and water vaporizing and condensing. Interviews and class work were analyzed to determine the extent to which students used the particulate nature of matter to reorganize their understanding of water. Findings present student responses in terms of four different aspects of the particulate model, where students frequently emphasized certain aspects of the model to the exclusion of others. These aspects were identified as "Simple Particles," "Mechanical Kinetic," "Differential Chemical", and "Electrostatic Interactive." Students exhibited significant difficulty in extending micro-mechanical aspects of the model into an electrostatic-interactive understanding of water. Applications of the particulate model were often highly context dependent. Students showed a variety of unique, alternative interpretations of the particulate nature of water that were supported by rich qualitative interview responses. Student difficulties understanding the particulate nature of water were attributed to alternative conceptions prior to instruction as well as the content and sequencing of the traditional biology-chemistry-physics science curriculum. The study recommends changes in curriculum sequencing, improved instruction in the nature of science and scientific models, and the need for introducing students to ideas in physics, especially electrostatics, prior to the study of introductory

  16. Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    The temporal, spatial and depth related variation of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bay of Bengal are assessed in this paper. For this purpose, suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected from eight depths (2 to 1000...

  17. Water-quality assessment of the eastern Iowa basins- nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and organic carbon in surface water, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Kent D.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Miller, Von E.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve sites on streams and rivers in the Eastern Iowa Basins study unit were sampled monthly and during selected storm events from March 1996 through September 1998 to assess the occurrence, distribution, and transport of nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and organic carbon as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. One site was dropped from monthly sampling after 1996. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus were detected in every water sample collected. Nitrate accounted for 92 percent of the total dissolved nitrogen. About 22 percent of the samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen for drinking-water regulations. The median concentration of total dissolved nitrogen for surface water in the study unit was 7.2 milligrams per liter. The median total phosphorus concentration for the study unit was 0.22 milligram per liter. About 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended total phosphorus concentration of 0.10 milligram per liter or less to minimize algal growth. Median suspended sediment and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations for the study unit were 82 and 3.5 milligrams per liter, respectively.

  18. Effects of cold water injection on injectivity impairment due to suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Fonseca, Diogo R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil); Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to interpret pressure injection data following cold-water injection into a hot-oil reservoir. The injected water contains solid and liquid particles causing permeability decline. The relative permeability characteristics of the porous medium are accounted for, as is the temperature dependence of the fluid mobilities. It is shown that the temperature difference between injected and formation waters and the water-oil mobility variation have significant effects on the pressure data during the impairment of rock by particles from the injected suspension. The matching of field data to type curves generated from analytical solutions provides estimates of the formation damage parameters - filtration and formation damage coefficients, critical porosity ratio and cake permeability. The effect of injected water temperature on well injectivity decline is particularly sounded for cold water injection into heavy oil reservoirs. (author)

  19. Degradation of sterols and terrigenous organic matter in waters of the Mackenzie Shelf, Canadian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rontani, J.; Charriere, B; Sempere, R; Doxaran, D; Vaultier, F; Vonk, Jorien; Volkman, John

    2014-01-01

    Sterols and their biotic and abiotic degradation products were quantified in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from surface waters in the Mackenzie River mouth to the Beaufort Sea shelf (Canadian Arctic). 24-Ethylcholesterol (sitosterol) and 24-methylcholesterol (campesterol) appeared to be

  20. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Palak; Kunte, Pravin D.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents an easy, modular, user-friendly, and flexible software package for processing of Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS data for estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations in the coastal waters. This package includes 1) algorithm developed using freely downloadable SCILAB package, 2) ERDAS Models for iterative processing of Landsat images and 3) ArcMAP tool for plotting and map making. Utilizing SCILAB package, a module is written for geometric corrections, radiometric corrections and obtaining normalized water-leaving reflectance by incorporating Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Using ERDAS models, a sequence of modules are developed for iterative processing of Landsat images and estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations. Processed images are used for preparing suspended sediment concentration maps. The applicability of this software package is demonstrated by estimating and plotting seasonal suspended sediment concentration maps off the Bengal delta. The software is flexible enough to accommodate other remotely sensed data like Ocean Color monitor (OCM) data, Indian Remote Sensing data (IRS), MODIS data etc. by replacing a few parameters in the algorithm, for estimating suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters.

  1. Sunlight-promoted photocatalytic hydrogen gas evolution from water-suspended cellulose: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Dondi, Daniele; Annovazzi, Enrico; Maraschi, Federica; Caratto, Valentina; Profumo, Antonella; Buttafava, Armando

    2014-10-01

    This work presents a systematic study of cellulose (CLS) as a sacrificial biomass for photocatalytic H2 evolution from water. The idea is indeed to couple a largely available and not expensive biomass, and water, with a renewable energy like solar radiation. An aqueous CLS suspension irradiated either at 366 nm (UV-A) or under sunlight in the presence of Pt/TiO2 behaves as a H2 evolving system. The effects of irradiation time, catalyst and CLS concentrations, pH and water salinity are studied. Addition of CLS to the sample significantly improved H2 evolution from water splitting, with yields up to ten fold higher than those observed in neat water. The mechanism of the photocatalytic process relies on the TiO2-mediated CLS hydrolysis, under irradiation. The polysaccharide depolymerisation generates water-soluble species and intermediates, among them 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was identified. These intermediates are readily oxidized following the glucose photoreforming, thus enhancing water hydrogen ion reduction to give gas-phase H2. The formation of "colored" by-products from HMF self-polymerization involves a sort of "in situ dye sensitization" that allows an effective photoreaction even under solar light. The procedure is evaluated and successfully extended on cellulosic biomasses, i.e. rice husk and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) stems, not previously investigated for this application.

  2. Hydrocarbons in water and suspended matter in the frontal area of the Volga River mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available On the ground of data obtained in 1998 – 2007, it was demonstrated that the geochemical barrier of the Volga delta – the shallow water of the North Caspian - serves as a filter preventing natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons from entering into the high sea with the river runoff. This circumstance explains a relevantly low level of the north Caspian offshore pollution and increased toxicity of desalinated water of the North Caspian in comparison to marine water.

  3. Suspended shellfish culture impacts on the benthic layer: a case study in Brazilian subtropical waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Moraes Rudorff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess benthic impacts of suspended shellfish cultures in two marine farms located in South Bay, Florianópolis (SC, Brazil. The goal was to detect changes in the benthic layer and evaluate the influence of local conditions, such as hydrodynamics and geomorphology, on the degree of impact at each site. The method included analysis of three groups of oceanographic descriptors: hydrodynamic; morpho-sedimentological (bathymetry, grain size and organic content, and ecological (foraminiferal fauna. Data sets were analyzed using geostatistical and multivariate techniques. Ecological descriptors seemed to be more effective under different environmental conditions than sedimentological variables. Those that best identified culture-related biodeposits, were: dominance of Ammonia tepida; test size; and living: total population ratio. Only slight differences were observed within and outside the culture structures. However, a greater alteration was observed at the site with weaker hydrodynamics and located in shallower depths. The conclusion is that biodeposition at studied still causes little alteration in the local benthic environment. However, local factors such as hydrodynamics and geomorphology were shown to be important in minimizing these impacts. These are criteria that should be considered in site selection programs for the development of this productive activity.O presente trabalho investigou os impactos de cultivos suspensos de moluscos sobre a camada bêntica em duas fazendas marinhas na Baía Sul, Florianópolis (SC, Brasil. O objetivo foi detectar mudanças no ambiente de fundo e avaliar a influência de condições locais, como a hidrodinâmica e geomorfologia, no grau de impacto em cada sítio. O método empregado compreendeu análises de três grupos de descritores oceanográficos: hidrodinâmicos, morfossedimentológicos (batimetria, granulometria e constituintes orgânicos e ecológicos (fauna foraminífera. Os dados

  4. Suspended redistribution: ‘green economy’ and water inequality in the Waterberg, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Marcatelli (Michela)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this article I show how ideas and practices of ‘green economy’ can reproduce and even naturalise inequality in water access for local users. Evidence to support my argument is drawn from the Waterberg region in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Following the demise of apartheid

  5. In-situ suspended aggregate microextraction of gold nanoparticles from water samples and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, Tatiana G; Kappi, Foteini A; Tsogas, George Z; Vlessidis, Athanasios G; Giokas, Dimosthenis L

    2016-05-01

    This work describes a new method for the extraction and determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental samples by means of in-situ suspended aggregate microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The method relies on the in-situ formation of a supramolecular aggregate phase through ion-association between a cationic surfactant and a benzene sulfonic acid derivative. Gold nanoparticles are physically entrapped into the aggregate phase which is separated from the bulk aqueous solution by vacuum filtration on the surface of a cellulose filter in the form of a thin film. The film is removed from the filter surface and is dissociated into an acidified methanolic solution which is used for analysis. Under the optimized experimental conditions, gold nanoparticles can be efficiently extracted from water samples with recovery rates between 81.0-93.3%, precision 5.4-12.0% and detection limits as low as 75femtomolL(-1) using only 20mL of sample volume. The satisfactory analytical features of the method along with the simplicity indicate the efficiency of this new approach to adequately collect and extract gold nanoparticle species from water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photochemistry of excited-state species in natural waters: a role for particulate organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Barbara A; Timko, Stephen A; Devera, Lianne; Robinson, Alice K; Gonsior, Michael; Vizenor, Ashley E; Simpson, André J; Cooper, William J

    2013-09-15

    Laser flash photolysis (LFP) was used to characterize a triplet excited state species isolated from Black River and San Joaquin wetlands particulate organic matter (POM). The solubilized organic matter, isolated from POM by pH-independent diffusion in distilled water, was named PdOM. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), and (1)H NMR were used to characterize the PdOM. While LFP of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is known to generate the solvated electron, LFP of the PdOM transient in argon-, air-, and nitrous oxide-saturated solutions indicated that this was a triplet excited state species ((3)PdOM*). The lifetime and the reactivity of (3)PdOM* with sorbic acid, a triplet state quencher, were compared with that of the triplet excited state of benzophenone, a DOM proxy. A second excited state species (designated DOM*), with a longer lifetime, was reported in a number of previous studies but not characterized. The lifetime of DOM*, measured for seventeen organic matter isolates, lignin, tannic acid, and three wetlands plant extracts, was shown to differentiate allochthonous from autochthonous DOM. (3)POM* and DOM* were also observed in lake water and a constructed wetlands' water. Aqueous extracts of fresh and aged plant material from the same wetland were shown to be one source of these excited state species. This study provides evidence of a role for POM in the photochemistry of natural and constructed wetland waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Soluble and Particulate Lead Release into Drinking Water from Full and Partially Replaced Lead Service Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-03-21

    Partial replacement of lead service lines (LSLs) often results in the excessive long-term release of lead particulates due to the disturbance of pipe scale and galvanic corrosion. In this study, a modeling approach to simulate the release and transport of particulate and dissolved lead from full and partially replaced LSLs is developed. A mass-transfer model is coupled with a stochastic residential water demand generator to investigate the effect of normal household usage flow patterns on lead exposure. The model is calibrated by comparing simulation results against experimental measurements from pilot-scale setups where lead release under different flow rates and water chemistry scenarios was reported. Applying the model within a Monte Carlo simulation framework, partial replacement of the LSL was predicted to result in releasing spikes with significantly high concentrations of particulate lead (1011.9 ± 290.3 μg/L) that were five times higher than those released from the simulated full LSL. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the intensity of flow demands significantly affects particulate lead release, while dissolved lead levels are more dependent on the lengths of the stagnation periods. Preflushing of the LSL prior to regulatory sampling was found to underestimate the maximum monthly exposure to dissolved lead by 19%, while sampling at low flow rates (<5.2 LPM) was found to consistently suppress the high spikes induced by particulate lead mobilization.

  8. Computational investigations of streamers in a single bubble suspended in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water at the atmospheric pressure conditions. The model is based on the self-consistent, multispecies and the continuum description of plasma and takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for a more accurate description of the kinetics of the discharge. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are completely different at low and high over voltages. We observe that the polarity of the trigger voltage has a substantial effect on initiation, transition and evolution stages of streamers with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages due to the presence of multiple streamers. We also find that the presence of water vapor significantly influences the distribution of the dominant species in the streamer trail and has a profound effect on the flux of the dominant species to the bubble wall. The research reported in this publication was supported by Competitive Research Funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).

  9. Computational Studies of Positive and Negative Streamers in Bubbles Suspended in Distilled Water

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2017-01-05

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under high pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the chemical kinetics of the discharge. We apply positive and negative trigger voltages much higher than the breakdown voltage and study the dynamic characteristics of the resulting discharge. We observe that, for high positive trigger voltages, the streamer moves along the surface of the gas bubble during the initial stages of the discharge. We also find a considerable difference in the evolution of the streamer discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with more uniform volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel for negative trigger voltages due to formation of multiple streamers. We also observe that the presence of water vapor does not influence the breakdown voltage of the discharge but greatly affects the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer channel.

  10. Suspended microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Casavant, Benjamin P.; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jean BERTHIER; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Bischel, Lauren L.; Brakke, Kenneth; Hedman, Curtis J.; Bushman, Wade; Keller, Nancy P.; Beebe, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited. Open microfluidic systems have the potential to lower the barriers to adoption, but the absence of robust design rules has hindered their use. Here, we present an open microfluidic platform, suspended microfluidics, that uses surface tension to fill and maintain a fluid in microscale...

  11. How Much Water and Suspended Sediment Does a Large Tropical Island Shed During a Major Hurricane? Hydrologic and Geomorphologic Effects of Hurricane Georges, September 1998, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M.; Warne, A. G.

    2005-05-01

    On September 21-22 1998, Hurricane Georges, a category-3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, produced heavy rainfall, flooding, and landslides in the mountains and coastal plains of Puerto Rico. In general, rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield vary across the 8,711 square kilometer island of Puerto Rico because of an orographic barrier, the Cordillera Central. Mean annual runoff for the island is estimated to be 910 mm (equal to 8 billion cubic meters), which is about 57 percent of mean annual precipitation: 1,600 mm (14 billion cubic meters). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico into surrounding coastal waters is estimated at 5.9 (+/- 3.2) million metric tonnes. The largely mountainous watersheds of the island are small (tens to hundreds of square kilometers), channel gradients are steep, and most stream valleys tend to be well-incised and narrow. Major rainstorms are intense but brief. As a consequence, flood waters rise rapidly (minutes to tens of minutes) with peak discharges several orders of magnitude above base discharge, and flood waters recede quickly (hours). Major storms transport a substantial portion of suspended sediment from uplands to the coast, based on data from a set of nine suspended-sediment monitoring stations representative of typical conditions in Puerto Rico. During Hurricane Georges, U. S. Geological Survey and National Weather Service rain-gage networks recorded 2-day rainfalls that ranged from about 100 mm to 630 mm (average was 300 mm, equal to about 2.6 billion cubic meters of water). Many streams rose more than 5 meters, resulting in severe flooding in northern, southwestern, and western watersheds. Landslides dissected roads and isolated communities on both the northern and southern slopes of the Cordillera Central. More than twice the mean annual discharge flowed from some watersheds (approximately 1 billion cubic meters of water for the entire island) carrying with it one to six times the mean annual load of

  12. The interaction of human microbial pathogens, particulate material and nutrients in estuarine environments and their impacts on recreational and shellfish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malham, Shelagh K; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; Howlett, Eleanor; Tuson, Karen E; Perkins, Tracy L; Pallett, Denise W; Wang, Hui; Jago, Colin F; Jones, Davey L; McDonald, James E

    2014-09-20

    Anthropogenic activities have increased the load of faecal bacteria, pathogenic viruses and nutrients in rivers, estuaries and coastal areas through point and diffuse sources such as sewage discharges and agricultural runoff. These areas are used by humans for both commercial and recreational activities and are therefore protected by a range of European Directives. If water quality declines in these zones, significant economic losses can occur. Identifying the sources of pollution, however, is notoriously difficult due to the ephemeral nature of discharges, their diffuse source, and uncertainties associated with transport and transformation of the pollutants through the freshwater-marine interface. Further, significant interaction between nutrients, microorganisms and particulates can occur in the water column making prediction of the fate and potential infectivity of human pathogenic organisms difficult to ascertain. This interaction is most prevalent in estuarine environments due to the formation of flocs (suspended sediment) at the marine-freshwater interface. A range of physical, chemical and biological processes can induce the co-flocculation of microorganisms, organic matter and mineral particles resulting in pathogenic organisms becoming potentially protected from a range of biotic (e.g. predation) and abiotic stresses (e.g. UV, salinity). These flocs contain and retain macro- and micro- nutrients allowing the potential survival, growth and transfer of pathogenic organisms to commercially sensitive areas (e.g. beaches, shellfish harvesting waters). The flocs can either be transported directly to the coastal environment or can become deposited in the estuary forming cohesive sediments where pathogens can survive for long periods. Especially in response to storms, these sediments can be subsequently remobilised releasing pulses of potential pathogenic organisms back into the water column leading to contamination of marine waters long after the initial

  13. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  14. Water-column geochemical anomalies associated with the remnants of a mega plume: A case study after CR-2003 hydrothermal event in Carlsberg Ridge, NW Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, D.; Mirza, I.H.; Prakash, L.S.; Kaisary, S.; Sarma, Y.V.B; Rao, B; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Drolia, R.K.; KameshRaju, K.A.

    signatures do persist between 2500 and 2900 m. Geochemical features like Fe/Mn, Mn/heat ratios, characteristic of event plume, also show major changes. Distribution of dissolved manganese, methane, helium-3 and suspended particulates further down the water...

  15. MHD peristaltic transport of spherical and cylindrical magneto-nanoparticles suspended in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Abbasi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in the biomedical engineering have enhanced the usage of magnto-nanoparticles in improving the precision and efficiency of the magneto-drug delivery systems. Such systems make use of the externally applied magnetic fields to direct the drug towards a specific target in the human body. Peristalsis of magneto-nanofluids is of significant importance in such considerations. Hence peristaltic transport of Fe3O4-water nanofluid through a two-dimensional symmetric channel is analyzed in the presence of an externally applied constant magnetic field. Hamilton-Crosser’s model of the thermal conductivity is utilized in the problem development. The nanofluid saturates a non-uniform porous medium in which the porosity of the porous medium varies with the distance from the channel walls. Analysis is performed for the spherical and the cylindrical nanoparticles. Resulting system of equations is numerically solved. Impacts of sundry parameters on the axial velocity, temperature, pressure gradient and heat transfer rate at the boundary are examined. Comparison between the results for spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles is also presented. Results show that the nanoparticles volume fraction and the Hartman number have increasing effect on the pressure gradient throughout the peristaltic tract. Effective heat transfer rate at the boundary tends to enhance with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction. Use of spherical nanoparticles results in a higher value of axial velocity and the temperature at the center of channel when compared with the case of cylindrical nanoparticles.

  16. Suspended sediment concentration and optical property observations of mixed-turbidity, coastal waters through multispectral ocean color inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multispectral satellite ocean color data from high-turbidity areas of the coastal ocean contain information about the surface concentrations and optical properties of suspended sediments and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Empirical and semi-analytical inversion algorit...

  17. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    vaseline oil to reduce particles bouncing off. The PM10 inlet was placed at a height of two metres above the ground for the first seven months and four metres for five months. Two polycarbonate nuclepore filters in sequence were used, both of 47mm diameter. These were coarse (8μm pore) and fine (0.4μm pore) diameter to ...

  18. Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were analysed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for up to 10 elements. It was found that 66% of the samples collected at two metres and 50% of the samples collected at four metres height exceeded the WHO 24 guideline of 70μg m-3. Reduction in ...

  19. A study of water uptake by selected superdisintegrants from the sub-molecular to the particulate level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, P; Syllignaki, P; Kachrimanis, K

    2017-01-26

    Water diffusion through the matrix of three superdisintegrants, namely sodium starch glycolate (SSG), croscarmellose sodium (cCMC-Na) and crospovidone (cPVP), was studied at the sub-molecular level using Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, and the results were correlated to water uptake studies conducted at the particulate level using Parallel Exponential Kinetics (PEK) modeling in dynamic moisture sorption studies and optical microscopy. ATR-FTIR studies indicated that water diffuses inside cPVP by a single fast acting process, while in SSG and cCMC-Na, a slow and a fast process acting simultaneously, were identified. The same pattern regarding the rate of water uptake for all superdisintegrants was found also at the particulate level by PEK modeling. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulation helped elucidate the hydrogen bonding patterns formed between water-SSG and water-cCMC-Na, mainly via their carboxylic oxygen atoms and secondarily via their hydroxyl groups, while cPVP formed hydrogen bonds only through carbonyl oxygen. Finally, cPVP chains showed significant flexibility during hydration, while cCMC-Na and SSG chains retain their conformation to some extent, explaining the extensive swelling observed also at the particulate level by optical microscopy hydration studies.

  20. Mutual relationships of suspended sediment, turbidity and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Ballantine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand’s National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity.

  1. Discharge, suspended sediment, and salinity in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and adjacent surface waters in South-Central Louisiana, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Perrien, Scott M.

    2015-10-19

    Discharge, suspended sediment, and salinity data collected between 1997 and 2008 indicate that the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) is an important distributary of river water and suspended sediments to coastal wetlands in south-central coastal Louisiana. Following natural hydraulic gradients, the GIWW passively distributes freshwater and suspended sediments from the Atchafalaya River to areas at least 30 to 50 miles west and east, respectively, of Morgan City. The magnitude and reach of the discharge in the GIWW increase as stage of the Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet and Lower Atchafalaya River (LAR) at Morgan City increase. The magnitude and duration of discharge vary from year to year depending on the flow regime of the Atchafalaya River. Annual discharge of water in the GIWW was greater during years when stage of the LAR remained anomalously high throughout the year, compared with average and peak flood years. During years when Atchafalaya River flow is low, Bayou Boeuf, a waterway draining the Verret subbasin, becomes a major source of water maintaining the eastward flow in the GIWW. The GIWW is the only means of getting river water to some parts of coastal Louisiana.

  2. Spatial and temporal dynamics of stream water particulate and dissolved N, P and C forms along a catchment transect, NE Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutter, M. I.; Langan, S. J.; Cooper, R. J.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe dynamics of dissolved and particulate N, P and organic C were examined for field drains, through a headwater (4 km 2), into a mesoscale stream (51 km 2) and river (1844 km 2) catchment. Distributions of N and P forms were similar in the agricultural headwater and field drains; annual P fluxes of particulate and dissolved forms were of equal magnitude, whilst N was dominated by NO 3-N. Across all scales organic P was an important, often dominant, component of the dissolved P. Temporal variation in nutrient concentrations and proportions was greatest in the headwater, where storms resulted in the generation of large concentrations of suspended particulate matter, particulate and dissolved P, particularly following dry periods. The data suggest that groundwater and minor point source inputs to the mesoscale catchment buffered the temporal variability in hydrochemistry relative to the headwater. Summer low flows were associated with large PO 4-P concentrations in the mesoscale catchment at a critical time of biological sensitivity. At the largest river catchment scale, organic forms of C, N and P dominated. Inorganic nutrient concentrations were kept small through dilution by runoff from upland areas and biological processes converted dissolved N and P to particulate forms. The different processes operating between the drain/headwater to the large river scale have implications for river basin management. Given the prevalence of organic and particulate P forms in our catchment transect, the bioavailability of these fractions needs to be better understood.

  3. Geochemical Characterization of Rain Water Particulate Material on a Coastal Sub-Tropical Region in SE: Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho E.V.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne contamination has been of concern for a number of scientist in temperate regions. In the tropics, a very small amount of data is available. In this work, rain water particulate material was monitored in two sites in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil: the first (Sepetiba, subjected to high inputs of metals from industrial activities and the second (Iguaba, subjected to very mild contamination. Particulate material was obtained by filtration of rain water samples. The filters were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show three important features: 1 the element enrichment patterns could be split into two groups, crustal and anthropogenic derived; 2 uniformity of element loads in rain water particles is observed; 3 enrichment of certain trace elements in airborne particles is probably an important source of contaminants to soils, sediments and the marine environment.

  4. Water absorption experimental analysis of an orange peel and coconut shell particulate blend reinforcement material for composite fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Ayodele Ajibade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature on composites has downplayed the merits of orange peel particulates (OPPs and coconut shell particulates (CSPs as fillers in mixed forms despite their engineering purposes. An OPP-CSP mixture can be used to suppress the weight disadvantage of CSPs, exploit the water resistance advantage of CSP, enhance the mechanical properties and improve the wear resistance of OPPs as a result of the oily secretions of the OPP. Launching a new research direction of mixed filler experiments, this work examines the water absorption properties of mixed OPPs-CSPs of up to 30 cm3 mixtures by volume, according to filler literature norms and previous sensitivity tests. A principal result is that the average free swell of the particulate blend increased up to 164.61%, a value attained with an initial volume of CSPs equal to 10 cm3 in a combined initial volume of 30 cm3. Thus, the mixing ratio is 10 CSPs:20 OPPs (Type I. This free swell value can cause considerable changes to loadings and structures, which is a negative outcome. Sensitivity analysis showed that the higher-OPPs-in-particulate blend produced the most favourable free swell values. In practice, the findings of this study meet the growing needs of the composite industry for materials having unusual combinations of the properties of water-resistance for lightweight applications in tennis rackets, household interior decorations and agricultural silos. This novel contribution pioneers efforts to produce filler blends of particulate orange peels and coconut shells in independently varied proportions rather than being embedded in composites. Sensitivity analysis of the critical process parameters was carried out to understand the degree of responsiveness of model parameters of the blends. This is the first time such information has been reported in the literature.

  5. Filtration and resuspension of particulate matter and phytoplankton on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.C.; Smaal, A.C.; Pouwer, A.J.; Dankers, N.

    1996-01-01

    In situ measurements were carried out on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. Exchange of suspended particulate matter and phytoplankton between the water column and the mussel bed was measured with a Benthic Ecosystem Tunnel. In situ clearance rates of the mussel

  6. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Analysis of available information on nutrients and suspended sediment, 1974-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Reutter, David C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an assessment of water quality in the Trinity River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. During the planning phase of this study, existing information on nutrients and suspended sediment was compiled and analyzed. A total of about 5,700 water-quality samples were analyzed from local, State, and Federal agencies. Of these, about 4,200 were from streams and about 1,500 were from wells. Additionally, atmospheric deposition data for two locations were obtained and analyzed.

  7. Distribution of dissolved and labile particulate trace metals in the overlying bottom water in the Vistula River plume (southern Baltic Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2001-01-01

    Overlying bottom water samples were collected in the Vistula River plume, southern Baltic Sea, (Poland) and analysed for dissolved and labile particulate (1 M HCl extractable) Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ni, hydrological parameters being measured simultaneously. Particulate organic matter (POM),

  8. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri

    2017-12-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  9. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  10. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  11. Suspended-sediment concentrations, bedload, particle sizes, surrogate measurements, and annual sediment loads for selected sites in the lower Minnesota River Basin, water years 2011 through 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Hendrickson, Jon S.

    2016-12-20

    Accurate measurements of fluvial sediment are important for assessing stream ecological health, calculating flood levels, computing sediment budgets, and managing and protecting water resources. Sediment-enriched rivers in Minnesota are a concern among Federal, State, and local governments because turbidity and sediment-laden waters are the leading impairments and affect more than 6,000 miles of rivers in Minnesota. The suspended sediment in the lower Minnesota River is deleterious, contributing about 75 to 90 percent of the suspended sediment being deposited into Lake Pepin. The Saint Paul District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District collaborate to maintain a navigation channel on the lower 14.7 miles of the Minnesota River through scheduled dredging operations. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has adopted a sediment-reduction strategy to reduce sediment in the Minnesota River by 90 percent by 2040.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District, collected suspended-sediment, bedload, and particle-size samples at five sites in the lower Minnesota River Basin during water years 2011 through 2014 and surrogate measurements of acoustic backscatter at one of these sites on the lower Minnesota River during water years 2012 through 2016 to quantify sediment loads and improve understanding of sediment-transport relations. Annual sediment loads were computed for calendar years 2011 through 2014.Data collected from water years 2011 through 2014 indicated that two tributaries, Le Sueur River and High Island Creek, had the highest sediment yield and concentrations of suspended sediment. These tributaries also had greater stream gradients than the sites on the Minnesota River. Suspended fines were greater than suspended sand at all sites in the study area. The range of median particle sizes matched

  12. Geochemistry and magnetic measurements of suspended sediment in urban sewage water vis-à-vis quantification of heavy metal pollution in Ganga and Yamuna Rivers, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarvorty, Munmun; Dwivedi, Akhil Kumar; Shukla, Anil Dutt; Kumar, Sujeet; Niyogi, Ambalika; Usmani, Mavera; Pati, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sewage water is becoming a key source of heavy metal toxicity in large river systems worldwide and the two major Himalayan Rivers in India (Ganga and Yamuna) are severely affected. The high population density in the river banks combined with increased anthropogenic and industrial activities is contributing to the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. Geochemical data shows a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals (Pb, 48-86 ppm; Zn, 360-834 ppm; V, 45-101 ppm; Ni, 20-143 ppm; Cr, 79-266 ppm; Co, 8.62-22.12 ppm and Mn, 313-603 ppm) in sewage and mixed water (sewage and river water confluence site) samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area. The ΣREE content of sewage water (129 ppm) is lower than the average mixed water samples (142 ppm). However, all the samples show similar REE pattern. The mass magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) values of suspended sediments (28 to 1000 × 10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)) indicate variable concentration of heavy metals. The Xlf values show faint positive correlation with their respective bulk heavy metal contents in a limited sample population. The present study comprising geochemical analysis and first magnetic measurement data of suspended sediments in water samples shows a strongly polluted nature of Ganga and Yamuna Rivers at Allahabad contrary to the previous report mainly caused by overtly polluted city sewage water.

  13. Intra-annual variability of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in suspended organic matter in waters of the western continental shelf of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Maya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-annual variations of δ13C and δ15N of water-column suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM have been investigated to understand the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in the Western Continental Shelf of India (WCSI. The key issues being addressed are: how the δ15N of SPOM is affected by seasonally varying processes of organic matter production and respiration and how it relates to the δ15N of sedimentary organic matter that appears to show a decreasing trend despite an apparent intensification of seasonal oxygen deficiency over the past few decades? A secondary objective was to evaluate the sources of organic carbon. Elemental carbon and nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios in SPOM, along with ancillary chemical and biological variables including phytoplankton pigment abundance were also determined on a seasonal basis (from March 2007 to September 2008, with the partial exception of the southwest (SW monsoon period. The results reveal significant shifts in isotopic signatures, especially δ15N, of SPOM before and after the onset of SW monsoon. Very low δ15N values, reaching a minimum of −4.17 ‰, are found during the pre-monsoon period. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the addition of substantial amounts of isotopically light nitrogen by the diazotrophs, especially Trichodesmium, in the region. The δ15N of SPOM is generally lower than the mean value (7.38 ‰ for surficial sediments, presumably because of diagenetic enrichment. The results support the view that sedimentary δ15N may not necessarily reflect denitrification intensity in the overlying waters due to diverse sources of nitrogen and variability of its isotopic composition. The observed intra-annual variability of δ13C of SPOM during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods is generally small. Phytoplankton production and probably species

  14. Hyperspectral and Multispectral Retrieval of Suspended Sediment in Shallow Coastal Waters Using Semi-Analytical and Empirical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochi Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural lagoons and estuaries worldwide are experiencing accelerated ecosystem degradation due to increased anthropogenic pressure. As a key driver of coastal zone dynamics, suspended sediment concentration (SSC is difficult to monitor with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions both in the field and using remote sensing. In particular, the spatial resolutions of currently available remote sensing data generated by satellite sensors designed for ocean color retrieval, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor, are too coarse to capture the dimension and geomorphological heterogeneity of most estuaries and lagoons. In the present study, we explore the use of hyperspectral (Hyperion and multispectral data, i.e., the Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, and ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite, to estimate SSC through semi-analytical and empirical approaches in the Venice lagoon (Italy. Key parameters of the retrieval models are calibrated and cross-validated by matching the remote sensing estimates of SSC with in situ data from a network of water quality sensors. Our analysis shows that, despite the higher spectral resolution, hyperspectral data provide limited advantages over the use of multispectral data, mainly due to information redundancy and cross-band correlation. Meanwhile, the limited historical archive of hyperspectral data (usually acquired on demand severely reduces the chance of observing high turbidity events, which are relatively rare but critical in controlling the coastal sediment and geomorphological dynamics. On the contrary, retrievals using available multispectral data can encompass a much wider range of SSC values due to their frequent acquisitions and longer historical archive. For the retrieval methods considered in this study, we find that the semi

  15. Indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents by salting-out effect for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshfar, Ali; Khezeli, Tahere

    2014-12-01

    A simple and low-cost method that indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents (ISDME) by salting-out effect before high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different samples. The ISDME is a combination of salting-out extraction of water-miscible organic solvent and directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME). Ninety-five microliters water-miscible organic solvent (1-propanol) was added to a 500-µL sample. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. To produce a steady vortex at the top of the solution, the sample was agitated at 700 rpm using a magnetic stirrer. By the addition of ammonium sulfate (saturated solution) to the homogeneous solution, 1-propanol was separated and collected at the bottom of the steady vortex. Finally, 20 µL 1-propanol was injected into HPLC-UV. The effects of important parameters such as water-miscible organic solvent (type and volume), type of salt, and extraction time were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the method has a good linear calibration range (0.1 µg/L-300 µg/L), coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.998), low limits of detection (between 0.02 µg/L and 0.27 µg/L), and acceptable recovery (>85.0%). © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Suspended-sediment transport and storage: A demonstration of acoustic methods in the evaluation of reservoir management strategies for a small water-supply reservoir in western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Collins, Kent L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and local stakeholder groups are evaluating reservoir-management strategies within Paonia Reservoir. This small reservoir fills to capacity each spring and requires approximately half of the snowmelt-runoff volume from its sediment-laden source waters, Muddy Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting high-resolution (15-minute data-recording interval) sediment monitoring to characterize incoming and outgoing sediment flux during reservoir operations at two sites on Muddy Creek. The high-resolution monitoring is being used to establish current rates of reservoir sedimentation, support USBR sediment transport and storage models, and assess the viability of water-storage recovery in Paonia Reservoir. These sites are equipped with in situ, single-frequency, side-looking acoustic Doppler current meters in conjunction with turbidity sensors to monitor sediment flux. This project serves as a demonstration of the capability of using surrogate techniques to predict suspended-sediment concentrations in small streams (less than 20 meters in width and 2 meters in depth). These two sites provide the ability to report near real-time suspended-sediment concentrations through the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) web interface and National Real-Time Water Quality websites (NRTWQ) to aid in reservoir operations and assessments.

  17. Scalable water splitting on particulate photocatalyst sheets with a solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency exceeding 1%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Hisatomi, Takashi; Jia, Qingxin; Tokudome, Hiromasa; Zhong, Miao; Wang, Chizhong; Pan, Zhenhua; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Nakabayashi, Mamiko; Shibata, Naoya; Li, Yanbo; Sharp, Ian D.; Kudo, Akihiko; Yamada, Taro; Domen, Kazunari

    2016-06-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting using particulate semiconductors is a potentially scalable and economically feasible technology for converting solar energy into hydrogen. Z-scheme systems based on two-step photoexcitation of a hydrogen evolution photocatalyst (HEP) and an oxygen evolution photocatalyst (OEP) are suited to harvesting of sunlight because semiconductors with either water reduction or oxidation activity can be applied to the water splitting reaction. However, it is challenging to achieve efficient transfer of electrons between HEP and OEP particles. Here, we present photocatalyst sheets based on La- and Rh-codoped SrTiO3 (SrTiO3:La, Rh; ref. ) and Mo-doped BiVO4 (BiVO4:Mo) powders embedded into a gold (Au) layer. Enhancement of the electron relay by annealing and suppression of undesirable reactions through surface modification allow pure water (pH 6.8) splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of 1.1% and an apparent quantum yield of over 30% at 419 nm. The photocatalyst sheet design enables efficient and scalable water splitting using particulate semiconductors.

  18. Climate induced variability of suspended matter and nutrient in the discharge of Kali river, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    elevations above the riverbed following the methodology of Stern et al. (1986, 1991). Suspended particulate matter in the river water is estimated at 10 stations. The collection time in the estuarine samples was mid-tide synchronous during August..., in Manual and Guides 29, Paris, Scientific 9 committee on oceanic research, pp. 170. Stern, M. K., Jr. J. W. Day, and K. G. Teague (1986), Seasonality of materials transport through a coastal freshwater marsh: riverine versus tidal forcing...

  19. Nutrients and Suspended Solids in Surface Waters of the Upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin, 1978-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of selected data on nutrients and suspended solids in surface waters of the upper Illinois River Basin was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Approximately 91 percent of the upper Illinois River Basin is drained by three principal rivers: the Kankakee (and its major tributary, the Iroquois), the Des Plaines, and the Fox. The data analyzed were collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), which operates 39 monitoring sites in the study area as part of its Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, and included analyses for total ammonia nitrogen, total nitriteplus- nitrate nitrogen, total ammonia-plus-organic (total Kjeldahl) nitrogen, dissolved and total phosphorus, and total suspended solids and volatile solids. Nutrient and suspended-sediment data collected by the USGS as part of the upper Illinois River Basin NAWQA pilot study from 1987-90 were compared to IEPA data. For the 1978-97 period, in general, nutrient concentrations, with the exception of nitrate, were highest at streams in the urban areas of the Des Plaines River Basin. Streams in the Kankakee and Fox River Basins generally had lower concentrations, although the data indicate that concentrations increased in a downstream direction in these basins. These spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations correspond closely with land use in the respective basins. The elevated concentrations of ammonia and phosphorus in the urbanized Des Plaines River Basin, with respect to other sites in the study area, indicate that municipal- and industrial- waste discharges into streams of the basin increase concentrations of these nutrients in the receiving streams. In contrast, nitrate concentrations were highest in agricultural areas. Relatively large ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus and nitrate to ammonia are characteristic of agricultural drainage. On the other hand, urban tributaries were characterized by

  20. Estimated suspended-sediment loads and yields in the French and Brandywine Creek Basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, water years 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Olson, Leif E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at four stream stations--French Creek near Phoenixville, West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, and East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown--in Chester County, Pa. Sedimentation and siltation is the leading cause of stream impairment in Chester County, and these data are critical for quantifying sediment transport. This study was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department. Data from optical turbidity sensors deployed at the four stations were recorded at 15- or 30-minute intervals by a data logger and uploaded every 1 to 4 hours to the USGS database. Most of the suspended-sediment samples were collected using automated samplers. The use of optical sensors to continuously monitor turbidity provided an accurate estimate of sediment fluctuations without the collection and analysis costs associated with intensive sampling during storms. Turbidity was used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is a measure of sedimentation and siltation. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity for each of the monitoring stations using SSC data collected from the automated samplers and turbidity data collected at each station. Instantaneous suspended-sediment loads (SSL) were computed from time-series turbidity and discharge data for the 2008 and 2009 water years using the regression equations. The instantaneous computations of SSL were summed to provide daily, storm, and water year annual loads. The annual SSL contributed from each basin was divided by the upstream drainage area to estimate the annual sediment yield. For all four basins, storms provided more than 96 percent of the annual SSL. In each basin, four storms generally provided over half the annual SSL each water year. Stormflows with the

  1. Salinity and suspended matter variations in the Tay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John

    2005-03-01

    The concept of salinity-induced density layering in estuaries was first demonstrated from the upper reaches of the Tay. In this study the nature of the layering and its variation through the tidal cycle is demonstrated from time series of observations taken at many locations within this estuary. Thorough mixing of the waters on the rising tide, as defined by depth profiles of salinity, is commonly replaced by salinity layering during the high water slack period. This condition continues into the falling tide. Frequently the mixed waters are abruptly replaced by stratified waters within the half-hourly sampling interval. This is attributed to the activity of longitudinal fronts, manifest as surficial foam bands, along which water masses shear past each other on both the flood and ebb tides. Offsetting of transverse salinity coutours along the fronts is introduced to explain apparent complexities in surface water salinity distributions measured at high water slack. Suspended particulate matter concentrations increase towards the limit of the saline water intrusion before decreasing headwards into the freshwater zone of the estuary. The suspensions in the water column may also be displaced by the lateral offsetting of the waters along the fronts. The recognition of the presence of fronts, and a knowledge of their impact on the estuarine waters may provide an alternative means of understanding the flow characteristics of these challenging water bodies. The techniques of spatial and temporal averaging normally widely used today may not be the most realistic approach to analysis of the flows.

  2. Nature and sources of suspended particulate organic matter in a tropical estuary during the monsoon and pre-monsoon: Insights from stable isotopes (delta 13C POC, delta 15 N TPN) and carbohydrate signature compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    by Parsons et al. (1984). In order to analyze δ13CPOC, and δ15NTPN, GF/F filters containing particulate material were treated with vapours of concentrated HCl to remove carbonates, and oven dried at 40 °C for 24 h (Hedges 6 and Stern, 1984). The bulk...

  3. Partitioning of tetra- and pentabromo diphenyl ether and benzo[a]pyrene among water and dissolved and particulate organic carbon along a salinity gradient in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivikko, Miika; Sorsa, Karoliina; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Akkanen, Jarkko; Kotiaho, Tapio; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2010-11-01

    This study assessed the partitioning of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-99) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) among water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC: 4.93-8.72 mg/L), and particulate organic carbon (POC: 191-462 µg/L) along the salinity gradient (0-5.5‰) of the Baltic Sea off the coast of Finland. Equilibrium dialysis and two solid-phase extraction techniques using polyoxymethylene polymer (POM) were used to determine partitioning coefficients. Experiments using artificial coastal water (ACW) with Nordic fulvic (FAs) and humic acids (HAs) were used to assess the effect of salinity (0 and 5.5‰) on the DOC-water partitioning of the model compounds. All three compounds bound more (2.2-3.8-fold) to the HAs than to the FAs. Increasing salinity from 0 to 5.5‰ decreased sorption to dissolved humic substances in the ACW and Baltic Sea water samples. Along the salinity gradient, the sorption of compounds to organic material decreased when the salinity increased. Particulate organic matter sorbed model compounds per unit of carbon more than dissolved organic matter. Along the studied salinity gradient, the freely dissolved portion increased from 10 to 29% to 52 to 80% in the coastal water samples, mainly because of the increasing salinity and changes in DOC and quality of POC. © 2010 SETAC.

  4. Remote sensing and water quality indicators in the Korean West coast: Spatio-temporal structures of MODIS-derived chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Cheol; Son, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Nam, Jungho; Chang, Won Keun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, Jongseong

    2017-08-15

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow marginal sea with a large tidal range. In this study, ten areas located along the western coast of the Korean Peninsula are investigated with respect to remotely sensed water quality indicators derived from NASA MODIS aboard of the satellite Aqua. We found that there was a strong seasonal trend with spatial heterogeneity. In specific, a strong six-month phase-lag was found between chlorophyll-a and total suspended solid owing to their inversed seasonality, which could be explained by different dynamics and environmental settings. Chlorophyll-a concentration seemed to be dominantly influenced by temperature, while total suspended solid was largely governed by local tidal forcing and bottom topography. This study demonstrated the potential and applicability of satellite products in coastal management, and highlighted find that remote-sensing would be a promising tool in resolving orthogonality of large spatio-temporal scale variabilities when combining with proper time series analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal Variability and Annual Fluxes of Water, Sediment and Particulate Phosphorus from a Headwater River in the Tropical Andes: Results from a High-frequency Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B. C.; Schloegel, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mazar River Project, a high-frequency hydrological monitoring program, aims to generate ecohydrological information to inform watershed management in high-mountain areas of southern Ecuador. Rapid development of hydropower, accompanied by new and improved road networks, has resulted in swift changes in land-use and land cover in Ecuador's tropical Andes, all of which underscore the need for detailed information on flow and sediment production from these river systems. National and regional payment for the protection of ecosystem services (PES) programs seek to target critical areas, such as these, for watershed conservation, but are often informed by minimal information on sustainable flows and impacts of land use activities. As part of a program to inform conservation and sustainable water management in the region, we established a hydrological monitoring station in southern Ecuador on the Mazar River, a tributary of the Paute River Basin, situated on the eastern Andean cordillera. The station is equipped with sensors to continuously monitor stream stage and turbidity and an automated sampler for event-based collection of stream water samples, providing high frequency data that reduces the uncertainty of observations. Here, we report observations of continuous runoff and turbidity over the first year of observation, present relationships between turbidity and concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total particulate phosphorus (TP), and provide estimates of annual loads of TSS and TP. Runoff was highly variable over the monitoring period with flows ranging from less than 3 m3/s during baseflow to nearly 80 m3/s during the flood of record. During measured storm events, TSS exceeded 1000 mg/l with maximum measured concentrations exceeding 13 g/l during storm peaks. Turbidity was highly correlated with TSS, which was in turn highly correlated with TP, providing a robust data set for load estimation. We compare our results to other montane rivers in the

  6. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  7. Distribution of particulate organic matter in Rajapur and Vagothan estuarines (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tulaskar, A.S; Sawant, S.S; Wagh, A.B.

    The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and particulate proteins (PP) in the suspended particulate matter was studied. The POC, PCHO and PP concentrations ranged from 176 to 883 mu g.l/1, 115 to 647 mu...

  8. Multi-faceted monitoring of estuarine turbidity and particulate matter provenance: Case study from Salem Harbor, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, J Bradford; Kenney, Melanie; Warren, Barbara; Louisos, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Turbidity is a water quality parameter that is known to adversely affect aquatic systems, however the causes of turbid water are often elusive. We present results of a study designed to constrain the source of particulate matter in a coastal embayment that has suffered from increased turbidity over past decades. Our approach utilized monitoring buoys to quantify turbidity at high temporal resolution complemented by geochemical isotope analysis of suspended sediment samples and meteorological data. Results reveal a complex system in which multiple sources are associated with particulate matter. Weight of evidence demonstrates that phytoplankton productivity in the water column, however, is the dominant source of particulate matter associated with elevated turbidity in Salem Harbor, Massachusetts. Allochthonous matter from the watershed was observed to mix into the pool of suspended particulate matter near river mouths, especially in spring and summer. Resuspension of harbor surface sediments likely provides additional particulates in the regions of boat moorings, especially during summer when recreational boats are attached to moorings. Our approach allows us to constrain the causes of turbidity events in this embayment, is helping with conservation efforts of environmental quality in the region, and can be used as a template for other locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  10. Analysing the correlations of long-term seasonal water quality parameters, suspended solids and total dissolved solids in a shallow reservoir with meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping

    2017-03-01

    To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.

  11. Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Wirth, S.; Ellerbrock, R.; Sommer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Michael Kaiser1, Stephan Wirth2, Ruth H. Ellerbrock3, Michael Sommer3,4 1University of California Merced, Natural Science, 4225 N. Hospital Rd., Atwater, CA 95301 2,3 Leibniz-Center for Agricultural Research (ZALF) e. V. 2 Institute of Landscape Matter Dynamics 3 Institute of Soil Landscape Research Eberswalder Str. 84, D-15374 Muencheberg, Germany 4University of Potsdam, Institute of Geoecology, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) accounts for roughly half of CO2 evolution from vegetated soil surfaces and plays a crucial role in the ability of soil to mitigate the greenhouse effect. The separation and identification of labile (i.e., easily decomposable) organic matter (OM) fractions from bulk SOM is of particular importance for a mechanistic understanding of microbial decomposition processes and for predicting the response of SOM to changes in land use, management, and climate. This work aimed to reveal differences in the relevance of particulate as well as water-soluble organic matter (OM) fractions from topsoils to the easily biodegradable soil organic matter (SOM). We selected eight paired sites with quite different soil types (Udorthent, Paleudalf, Glossudalf, Aquept, Hapludalf, Aquert, Udert, Haplorthod) and soil properties (e.g., clay content: 28 to 564 g kg-1). For each of these sites, we took samples from adjacent arable and forest topsoils. Physically uncomplexed, macro-, and micro-aggregate-occluded organic particle, as well as water-soluble OM fractions were sequentially separated by a combination of electrostatic attraction, ultrasonic treatment, density separation, sieving, and water extraction. The easily biodegradable SOM of the topsoil samples was determined by measuring microbial respiration during a short-term incubation

  12. Nano- and micro-particulate formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by using a novel optimized technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douroumis, D; Fahr, A

    2006-06-01

    A novel technique for the production of nano- and micro-particulate formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs has been developed. This technique involves the use of static mixer elements to provide fast precipitation by continuous turbulent mixing of two liquid flows, an aqueous phase and an organic phase, respectively. The objective of this study was to develop the mixer technique by investigating the influence of the element number on the particle size of the resulting dispersions. Four model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with a variety of polymers, lipids or surfactants underwent intensive mixing and the final suspensions showed a narrow size distribution. Parameters such as the flow rate and the temperature of the precipitated organic-aqueous phases were also significant in the reduction of particle size. Further development of the mixing technique led to reproducible and stable formulations with minimal excipient amounts. These formulations were spray- or freeze-dried to improve stability.

  13. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE, SULFATE, BICARBONATE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PIPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Colored water” describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron where the actual suspension color may range from light yellow to red due to water chemistry and particle properties. This iron can originate from the source water and f...

  14. Dissolved and particulate metals in water from Sonora Coast: a pristine zone of Gulf of California: metals in water from Sonora Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rico, Leticia; Tejeda-Valenzuela, Lourdes; Jara-Marini, Martín E; Gómez-Álvarez, Agustín

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) in dissolved and particulate fractions in seawater from Bacochibampo Bay, Northern part of Mexico. Water samples were collected from November 2004 to October 2005. Metal analysis was done by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated highest concentrations of dissolved Cd and Zn in the sites localized at the mouth and center of the bay. During summer and spring, the highest levels of Cd, Mn, and Fe were detected, Zn in fall, and Pb and Cu in winter and spring. Mercury was the only metal that was not found in this fraction. In particulate fraction, Fe, Hg, and Mn were the most abundant elements in all the sampling sites, followed by Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd. The highest levels of the majority of the metals were observed in the coastline, suggesting a continental and/or urban source for these chemicals. The highest level of Cd was detected during the summer and the rest of the metals in the fall. Statistically significant correlations were observed between dissolved and particulate forms of Pb:Mn, Cu:Fe, and Cu:Mn. The mean partition coefficient values were as follows: Fe>Mn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn. All dissolved metal concentrations found, except Pb, were lower than EPA-recommended water quality values. The levels of dissolved metals in this study reveal low bioavailability and toxic potential. However, further toxicological and sediment chemistry studies in this area are needed for a full risk assessment.

  15. Water-soluble and organic extracts of airborne particulate matter induce micronuclei in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Isabel C; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-12-01

    The in vitro genotoxic effects of organic and water-soluble fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM10) with the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) test in human alveolar carcinoma cells A549 were investigated. Samples were collected in three different sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, and fifteen soluble metals and the sixteen EPÁs priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were chemically determined. PAHs prevailing were fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene. In the water-soluble extracts, highest concentration of metals was found for zinc, iron, and copper in all places of collection. Although PM10 concentration in all samples was in the range of 33.5-110.1μg/m3, lower than 120μg/m3 (limit established by São Paulo State's legislation for PM10 in 24h), MN results showed that of the 24 samples analyzed, five organic and seven water-soluble extracts presented a significant increase in MN frequency. The frequency of MN correlates with the total PAH concentration of the three sites investigated, and the concentration of PM10 is correlated with the biological effect in two of them. For the water-soluble fraction, all the sites presented a relation between the PM10 concentration and the MN frequency. Again, the genotoxic response showed a correlation with the total concentration of water-soluble metals in two of the three sites. Our results confirm the importance of the soluble fraction of PM10 to the genotoxic effect of airborne PM even at low concentration of water-soluble compounds. Thus, together with chemical analysis, the implementation of the MN protocol for both organic and water-soluble fraction biological monitoring could be used as a strategy in a routine air-quality monitoring program, complementing other usual analyses for air pollution control and protection of populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of antibiotics from water in the coexistence of suspended particles and natural organic matters using amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants: A combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuying; Yang, Zhen; Ren, Kexin; Tian, Ziqi; Dong, Chang; Ma, Ruixue; Yu, Ge; Yang, Weiben

    2016-11-05

    Contamination of trace antibiotics is widely found in surface water sources. This work delineates removal of trace antibiotics (norfloxacin (NOR), sulfadiazine (SDZ) or tylosin (TYL)) from synthetic surface water by flocculation, in the coexistence of inorganic suspended particles (kaolin) and natural organic matter (humic acid, HA). To avoid extra pollution caused by petrochemical products-based modification reagents, environmental-friendly amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants, Ctrp and Ctyr, with different functional aromatic-rings structures were employed. Jar tests at various pHs exhibited that, Ctyr, owning phenol groups as electron donors, was favored for elimination of cationic NOR (∼50% removal; optimal pH: 6; optimal dosage: 4mg/L) and TYL (∼60% removal; optimal pH: 7; optimal dosage: 7.5mg/L), due to π-π electron donator-acceptor (EDA) effect and unconventional H-bonds. Differently, Ctrp with indole groups as electron acceptor had better removal rate (∼50%) of SDZ anions (electron donator). According to correlation analysis, the coexisted kaolin and HA played positive roles in antibiotics' removal. Detailed pairwise interactions in molecular level among different components were clarified by spectral analysis and theoretical calculations (density functional theory), which are important for both the structural design of new flocculants aiming at targeted contaminants and understanding the environmental behaviors of antibiotics in water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced Input of Terrestrial Particulate Organic Matter Reduces the Resilience of the Clear-Water State of Shallow Lakes: A Model Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lischke, B.; Hilt, S.; Janse, J.H.; Kuiper, J.J.; Mehner, T.; Mooij, W.M.; Gaedke, U.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of terrestrial particulate organic matter (t-POM) entering lakes is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. This may especially alter the structure and functioning of ecosystems in small, shallow lakes which can rapidly shift from a clear-water, macrophyte-dominated into a

  18. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  19. Buried particulate organic carbon stimulates denitrification and nitrate retention in stream sediments at the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The interface between ground water and surface water in streams is a hotspot for N processing. However, the role of buried organic C in N transformation at this interface is not well understood, and inferences have been based largely on descriptive studies. Our main objective was to determine how buried particulate organic C (POC) affected denitrification and NO3− retention in the sediments of an upwelling reach in a sand-plains stream in Wisconsin. We manipulated POC in mesocosms inserted in the sediments. Treatments included low and high quantities of conditioned red maple leaves (buried beneath combusted sand), ambient sediment (sand containing background levels of POC), and a control (combusted sand). We measured denitrification rates in sediments by acetylene-block assays in the laboratory and by changes in N2 concentrations in the field using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. We measured NO3−, NH4+, and dissolved organic N (DON) retention as changes in concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. POC addition drove oxic ground water to severe hypoxia, led to large increases in dissolved organic C (DOC), and strongly increased denitrification rates and N (NO3− and total dissolved N) retention relative to the control. In situ denitrification accounted for 30 to 60% of NO3− retention. Our results suggest that buried POC stimulated denitrification and NO3− retention by producing DOC and by creating favorable redox conditions for denitrification.

  20. Impacts of the Changjiang diluted water on sinking processes of particulate organic matters in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukigara, Chiho; Mino, Yoshihisa; Tripathy, Sarat Chandra; Ishizaka, Joji; Matsuno, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    Intensive surveys with repeated CTD and microstructure turbulent observations, water and sediments sampling as well as onboard incubation and sediment trap experiments were conducted to reveal the nitrogen budget in the center of the East China Sea (ECS) during July 2010 and 2011. Low salinity water (Changjiang Diluted Water, CDW) covered the study area in 2010, but not in 2011. Higher chlorophyll a (chl. a) concentration, primary productivity, and downward particle flux in the upper layer were observed in 2010 than those in 2011. Existence of the CDW resulted in a steep pycnocline and an associated subsurface chl. a maximum (SCM) layer directly beneath the CDW. From chemical analyses of particulate carbon and nitrogen contents and isotope ratios, it became apparent that the particles sunk out the euphotic zone in 2010 was primarily originated in the CDW layer and secondly in the SCM layer. Whereas, in 2011, sinking particles were originated in the surface layer but a part of them were decomposed in the bottom of pycnocline. Our findings indicate that the CDW would supply particles into the deep layer and contribute to the downward transport of materials and the efficiency of biological pump in the ECS.

  1. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor’s radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit. PMID:28380059

  2. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    Full Text Available The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor's radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI, and WorldView-2 (WV2 at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit.

  3. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Passang; Fearns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor's radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit.

  4. Dispersive suspended microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2011-11-14

    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danious P. Sounthararajah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water, as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and, therefore, need to be removed. Adsorption is a common physico-chemical process used to remove heavy metals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and suspended solids (SS are associated pollutants in water systems that can interact with heavy metals during the treatment process. The interactions of DOC and SS during the removal of heavy metals by granular activated carbon were investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Batch adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir adsorption maxima for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni at pH 6.5 were 11.9, 11.8, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.8 mg/g, respectively. With the addition of humic acid (HA (DOC representative, they were 7.5, 3.7, 3.2, 1.6, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively. In the column experiment, no breakthrough (complete removal was obtained for Pb and Cu, but adding HA provided a breakthrough in removing these metals. For Zn, Cd and Ni, this breakthrough occurred even without HA being added. Adding kaolinite (representative of SS had no effect on Pb and Cu, but it did on the other metals.

  6. Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate material transported by the Parana and Uruguay rivers during high (december 1993) and low (september 1994) water periods; Compositions isotopiques de Nd et Sr des matieres en suspension et dissoutes transportees par les fleuves Parana et Uraguay en periodes de hautes (decembre 1993) et basses (septembre 1994) eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, F.; Thouron, D.; Garcon, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Henry, F. [Universite du Litoral, 62 - Wimereux (France). Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique appliquee a l' Environnement Naturel; Probst, J.L. [Universidad Nacional, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    1996-07-01

    Our motivation is to better constrain the neodymium and strontium isotopic signatures of the closest continental riverine source (Parana and Uruguay rivers) to the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence zone in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We thus present new isotopic data on the Nd and Sr of the dissolved and suspended loads of the Parana and Uruguay rivers for two water periods forming the Rio de la Plata whose drainage basin is the second largest one in South America. The Parana dissolved material shows less radiogenic ({epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) ranging between -12.1 and -8.2) than the Uruguay one with a mean {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) value of -6.3 {+-} 0.3. Suspended particulates display the same isotopic trend (mean {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) value of -10.3 and -6.0 for the Parana and Uruguay rivers, respectively). Dissolved load {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the Parana (0.7123) is found to be more radiogenic than the Uruguay one (0.7097); the suspended load follows the same trend with {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 0.7247 and 0.7115 in the Parana and Uruguay rivers, respectively. The relatively radiogenic Nd and non radiogenic Sr of the Uruguay River as compared to the Parana River could be attributed to a predominance of tholeiitic basalts in the drainage basin. A revisited estimation of the fluxes of Nd considering all South American rivers delivering into the western South and Tropical Atlantic Ocean yields a Nd particulate flux to estuarine water two orders of magnitude higher than the Nd dissolved flux. Considering the net dissolved and suspended fluxes of Nd reaching the Rio de la Plata, we have calculated a resulting {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) equal to -10.2. The computation of {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) of the Rio de la Plata outflow waters gives a value of -8.3, taking into account various removal processes within the estuary. (authors)

  7. Aquatic macrophytes drive sediment stoichiometry and the suspended particulate organic carbon composition of a tropical coastal lagoon Macrófitas aquáticas determinam a estequiometria do sedimento e a composição do carbono orgânico particulado em suspensão de uma lagoa costeira tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Cardoso Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to evaluate (1 the influence of the aquatic macrophytes Typha domingensis Pers., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult. (emergent and Potamogeton stenostachys K. Schum. (submersed on sediment stoichiometry and (2 the contribution of these aquatic macrophytes to organic carbon composition in different compartments of a tropical coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé-RJ; METHODS: The concentration of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P was determined in 2-cm intervals in the first 10 cm of sediment in both littoral and limnetic regions. In the littoral region, the sediment was collected in three different sites: T. domingensis, E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. In order to know the pathways of C in Cabiunas lagoon, the isotopic signature (δ13C of restinga terrestrial vegetation, zooplankton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, dissolved and suspended material on water were evaluated; RESULTS: The concentrations of C and N in the sediment of the E. interstincta and T. domingensis stands were significantly higher than in the sediment of the limnetic region. The concentration of phosphorus in the sediment colonized by T. domingensis was higher than in the limnetic region and in P. stenostachys stand. The highest molar C:P ratios were found in E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. The highest N:P ratios were also found in the littoral region. Carbon stable isotopic analysis (δ13C signatures showed that a majority of the particulate organic carbon (POC in the water column had aquatic macrophyte tissues origin; CONCLUSIONS: Emergent macrophytes strongly contribute to nutrient enrichment of the sediment of Cabiúnas lagoon. In general, macrophyte detritus alters the littoral region sediment stoichiometry and quality for decomposers, by accumulating much more C in relation to N and P when compared to limnetic region. However, macrophytes importance isn't restricted to the sediment once they have a central

  8. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and seasonal variation in snow cover in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator); Harden, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery used in conjunction with the surface-drift cards indicated a southerly flow direction of the central California near surface coastal currents during mid-June 1973. The near-surface currents off northern California and southern Oregon were more complex. Some drift cards were recovered north and some south of their release points; however, the prevalent direction of flow was northerly. General agreement in flow direction of coastal currents obtained from ERTS-1 imagery and drift card data reinforces the image interpretation. Complete seasonal coverage of nearshore circulation interpreted from ERTS-1 imagery will provide information necessary for proper coastal zone management. Extent of snow cover can be readily delimited on ERTS-1 band 5. In the central Sierra Nevada Mountains this past winter season, the snow line, as recorded by ERTS-1, reached an elevation of less than 1500 meters in January but had melted back to between 2500 and 3000 meters by the end of May. ERTS-1 imagery seems to provide sufficient resolution to make it a useful tool for monitoring changes in snow cover in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  9. Particulate organic matter in shelf waters of Prinsesse Asrid Kyst, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    were quite high. The POC in surface waters was linearly correlated with the chlorophyll content. Also PP increased when chlorophyll and primary productivity remained high. The results suggest that the phytoplankton was sharply increasing and contributed...

  10. levels of heavy metals in gubi dam water bauchi, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    rivers to the ocean is in the form of particulate ... B.M. Wufem, Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi. A.Q. Ibrahim ..... Chemistry. Wiley Interscience NY, p. 780. Sukiman, S.B., 1989. The determination of heavy metals in water, suspended materials and sediments from Langat River,.

  11. Heavy metal pollution levels in water and oysters, Saccostrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc) concentrations in mangrove forests were investigated in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster samples from the Mzinga Creek and Ras Dege mangrove stands, Tanzania, using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

  12. Retrieval of total suspended matter (TSM) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration from remote-sensing data for drinking water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Wang, Zongming; Liu, Dianwei; Zhang, Bai; Xu, Jingping; Du, Jia; Li, Linhai; Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuandong

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and total suspended matter (TSM) are major water quality parameters that can be retrieved using remotely sensed data. Water sampling works were conducted on 15 July 2007 and 13 September 2008 concurrent with the Indian Remote-Sensing Satellite (IRS-P6) overpass of the Shitoukoumen Reservoir. Both empirical regression and back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) models were established to estimate Chl-a and TSM concentration with both in situ and satellite-received radiances signals. It was found that empirical models performed well on the TSM concentration estimation with better accuracy (R (2) = 0.94, 0.91) than their performance on Chl-a concentration (R (2) = 0.62, 0.75) with IRS-P6 imagery data, and the models accuracy marginally improved with in situ spectra data. Our results indicated that the ANN model performed better for both Chl-a (R (2) = 0.91, 0.82) and TSM (R (2) = 0.98, 0.94) concentration estimation through in situ collected spectra; the same trend followed for IRS-P6 imagery data (R (2) = 0.75 and 0.90 for Chl-a; R (2) = 0.97 and 0.95 for TSM). The relative root mean square errors (RMSEs) from the empirical model for TSM (Chl-a) were less than 15% (respectively 27.2%) with both in situ and IRS-P6 imagery data, while the RMSEs were less than 7.5% (respectively 18.4%) from the ANN model. Future work still needs to be undertaken to derive the dynamic characteristic of Shitoukoumen Reservoir water quality with remotely sensed IRS-P6 or Landsat-TM data. The algorithms developed in this study will also need to be tested and refined with more imagery data acquisitions combined with in situ spectra data.

  13. Removal of antibiotics from water in the coexistence of suspended particles and natural organic matters using amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shuying [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Zhen, E-mail: yangzhen@njnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ren, Kexin [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tian, Ziqi [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dong, Chang; Ma, Ruixue; Yu, Ge [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Weiben, E-mail: yangwb007@njnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Novel amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants are employed to remove antibiotics. • Effects of different structures of amino acids and antibiotics are investigated. • Correlation analysis shows coexisted kaolin and HA have synergistic removal effect. • Theoretical DFT calculation clarifies the interactions in molecular level. - Abstract: Contamination of trace antibiotics is widely found in surface water sources. This work delineates removal of trace antibiotics (norfloxacin (NOR), sulfadiazine (SDZ) or tylosin (TYL)) from synthetic surface water by flocculation, in the coexistence of inorganic suspended particles (kaolin) and natural organic matter (humic acid, HA). To avoid extra pollution caused by petrochemical products-based modification reagents, environmental-friendly amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants, Ctrp and Ctyr, with different functional aromatic-rings structures were employed. Jar tests at various pHs exhibited that, Ctyr, owning phenol groups as electron donors, was favored for elimination of cationic NOR (∼50% removal; optimal pH: 6; optimal dosage: 4 mg/L) and TYL (∼60% removal; optimal pH: 7; optimal dosage: 7.5 mg/L), due to π–π electron donator-acceptor (EDA) effect and unconventional H-bonds. Differently, Ctrp with indole groups as electron acceptor had better removal rate (∼50%) of SDZ anions (electron donator). According to correlation analysis, the coexisted kaolin and HA played positive roles in antibiotics’ removal. Detailed pairwise interactions in molecular level among different components were clarified by spectral analysis and theoretical calculations (density functional theory), which are important for both the structural design of new flocculants aiming at targeted contaminants and understanding the environmental behaviors of antibiotics in water.

  14. Water-quality assessment of the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit; analysis of available data on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides, 1972-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc James; Grady, S.J.; Trench, E.C.; Flanagan, S.M.; Nielsen, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This retrospective report examines available nutrient, suspended sediment, and pesticide data in surface and ground water in the Connecticut, Housatonic and Thames Rivers Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of this study is to improve the under- standing of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality in the study unit. Water-quality data were acquired from various sources, primarily, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report examines data for water years 1972-92, focusing on 1980-92, although it also includes additional data from as early as 1905. The study unit lies within the New England Physiographic Province and altitudes range from sea level in coastal Connecticut to 6,288 feet above sea level at Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Two major aquifer types underlie the study unit--unconsolidated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock. The climate generally is temperate and humid, with four distinct seasons. Average annual precipitation ranges from 34 to 65 inches. The study unit has a population of about 4.5 million, which is most highly concentrated in southwestern Connecticut and along the south-central region of the Connecticut River Valley. Surface-water-quality data were screened to provide information about sites with adequate numbers of analyses (50) over sufficiently long periods (1980-90) to enable valid statistical analyses. In order to compare effects of different types of land use on surface-water quality, examination of data required application of several statistical and graphical techniques, including mapping, histograms, boxplots, concentration-discharge plots, trend analysis, and load estimation. Spatial and temporal analysis of surface-water-quality data indicated that, with a single exception, only/stations in the Connecticut water-quality network had sufficient data collected over adequately long time periods to use in detailed analyses. Ground-water

  15. Particulates and the cycling of lead in Ullswater, Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everard, M.; Denny, P.

    1985-04-01

    Ullswater has been affected by former lead mining in the catchment area. An attempt is made to investigate how lead in the lake is re-distributed within the littoral zones. Concentrations in the lakewater are low particulates including phytoplankton, seston and gelatinous ooze overlying lead-enriched sediments can be values from 1.3 to >6.0 and 26 mg Pb g/sup -1/ dry weight respectively. During turbulent conditions, contaminated phytoplankton, settled algae and some of the gelatinous ooze are brought in to near-homogenous suspension within the water column. In calm conditions, settlement of particulates occurs and a rate-zonal distribution results such that, in a vertical column of water, the finer particles in the upper layers have lower concentrations of lead per unit volume of water than the lower layers. In non-turbulent conditions, the particles which settle on all submerged surfaces form a tenuous layer termed ecton. Aufwuchs becomes coated by ecton but the latter is readily re-suspended by disturbances. The intimate contact, and the similarity of concentrations of lead in Aufwuchs and ecton from any one sample, suggests that metal flux occurs between the two. It is concluded that the variety of particulates which comprise the ecton distribute lead during turbulence. In calm conditions the ecton settles on all submerged surfaces and provides a mechanism for transfer of lead into the littoral food web.

  16. Spatial Variability of Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Particulate Material from Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human encroachment on the coastal zone has led to a rise in the delivery of nitrogen (N) to estuarine and near-shore waters. Potential routes of anthropogenic N inputs include export from estuaries, atmospheric deposition, and dissolved N inputs from groundwater outflow. Stable...

  17. Tropical river suspended sediment and solute dynamics in storms during an extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn E.; Shanley, James B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Perdrial, Julia N.; Plante, Alain F.; McDowell, William H.

    2017-05-01

    Droughts, which can strongly affect both hydrologic and biogeochemical systems, are projected to become more prevalent in the tropics in the future. We assessed the effects of an extreme drought during 2015 on stream water composition in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. We demonstrated that drought base flow in the months leading up to the study was sourced from trade-wind orographic rainfall, suggesting a resistance to the effects of an otherwise extreme drought. In two catchments (Mameyes and Icacos), we sampled a series of four rewetting events that partially alleviated the drought. We collected and analyzed dissolved constituents (major cations and anions, organic carbon, and nitrogen) and suspended sediment (inorganic and organic matter (particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen)). The rivers appeared to be resistant to extreme drought, recovering quickly upon rewetting, as (1) the concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships deviated little from the long-term patterns; (2) "new water" dominated streamflow during the latter events; (3) suspended sediment sources had accumulated in the channel during the drought flushed out during the initial events; and (4) the severity of the drought, as measured by the US drought monitor, was reduced dramatically after the rewetting events. Through this interdisciplinary study, we were able to investigate the impact of extreme drought through rewetting events on the river biogeochemistry.

  18. Efficacy of pressure-assisted thermal processing, in combination with organic acids, against Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores suspended in deionized water and carrot puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratphitagsanti, Wannasawat; De Lamo-Castellvi, Silvia; Balasubramaniam, V M; Yousef, Ahmed Elmeleigy

    2010-01-01

    Effect of organic acids (acetic, citric, and lactic; 100 mM, pH 5) on spore inactivation by pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP; 700 MPa and 105 degrees C), high pressure processing (HPP; 700 MPa, 35 degrees C), and thermal processing (TP; 105 degrees C, 0.1 MPa) was investigated. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores were inoculated into sterile organic acid solutions to obtain a final concentration of approximately 1.3 x 10(8) CFU/mL. B. amyloliquefaciens spores were inactivated to undetectable levels with or without organic acids after 3 min PATP holding time. At a shorter PATP treatment time (approximately 2 min), the inactivation was greater when spores were suspended in citric and acetic acids than in lactic acid or deionized water. Presence of organic acids during PATP resulted in 33% to 80% germination in the population of spores that survived the treatment. In contrast to PATP, neither HPP nor TP, for up to 5 min holding time with or without addition of organic acids, was sporicidal. In a separate set of experiments, carrot puree was tested, as a low-acid food matrix, to study spore recovery during extended storage following PATP. Results showed that organic acids were effective in inhibiting spore recovery in treated carrot puree during extended storage (up to 28 d) at 32 degrees C. In conclusion, addition of some organic acids provided significant lethality enhancement (P puree.

  19. Modelling of suspended matter transport and turnover in biofilters for waste water treatment; Modellierung von Stofftransport und -umsatz in Biofiltern zur Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telgmann, U. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Horn, H. [Fachhochschule Magdeburg (Germany). Hydro- und Abfallchemie

    1999-07-01

    Essential elements of the presented model for biofilters are suspended matter transfer in the boundary layer water/biofilm, the gradient of concentration for substrate turnover in the biofilm with limited diffusion, and the gradient of concentration and biomass distribution both in the biofilm and over the height of the reactor. Problematic in biofilm modelling is linking the turnover of substrate in the biofilm affixed to the carrier material with changes in concentration along the reactor height. This means that concentration profiles need to be calculated both in the biofilm and over the height of the reactor. The presented model describes substrate turnover in the biofilm by means of a Monod kinetics, and diffusive suspended matter transport with the aid of Fick's second law. The change in concentration over the filter bed height is taken into account by dividing the reactor volume into five complete-mixing segments. Further elements of modelling are biomass production and the corresponding discharge from the biofilter. In exemplary manner, a biofilter for downstream denitrification with methanol was modelled and the results were compared with measurements taken at a semi-technical pilot plant. (orig.) [German] Wesentliche Elemente des hier vorgestellten Modells fuer Biofilter sind der Stoffuebergang in der Grenzschicht Wasser/Biofilm, der Konzentrationsgradient beim diffusionslimitierten Substratumsatz im Biofilm, der Konzentrationsgradient und die Biomasseverteilung sowohl im Biofilm als auch ueber die Reaktorhoehe. Problematik bei der Modellierung eines Biofilms ist die Verknuepfung von Substratumsatz in dem auf dem Traegermaterial haftenden Biofilm mit der Konzentrationsveraenderung entlang der Reaktorhoehe. Die Konzentrationsprofile muessen also sowohl im Biofilm als auch ueber die Reaktorhoehe berechnet werden. Im praesentierten Modell wird der Substratumsatz im Biofilm mit einer Monodkinetik und der diffusive Stofftransport mit Hilfe des 2. Fick

  20. Removal of Particulate Matter in a Tubular Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Using a Water Collection Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Hee-Jung; Hwang, You-Seong; Kim, Hyeok-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    As one of the effective control devices of air pollutants, the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is an effective technique to eliminate acid mist and fine particles that are re-entrained in a collection electrode. However, its collection efficiency can deteriorate, as its operation is subject to water-induced corrosion of the collection electrode. To overcome this drawback, we modified the wet ESP system with the installation of a PVC dust precipitator wherein water is supplied as a replacement of the collection electrode. With this modification, we were able to construct a compact wet ESP with a small specific collection area (SCA, 0.83 m2/(m3/min)) that can acquire a high collection efficiency of fine particles (99.7%). PMID:22577353

  1. Characterization of atmospheric particulate and metallic elements at Taichung Harbor near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Lin, Jum-Bo; Lin, Chi-Kwong; Rau, Jui-Yeh; Huang, Shih-Han

    2006-06-01

    Air aerosol samples for TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)), fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter metallic elements were collected during March 2004 to January 2005 at TH (Taichung Harbor) in central Taiwan. The seasonal variation average concentration of TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) and fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter metallic elements Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during spring. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Pb, Cr and Mg in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during winter. The average metallic element TSP (total suspended particulate) concentration order was Fe>Zn>Mg>Cu>Cr>Mn>Pb in spring. In addition, at the TH sampling site, the average concentration variation of TSP (total suspended particulate) displayed the following order: spring>winter>autumn>summer. However, the average concentration variation of coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) displayed the following order: spring>winter>summer>autumn. Finally, the average concentration variations of fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter spring>summer>autumn at the TH sample site.

  2. Particulate air pollution, with emphasis on traffic generated aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    constitute each about 5 wt-% of the collected suspended particulate matter in inner city air. The particle size distribution shows that 92 % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 µm. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about 1 µm for the bitumen particles...

  3. An extensive study of the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in various river systems and their relationship with catchment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Matsuura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    An extensive investigation of particulate radiocaesium in suspended solids and dissolved radiocaesium in river water was undertaken at 30 sites in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures in December 2012, and their relationships with catchment inventory and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (Kd) were evaluated. Rivers located in the coastal region on the north side of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exhibited relatively higher particulate radiocaesium concentrations. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium and average catchment inventories, indicating that the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium could be approximated from the catchment inventory. Particulate radiocaesium concentration was significantly correlated with dissolved radiocaesium concentration (with the exception of concentrations measured in estuaries), and the geometric mean Kd was calculated as 3.6 × 10(5) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.6-5.1 × 10(5). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suspended matter and fluid mud off Alleppey, southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V. Purnachandra; Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.; Babu, M. T.; Dineshkumar, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Time series measurements on suspended particulate matter (SPM) were made at one non-mud bank (M1) and two mud bank stations (M2 and M3) off Alleppey, south west coast of India. The mean SPM was low in surface (6.2 mg/l) and mid-depth (3.7 mg/l) waters and higher in bottom-depth waters (24.6 mg/l) of these stations, during both pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Near bed suspended sediment results indicated low SPM during July (0.042 g/l) and September (0.018 g/l) at M1, but very high SPM at M2 (9.2 g/l) and M3 (6.2 g/l) during July that decreased (M2: 0.033 g/l; M3: 0.1 g/l) again in September. Observations based on LISST-25X indicated that optical transmission (OT) was high (80-100%) in surface and mid-depth waters but decreased with increasing depth. Near bed waters at M2 and M3 stations showed ∼1 m thick fluid layer with 0% OT and with high particle volume concentrations (150-200 μl/l) during monsoon. Bottom sediments were clayey silts. Sediments of fluid mud close to the bottom at M2 and M3 stations. As the wave height decreased from ∼3 m in May to 0.76 m in July, the dissipated wave energy probably liquefied, eroded and re-suspended the bottom sediment to form fluid mud. Upwelling currents may have been involved in the up keep and transportation of fluid mud. The suspended mud resettled at the bottom soon after the monsoon event.

  5. Sedimentation of particulate material in stratified and nonstratified water columns in the Bombay high area of the Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sawant, S.S.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Sedimentation of particulate material at 22, 42 and 62 m was recorded at a station in the Bombay High area of the Arabian Sea from September 1985 to March 1986. Diatom numbers and physical structure, especially thermal stratification, played...

  6. Molecular view modeling of atmospheric organic particulate matter: Incorporating molecular structure and co-condensation of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.; Marks, Marguerite C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Asher, William E.; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Most urban and regional models used to predict levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) are based on fundamental equations for gas/particle partitioning, but make the highly simplifying, anonymized-view (AV) assumptions that OPM levels are not affected by either: a) the molecular characteristics of the condensing organic compounds (other than simple volatility); or b) co-condensation of water as driven by non-zero relative humidity (RH) values. The simplifying assumptions have allowed parameterized chamber results for formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g., ;two-product; (2p) coefficients) to be incorporated in chemical transport models. However, a return towards a less simplistic (and more computationally demanding) molecular view (MV) is needed that acknowledges that atmospheric OPM is a mixture of organic compounds with differing polarities, water, and in some cases dissolved salts. The higher computational cost of MV modeling results from a need for iterative calculations of the composition-dependent gas/particle partition coefficient values. MV modeling of OPM that considered water uptake (but not dissolved salts) was carried out for the southeast United States for the period August 29 through September 7, 2006. Three model variants were used at three universities: CMAQ-RH-2p (at PSU), UCD/CIT-RH-2p (at UCD), and CMAQ-RH-MCM (at TAMU). With the first two, MV structural characteristics (carbon number and numbers of functional groups) were assigned to each of the 2p products used in CMAQv.4.7.1 such that resulting predicted Kp,i values matched those in CMAQv.4.7.1. When water uptake was allowed, most runs assumed that uptake occurred only into the SOA portion, and imposed immiscibility of SOA with primary organic aerosol (POA). (POA is often viewed as rather non-polar, while SOA is commonly viewed as moderately-to-rather polar. Some runs with UCD/CIT-RH-2p were used to investigate the effects of POA/SOA miscibility.) CMAQ-RH-MCM used MCM to

  7. Temporal and spatial variability of trace metals in suspended matter of the Mandovi estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, T.G.

    of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) in estuaries are controlled by seasonal changes in inputs from river-end and marine-end members, physico-chemical processes occurring at the mixing zone of freshwater and salt water and biological productivity (Boyden et... al. 1979; Kennedy 1984; Balls 1990; Turner et al. 1991; Burton et al. 1994; Balls et al. 1997; Paucot and Wollast 1997; Zwolsman and van Eck 1999; Nolting et al. 1999; Hatje et al. 2001; Qiao et al. 2007; Kessarkar et al. 2009). Flocculation...

  8. Tropical river suspended sediment and solute dynamics in storms during an extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn E.; Shanley, James B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Perdrial, Julia N.; Plante, Alain F.; McDowell, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Droughts, which can strongly affect both hydrologic and biogeochemical systems, are projected to become more prevalent in the tropics in the future. We assessed the effects of an extreme drought during 2015 on stream water composition in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. We demonstrated that drought base flow in the months leading up to the study was sourced from trade-wind orographic rainfall, suggesting a resistance to the effects of an otherwise extreme drought. In two catchments (Mameyes and Icacos), we sampled a series of four rewetting events that partially alleviated the drought. We collected and analyzed dissolved constituents (major cations and anions, organic carbon, and nitrogen) and suspended sediment (inorganic and organic matter (particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen)). The rivers appeared to be resistant to extreme drought, recovering quickly upon rewetting, as (1) the concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships deviated little from the long-term patterns; (2) “new water” dominated streamflow during the latter events; (3) suspended sediment sources had accumulated in the channel during the drought flushed out during the initial events; and (4) the severity of the drought, as measured by the US drought monitor, was reduced dramatically after the rewetting events. Through this interdisciplinary study, we were able to investigate the impact of extreme drought through rewetting events on the river biogeochemistry.

  9. Suspended-sediment and suspended-sand concentrations and loads for selected streams in the Mississippi River Basin, 1940-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Cline, Teri L.; Glaspie, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data, describes load-estimation techniques used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment loads, and presents annual suspended-sediment loads for 48 streamgaging stations within the Mississippi River Basin. Available published, unpublished, and computed annual total suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads are presented for water years 1940 through 2009. When previously published annual loads were not available, total suspended-sediment and sand loads were computed using available data for water years 1949 through 2009. A table of suspended-sediment concentration and daily mean streamflow data used in the computation of annual loads is presented along with a table of compiled and computed annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads, annual streamflows, and flow-weighted concentrations for the 48 stations.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETER RETRIEVAL ALGORITHMS FOR ESTIMATING TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND CHLOROPHYLL-A CONCENTRATION USING LANDSAT-8 IMAGERY AT POTERAN ISLAND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Laili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Landsat-8 satellite imagery is now highly developed compares to the former of Landsat projects. Both land and water area are possibly mapped using this satellite sensor. Considerable approaches have been made to obtain a more accurate method for extracting the information of water area from the images. It is difficult to generate an accurate water quality information from Landsat images by using some existing algorithm provided by researchers. Even though, those algorithms have been validated in some water area, but the dynamic changes and the specific characteristics of each area make it necessary to get them evaluated and validated over another water area. This paper aims to make a new algorithm by correlating the measured and estimated TSS and Chla concentration. We collected in-situ remote sensing reflectance, TSS and Chl-a concentration in 9 stations surrounding the Poteran islands as well as Landsat 8 data on the same acquisition time of April 22, 2015. The regression model for estimating TSS produced high accuracy with determination coefficient (R2, NMAE and RMSE of 0.709; 9.67 % and 1.705 g/m3 respectively. Whereas, Chla retrieval algorithm produced R2 of 0.579; NMAE of 10.40% and RMSE of 51.946 mg/m3. By implementing these algorithms to Landsat 8 image, the estimated water quality parameters over Poteran island water ranged from 9.480 to 15.801 g/m3 and 238.546 to 346.627 mg/m3 for TSS and Chl-a respectively.

  11. Bio-optical water quality dynamics observed from MERIS in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observed bio-optical water quality data collected from 2009 to 2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida were used to develop empirical remote sensing retrieval algorithms for chlorophyll a (Chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Time-series ...

  12. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of n-Alkanes in Water from Yellow River in Henan Section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing-lan; Xi, Nan-nan; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Shu-hui; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-03-15

    To investigate the distributions and possible sources of n-alkanes in water and suspended particulate matter from Yellow River in Henan section, 26 water and suspended particulate matter samples were collected in August 2010 and 22 n-alkanes (C₁₄-C₃₆) were quantitatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Potential sources of n-alkanes were analyzed using different characteristic parameters. The results indicated that total concentrations of 22 n-alkanes were 521-5,843 ng · L⁻¹ with a mean concentration of 1,409 ng · L⁻¹, while the total amounts of n-alkanes in the suspended particulate matter were 463-11,142 ng · L⁻¹ with a mean value of 1,951 ng · L⁻¹. The composition profiles of n-alkanes in water showed unimodal distribution with a peak at C₂₅ in water. However, the composition characteristics of n-alkanes in SPM were of bimodal type, but still with the advantage of high carbon hydrocarbons peak at C₂₅. Results of characteristic parameters including CPI, TAR, OEP and % WaxCn showed that n-alkanes in the studied area were derived mainly from combustion of fossil fuel, while terrestrial higher plant played a role in the existence of n-alkanes in water and suspended particulate matter from Yellow River in Henan section.

  13. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  14. Particulate organic matter in rivers of Fukushima: An unexpected carrier phase for radiocesiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulier, Maud; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi

    2017-02-01

    The role of particulate organic matter in radiocesium transfers from soils to rivers was investigated in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Suspended and deposited sediments, filtered water, macro organic debris and dead leaves were sampled along the six most contaminated coastal river catchments of the Fukushima prefecture in the early autumns 2013 and 2014. Radiocesium concentrations of river samples and total organic carbon concentrations in suspended and deposited sediments were measured. Radiocesium concentrations of suspended and deposited sediments were significantly correlated to 137Cs inventories in soils and total organic carbon. The distributions of radiocesium between the organic and mineral phases of both types of sediment were assessed by using a modelling approach. The results suggest that, during the early autumn season, the organic fraction was the main phase that carried the radiocesiums in deposited sediments and in suspended sediments for suspended loads Fukushima could be attributed to the high radiocesium contents of particulate organic matter. Since it is well known that organic compounds generally do not significantly adsorb radiocesium onto specific sites, several hypotheses are suggested: 1) Radiocesiums may have been absorbed into organic components at the early stage of atmospheric radioactive deposits and/or later due to biomass recycling and 2) Those elements would be partly carried by glassy hot particles together with organic matter transported by rivers in Fukushima. Both hypotheses would lead to conserve the amount of radiocesiums associated with particles during their transfers from the contaminated areas to the marine environment. Finally, such organically bound radiocesium would lead to significant deliveries of bioavailable radiocesium for living organisms at Fukushima. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal removal via particulate material in a lowland river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Brown, J G; Dee, T J; Hegan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Twelve month surveys of acid-soluble and dissolved trace metal concentrations in the lower Waikato River (in 1998/9 and 2005/6) showed abnormally low particulate Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and mass flux in autumn, when the suspended particulate material (SPM) had a relatively high diatom and organic carbon content, and low Fe and Al content. Dissolved Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations also decreased in autumn, while dissolved Fe and Pb concentrations were unaffected. While SPM settlement under the low river flow conditions present in autumn can explain the removal of particulate metals, it does not explain dissolved metal removal. SPM-metal interaction was therefore investigated using seasonal monitoring data, experimental adsorption studies, sequential extraction and geochemical modelling. Pb binding to SPM occurred predominantly via Fe-oxide surfaces, and could be reliably predicted using surface complexation adsorption modelling. Dissolved Mn concentrations were controlled by the solubility of Mn oxide, but enhanced removal during autumn could be attributed to uptake by diatoms. Zn and Cu were also adsorbed on Fe-oxide in the SPM, but removal from the water column in autumn appeared augmented by Zn adsorption onto Mn-oxide, and Cu adsorption onto the organic extracellular surfaces of the diatoms.

  16. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  17. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  18. Suspended sediment dynamics on a seasonal scale in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Narvekar, T.; Blossom, V.; Mehra, P.

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected at regular stations from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries indicates that the peaks of high SPM coincide with peaks of high rainfall and low salinity and also with peaks of moderate/low rainfall coupled...

  19. Characterization of Particulate Organic Matter in the Water Column and Sediments of the Fly River Delta and Clinoform, Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, M. A.; Monacci, N.; Gisewhite, R.; Clinton, R.; Crockett, J.; Ogston, A.

    2004-12-01

    Suspended particles and surface sediments were collected from the delta and inner topset region of the Fly River clinoform in order to investigate the sources, transport and fate of particular organic matter (POM) in this region. Total suspended sediment concentrations ranged from 1 to 500 mg/L, with the highest values observed near the sea bed and in the shallow region adjacent to the north channel of the Fly Delta. Suspended particles in surface waters displayed organic carbon contents (OC) of 6.1 +/- 1.3 wt. percent, atomic carbon:nitrogen ratios (C/N) of 23 +/- 6.2 and stable carbon compositions (d13C) of -28.0 +/- 0.4 per mil. The suspended particles collected from bottom waters had similar compositions, although the average POC and PN concentrations were almost two orders of magnitude higher within the benthic boundary layer than in the surface plume. Surface seabed sediments from the northeast region of the delta and inner shelf displayed OC contents of 1.0 to 1.4 wt. percent, C/N ratios of 14 to 24 and d13C signatures of -26 to -27 per mil. In contrast, sediments from the southwest region of the delta and inner shelf displayed OC values of 0.4 to 0.8 wt. percent, C/N ratios of 12 to 24 and d13C values of -24 to -25 per mil. Significant contrasts in average lignin phenol yields were also observed between the sediments from the northeast region of the Fly River delta/inner topset (4.8 +/- 0.3 mg/100 mg OC) and those from the southwest region (3.0 +/- 0.4 mg/100 mg OC). Overall these data indicate that the majority of POM in the water column and sediments of this region of the Gulf of Papua originates from terrigenous C3 plant sources, including vascular plant fragments from the delta and soil organic matter from the Fly River drainage basin. The observed spatial contrasts suggest an efficient export of terrigenous POM to the northeast region of the study area and much inputs to the southwest. These results will be discussed in the context of physical forcings

  20. Distribution of dissolved labile and particulate iron and copper in Terra Nova Bay polynya (Ross Sea, Antarctica) surface waters in relation to nutrients and phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaro, Paola; Ianni, Carmela; Massolo, Serena; Abelmoschi, M. Luisa; De Vittor, Cinzia; Frache, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    The distribution of the dissolved labile and of the particulate Fe and Cu together with dissolved oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll a and total particulate matter was investigated in the surface waters of Terra Nova Bay polynya in mid-January 2003. The measurements were conducted within the framework of the Italian Climatic Long-term Interactions of the Mass balance in Antarctica (CLIMA) Project activities. The labile dissolved fraction was operationally defined by employing the chelating resin Chelex-100, which retains free and loosely bound trace metal species. The dissolved labile Fe ranges from below the detection limit (0.15 nM) to 3.71 nM, while the dissolved labile Cu from below the detection limit (0.10 nM) to 0.90 nM. The lowest concentrations for both metals were observed at 20 m depth (the shallowest depth for which metals were measured). The concentration of the particulate Fe was about 5 times higher than the dissolved Fe concentration, ranging from 0.56 to 24.83 nM with an average of 6.45 nM. The concentration of the particulate Cu ranged from 0.01 to 0.71 nM with an average of 0.17 nM. The values are in agreement with the previous data collected in the same area. We evaluated the role of the Fe and Cu as biolimiting metals. The N:dissolved labile Fe ratios (18,900-130,666) would or would not allow a complete nitrate removal, on the basis of the N:Fe requirement ratios that we calculated considering the N:P and the C:P ratios estimated for diatoms. This finding partially agrees with the Si:N ratio that we found (2.29). Moreover we considered a possible influence of the dissolved labile Cu on the Fe uptake process.

  1. Particle Size Characteristics of Fluvial Suspended Sediment in Proglacial Streams, King George Island, South Shetland Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the characterization of particle size distribution of suspended sediment that is transported by streams (Ornithologist Creek, Ecology Glacier Creeks, Petrified Forest Creek, Czech Creek, Vanishing Creek, Italian Creek) in the area of the Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station is presented. During the first period of the summer season, the aforementioned streams are supplied by the melting snow fields, while later on, by thawing permafrost. The water samples were collected from the streams at monthly intervals during the Antarctic summer season (January - March) of 2016. The particle size distribution was measured in the laboratory with a LISST-25X laser diffraction particle size analyser. According to Sequoia Scientific Inc., LISST-25X can measure particle sizes (Sauter Mean Diameter) between 2.50 and 500 μm. The results of particle size measurements were analysed in relation to flow velocity (0.18–0.89 m/s), the cross-sectional parameters of the streams, suspended sediment concentration (0.06–167.22 mg/dm3) and the content of particulate organic matter (9.8–84.85%). Overall, the mean particle size ranged from 28.8 to 136 μm. The grain size of well-sorted sediments ranged from 0.076 to 0.57, with the skewness and kurtosis values varying from -0.1 to 0.4, and from 0.67 to 1.3, respectively. Based on the particle size characteristics of suspended sediment, the streams were divided into two groups. For most of the streams, the sediment was very well sorted, while fine sand and very fine sand were dominant fractions displaying symmetric and platykurtic distributions, respectively. Only in two streams, the suspended sediment consisted of silt-size grains, well or moderately well sorted, with coarse-skewness and mostly mesokurtic distribution. The C-M chart suggested that the transportation processes of suspended sediment included the suspended mode only. The grain-size distribution of suspended sediment was mainly influenced by the stream runoff

  2. Rapidly changing distribution of velocity and suspended materials under the drifting Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Im, Jungho; Kim, Yong Hoon; Yae Son, Eun; Lee, Sanggyun

    2015-04-01

    In two summer seasons of 2011 and 2014, the short-term (1-4 days) ice-camp study has been conducted on the drifting Arctic sea ice. In particular, in 2014, the international collaboration with the Marginal Ice Zone program (sponsored by Office of Naval Research) has been integrated. The mooring package comprises the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler, holographic imaging camera, and conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, which are used to understand the dynamic behavior of sea ice and spatial-temporal variation of mixing layer (ML) and suspended particulate matters under the sea ice. Mooring data clearly shows the mixing and entrainment pattern in the upper ML in the marginal ice zone. When ice floes drift toward the pack ice, the upward entrainment from the seasonal pycnocline to sea ice-water boundary was induced by shear across ML and seasonal pycnocline. The entrainment speed was in the range of 0.25-2 m/hr, which matches well with thickening and thinning rate of ML during the near-inertial period (~12 hr). When ice floes drift toward the open ocean, the turbulent wakes at the advancing edge of ice were combined with the entrainment caused by near-inertial motion, which results in a complex mixing pattern of both upward and downward fluxes in the ML. Also, the acoustic backscatter observed by the acoustic Doppler current profiler and beam attenuation from transmissometer revealed the increased concentration of suspended particulate materials in the ML, which can be direct evidence visualizing the mixing pattern. Results suggest that the mixing and entrainment found in our study sustain particulate matters in suspension within the upper ML for a few months.

  3. Characterization of water quality and suspended sediment during cold-season flows, warm-season flows, and stormflows in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, 2007–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa D.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2017-09-01

    From 2007 through 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, conducted a study in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, to characterize surface-water quality and suspended-sediment conditions for three different streamflow regimes with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Data collected during this study were used to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent discharge on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality samples were collected at 2 sites on Upper Fountain Creek, 2 sites on Monument Creek, 3 sites on Lower Fountain Creek, and 13 tributary sites during 3 flow regimes: cold-season flow (November–April), warm-season flow (May–October), and stormflow from 2007 through 2015. During 2015, additional samples were collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli (E. coli) during dry weather conditions at 41 sites, located in E. coli impaired stream reaches, to help identify source areas and scope of the impairment.Concentrations of E. coli, total arsenic, and dissolved copper, selenium, and zinc in surface-water samples were compared to Colorado in-stream standards. Stormflow concentrations of E. coli frequently exceeded the recreational use standard of 126 colonies per 100 milliliters at main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. Even though median E. coli concentrations in warm-season flow samples were lower than median concentrations in storm-flow samples, the water quality standard for E. coli was still exceeded at most main-stem sites and many tributary sites during warm-season flows. Six samples (three warm-season flow and three stormflow samples) collected from Upper Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence of Monument Creek, and two stormflow samples collected from Lower Fountain Creek, downstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, exceeded the acute water

  4. Turbulence control of suspended matter aggregate size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Rippeth, T. P.; Simpson, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    The size and properties of the aggregates which comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM) change on short time and length scales in shelf seas. There is experimental and theoretical evidence to suggest that turbulence plays a key role in aggregation but there is contradictory evidence with respect to disaggregation: it has been proposed that sinking stresses, rather than turbulent stresses, are the dominant control of disaggregation. But there is little observational evidence for turbulence control of particle properties. New observations are presented which provide compelling evidence for turbulence control of both aggregation and disaggregation. TKE dissipation and particle size were measured in situ at stratified sites in the northern North Sea in 110 m water depth during the period of weakening of the seasonal thermocline (in October/November) and in the Clyde Sea in 55 m water depth (April). There were similar vertical distributions of TKE dissipation E, SPM concentration C, and particle size D at both sites. At the base of the thermocline, there were minima in E and C, but a maximum in D, indicating that enhanced aggregation was occurring in this region of low turbulent stress. In the bottom mixed layer, E and C increased, while D decreased due to disaggregation in this region of increasing turbulent stress towards the seabed. Particles settling out of the low stress region at the base of the thermocline began to disaggregate when E increased to 3.2x10-6 watts m-2. D did not correlate directly with E because aggregation is a function of collision frequency (and hence of both C and E): this can be accounted for using a simplified theoretical aggregation model which treats flocs as self-similar fractal entities and allows simultaneous floc formation and break up, specified as functions of C and E. It was found that in the northern North Sea the measured D represents an equilibrium size predicted by the model, while in the Clyde Sea tidal variation in both C

  5. Seasonal and spatial variability of light absorption by suspended particles in the southern Baltic: A mathematical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meler, Justyna; Ostrowska, Mirosława; Stoń-Egiert, Joanna; Zabłocka., Monika

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between the light absorption coefficients at 440 nm ap(440) for particles suspended in the surface waters of the southern Baltic Sea and the concentrations of some optically significant constituents in these waters. The analysis covers two main groups of particles: phytoplankton and non-algal. For this purpose we use the extensive database of optical measurements acquired from 2006 to 2013 during 40 cruises of r/v Oceania in various regions of the southern Baltic: open waters, coastal waters, the Gulf of Gdańsk, the Pomeranian Bay and river mouths. Expressions are derived for each of these regions to describe the seasonal variations of the dependence of the light absorption coefficients for phytoplankton aph(440) and non-algal particles aNAP(440) on concentrations of chlorophyll a (Tchla) and suspended particulate matter in sea water (SPM). With a knowledge of these dependences, one can determine the overall absorption coefficient for all suspended particles in any part of the Baltic Sea in particular seasons from known Tchla and SPM concentrations using the relationship ap(440) = aph(440) + aNAP(440) = f(Tchla, SPM). These dependences reflect the characteristics of a study area and season, and their application increases the accuracy of determination of the overall absorption properties of suspended particles and their main constituents as confirmed by statistical error reduction, e.g. standard error factor falls from 1.46 to 1.38. The relationships derived in this work can be applied in the local remote sensing algorithms used for monitoring the southern Baltic.

  6. Suspended sediment profiles derived from spectral attenuation coefficients measurements using neural network method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, G.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Kamath, S.S.

    total suspended matter values from water samples obtained at discrete depths at the same location. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been used to derive suspended matter from the spectral values of beam attenuation coefficients measured using...

  7. The spectral optical properties and relative radiant heating contribution of dissolved and particulate matter in the surface waters across the Fram Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin

    (RHR) of the upper layer were obtained using a simplistic exponential RHR model. This is one of the first detailed overviews of sea water optical properties across the northern Fram Strait, and might have potential implications for biological, biogeochemical and physical processes in the region......The Fram Strait is the key region for exchange processes between Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic. With two major near-surface currents, the warm and salty West Spitsbergen Current and cold low-salinity East Greenland Current, its waters encompass two distinct oceanographic environments. During...... autumns of 2009 and 2010 comprehensive observations were performed on transects along 79 N across the Fram Strait. Samples for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate absorption were collected and analyzed together with distribution of temperature and salinity in surface waters (0...

  8. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  9. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  10. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  11. LEVELS OF As, Pb, Cd AND Fe IN SUSPENDED PARTICULATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    elements were observed in Motor Spray Painting (MSP),8528±389 g/m3 and Welding and Panel- beating (WDP) workshops, 11086.8±10644 g/m3. The calculated enrichment factor revealed Cd to be highly enriched in Battery Maintenance and Charging (BMC) and MSP. The enrichment factor of all the elements suggests ...

  12. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cycle (McCarthy et al 1997). The distribution and cycling of AS in sedimenting particles and marine sediments have been well documented (Belluomini et al 1986; Haake et al 1992; Jennerjahn and. Ittekkot 1997; Hashimoto et al 1998; Gupta and. Kawahata 2000). Conversely, little is known about the distribution of AS in the ...

  13. Cable suspended windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  14. Depth-integrated suspended sediment and geochemical fluxes in large rivers: the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, J.; Lupker, M.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Maurice, L.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion and weathering produce a wide range of residual solid products, in terms of size, density, mineralogy and chemical composition. These solid products are then transported by rivers from the continents to the oceans as suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bedload. Large rivers account for an important part of this transfer of sediments at the global scale. In those rivers, deep channels allow for vertical differentiation, or sorting, of suspended sediment, following their size and density. This hydrodynamic sorting results in vertically heterogeneous depth-profiles in terms of SPM concentration and size distribution (e.g. Garcia, 2008), which in turn likely result in an heterogeneous chemical composition of SPM throughout channel depth (e.g. Galy, 2007), which has to be evaluated. We sampled river water of the main tributaries of the Amazon River system (in the lowland basin), at two distinct water-stages, at various depths following depth-profiles, using a point depth-sampler. After filtration, and SPM recovery, SPM concentration, grain size distribution and chemical composition were determined. River discharge and water velocity throughout the sampled cross-sections were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The large increase in SPM concentration with depth observed at most of the sampled depth-profiles is well accounted for by the Rouse model (e.g. Rouse, 1950). This analysis allows us to reliably infer the SPM concentration and grain size distribution throughout the sampled river cross-section, and thus to estimate the spatially-integrated instantaneous SPM flux using ADCP data (Bouchez et al., 2010). The study also emphasizes the potential role of particle aggregation, within the river system, as a complicating factor regarding the prediction of these depth-integrated SPM fluxes from easily measurable hydrodynamic parameters (surface SPM concentration and grain size, and water velocity). Then, using the previous analysis, combined

  15. Precipitation, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data for the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, Colorado, 1966–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.

    2017-08-03

    The U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson (AGFC) and the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS) are facilities operated by the U.S. Department of the Army in southern Colorado. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, established a hydrologic and water-quality data-collection network at the AGFC in June 1978 and at the PCMS in October 1982. The data-collection networks are designed to assess the quantity and quality of water resources and monitor the effects of military training activities on streamflow and water quality. Two preexisting U.S. Geological Survey streamgages at the PCMS were incorporated into the data-collection network at the time it was established, providing periods of record that begin as early as 1966. This report presents and summarizes precipitation, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data from 34 U.S. Geological Survey sites on or near the AGFC and the PCMS for the period of record at each site. (Streamflow data are presented as discharge in cubic feet per second.)At AGFC, daily sum precipitation ranged from 0 to 11.85 inches, daily mean discharge ranged from 0 to 836 cubic feet per second, and daily mean suspended-sediment discharge ranged from 0 to 39,900 tons per day. With the exception of total (unfiltered) mercury and filtered sulfate at two sites and filtered manganese at three sites, 95th percentile trace element concentrations and median total (unfiltered) metal concentrations were less than regulatory numeric standards for all samples. However, individual water-quality results occasionally exceeded respective regulatory numeric standards.At the PCMS, daily sum precipitation ranged from 0 to 4.59 inches, daily mean discharge ranged from 0 to 4,190 cubic feet per second, and daily mean suspended-sediment discharge ranged from 0 to 21,100 tons per day. Water-quality results, 95th percentile trace element concentrations, and median total (unfiltered) metal concentrations were less than

  16. Spatial and tidal variation in food supply to shallow cold-water coral reefs of the Mingulay Reef complex (Outer Hebrides, Scotland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, G.C.A.; Jeffreys, R.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Davies, A.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Watmough, T.; Witbaard, R.

    2012-01-01

    The finding of a previously undescribed cold-water coral reef (Banana Reef) in the Scottish Mingulay reef complex, with denser coverage of living Lophelia pertusa than the principal Mingulay 1 Reef, was the incentive for a comparative study of the food supply to the 2 reefs. Suspended particulate

  17. A Seasonally Robust Empirical Algorithm to Retrieve Suspended Sediment Concentrations in the Scheldt River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Raymaekers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A seasonally robust algorithm for the retrieval of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM in the Scheldt River from hyperspectral images is presented. This algorithm can be applied without the need to simultaneously acquire samples (from vessels and pontoons. Especially in dynamic environments such as estuaries, this leads to a large reduction of costs, both in equipment and personnel. The algorithm was established empirically using in situ data of the water-leaving reflectance obtained over the tidal cycle during different seasons and different years. Different bands and band combinations were tested. Strong correlations were obtained for exponential relationships between band ratios and SPM concentration. The best performing relationships are validated using airborne hyperspectral data acquired in June 2005 and October 2007 at different moments in the tidal cycle. A band ratio algorithm (710 nm/596 nm was successfully applied to a hyperspectral AHS image of the Scheldt River to obtain an SPM concentration map.

  18. Suspended Matter, Chl-a, CDOM, Grain Sizes, and Optical Properties in the Arctic Fjord-Type Estuary, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland During Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Andersen, T. J.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2010-01-01

    Optical constituents as suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll (Chl-a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and grain sizes were obtained on a transect in the arctic fjord-type estuary Kangerlussuaq (66A degrees) in August 2007 along with optical properties. These comprised diffuse...... attenuation coefficient of downwelling PAR (K (d)(PAR)), upwelling PAR (K (u)(PAR)), particle beam attenuation coefficient (c (p)), and irradiance reflectance R(-0, PAR). PAR is white light between 400 and 700 nm. The estuary receives melt water from the Greenland Inland Ice and stations covered a transect...

  19. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-02

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs ( 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples.

  20. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  1. Characterization of dissolved and particulate phases of water accommodated fractions used to conduct aquatic toxicity testing in support of the Deepwater Horizon natural resource damage assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Heather P; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Morris, Jeffrey M; Lay, Claire R; Lipton, Joshua

    2017-06-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Natural Resource Trustees implemented a toxicity testing program that included 4 different Deepwater Horizon oils that ranged from fresh to weathered, and 3 different oil-in-water preparation methods (including one that used the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500) to prepare a total of 12 chemically unique water accommodated fractions (WAFs). We determined how the different WAF preparation methods, WAF concentrations, and oil types influenced the chemical composition and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the dissolved and particulate phases over time periods used in standard toxicity tests. In WAFs prepared with the same starting oil and oil-to-water ratio, the composition and concentration of the dissolved fractions were similar across all preparation methods. However, these similarities diverged when dilutions of the 3 WAF methods were compared. In WAFs containing oil droplets, we found that the dissolved phase was a small fraction of the total PAH concentration for the high-concentration stock WAFs; however, the dissolved phase became the dominant fraction when it was diluted to lower concentrations. Furthermore, decreases in concentration over time were mainly related to surfacing of the larger oil droplets. The initial mean diameters of the droplets were approximately 5 to 10 μm, with a few droplets larger than 30 μm. After 96 h, the mean droplet size decreased to 3 to 5 μm, with generally all droplets larger than 10 μm resurfacing. These data provide a detailed assessment of the concentration and form (dissolved vs particulate) of the PAHs in our WAF exposures, measurements that are important for determining the effects of oil on aquatic species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1460-1472. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. A preliminary assessment of the spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment in the Ohio River basin, United States, using water quality data from the NASQAN programme in a source tracing procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.-S.; Collins, A.L.; Horowitz, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable information on catchment scale suspended sediment sources is required to inform the design of management strategies for helping abate the numerous environmental issues associated with enhanced sediment mobilization and off-site loadings. Since sediment fingerprinting techniques avoid many of the logistical constraints associated with using more traditional indirect measurement methods at catchment scale, such approaches have been increasingly reported in the international literature and typically use data sets collected specifically for sediment source apportionment purposes. There remains scope for investigating the potential for using geochemical data sets assembled by routine monitoring programmes to fingerprint sediment provenance. In the United States, routine water quality samples are collected as part of the US Geological Survey's revised National Stream Quality Accounting Network programme. Accordingly, the geochemistry data generated from these samples over a 10-year period (1996-2006) were used as the basis for a fingerprinting exercise to assess the key tributary sub-catchment spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment transported by the Ohio River. Uncertainty associated with the spatial source estimates was quantified using a Monte Carlo approach in conjunction with mass balance modelling. Relative frequency weighted means were used as an alternative way of summarizing the spatial source contributions, thereby avoiding the need to use confidence limits. The results should be interpreted in the context of the routine, but infrequent nature, of the suspended sediment samples used to assemble geochemistry as a basis for the sourcing exercise. Nonetheless, the study demonstrates how routine monitoring samples can be used to provide some preliminary information on sediment provenance in large drainage basins. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment from the Susquehanna River Basin to the Chesapeake Bay during Tropical Storm Lee, September 2011, as an indicator of the effects of reservoir sedimentation on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment are measured at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at Conowingo Dam at the downstream end of the Susquehanna River Basin in Maryland, where the river flows into the Chesapeake Bay. During the period September 7-15, 2011, in the aftermath of Tropical Storm Lee, concentrations of these three constituents were among the highest ever measured at this site. These measurements indicate that sediment-storage processes behind the three dams on the lower Susquehanna River are evolving. In particular, they indicate that scouring of sediment (and the nitrogen and phosphorus attached to that sediment) may be increasing with time. Trends in flow-normalized fluxes at the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland, streamgage during 1996-2011 indicate a 3.2-percent decrease in total nitrogen, but a 55-percent increase in total phosphorus and a 97-percent increase in suspended sediment. These large increases in the flux of phosphorus and sediment from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay have occurred despite reductions in the fluxes of these constituents from the Susquehanna River watershed upstream from the reservoirs. Although the Tropical Storm Lee flood event contributed about 1.8 percent of the total streamflow from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay over the past decade (water years 2002-11), it contributed about 5 percent of the nitrogen, 22 percent of the phosphorus, and 39 percent of the suspended sediment during the same period. These results highlight the importance of brief high-flow events in releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment derived from the Susquehanna River watershed and stored in the Conowingo Reservoir to the Chesapeake Bay.

  4. Particulate accumulations in the vital organs of wild Brevoortia patronus from the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J; Olson, Gregory; Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R

    2015-11-01

    Histopathologic lesions were observed in the commercially important filter-feeding fish, Brevoortia patronus (Gulf menhaden), along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Menhaden collected from Louisiana waters in 2011 and 2012, 1 and 2 years following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, showed varying severities of gill lesions as well as an unusual accumulation of black particulates visible at necropsy in the heart and stomach vasculature. The PAH derived particulates were typically 1-4 µm in diameter, but larger aggregates were observed in the coronary vessels on the ventricle surfaces and their location and size was confirmed by light microscopy. Composited particulate composition was consistent with weathered petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures based on GC-MS analysis. Particulates were present in 63 and 80% of fish hearts and 70 and 89% of stomach muscularis collected in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Tissue embedded particulates can lead to localized cellular damage from bioavailable compounds, as well as chronic effects from occlusion of sensitive tissues' blood flow. The PAH derived particulates appeared to act as emboli in small capillaries, and could associated with localized inflammation, focal necrosis and inappropriate collagen and fibroblast tissue repair. We believe large volume filter feeding teleosts, such as menhaden (up to 3 million gallons per year/fish) with high lipid content, have a higher exposure risk and greater potential for toxicity from toxic particulates than other higher trophic level finfish. Suspended PAH derived particulates following an oil spill therefore, should be considered when assessing long-term ecological impacts and not be limited to physical contact (coating) or water soluble fractions for assessing toxicity (gill and neurologic).

  5. Distribution and origin of suspended matter and organic carbon pools in the Tana River Basin, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tamooh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya, in February 2008 (dry season, September–November 2009 (wet season, and June–July 2010 (end of wet season, covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent downstream increase in total suspended matter (TSM, 0.6 to 7058 mg l−1 and particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.23 to 119.8 mg l−1 was observed during all three sampling campaigns, particularly pronounced below 1000 m above sea level, indicating that most particulate matter exported towards the coastal zone originated from the mid and low altitude zones rather than from headwater regions. This indicates that the cascade of hydroelectrical reservoirs act as an extremely efficient particle trap. Although 7Be / 210Pbxs ratios/age of suspended sediment do not show clear seasonal variation, the gradual downstream increase of suspended matter during end of wet season suggests its origin is caused by inputs of older sediments from bank erosion and/or river sediment resuspension. During wet season, higher TSM concentrations correspond with relatively young suspended matter, suggesting a contribution from recently eroded material. With the exception of reservoir waters, POC was predominantly of terrestrial origin as indicated by generally high POC : chlorophyll a (POC : Chl a ratios (up to ~41 000. Stable isotope signatures of POC (δ13CPOC ranged between −32 and −20‰ and increased downstream, reflecting an increasing contribution of C4-derived carbon in combination with an expected shift in δ13C for C3 vegetation towards the more semi-arid lowlands. δ13C values in sediments from the main reservoir (−19.5 to −15.7‰ were higher than those found in any of the riverine samples, indicating selective retention of particles associated with C4

  6. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  7. The Use of Water Plants for Storm Water Runoff Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Varneckaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of using water plants for storm water runoff treatment has been largely due to the fact that pond and wetland based systems offer the advantages of providing a relatively passive, natural, low-maintenance and operationally simple treatment solution while enhancing habitat and aesthetic values at the same time. While ponds are generally effective at removing coarse suspended sediments, they are less effective at removing finer particulates and dissolved contaminants. To provide enhanced treatment, a wetland can be placed downstream of a pond.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Contributions of nitrated aromatic compounds to the light absorption of water-soluble and particulate brown carbon in different atmospheric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Wang, Michael; Kecorius, Simonas; Wang, Zhibin; Müller, Thomas; Močnik, Griša; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Recently the importance of light absorbing carbon, so-called brown carbon (BrC), on aerosol light absorption properties became more and more evident. The presence of BrC can enhance the light absorption of aerosols and therefore have an impact on the earth climate system. Despite the numerous studies published in the past few years little is known about the molecular composition and sources of BrC or the impact of single organic molecules on the BrC light absorption. The present study aims to deepen the understanding of atmospheric particulate and water soluble BrC by determining the ambient concentrations of eight individual nitrated aromatic compounds (nitrophenols and nitrated salicylic acids), and connecting the obtained chemical information with the light absorption properties of aqueous particle extracts (indicating water soluble BrC) and the overall particulate BrC light absorption. High-volume filter samples were collected during six campaigns, performed at five locations in two seasons: (I) two campaigns with strong influence of biomass burning (BB) aerosol - at the TROPOS institute (winter, 2014, urban background, Leipzig, Germany) and the Melpitz research site (winter, 2014, rural background); (II) two campaigns with strong influence from biogenic emissions - at Melpitz (summer, 2014) and the forest site Waldstein (summer, 2014, Fichtelgebirge, Germany), and (III) two CAREBeijing-NCP campaigns - at Xianghe (summer, 2013, anthropogenic polluted background) and Wangdu (summer, 2014, anthropogenic polluted background with a distinct BB-episode), both in the North China Plain. The light absorption properties of the aqueous particle extracts were determined by UV/Vis spectrometry for the same set of filter samples. Particulate BrC light absorption properties were derived from a seven-wavelength Aethalometer for a subset of these samples. A clear seasonality was observed in the data from the German sites where higher concentrations as well as higher light

  9. Tidal cycles of total particulate mercury in the Jade Bay, lower Saxonian Wadden Sea, southern North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huafang; Liebezeit, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the nature of the relationship between particulate matter and total mercury concentrations. For this purpose, we estimate both of the two values in water column over 12-h tidal cycles of the Jade Bay, southern North Sea. Total particulate mercury in 250 mL water samples was determined by oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation. Mercury contents varied from 63 to 259 ng/g suspended particulate matter (SPM) or 3.5-52.8 ng/L in surface waters. Total particulate mercury content (THg(p)) was positively correlated with (SPM), indicating that mercury in tidal waters is mostly associated with (SPM), and that tidal variations of total particulate mercury are mainly due to changes in (SPM) content throughout the tidal cycle. Maximum values for THg(p) were observed during mid-flood and mid-ebb, while the lowest values were determined at low tide and high tide. These data suggest that there are no mercury point sources in the Jade Bay. Moreover, the THg(p) content at low tide and high tide were significantly lower than the values recorded in the bottom sediment of the sampling site (>200 ng/g DW), while THg(p) content during the mid-flood and mid-ebb were comparable to the THg content in the surface bottom sediments. Therefore, changes in THg(p) content in the water column due to tidal forcing may have resulted from re-suspension of underlying surface sediments with relatively high mercury content.

  10. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  11. Water column distribution and carbon isotopic signal of cholesterol, brassicasterol and particulate organic carbon in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-J. Cavagna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of concentrations and δ13C signatures of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC and sterols provides a powerful approach to study ecological and environmental changes in both the modern and ancient ocean. We applied this tool to study the biogeochemical changes in the modern ocean water column during the BONUS-GoodHope survey (February–March 2008 from Cape Basin to the northern part of the Weddell Gyre. Cholesterol and brassicasterol were chosen as ideal biomarkers of the heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon pools, respectively, because of their ubiquitous and relatively refractory nature. We document depth distributions of concentrations (relative to bulk POC and δ13C signatures of cholesterol and brassicasterol combined with CO2 aq. surface concentration variation. While the relationship between CO2 aq. and δ13C of bulk POC and biomarkers have been reported by others for the surface water, our data show that this persists in mesopelagic and deep waters, suggesting that δ13C signatures of certain biomarkers in the water column could be applied as proxies for surface water CO2 aq. We observed a general increase in sterol δ13C signatures with depth, which is likely related to a combination of particle size effects, selective feeding on larger cells by zooplankton, and growth rate related effects. Our data suggest a key role of zooplankton fecal aggregates in carbon export for this part of the Southern Ocean (SO. Additionally, in the southern part of the transect south of the Polar Front (PF, the release of sea-ice algae during the ice demise in the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ is hypothesized to influence the isotopic signature of sterols in the open ocean. Overall, the combined use of δ13C values and concentrations measurements of both bulk organic C and specific sterols throughout the water column offers the promising potential to explore the recent history of plankton and the fate of organic matter in the SO.

  12. [Distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles of the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cheng-Lin; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Shao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-04-01

    The distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles were investigated in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao estuaries and the coastal area of eastern Hainan in July 2008. The concentrations of metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn) were determined by ICP-AES after microwave digestion. Multivariate statistical methods (e. g. correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to discuss the major factors controlling the variability of heavy metal concentrations and the pollution status in those areas. There was an obvious variability in particulate metal concentrations from upstream to estuary of both rivers. The concentrations first increased with increasing salinity and then decreased with further increase of the salinity; the concentrations were slightly higher at the coastal area in the east. The variability of particulate metal concentrations reduced significantly after the normalization by Al, indicating the effects of grain size. Enrichment factor calculation results showed that there was heavy metal pollution (especially Cu, Ni) in the Wenchang/Wenjiao River and estuary, while the situation in Wanquan River remained at pristine level. Concentrations of particulate metals in the study area were mainly controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as contamination from the discharge of waste water and biological activity.

  13. Spatial distribution of respirable and inhalable particulate matter concentration in sawmills of South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Ediagbonya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust particles in the air that can be respired into the nose or mouth during normal breathing are known as inhalable particle. Inhalation decreases gradually with increasing particle diameter. The respirable and inhalable sawdust were collected from nine different sawmills in Benin City from November 2009 to February 2010 using portable programmable SKC Air Check XR5000 High Volume Gravimetric Sampler Model 210-5000 Serial No. 20537 and I.O.M (Institute Occupational Medicine Edinburg Multi dust sampler, Batch No. 221442/1. The objective of this study is to know the concentration of inhalable suspended particulate matter fraction and the respirable suspended particulate matter fraction in sawmill particulate. The mean concentration range of the respirable suspended particulate matter was 173.61-520.83 g/m3 and the inhalable suspended particulate matter was in a range of 555.56-2,013.98 g/m3. A strong positive correlation existed for inhalable suspended particulate matter and respirable suspended particulate matter. And the spatial variation was significant and remarkable.

  14. Surface-water quality and suspended-sediment quantity and quality within the Big River Basin, southeastern Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2016-01-28

    Missouri was the leading producer of lead in the United States—as well as the world—for more than a century. One of the lead sources is known as the Old Lead Belt, located in southeast Missouri. The primary ore mineral in the region is galena, which can be found both in surface deposits and underground as deep as 200 feet. More than 8.5 million tons of lead were produced from the Old Lead Belt before operations ceased in 1972. Although active lead mining has ended, the effects of mining activities still remain in the form of large mine waste piles on the landscape typically near tributaries and the main stem of the Big River, which drains the Old Lead Belt. Six large mine waste piles encompassing more than 2,800 acres, exist within the Big River Basin. These six mine waste piles have been an available source of trace element-rich suspended sediments transported by natural erosional processes downstream into the Big River.

  15. Suspended and Dissolved Matter in the Sacramento River and Delta Region Under Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Rhea, W. J.; Blaser, S.; Wilkerson, F. P.; Dugdale, R. C.; Davis, C. O.; Tufillaro, N. B.

    2016-02-01

    The State of California is experiencing the fourth year of a historic drought that, as it continues to worsen, has raised concerns about future agricultural production and prompted emergency water restrictions. The Sacramento River drainage basin and estuary fall within the drought area classified as extreme to exceptional. To document the ecological effects of this drought and to serve as baseline conditions with which to compare future non-drought conditions, a series of seasonal field campaigns were conducted between June 2014 and October 2015 to characterize the concentration, composition, and morphology of particulate and dissolved matter within the lower reaches of the Sacramento River and delta region. In situ measurements of spectral light scatter and absorption due to water impurities are compared with water sample analyses for pigment and suspended sediment concentration. In situ measurements are used to derive remote sensing algorithms for impurity concentration and composition from above-water and remotely sensed radiometric measurements. Results indicate a seasonally stable riverine water mass and particle population feeding into a delta region with complicated hydrodynamics, point sources of wetland detritus and dissolved organic matter, and heterogeneous particle assemblages. Possible changes as a result of an El Nino are discussed.

  16. The effects of nutrient additions on particulate and dissolved primary production and metabolic state in surface waters of three Mediterranean eddies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lagaria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of nutrient additions on rates of 14C-based particulate and dissolved primary production as well as O2-based metabolic rates in surface waters (8 m of three anticyclonic eddies, located in the Western, Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Ship-board microcosm experiments employing additions of inorganic nitrogen (+N and phosphorus (+P, alone and in combination (+NP, were conducted in June/July 2008 during the BOUM (Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultra-oligotrophic Mediterranean cruise. In all three experiments, particulate primary production was significantly stimulated by the additions of nitrogen (+N, +NP while no effect was observed with the addition of phosphorus alone (+P. Percent extracellular release of photosynthate (PER displayed the lowest values (4–8 % in the +NP treatment. Among the three treatments (+N, +P, +NP, the +NP had the strongest effect on oxygen metabolic rates, leading to positive values of net community production (NCP > 0. These changes of NCP were mainly due to enhanced gross primary production (GPP rather than reduced dark community respiration rates (DCR. In all three sites, in +NP treatment autotrophic production (whether expressed as GPP or PPtotal was sufficient to fulfil the estimated carbon requirements of heterotrophic prokaryotes, while addition of nitrogen alone (+N had a weaker effect on GPP, resulting in metabolically balanced systems. At the three sites, in treatments with N (+N, +NP, phytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryote production were positively correlated. Heterotrophic conditions were observed in the Control and +P treatment at the central and eastern sites, and autotrophic production was not sufficient to supply estimated bacterial carbon demand, evidence of a decoupling of phytoplankton production and consumption by heterotrophic prokaryotes.

  17. Tidal influence on suspended sediment distribution and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf of Martaban

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, K.H.; Thwin, S.; Rao, N.S.; Raiker, V.

    Surface and water column profiles of suspended matter collected during April-May 2002, and satellite images were used to study factors influencing suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf...

  18. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  19. Report of meeting on measurement of suspended solids in the Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joziasse, J.; Klaver, G.; Bakker, I.

    2004-01-01

    On June 19/20, 2007 a visit was paid to a suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampling and monitoring site in the Ourthe river (Liège region), between the confluence with the Vesdre river and the mouth of the Ourthe in the Meuse river. The next day, a workshop was organised in which backgrounds,

  20. Delivery of suspended sediment and associated phosphorus and heavy metals to small rural Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubel, A. R.

    The aim of this study is to examine delivery pathways for suspended sediment, and particulate phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from open rural areas to small Danish streams. A further aim is to quantify the contribution from different path-ways and source areas. Such studies are useful as a basis...

  1. Rheological Properties, Water-Holding and Oil-Binding Capacities of Particulate β-Glucans Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast by Three Different Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Petravić-Tominac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate β-glucans were isolated from brewer’s yeast using three different procedures – alkaline (A, alkaline-acidic (AA and alkaline-acidic with mannoprotein removal (AAM and dried using three different methods – air drying (AD, lyophilization (L and spray drying (SD. In this work, the obtained β-glucan preparations were tested for their microstructure, rheological properties, swelling, water-holding and oil-binding capacities. According to their rheological properties, suspensions containing 1 and 2 % (by mass of spray-dried samples belong to the category of dilatant fluids. Among the spray-dried samples, rheological behaviour and water-holding capacity of the preparation AA-SD differed from those obtained by other two procedures (A-SD and AAM-SD. Concerning different drying methods applied, swelling was the lowest in the lyophilized samples and the most pronounced in the air-dried ones. Oil-binding capacity was the highest in the lyophilized preparations and increased proportionally to the number of processing steps applied in the isolation procedure.

  2. Biodegradation of multiple microcystins and cylindrospermopsin in clarifier sludge and a drinking water source: Effects of particulate attached bacteria and phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Ehsan; Fortin, Nathalie; Greer, Charles; Duy, Sung Vo; Fayad, Paul; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    The effects of particulate attached bacteria (PAB) and phycocyanin on the simultaneous biodegradation of a mixture of microcystin-LR, YR, LY, LW, LF and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was assessed in clarifier sludge of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) and in a drinking water source. The biomass from lake water and clarifier sludge was able to degrade all microcystins (MCs) at initial concentrations of 10µgL(-1) with pseudo-first order reaction half-lives ranging from 2.3 to 8.8 days. CYN was degraded only in the sludge with a biodegradation rate of 1.0×10(-1)d(-1) and a half-life of 6.0 days. This is the first study reporting multiple MCs and CYN biodegradation in the coagulation-flocculation sludge of a DWTP. The removal of PAB from the lake water and the sludge prolonged the lag time substantially, such that no biodegradation of MCLY, LW and LF was observed within 24 days. Biodegradation rates were shown to increase in the presence of C-phycocyanin as a supplementary carbon source for indigenous bacteria, a cyanobacterial product that accompanies cyanotoxins during cyanobacteria blooms. MCs in mixtures degraded more slowly (or not at all) than if they were degraded individually, an important outcome as MCs in the environment are often present in mixtures. The results from this study showed that the majority of the bacterial biomass responsible for the biodegradation of cyanotoxins is associated with particles or biological flocs and there is a potential for extreme accumulation of cyanotoxins within the DWTP during a transient bloom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Origin and biochemical cycling of particulate nitrogen in the Mandovi estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Loreta

    2011-09-01

    Mandovi estuary is a tropical estuary strongly influenced by the southwest monsoon. In order to understand, sources and fate of particulate organic nitrogen, suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from various locations, was analyzed for particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON), δ 13C POC, total hydrolysable amino acid enantiomers ( L- and D- amino acids) concentration and composition. δ 13C POC values were depleted (-32 to -25‰) during the monsoon and enriched (-29.6 to -21‰) in the pre-monsoon season implying that OM was derived from terrestrial and marine sources during the former and latter season, respectively. The biological indicators such as C/N ratio, D-amino acids, THAA yields and degradation indices (DI) indicate that the particulate organic matter (POM) was relatively more degraded during the monsoon season. Conversely, during the pre-monsoon, the biological indicators indicated the presence of relatively fresh and labile POM derived from autochthonous sources. Amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, leucine, serine, arginine, and threonine in monsoon and glutamic acid, glycine, valine, lysine, and isoleucine in pre-monsoon were relatively abundant. Presence of bacterial biomarker, D-amino acids in the SPM of the estuary during both the seasons signifies important contribution of bacteria to the estuarine detrital ON pool. Based on D-amino acid yields, bacterial OM accounted for 16-34% (23.0 ± 6.7%) of POC and 29-75% (47.9 ± 18.7%) of PON in monsoon, and 30-78% (50.0 ± 15%) of POC and 34-79% (51.2 ± 13.3%) of the PON in pre-monsoon in the estuary. Substantial contribution of bacterial-N to PON indicates nitrogen (N) enrichment on terrestrial POM during the monsoon season. Transport of terrestrial POM enriched with bacterial OM to the coastal waters is expected to influence coastal productivity and ecosystem functioning during the monsoon season.

  4. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  5. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  6. Monitoring of suspended sediment in South Tyrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalet, Rudi; Dinale, Roberto; Pernter, Martin; Maraldo, Luca; Peterlin, Dieter; Richter, Arnold; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good status of European water bodies, the Hydrographic Office of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) extended in 2014 its institutional activities including the monitoring of suspended sediment in the river channel network. Currently, the only active monitoring station is on the Adige River at the gauging station of Ponte Adige near Bolzano (drainage area 2705 km2). The applied monitoring strategy and the data analysis concept are both based on the guidelines issued by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). The results indicates that the temporal variability strongly differs during the investigated period (2014-2015). In addition to the analysis of precipitation and water discharge, temperature and lightning activity were also included to better understand the sediment transport dynamics observed at the station. In summer 2015, the combination of constantly high daily temperature throughout the Adige basin (which drove intense glacier melting in the headwaters) with a high frequency of convective rainfall events (90% more than in 2014, obtained through lightning detection), led to an annual mass of transported suspended sediment of 260000 t. Interestingly, this value is similar to the one estimated for 2014 (300000 t), which was characterized by very different meteorological conditions (colder and wetter summer), but with the occurrence of an important flood in August, which transported half of the annual amount. Finally, we can conclude that the adopted monitoring strategy is applicable for institutional aims in terms of costs as well as in terms of time effort. During the next years, other stations for suspended sediment monitoring are planned to be installed in the Province to cover the most important river segments.

  7. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  8. Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kristen D; Soneja, Sutyajeet I; Scrafford, Carolyn G; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Checkley, William; Katz, Joanne; Breysse, Patrick N; Tielsch, James M

    2015-07-07

    Alternative cookstoves are designed to improve biomass fuel combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel used and lower emission of air pollutants. The Nepal Cookstove Trial (NCT) studies effects of alternative cookstoves on family health. Our study measured indoor particulate matter concentration (PM2.5), boiling time, and fuel use of cookstoves during a water-boiling test in a house-like setting in rural Nepal. Study I was designed to select a stove to be used in the NCT; Study II evaluated stoves used in the NCT. In Study I, mean indoor PM2.5 using wood fuel was 4584 μg/m3, 1657 μg/m3, and 2414 μg/m3 for the traditional, alternative mud brick stove (AMBS-I) and Envirofit G-series, respectively. The AMBS-I reduced PM2.5 concentration but increased boiling time compared to the traditional stove (p-values Boiling times for alternative stoves in Study I were significantly longer than the traditional stove--a trade-off that may have implications for acceptability of the stoves among end users. These extended cooking times may increase cumulative exposure during cooking events where emission rates are lower; these differences must be carefully considered in the evaluation of alternative stove designs.

  9. [Abundance and activity of microorganisms at the water-sediment interface and their effect on the carbon isotopic composition of suspended organic matter and sediments of the Kara Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M V; Lein, A Iu; Savvichev, A S; Rusanov, I I; Veslopolova, E F; Zakharova, E E; Prusakova, T S

    2013-01-01

    At ten stations of the meridian profile in the eastern Kara Sea from the Yenisei estuary through the shallow shelf and further through the St. Anna trough, total microbial numbers (TMN) determined by direct counting, total activity of the microbial community determined by dark CO2 assimilation (DCA), and the carbon isotopic composition of organic matter in suspension and upper sediment horizons (δ13C, per thousand) were investigated. Three horizons were studied in detail: (1) the near-bottom water layer (20-30 cm above the sediment); (2) the uppermost, strongly hydrated sediment horizon, further termed warp (5-10 mm); and (3) the upper sediment horizon (1-5 cm). Due to decrease in the amount of isotopically light carbon of terrigenous origin with increasing distance from the Yenisei estuary, the TMN and DCA values decreased, and the δ13C changed gradually from -29.7 to -23.9 per thousand. At most stations, a noticeable decrease in TMN and DCA values with depth was observed in the water column, while the carbon isotopic composition of suspended organic matter did not change significantly. Considerable changes of all parameters were detected in the interface zone: TMN and DCA increased in the sediments compared to their values in near-bottom water, while the 13C content increased significantly, with δ13C of organic matter in the sediments being at some stations 3.5- 4.0 per thousand higher than in the near-bottom water. Due to insufficient illumination in the near-bottom zone, newly formed isotopically heavy organic matter (δ13C(-) -20 per thousand) could not be formed by photosynthesis, active growth of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in this zone is suggested, which may use reduced sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon compounds diffusing from anaerobic sediments. High DCA values for the interface zone samples confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were retrieved from the samples of this zone.

  10. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2016-09-08

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-10-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface.

  12. Suspended silt concentrations in the lower Olifants River (Mpumalanga and the impact of silt releases from the Phalaborwa Barrage on water quality and fish survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Buermann

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Silt loads in the Olifants and Sabie river systems inside the Kruger National Park, were monitored by collecting water samples every consecutive week for a period of 20 months. The variation in silt concentration, changes in selected physico-chemical water quality variables and fish mortalities during flushing (i.e. release of silt, by sluicing of the Phalaborwa Barrage, were also monitored. The Olifants River inside the Kruger National Park carried high silt loads in summer; in the dry season the suspensoid load was greatly reduced. A similar pattern was observed in the Sabie River, but the silt loads were generally lower. It was apparent that silt loads released from the Phalaborwa Barrage led to large variations in the natural silt loads of the Olifants River. These increased amounts of silt (25 000 mg/1 to >70 000 mg/1 caused drastic reductions in the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water, ranging from >6 mg/1 to 0 mg/1. Depending on the severity and duration of the flushing, fish succumb to such silt loads. These findings, as well as published information, indicate that the management strategy of flushing to improve storage capacity is ecological unacceptable. It is therefore suggested that the use of the Phalaborwa Barrage as a future reservoir should be critically re-evaluated.

  13. A new morphological approach for removing acid dye from leather waste water: preparation and characterization of metal-chelated spherical particulated membranes (SPMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenay, Raziye Hilal; Gökalp, Safiye Meriç; Türker, Evren; Feyzioğlu, Esra; Aslan, Ahmet; Akgöl, Sinan

    2015-03-15

    In this study, p(HEMA-GMA) poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) spherical particulated membranes (SPMs) were produced by UV-photopolymerization and the synthesized SPMs were coupled with iminodiacetic acid (IDA). Finally the novel SPMs were chelated with Cr(III) ions as ligand and used for removing acid black 210 dye. Characterizations of the metal-chelated SPMs were made by SEM, FTIR and swelling test. The water absorption capacities and acid dye adsorption properties of the SPMs were investigated and the results were 245.0, 50.0, 55.0 and 51.9% for p(HEMA), p(HEMA-GMA), p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA and p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs respectively. Adsorption properties of the p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs were investigated under different conditions such as different initial dye concentrations and pH. The optimum pH was observed at 4.3 and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 885.14 mg/g at about 8000 ppm initial dye concentration. The concentrations of the dyes were determined using a UV/Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 435 nm. Reusability of p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs was also shown for five adsorption-desorption cycles without considerable decrease in its adsorption capacity. Finally, the results showed that the metal-chelated p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA SPMs were effective sorbent systems removing acid dye from leather waste water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  15. Seasonal changes, spatial variability and origin of suspended organic matter in Hornsund, Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinarska, Karina; Szczuciński, Witold; Moskalik, Mateusz; Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Carbon stable isotope composition (δ13C) of suspended organic matter (SOM) was investigated to recognize temporal and spatial variability, as well as sources of particulate carbon delivered to the sediments of Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. Sampling was carried out between May 2015, when most of the investigated area was covered with sea-ice, and late August 2015. Samples were taken from a number of sites in central part of Hornsund, Burgerbukta, Samarinvegen and Brepolen bay in the innermost part of the fjord. One litre water volume, sampled from a range of depths between the water surface and 100 m, was filtered using GFF filters. δ13C values of the SOM were measured after acid treatment of the filters to remove carbonates. δ13C values of SOM varied both temporarily and spatially reflecting the variable sources of organic carbon, namely the marine production in situ, fresh marine organic carbon brought from the shelf with currents and "old" carbon delivered from land. The samples were most 13C-enriched (-22.4‰) in June, at the time of an intensive primary productivity within the fjord. Later, during the warm season, with the more intensive glaciers melting and thus supply of the suspended sediment load containing the old terrigenous carbon, δ13C values of SOM decreased in all the localities studied towards the carbon isotope values of the local terrestrial end-member, i.e., δ13C values of the old organic carbon in the bedrock. Change in δ13C values of SOM was also observed with increasing distance from glaciers, e.g. in front of the Samarinbreen and reflect changes in the intensity of primary production and supply of the old carbon. The study was supported from National Science Center grant No. 2013/10/E/ST10/00166.

  16. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  17. Indoor particulate matter in four Belgian heritage sites: case studies on the deposition of dark-colored and hygroscopic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaf, Willemien; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René; Janssens, Koen; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-02-15

    Atmospheric total suspended particulate (TSP) was passively sampled by means of deployed horizontal and vertical filters in various rooms of four Belgian cultural heritage buildings, installed with various heating/ventilation systems. Soiling/blackening and deposition of inorganic, water-soluble aerosol components were considered. The extent of soiling was determined by means of two independent methods: (1) in terms of the covering rate of the samplers by optical reflection microscopy and (2) the reduction in lightness of the samplers using the CIE L*a*b* color space by spectrophotometry. A fairly good correlation was found between both methods. The inorganic composition of the deposited water-soluble TSP was quantified by means of ion chromatography. Compared to controlled environments, uncontrolled environments showed increased water-soluble aerosol content of the total deposited mass. Higher chloride deposition was observed on horizontal surfaces, compared to vertical surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resolving sources of water-soluble organic carbon in fine particulate matter measured at an urban site during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Yong; Park, Seung Shik

    2013-02-01

    Measurements of daily PM2.5 were carried out during winter between January 11 and February 27, 2010 in an urban area of Korea, in order to better understand the influence of sources and atmospheric processing of organic aerosols. The aerosol samples were analyzed for organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC and EC), water-soluble OC (WSOC), eight ionic species, and oxalate. The water-soluble fraction of OC was between 33 and 58% with an average of 45%. Strong correlations among WSOC, sulfate (SO 4(2-)) (R(2) = 0.69), and oxalate (R(2) = 0.82) concentrations, and between potassium (K (+)) and WSOC concentrations (R(2) = 0.81) suggest that the observed WSOC could originate from similar oxidation processes to those for SO 4(2-) and oxalate, as well as biomass burning. Also moderate correlations of the WSOC with EC and carbon monoxide (CO) indicate that there was some contribution to WSOC from primary fossil fuel combustion. Results from a principle component analysis (PCA) indicate that in addition to the biomass burning and primary non-biomass burning emissions, the observed WSOC could be formed through production pathways similar to secondary organic carbon (SOC), SO 4(2-), and oxalate. Sources of WSOC inferred, based on the correlations, were confirmed by source categories identified by the PCA. Over the study period, three haze episodes exceeding a 24 h PM 2.5 concentration of 50 μg m(-3) were identified. Of the major components in PM 2.5, EC concentrations were elevated during episode I (18-19 January), while the secondary SO 4(2-) concentrations were enhanced during episodes II (30-31 January) and III (22-23 February). However, little difference in OC concentrations among the episodes was observed. It is suggested that the aerosol particles collected during episodes II and III were more aged than those during episode I. Estimates of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and SOC contributions to WSOC indicate that the fossil fuel combustion provided the

  19. Determination of heavy metals in suspended waste water collected from Oued El Harrach Algiers River by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.

    2013-12-01

    A preliminary study of the atmospheric pollution in the centre of Algiers is one of the important fields of applications in the environmental science. Nowadays, we need to evaluate the level of the contamination which has an unfavourable effect on physicochemical properties of soils and plants and namely also on human health. In the present work, water samples collected from Oued El-Harrach Algiers River, have been filtered in 0.45 μm Millipore filters to be analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence technique using 109Cd radioisotope source. Concentrations of the toxic elements like heavy metals are determined and compared with the published ones values by Yoshida [1] and those obtained using PIXE and NAA techniques [6].

  20. The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ternon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric deposition and of sinking particles at 200 and 1000 m depth, were performed in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean between 2003 and 2007, along with phytoplanktonic activity derived from satellite images. Atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust particles was very irregular and confirmed the importance of sporadic high magnitude events over the annual average (11.4 g m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years. The average marine total mass flux was 31 g m−2 yr−1, the larger fraction being the lithogenic one (~37%. The marine total mass flux displayed a seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter, occurring before the onset of the spring bloom. The highest POC fluxes did not occur during the spring bloom nor could they be directly related to any noticeable increase in the surface phytoplanktonic biomass. Over the 4 years of the study, the strongest POC fluxes were concomitant with large increases of the lithogenic marine flux, which had originated from either recent Saharan fallout events (February 2004 and August 2005, from "old" Saharan dust "stored" in the upper water column layer (March 2003 and February 2005, or alternatively from lithogenic material originating from Ligurian riverine flooding (December 2003, Arno, Roya and Var rivers. Those associated export fluxes defined as "lithogenic events", are believed to result from a combination of forcing (winter mixing or Saharan events, in particular extreme ones, biological (zooplankton activity, and also organic-mineral aggregation inducing a ballast effect. By fertilising the surface layer, mixed Saharan dust events were shown to be able to induce "lithogenic events" during the stratification period. These events would be more efficient in transferring POC to the deeper layers than the spring bloom itself. The extreme Saharan event of February 2004 exported ~45% of the total annual POC, compared to an average of

  1. The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternon, E.; Guieu, C.; Loã¿E-Pilot, M.-D.; Leblond, N.; Bosc, E.; Gasser, B.; Miquel, J.-C.; Martín, J.

    2010-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric deposition and of sinking particles at 200 and 1000 m depth, were performed in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) between 2003 and 2007, along with phytoplanktonic activity derived from satellite images. Atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust particles was very irregular and confirmed the importance of sporadic high magnitude events over the annual average (11.4 g m-2 yr-1 for the 4 years). The average marine total mass flux was 31 g m-2 yr-1, the larger fraction being the lithogenic one (~37%). The marine total mass flux displayed a seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter, occurring before the onset of the spring bloom. The highest POC fluxes did not occur during the spring bloom nor could they be directly related to any noticeable increase in the surface phytoplanktonic biomass. Over the 4 years of the study, the strongest POC fluxes were concomitant with large increases of the lithogenic marine flux, which had originated from either recent Saharan fallout events (February 2004 and August 2005), from "old" Saharan dust "stored" in the upper water column layer (March 2003 and February 2005), or alternatively from lithogenic material originating from Ligurian riverine flooding (December 2003, Arno, Roya and Var rivers). Those associated export fluxes defined as "lithogenic events", are believed to result from a combination of forcing (winter mixing or Saharan events, in particular extreme ones), biological (zooplankton) activity, and also organic-mineral aggregation inducing a ballast effect. By fertilising the surface layer, mixed Saharan dust events were shown to be able to induce "lithogenic events" during the stratification period. These events would be more efficient in transferring POC to the deeper layers than the spring bloom itself. The extreme Saharan event of February 2004 exported ~45% of the total annual POC, compared to an average of ~25% for the bloom period. This emphasises the role played by

  2. A novel approach for determining total titanium from titanium dioxide nanoparticles suspended in water and biosolids by digestion with ammonium persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Kambiz; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Dimock, Brian; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2012-02-03

    Titanium dioxide (i.e. TiO(2)) in nano-form is a constituent of many nanomaterials that are used in sunscreens, cosmetics, industrial products and in biomedical applications. Quantification of TiO(2) nanoparticles in various matrixes is a topic of great interest for researchers studying the potential health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles. However, analysis of TiO(2) as Ti(4+) is difficult because current digestion techniques require use of strong acids that may be a health and safety risk in the laboratory. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method to digest TiO(2) nanoparticles using ammonium persulfate as a fusing reagent. The digestion technique requires short times to completion and optimally requires only 1 g of fusing reagent. The fusion method showed >95% recovery of Ti(4+) from 6 μg mL(-1) aqueous suspensions prepared from 10 μg mL(-1) suspension of different forms of TiO(2,) including anatase, rutile and mixed nanosized crystals, and amorphous particles. These recoveries were greater than open hot-plate digestion with a tri-acid solution and comparable to microwave digestion with a tri-acid solution. Cations and anions commonly found in natural waters showed no significant interferences when added to samples in amounts of 10 ng to 110 mg, which is a much broader range of these ions than expected in environmental samples. Using ICP-MS for analysis, the method detection limit (MDL) was determined to be 0.06 ng mL(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.20 ng mL(-1). Analysis of samples of untreated and treated wastewater and biosolids collected from wastewater treatment plants yielded concentrations of TiO(2) of 1.8 and 1.6 ng mL(-1) for the wastewater samples, respectively, and 317.4 ng mg(-1) dry weights for the biosolids. The reactions between persulfate ions and TiO(2) were evaluated using stoichiometric methods and FTIR and XRD analysis. A formula for the fusing reaction is proposed that involves the formation of sulfate

  3. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2002-04-01

    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  4. Influences of suspended particles on the runoff of pesticides from an agricultural field at Askim, SE-Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Riise, G; Lundekvam, H; Mulder, J; Haugen, L E

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the loss of particles from agricultural fields, and the role of suspended particles in carrying pesticides in surface runoff and drainage water. Propiconazole, a widely used fungicide was applied to experimental fields located at Askim, SE-Norway. Samples from surface runoff and drainage water were collected and analyzed for sediment mass, pesticides, particulate and dissolved organic carbon through a whole year. The surface soil and the runoff material were characterized by its particle size distribution, organic carbon content in size fractions and its ability to bind propiconazole. The results show that (1) particle runoff mostly occurred during the rainfall event shortly after harrowing in autumn. The highest particle concentration observed in the surface runoff water was 4600 mg l(-1), and in the drainage water 1130 mg l(-1); (2) the erosion of surface soil is size selective. The runoff sediment contained finer particle/aggregates rich in organic matter compared to its original surface soil; (3) the distribution coefficient (Kd) of propiconazole was significantly higher in the runoff sediment than in the parent soil. According to our calculation, particle-bound propiconazole can represent up to 23% of the total amount of propiconazole in a water sample with a sediment concentration of 7600 mg l(-1), which will significantly influence the transport behavior of the pesticide.

  5. A Relationship Between Phosphate Levels in Lake Champlain Tributaries and Soil Type and Particulate Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural fresh water lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summermonth's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightlygrowths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from major tributaries.Exploring the relationship between soil type and particulate size to phosphate levels in tributaries to the Lake Champlain basin sheds insight on potential sources of phosphate from the Lake Champlain watershed into the lake and may point topossible mitigation efforts. Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. These streamsfeed into the Missisquoi River and Winooski Rivers, whichflow into Lake Champlain. Soil was sampled along transects from uplands areas through the riparian corridor to the edge of the streams. These samples were then classified using the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and an analysis of particle size was conducted.In general there is a correlation between higher levels of phosphate and smaller particulate size.

  6. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  7. Instability and Turbulence of Propagating Particulate Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Propagation of particle-laden fluid into an ambient is a common fluid mechanical process that can be observed in many industrial and environmental applications. Sedimentation fronts, volcanic plumes, dust storms, powder snow avalanches, submarine turbidity currents, explosive powder dispersal and supernovae offer fascinating examples of advancing particulate fronts. The propagating interface can undergo Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and double-diffusive instabilities and result in the formation of lobes and clefts, spikes and bubbles, and particulate fingers. The interplay between suspended particles and turbulence is often complex due to interaction of competing mechanisms. In problems such as turbidity currents, turbulence controls sediment concentration through resuspension and settling of particles at the bed. Also, turbulent entrainment at the propagating front is observed to be influenced by the sediments. Stable stratification due to suspended sediment concentration can damp and even kill turbulence. This complex turbulence-sediment interaction offers possible explanation for massive sediment deposits observed in nature. The talk will also address challenges and recent advancements in the modeling and simulation of such particle-laden turbulent flows.

  8. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part thereof during a particular period of time specified in the rule. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means to...

  9. Remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent remote sensing experiments in the United States' coastal waters indicate that certain biological and water quality parameters have distinctive spectral characteristics. Data outputs from remote sensors, to date, include: (1) high resolution measurements to determine concentrations and distributions of total suspended particulates, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and phytoplankton color group associations from airborne and/or satellite platforms, and (2) low resolution measurements of total suspended solids, temperature, ocean color, and possibly chlorophyll from satellite platforms. A summary of platforms, sensors and parameters measured is given. Remote sensing, especially when combined with conventional oceanographic research methods, can be useful in such high priority research areas as estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, transport and fate of marine pollutants, marine phytoplankton dynamics, and ocean fronts.

  10. Quantitative suspended sediment mapping using aircraft remotely sensed multispectral data. [in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Suspended sediment is an important environmental parameter for monitoring water quality, water movement, and land use. Quantitative suspended sediment determinations were made from analysis of aircraft remotely sensed multispectral digital data. A statistical analysis and derived regression equation were used to determine and plot quantitative suspended sediment concentration contours in the tidal James River, Virginia, on May 28, 1974. From the analysis, a single band, Band 8 (0.70-0.74 microns), was adequate for determining suspended sediment concentrations. A correlation coefficient of 0.89 was obtained with a mean inaccuracy of 23.5 percent for suspended sediment concentrations up to about 50 mg/l. Other water quality parameters - secchi disc depth and chlorophyll - also had high correlations with the remotely sensed data. Particle size distribution had only a fair correlation with the remotely sensed data.

  11. Stratification of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in the Gdańsk Deep (southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Burska

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate organic carbon (POC and nitrogen (PON concentrations and fluxes were measured during an experiment in the Gdańsk Deep in late spring (30.05.-06.06.2001. The vertical POC and PON concentration profiles were characterised by the highest values in the euphotic layer, a gradual decrease with depth, and an increase below the halocline. The hydrophysical conditions had a decisive impact on POC and PON fluxes in the water column.     Preferential removal of nitrogen from suspended mater was observed in the entire water column (maximum - in the vicinity of thermocline. There were also differences in the diurnal effectiveness of nitrogen removal as compared to carbon removal. The removal rate was highest at night.

  12. Satellite estimates of wide-range suspended sediment concentrations in Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary using MERIS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.; Zhou, Y.; Salama, M.S.; Liu, X.

    2010-01-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters are characterized by suspended sediments over a wide range of concentrations from 20 to 2,500 mg l-1. Suspended sediment plays important roles in the estuarine and coastal system and environment. Previous algorithms for satellite estimates of

  13. Monitoring Gaseous and Particulate Air Pollutants near Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air pollutants such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, H2S) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were determined using an active sampler for both dry and wet seasons. The results shows concentration of CO in the urban air ranging from 1.58 – 8.50 ppm during the dry season and 1.22 – 25.75 ppm for wet season, while CO2 ...

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size ...

  15. Plutonium removal and diurnal variations of suspended sediment concentrations in the Great Miami River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobula, III, C. M.; Kennedy, C. W.; Bartelt, G. E.

    1979-01-15

    Effluent release experiments previously conducted downstream of the industrial outflal at Mound Laboratory have demonstrated that /sup 238/Pu which enters the aquatic environment as dissolved waste is rapidly adsorbed by suspended solids in the effluent pulse and that the dissolved/particulate distribution of /sup 238/Pu between release events congruent to 5 x 10/sup -2/./sup 3/ Reasonable estimates of the annual transport of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu based upon long-term discharge and sediment loading data have been reported for a large subwatershed in the upper reaches of the Great Miami River Basin. In this report data are given which characterize the short-term variability of suspended particulate transport downriver of a canal system contaminated with /sup 238/Pu.

  16. Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen D. Ojo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cookstoves are designed to improve biomass fuel combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel used and lower emission of air pollutants. The Nepal Cookstove Trial (NCT studies effects of alternative cookstoves on family health. Our study measured indoor particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, boiling time, and fuel use of cookstoves during a water-boiling test in a house-like setting in rural Nepal. Study I was designed to select a stove to be used in the NCT; Study II evaluated stoves used in the NCT. In Study I, mean indoor PM2.5 using wood fuel was 4584 μg/m3, 1657 μg/m3, and 2414 μg/m3 for the traditional, alternative mud brick stove (AMBS-I and Envirofit G-series, respectively. The AMBS-I reduced PM2.5 concentration but increased boiling time compared to the traditional stove (p-values < 0.001. Unlike AMBS-I, Envirofit G-series did not significantly increase overall fuel consumption. In Phase II, the manufacturer altered Envirofit stove (MAES and Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi (NNIPS altered Envirofit stove (NAES, produced lower mean PM2.5, 1573 μg/m3 and 1341 μg/m3, respectively, relative to AMBS-II 3488 μg/m3 for wood tests. The liquid propane gas stove had the lowest mean PM2.5 concentrations, with measurements indistinguishable from background levels. Results from Study I and II showed significant reduction in PM2.5 for all alternative stoves in a controlled setting. In study I, the AMBS-I stove required more fuel than the traditional stove. In contrast, in study II, the MAES and NAES stoves required statistically less fuel than the AMBS-II. Reductions and increases in fuel use should be interpreted with caution because the composition of fuels was not standardized—an issue which may have implications for generalizability of other findings as well. Boiling times for alternative stoves in Study I were significantly longer than the traditional stove—a trade-off that may have implications for

  17. Hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport controls on river mouth morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Piliouras, A.; Garra, R.; Guerin, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Rowland, J.; Paola, C.

    2014-01-01

    mouths building into standing bodies of water have strikingly varied growth habits. This presents a compelling pattern formation problem that is also of great practical relevance for subsurface prediction and managing coastal wetlands. Here we present a generalized 2.5-dimensional potential vorticity (PV) theory that explains sedimentation patterns of a sediment-laden stationary jet by coupling an understanding of vorticity with suspended sediment concentration fields. We explore the physical meaning of this new sediment-PV definition, and its impact on outflow depositional patterns, by analyzing data from a shallow wall-bounded plane jet experiment and by discussing new theoretical insights. A key result is that lateral advection and diffusion of suspended sediment are directly proportional to jet vorticity, a feature that reveals the mechanistic process that forms elongated channels by focused levee deposition. The new PV theory constitutes a more generalized mathematical framework that expands the Rouse theory for the equilibrium of suspended sediment.

  18. A study of particulates and metallic element concentrations in temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G C; Lin, S J; Lee, J F; Chang, C C

    2009-03-01

    Concentrations of ambient suspended particulates were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in Taiwan (120 degrees , 34', 46.2''E, 24 degrees , 16', 17.1''N), where semi-open incense burning is characteristic. Many pilgrims from different areas with various beliefs visit the temple and burn incense. Samples were collected with a universal sampler used for measuring suspended particulate concentrations. Sampling period was from August 8, 2006, to October 6, 2006. The average PM(10) concentrations measured at the temple were 16% higher than 125 microg/m(3) (this value is the outdoor air quality standard according to Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)). In coarse particulates (PM(2.5-10)), the mean metallic elements concentrations are in the order of Ca>Mg>Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Cu>Pb during weekend and weekday sampling. In addition, the fine particulates (PM(2.5)) mean metallic elements concentrations are in the order of Ca>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu during weekend sampling and Ca>Fe>Mg>Zn>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu during weekday sampling.

  19. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  20. Physiochemical Characterization of Iodine (V Oxide Part II: Morphology and Crystal Structure of Particulate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Little

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the production of particulate films of iodine (V oxides is investigated. The influence that sonication and solvation of suspended particles in various alcohol/ketone/ester solvents have on the physical structure of spin or drop cast films is examined in detail with electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that sonicating iodine oxides in alcohol mixtures containing trace amounts of water decreases deposited particle sizes and produces a more uniform film morphology. UV-visible spectra of the pre-cast suspensions reveal that for some solvents, the iodine oxide oxidizes the solvent, producing I2 and lowering the pH of the suspension. Characterizing the crystals within the cast films reveal their composition to be primarily HI3O8, their orientations to exhibit a preferential orientation, and their growth to be primarily along the ac-plane of the crystal, enhanced at higher spin rates. Spin-coating at lower spin rates produces laminate-like particulate films versus higher density, one-piece films of stacked particles produced by drop casting. The particle morphology in these films consists of a combination of rods, plates, cubes, and rhombohedra structure.

  1. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh

    2016-04-01

    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  2. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  3. Seasonal variations of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Misra, A.; ManiMurali, R.; Sukumaran, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM)is an important parameter for determining the water quality in coastal regions as it is responsible for the reduction in the light available to the aquatic vegetation which subsequently alters the health and quality...

  4. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  5. Rippling instabilities in suspended nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh

    2012-11-01

    Morphology mediates the interplay between the structure and electronic transport in atomically thin nanoribbons such as graphene as the relaxation of edge stresses occurs preferentially via out-of-plane deflections. In the case of end-supported suspended nanoribbons that we study here, past experiments and computations have identified a range of equilibrium morphologies, in particular, for graphene flakes, yet a unified understanding of their relative stability remains elusive. Here, we employ atomic-scale simulations and a composite framework based on isotropic elastic plate theory to chart out the morphological stability space of suspended nanoribbons with respect to intrinsic (ribbon elasticity) and engineered (ribbon geometry) parameters, and the combination of edge and body actuation. The computations highlight a rich morphological shape space that can be naturally classified into two competing shapes, bendinglike and twistlike, depending on the distribution of ripples across the interacting edges. The linearized elastic framework yields exact solutions for these rippled shapes. For compressive edge stresses, the body strain emerges as a key variable that controls their relative stability and in extreme cases stabilizes coexisting transverse ripples. Tensile edge stresses lead to dimples within the ribbon core that decay into the edges, a feature of obvious significance for stretchable nanoelectronics. The interplay between geometry and mechanics that we report should serve as a key input for quantifying the transport along these ribbons.

  6. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  7. Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Daily Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient and Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1978-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected daily (at approximately 1000 hrs EST - but see note below in section 1.2.3 Supplemental Information) at a depth...

  8. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using fingerprinting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Neal, C.; Anders, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook and Wildcat Slough sub-watersheds from six potential sources: row-crop agriculture, forest, floodplains, river banks, pastures, and grasslands. Event-based suspended sediment samples were collected by in situ suspended sediment samplers and ISCO automatic pump samplers from the streams. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an unmixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from six potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from channel banks and forest adjacent to meandering reaches in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland areas adjacent to channelized rivers in the low

  9. The fluvial flux of particulate organic matter from the UK : quantifying in-stream losses and carbon sinks.

    OpenAIRE

    Worrall, F; Burt, T.P.; Howden, N.J.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers records of fluvial suspended sediment concentration and its organic matter content from across the United Kingdom from 1974 to 2010. Suspended sediment, mineral concentration and river flow data were used to estimate the particulate organic matter (POM) concentration and flux. Median annual POM flux from the UK was 1596 ktonnes/yr. The POM concentration significantly declined after the European Commission’s Urban Wastewater Directive was adopted in 1991 although the POM f...

  10. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky; Daniel A. Pickersgill; Viviane R. Després; Ulrich Pöschl; William L. Chameides

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds...

  11. Univers de Particules

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Dans l’Univers, tout est fait de particules. Mais d’où viennent-elles? Quelle est l’origine des lois de la nature? Au rez-de-chaussée du Globe de la science et de l’innovation, l’exposition permanente « Univers de particules » vous invite à un voyage vers le Big Bang en explorant le CERN. Avec à la clé des réponses aux questions: pourquoi cette recherche ? Comment accélérer des particules ? Comment les détecter ? Quelles sont les théories sur la matière et sur l’Univers aujourd’hui ? Quelles retombées pour notre vie quotidienne ?

  12. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  13. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.

    2016-12-22

    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  14. Enzymatic biofilm digestion in soil aggregates facilitates the release of particulate organic matter by sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büks, Frederick; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The stability of soil aggregates against shearing and compressive forces as well as water-caused dispersion is an integral marker of soil quality. High stability results in less compaction and erosion and has been linked to enhanced water retention, dynamic water transport and aeration regimes, increased rooting depth, and protection of soil organic matter (SOM) against microbial degradation. In turn, particulate organic matter is supposed to support soil aggregate stabilization. For decades the importance of biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) regarding particulate organic matter (POM) occlusion and aggregate stability has been canonical because of its distribution, geometric structure and ability to link primary particles. However, experimental proof is still missing. This lack is mainly due to methodological reasons. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop a method of enzymatic biofilm detachment for studying the effects of EPSs on POM occlusion. The method combines an enzymatic pre-treatment with different activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, DNAse and lipase with a subsequent sequential ultrasonic treatment for disaggregation and density fractionation of soils. POM releases of treated samples were compared to an enzyme-free control. To test the efficacy of biofilm detachment the ratio of bacterial DNA from suspended cells and the remaining biofilm after enzymatic treatment were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Although the enzyme treatment was not sufficient for total biofilm removal, our results indicate that EPSs may attach POM within soil aggregates. The tendency to additional POM release with increased application of enzymes was attributed to a slight loss in aggregate stability. This suggests that an effect of agricultural practices on soil microbial populations could influence POM occlusion/aggregate stability and thereby carbon cycle/soil quality.

  15. Spatial correlativity of atmospheric particulate components simultaneously collected in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Oku, Yuichiro; Kishikawa, Naoya; Deguchi, Yuya; Sera, Nobuyuki; Seiyama, Tetsurou; Horasaki, Kazunori; Arashidani, Keiichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takako; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Inaba, Yohei; Tonokura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kokunai, Osamu; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous sampling of total suspended particles was performed at 14 sites in Japan during July 2008-June 2009. The spatial correlativity of each particulate composition toward Osaka was obtained for nine selected sites to overview the chemical composition and geographical distribution of particulate components across a wide range of areas nationwide. The spatial correlatives of atmospheric particulate components were extended to an even wider range of areas up to 950 km distance (meso-alpha scale region, >200 km) for a far-reaching distance analysis unique in the literature. Overall, the spatial correlations of ionic species and both organic and elemental carbons were significant, suggesting their shared advections, including their long-range transport from East Asia. Although sulfate ions are widely dispersed across Japan, such is not necessarily correlated with organic and elemental carbon, possibly indicating that the sulfate emission source, including long-range transport, differs from that of carbonaceous particulates. By contrast, the characteristics of spatial correlatives of metallic constituents vary; for example, particulate Pb and Cd show a significantly wide range of spatial correlatives to Osaka, while Mn-though limited to cities neighboring Osaka-shows significant spatial correlations. Other metallic constituents showed no significant spatial correlatives, indicating the effects of local pollutants. Moreover, the extent of the spatial dispersion of the particulate components and the relationships among chemical components were analyzed via factor analysis to highlight the effects of long-range inflow and local original emissions. In this treatment, 13 particulate components among the 19 measured were implicated in long-range transport.

  16. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich

    2013-04-01

    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  17. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  18. Characterization of streamflow, suspended sediment, and nutrients entering Galveston Bay from the Trinity River, Texas, May 2014–December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Zulimar; Lee, Michael T.

    2017-02-21

    concentrations of total phosphorus also increased during high-flow events, likely as a result of suspended sediment within Lake Livingston releases and mobilization of sediment particles in the river channel and flood plain during these periods of high flow. The predominant source of phosphorous to Galveston Bay from the Trinity River is in particulate form closely tied to suspended-sediment concentrations. The changes in nutrient concentration and composition caused by releases from Lake Livingston during this study indicate the reservoir may play an important role in the delivery of nutrients into Galveston Bay. Further study is required to better understand the processes in Lake Livingston influencing the characteristics of nutrient and sediment inflow to Galveston Bay. With phosphorous concentrations correlated to suspended-sediment concentra­tions (coefficient of determination value of 0.75) and with the concentrations of nutrients changing as the discharge changes, the diversion of water and suspended sediment into surround­ing wetlands and channels outside of the main channel of the Trinity River may play a large role in regulating nutrient inputs into Galveston Bay.

  19. Temporal variability of particulate organic carbon in the lower Changjiang (Yangtze River) in the post-Three Gorges Dam period: Links to anthropogenic and climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Bao, Hongyan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Kattner, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    Suspended particles from the lower Changjiang were collected monthly from 2003 to 2011, which corresponds to the three construction periods of the Three Gorges Dam. Organic carbon (%OC), organic carbon to total nitrogen molar ratio, stable carbon isotope, and terrestrial biomarkers were examined. Rating curve studies were applied for the temporal trend analysis. The composition of particulate lignin phenols exhibited clear annual and periodic variations but only minor seasonal changes. Lignin phenol ratios (vanillyl/syringyl and cinnamyl/vanillyl) indicated that the terrigenous organic matter (OM) was primarily composed of woody and nonwoody tissue derived from angiosperm plants. The low-lignin phenol yields (Λ8) in combination with higher acid to aldehyde ratios reflected a substantial contribution from soil OM to the particle samples or modifications during river transport. The temporal shift of the lignin phenol vegetation index with the sediment load during the flood seasons revealed particulate organic matter (POM) erosion from soils and the impact of hydrodynamic processes. The dam operations affected the seasonal variability of terrigenous OM fluxes, although the covariation of lignin and sediment loads with discharged water implies that unseasonal extreme conditions and climate change most likely had larger influences, because decreases in the sediment load and lignin flux alter the structure and composition of particulate OM (POM) on interannual time scales, indicating that they may be driven by climate variability. The modification of the composition and structure of POM will have significant impacts on regional carbon cycles and marine ecosystems.

  20. A study of metal ion adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Davis, J.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for conducting adsorption studies at low suspended solid concentrations in natural waters (NaCl) concentration (0??1-0??002 m) and particle concentration (2-50 mg l-1). The lack of success of the Davis Leckie site bonding model in describing Zn(II) adsorption emphasizes the need for further studies of adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations. ?? 1987.

  1. Measurement of Suspended Sediment Transport Processes off the Holderness Coast - Southern North Sea, England

    OpenAIRE

    Blewett, Joanna Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A field campaign was set up as part of the LOIS-RACS coastal program (1994-1996), to identify the near-bed physical processes responsible for suspended sediment movement in shallow water (10-20m depth) off the Holdemess coast, NE England. A new benthic tripod system Boundary Layer Intelligent Sensor System (BLISS) has been developed and deployed along a transect at three sites, normal to the coastline at Tunstall. Measurements of current velocity, suspended sediment concentrati...

  2. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  3. Removal of metals and water-insoluble materials from desalter emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, S.K.; Mosby, J.F.; Treadman, J.E. II.

    1993-06-15

    A process for removing metals and insoluble materials from crude oil is described comprising the steps of: blending crude oil with water and desalting chemicals; charging the oil blend to a desalting chamber and passing it through an electrical field whereby agglomeration of suspended insoluble materials occurs and layers of clean oil, brine and oil-brine interface emulsion are formed; withdrawing the oil and brine; measuring the volume of the emulsion layer; withdrawing a portion of the emulsion layer; blending the withdrawn emulsion with up to 2 volumes of aromatic-rich hydrocarbon containing at least 20% aromatics by volume; maintaining the blend at a temperature of 100 to 300 F and a positive pressure; and subjecting the blend to a force of at least about 500 g, whereby oil free of at least 90% of suspended particulates and water results.

  4. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  5. Calibration suspended sediment model Markermeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boderie, P.; Van Kessel, T.; De Boer, G.

    2009-01-01

    In deze studie is een computermodel voor het Markermeer opgezet, ingeregeld en gevalideerd. Het model beschrijft dynamsch de stroming van water, waterpeilen, golven en slib in het water en in de bodem. Het model is gecalibreerd voorde periode augustus 2007 - april 2008 en gevalideerd voor de periode

  6. Aerial Photo Utilization in Estimating Suspended Sediment in the Wuryantoro Watershed, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment load flowing out from a watershed is normally predicated by analysis os suspended sediment of water sample, and the volume of suspended sediment be calculated based on sediment concentration and river discharge. Such field measurements need a lot of field data and they are time consuming. Another method for prediction of suspended sediment by using remote sensing imagery data and recorded rainfall data. The objective of this research is to 1 examine the capability of remote sensing technique to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land in the prediction of suspended sediment; 2 examine the accuracy of the model for prediction suspended sediment. This research is carried out in Wuryantoro watershed, Wonogiri. The main data to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land is infrared aerial photograph on scale 1 : 10.000. the method that used in this research is interpretation of remote sensing imagery data, combined with rainfall data. The result show that the accuracy of landuse is 88.5%, the accuracy of slope is 87.67%. the accuracy of the prediction of suspended sediment by model A3 87.07%, model C1 86.63%, model C2 90.57%, model A8 84.13%, model A9 80.1%, and model C4 78.6%.

  7. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  8. Suspended-sediment loads and reservoir sediment trap efficiency for Clinton Lake, Kansas, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012, at a site upstream and downstream from Clinton Lake, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from the reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is inhibiting the ability of Clinton Lake to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The inflow suspended-sediment load was substantially larger than the outflow load and most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. Respectively, the total 2-year inflow and outflow suspended-sediment loads were computed to be 44.4 and 1.49 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 97 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 60,500 pounds per square mile. Because this study was completed during a drought, the estimated inflow suspended-sediment load and suspended-sediment yield likely are substantially less than what would occur during a period of average or above average precipitation and runoff.

  9. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  10. Basic hydraulic experiment on the saturated concentration of suspended load due to tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Somekawa, Shiho

    2016-04-01

    When tsunamis arrive in the shallow sea, a huge amount of suspended load is generated by large velocity and strong turbulence. The suspended load causes the geomorphic processes of erosion and deposition. Because the suspended load cannot be increased endlessly, it should have the saturated concentration. Many numerical models of sediment transport due to tsunamis have assumed a constant value of 1% for the saturated concentration empirically. However, it is supposed as a function of velocity. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was carried out to investigate a relationship between velocity and the saturated concentration of suspended load when tsunamis attack. A water circulation pipe used in the experiment was 10 cm in a diameter, 260 cm in length and 50 cm in width. A velocity of water flow in the pipe had been controlled by two pumps and two valves. It was changed from 0.24 to 1.22 m/s. Various amounts of sand was spread on the bottom of pipe. The amount of sand was changed from 0.1 to 10% as converted in the concentration of suspended load if all sand suspended. A diameter and a density of the sand were 0.267 mm and 2.64 x 103 kg/m^3. A condition of sediment transport in the pipe was recorded by video camera from a transparent window at the side of pipe. The condition was judged as all sand particles were suspended or not. The former condition indicates that the concentration of suspended load is saturated and the latter does it is not saturated. When velocity was smaller than 0.47 m/s, there was no suspended load because of a weak tractive force. When velocity became larger, the suspended load was generated and the concentration also became higher. However, the concentration had the upper limit and surplus sand appeared on the bed of pipe when velocity became much larger. The condition gave the saturated concentration of suspended load. When velocity was 0.665 m/s, the saturated concentration was smaller than 1% which is used in many numerical simulations

  11. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  12. Novel Robotic Platforms for the Accurate Sampling and Monitoring of Water Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemi Fernández

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hydrosphere contains large amounts of suspended particulate material, including living and non-living material that can be found in different compositions and concentrations, and that can be composed of particles of different sizes. The study of this particulate material along water columns plays a key role in understanding a great variety of biological, chemical, and physical processes. This paper presents the conceptual design of two patented robotic platforms that have been conceived for carrying out studies of water properties at desired depths with very high accuracy in the vertical positioning. One platform has been specially designed for operating near to a reservoir bottom, while the other is intended to be used near the surface. Several experimental tests have been conducted in order to validate the proposed approaches.

  13. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  14. Assessment of the molecular composition of particulate organic matter exchanged between the Saeftinghe salt marsh (southwestern Netherlands) and the adjacent water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, V.A.; Boon, J.J.; Hemminga, M.A.; Van Soelen, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of seston, transported by tidal water between an estuarine salt marsh and the adjacent water system, was assessed. The analytical techniques used are Pyrolysis in combination with Gas Chromatography and/or Mass Spectrometry. Interpretation of the Py-MS data was

  15. Transport and diagenesis of dissolved and particulate terrigenous organic matter in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Benner, Ronald

    2002-12-01

    Lignin measurements were made on suspended particulate organic matter (POM), total dissolved organic matter (DOM), high-molecular-weight (HMW) DOM, and low-molecular-weight (LMW) DOM in the North Pacific at Station Aloha. Carbon-normalized yields of lignin and δ13C measurements indicate that while terrigenous organic matter accounts only for ˜1% of DOM in seawater, submicron POM has a substantial terrigenous component. The apparent size distribution and terrigenous nature of the particles is consistent with an aerosol source, but these particles could also be delivered to the ocean via rivers. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl phenols as well as the fraction of dissolved lignin in HMW DOM provide molecular evidence of photochemical oxidation. Several differences in lignin composition and concentrations were evident between water masses. In particular, concentrations in North Pacific Intermediate Water were a factor of two greater than at all other depths. This is likely a reflection of higher riverine input via the Sea of Okhotsk. These trends suggest that lignin could serve as a general circulation tracer in addition to tracing riverine input and diagenetic processing of terrigenous organic matter in the ocean.

  16. Preparation of spherical fine particulate pigments within water-in-oil emulsions and their properties. (II). ; Formation mechanism and characteristic of spherical fine particulate pigment of tartrazine. W/O emulsion wo mochiita kyujo biryushi ganryo no chosei to seishitsu(dai 2 ho). ; Kiiro 4 go kyujo biryushi ganryo no seisei kiko to tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, T.; Iwano, K.; Hotta, H.; Takano, S.; Tsutsumi, H. (Kao Corporation, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-20

    The previous report explained that an excellent spherical particulate pigment with a grain size of 0.5 mm or less can be obtained by preparing multinuclear aluminum lakes from acidic dyes and multinuclear aluminum salt using water droplets in a W/O emulsion as reaction fields. This paper describes preparing pigments varying the charging concentrations of the pigments in a W/O emulsion and the droplet particle size to discuss the mechanism of forming the pigments. As a result, it was found that the particle sizes in the produced pigments have a clear correlation with the charging concentrations of the pigments and the droplet particle sizes in the W/O emulsion. A pigment produced in the W/O emulsion forms only in its own droplets, and reflects its particle sizes. Films dispersed with pigments having different particle sizes were prepared to discuss their tinting abilities, whereas it was clarified that the smaller the particle size, the higher the tinting ability and the higher saturation in colored paint films. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.

    2017-08-01

    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  18. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of dissolved and particulate pollutant transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.; Wang, L.-J.; Chen, H.; Holbach, A.; Zheng, B.-H.; Norra, S.; Westrich, B.

    2012-04-01

    After impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in 2003, hydrological regimes of the Yangtze River, upstream and downstream of the Three Gorges Dam, have been changed enormously, leading to significant environmental, ecological and social impacts. Nutrients and pollutants from agriculture, industry and municipalities are of concern due to their impact on the aquatic environment and hence, transport behavior of sediment associated pollutants must be modeled and analyzed to establish a sustainable water reservoir management. As part of the Chinese-German Yangtze-Project [1], two-dimensional numerical model TELEMAC is applied to study the dissolved and particulate pollutant transport at different locations of concern in the TGR. In-situ measurement campaigns for morphology and water quality data using mobile measuring device (MINIBAT) are carried out to provide detailed information for the different water bodies at different time. Additional morphological data are taken from cross-section profiles in the literature, the digital elevation model (DEM) of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from CGIAR. Daily and hourly water level and discharge, suspended sediment concentration and pollutant loads are obtained from the authorities and extracted from literature. The model describes the spatial-temporal flow field, transport and dispersion of sediment associated pollutants with emphasis on the dynamic interaction and mutual influence of the river Yangtze, its major tributaries and adjacent lagoon-like dead water bodies due to the 30 meter annual reservoir water level fluctuation. Since algae bloom, especially in the tributaries and side arms of the mainstream, is one of the major issues occurred after 2003, the results of the numerical modeling together with the statistical analysis of the MINIBAT measurements are used for the eutrophication status analysis. Acknowledgments The Yangtze-Project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF

  19. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using conservative and non-conservative tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Stumpf, A.

    2015-12-01

    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois, USA. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook from five potential sources: farmland, forests, floodplains, river banks, and grasslands. Event-based and accumulated suspended sediment samples were collected by ISCO automatic pump samplers and in situ suspended sediment samplers and from the stream at watershed outlet. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an un-mixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from five potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Organic matter content, trace elements, and radionuclides from soil samples were used as potential tracers. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from floodplains in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland

  20. Long-distance transport of particulate iron from the Amur River to the western subarctic Pacific reinforced by the combination of Fe and Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T.; Asahara, Y.; Ichikawa, R.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nishioka, J.; Minami, H.; Nagao, S.; Tanimizu, M.; Shin, K.; Kono, M.

    2013-12-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient and limits primary productivity in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. The western subarctic Pacific (WSP) is one of HNLC regions, and the most important source of iron in the WSP has been thought to be the dust from East Asia such as Gobi dessert. In recent years, however, some studies suggest that the northwestern continental shelf region of the Sea of Okhotsk (OS) where the Amur River discharges large amounts of dissolved iron is one of the most important source area of iron in the WSP (e.g. Nishioka et al., 2007). The Amur has high concentration of dissolved iron, and more than 90% of the dissolved iron precipitates in the estuary mixing zone by coagulation. In the Amur estuary on the northwestern continental shelf of the OS, the strong tidal mixing causes the iron precipitates to be resuspended. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) is carried out to the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW) by the Dense Shelf Water (DSW) (Nakatsuka et al., 2004). The OSIW flows out to the WSP through the Bussol strait, and adds to the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). The SPM is possibly transported to the WSP in the above processes, and re-dissolved iron from the SPM (Sugie et al., 2013) contributes to the biological productivity in the WSP. In this study, we analyzed stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and radiogenic isotopes of neodymium (Nd) in particulate iron chemically extracted from the continental shelf sediments and SPM of the OS and those in dissolved Fe and Nd of the Amur River water in order to clarify the transport process of the particulate iron from the Amur River in the OS. Iron isotopes have been recently applied to trace origin of marine iron because δ56Fe value varies depending on source, such as river, eolian dust and hydrothermal input. In addition, we used neodymium isotopes to draw information where the particulate iron in the OSIW precipitates because the particulate iron takes up large amounts of REEs from

  1. Influence of near-bottom re-suspended sediment on benthic light availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Gallegos, Charles L.; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2012-01-01

    Increased light attenuation in the water column is a common consequence of the increased organic loading that accompanies anthropogenic eutrophication in coastal systems. Frequently, the best water quality correlate of the light attenuation coefficient is the total suspended solids, even in syste...

  2. Development of a field test method for total suspended solids analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) are all particles in water that will not pass through a glass fiber filter with a pore size less : than 2 m, including sediments, algae, nutrients, and metals. TSS is an important water quality parameter because of its ...

  3. Mass loads of dissolved and particulate mercury and other trace elements in the Mt. Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Costagliola, P.; Gray, J.E.; Lattanzi, P.; Nannucci, M.; Paolieri, M.; Salvadori, A.

    2014-01-01

    Total dissolved and particulate mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) mass loads were estimated in different seasons (March and September 2011 and March 2012) in the Paglia River basin (PRB) (central Italy). The Paglia River drains the Mt. Amiata Hg district, one of the largest Hg-rich regions worldwide. Quantification of Hg, As, and Sb mass loads in this watershed allowed (1) identification of the contamination sources, (2) evaluation of the effects of Hg on the environment, and (3) determination of processes affecting Hg transport. The dominant source of Hg in the Paglia River is runoff from Hg mines in the Mt. Amiata region. The maximum Hg mass load was found to be related to runoff from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore Mine (ASSM), and up to 30 g day−1 of Hg, dominantly in the particulate form, was transported both in high and low flow conditions in 2011. In addition, enrichment factors (EFs) calculated for suspended particulate matter (SPM) were similar in different seasons indicating that water discharge controls the quantities of Hg transported in the PRB, and considerable Hg was transported in all seasons studied. Overall, as much as 11 kg of Hg are discharged annually in the PRB and this Hg is transported downstream to the Tiber River, and eventually to the Mediterranean Sea. Similar to Hg, maximum mass loads for As and Sb were found in March 2011, when as much as 190 g day−1 each of As and Sb were measured from sites downstream from the ASSM. Therefore, the Paglia River represents a significant source of Hg, Sb, and As to the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate in the eastern Arabian sea along 15 (degrees) N

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nandakumar, K.; Bhosle, N.B.; Wagh, A.B.

    The concentration of particulate carbohydrate varied from 38-158 mu g.l-1 and 19-239 mu g.l-1 in shelf and slope waters respectively. At 10 m water column the concentration of particulate carbohydrate increased with the distance from the shore...

  5. Microbial biomass on particulate organic matter in seawater of the euphotic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, H

    1970-06-01

    Microbial biomass on suspended organic matter in seawater of the euphotic zone of Saanich Inlet was investigated. The viable microorganisms were measured by the glucose-uptake method. Microbial carbon on particulate organic matter in seawater was determined to be, on the average, 9.9 mug of C/liter, and there was a regression relationship as y = 0.0062 x - 1.79 with an unbiased variance V(yx) = 0.38, where x = particulate organic carbon in seawater (micrograms of C/liter) and y = logarithm of microbial carbon (micrograms of C/liter).

  6. In vitro toxicoproteomic analysis of A549 human lung epithelial cells exposed to urban air particulate matter and its water-soluble and insoluble fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Ngoc Q; Breznan, Dalibor; Goegan, Patrick; O'Brien, Julie S; Williams, Andrew; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud

    2017-10-02

    Toxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM) is difficult to assess because PM composition is complex and variable due to source contribution and atmospheric transformation. In this study, we used an in vitro toxicoproteomic approach to identify the toxicity mechanisms associated with different subfractions of Ottawa urban dust (EHC-93). A549 human lung epithelial cells were exposed to 0, 60, 140 and 200 μg/cm2 doses of EHC-93 (total), its insoluble and soluble fractions for 24 h. Multiple cytotoxicity assays and proteomic analyses were used to assess particle toxicity in the exposed cells. The cytotoxicity data based on cellular ATP, BrdU incorporation and LDH leakage indicated that the insoluble, but not the soluble, fraction is responsible for the toxicity of EHC-93 in A549 cells. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis results revealed that the expressions of 206 protein spots were significantly altered after particle exposures, where 154 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS. The results from cytotoxicity assays and proteomic analyses converged to a similar finding that the effects of the total and insoluble fraction may be alike, but their effects were distinguishable, and their effects were significantly different from the soluble fraction. Furthermore, the toxic potency of EHC-93 total is not equal to the sum of its insoluble and soluble fractions, implying inter-component interactions between insoluble and soluble materials resulting in synergistic or antagonistic cytotoxic effects. Pathway analysis based on the low toxicity dose (60 μg/cm2) indicated that the two subfractions can alter the expression of those proteins involved in pathways including cell death, cell proliferation and inflammatory response in a distinguishable manner. For example, the insoluble and soluble fractions differentially affected the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1 and IL-8 and distinctly altered the expression of those proteins (e.g., TREM1, PDIA3 and ENO1

  7. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  8. Transfer of metal(loid)s in a small vineyard catchment: contribution of dissolved and particulate fractions in river for contrasted hydrological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiet, M; Coquery, M; Carluer, N; Gahou, J; Gouy, V

    2015-12-01

    The use of inorganic pesticides in viticulture leads to the accumulation of metal(loid)s in soils which can be transferred to the hydro-systems (groundwater and surface water) via several processes. This study reports on the occurrence and behavior of metal(loid)s (Li, Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, and Ba), with a particular focus on Cu, Zn, and As, in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the spatiotemporal variability of metal(loid) concentrations and to evaluate the contribution of the particulate fraction to the transfer of metal(loid)s according to the hydrological conditions. Results show that very different patterns of metal(loid)s were observed in the Morcille River according to the hydrological conditions. In base flow conditions, Cu and As were mainly transported in dissolved phase, which contributed to more than 70 and 80%, respectively, of the total load during this period. On the contrary, during base flow, Zn was mainly transported as associated to particles (90%). During the two storm events monitored, the particulate fraction was dominant, as its represented around 74-80%, 97%, and 50-70% of the total Cu, Zn, and As load in the river, respectively. Thus, despite a weaker affinity for particles during floods (decrease of particulate content during floods), metal(loid)s were mainly brought as particles, given that high amounts of suspended particulate matter (up to 2031 mg/L) were mobilized. Finally, comprehensive fluxes estimations confirmed that floods were responsible for more than 90% of the total Cu, Zn and 75% for As load transiting in the Morcille River in August within a very short period of time (less than 17%).

  9. A molecular-level approach for characterizing water-insoluble components of ambient organic aerosol particulates using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, A. S.; Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition of organic aerosols in the atmosphere is strongly influenced by human emissions. The effect these have on the environment, human health, and climate change is determined by the molecular nature of these chemical species. The complexity of organic aerosol samples limits the ability to study the chemical composition, and therefore the associated properties and the impacts they have. Many studies have addressed the water-soluble fraction of organic aerosols and have had much success in identifying specific molecular formulas for thousands of compounds present. However, little attention is given to the water-insoluble portion, which can contain most of the fossil material that is emitted through human activity. Here we compare the organic aerosols present in water extracts and organic solvent extracts (pyridine and acetonitrile) of an ambient aerosol sample collected in a rural location that is impacted by natural and anthropogenic emission sources. A semiquantitative method was developed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the amount of organic matter extracted by pyridine is comparable to that of water. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra show that pyridine extracts a molecularly unique fraction of organic matter compared to water or acetonitrile, which extract chemically similar organic matter components. The molecular formulas unique to pyridine were less polar, more aliphatic, and reveal formulas containing sulfur to be an important component of insoluble aerosol organic matter.

  10. A molecular-level approach for characterizing water-insoluble components of ambient organic aerosol particulates using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, A. S.; Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of organic aerosols in the atmosphere is strongly influenced by human emissions, and the effect these have on the environment, human health, and climate change is determined by the molecular nature of these chemical species. The complexity of organic aerosol samples limits the ability to study the chemical composition, and, therefore, the associated properties and the impacts they have. Many studies address the water-soluble fraction of organic aerosols, and have had much success in identifying specific molecular formulas for thousands of compounds present. However, little attention is given to the water-insoluble portion, which can contain most of the fossil material that is emitted through human activity. Here we compare the organic aerosols present in water extracts and organic solvent extracts (pyridine and acetonitrile) of an ambient aerosol sample collected in a rural location that is impacted by natural and anthropogenic emission sources. A semi-quantitative method was developed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the amount of organic matter extracted by pyridine is comparable to that of water. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra show that pyridine extracts a molecularly unique fraction of organic matter compared to water or acetonitrile, which extract chemically similar organic matter components. The molecular formulas unique to pyridine were less polar, more aliphatic, and reveal formulas containing sulfur to be an important component of insoluble aerosol organic matter.

  11. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  12. Intrauterine and Early Postnatal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Kawasaki Disease: A Nationwide Longitudinal Survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-04

    To examine the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to particulate matter on Kawasaki disease (KD) occurrence, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan that began in 2010. Prenatal and postnatal suspended particulate matter concentrations were obtained at municipality level and assigned to participants based on their municipality of birth. We analyzed data from 30 367 participants with data on either exposure period. We used hospital admission for KD from 6 to 30 months of age as the main outcome of interest. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis, adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. Children who were exposed to higher levels of suspended particulate matter, in particular during pregnancy, were more likely to be hospitalized for KD. The ORs for ≥25 µg/m3 exposure compared with Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oscillation of a diamagnetic liquid bubble suspended by magnetic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, R. E-mail: yamane@kokushikan.ac.jp; Tomita, S.; Mai, J.; Park, M.K.; Oshima, S

    2002-11-01

    The levitation of the diamagnetic liquid droplet with the strong magnetic field is experimentally simulated, using the magnetic fluid as the surrounding fluid in place of air or gas, and the water bubble is levitated with the conventional permanent magnet. When the stepwise magnetic field is superposed, the suspended bubble behaves as a typical step response with the overshoot and viscous damping. The effects of the volume of the bubble, the strength of the magnetic field and the concentration of the magnetic fluid are investigated.

  14. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  15. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  16. [Phosphate adsorption characteristics on the desert particulates of inflow Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-wei; Guo, Bo-shu; Tai, Chao-lu-men; Mu, Ren; Si, Qin-gao-wa; Lü, Wei-hua

    2010-08-01

    Adsorption behaviors of phosphate on the desert particulates of inflow Yellow River were investigated in natural water (river water and sea water) and the experimental data was fitted by both the improved Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm adsorption models. The results show that (1) With more clear physical meaning and more reasonable fitting parameters, the improved Langmuir isotherm adsorption model is much better for describing phosphate adsorption on the desert particulates than the improved Freundlich isotherm adsorption model; (2) The maximum phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity Qmac is in the range of 41.322-357.143 mg x kg(-1), which is the biggest in Y2 (Juyanhai Lake particulates). There is remarkable positive correlation between Qmax and organic matter of the particulates (Y1-Y5); (3) Except for Y1 (Badain Jaran Desert particulates), the EPC0 (zero equilibrium P concentration) of the particulates are higher than the concentration of P in corresponding water. The EPC0 of P adsorption on Y1 in Yellow River is lower than P concentration in corresponding water (0.010 mg x L(-1) adsorption on Y1 in Bohai Sea water is higher than the P concentration in their corresponding water (0.109 mg x L(-1) > 0.074 mg x L(-1)), which shows that Y1 adsorbs P from the water of the Yellow River, then it releases its NAP (native adsorbed exchangeable phosphorus) into Bohai Seawater. However, in the process of the P exchange between other desert particulates and their corresponding water, only desorption phenomenon were observed, which means all other desert particulates release P to their corresponding water; (4) The adsorption isotherms of phosphate on the desert particulates of inflow Yellow River are cross-axis-type with over 0.00, a new cross-axis-type adsorption-desorption model, which provide a better explanation for adsorption characteristics of P and for the dual role of natural particulates.

  17. The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather Khan, I. S. A.

    The mineralogy and trace element concentrations of suspended stream sediments were determined at selected stations in the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, while conducting an intensive study on water quality and a biological assessment of water pollution in the basin. The minerals that were identified from the X-ray patterns of the suspended stream sediments are kaolinite, mica, feldspar and quartz. Kaolinite was the most abundant mineral, followed by mica. By considering mean concentrations of various trace elements, aluminum and manganese were the most abundant elements. Higher concentrations of copper and zinc at some stations were due to pollutants from the nearby Senawang Industrial Estate.

  18. Optical characterisation of suspended particles in the Mackenzie River plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean and implications for ocean colour remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Doxaran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Direct consequences have been observed on the increasing Arctic river flow and a large amount of organic carbon sequestered in soils at high latitudes since the last glacial maximum can be expected to be delivered to the Arctic Ocean during the coming decade. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed and proved to be operational.

    The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC. Robust SPM and POC : SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is reproduced based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone where terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow. Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of

  19. Optical Characterisation of Suspended Particles in the Mackenzie River Plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean) and Implications for Ocean Colour Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, D.; Ehn, J.; Belanger, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Direct consequences have been observed on the increasing Arctic river flow and a large amount of organic carbon sequestered in soils at high latitudes since the last glacial maximum can be expected to be delivered to the Arctic Ocean during the coming decade. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed and proved to be operational. The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean) using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC). Robust SPM and POC : SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is reproduced based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone where terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow). Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of the river mouth. Future

  20. Temporal changes of {sup 210}Po in temperate coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildgust, M.A.; White, K.N. [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); McDonald, P. [Westlakes Research Limited, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-18

    The temporal variation of Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) was examined in coastal sea water, the mussel Mytilus edulis, the winkle Littorina littorea and green algae Ulva lactuca in order to investigate the entry of {sup 210}Po into the marine food chain. More than 99% of {sup 210}Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved {sup 210}Po concentrations peaked during the spring phytoplankton bloom and it is suggested this is related to preferential scavenging of {sup 210}Po by the increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in L. Littorea {sup 210}Po specific activity are thought not to be related to food, but to a drop in body weight following spawning. Much of the {sup 210}Po accumulated by M. edulis was located in the digestive gland. The specific activity of {sup 210}Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was shown to be strongly correlated with changes in sea water suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metal (Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni Sb, Se, Sn and Zn) variations in the digestive gland revealed that class B and borderline metals had a strong positive correlation with {sup 210}Po. On-going work is investigating whether the accumulation and loss of {sup 210}Po is affected by the presence of metallothioneins

  1. Distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.C.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) of 161 water samples collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000 m) at 21 stations was measured The POC concentrations ranged from 154 to 554 mu g per litre at the surface and decreased in the upper 300 m water column...

  2. Distribution of particulate organic carbon in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhople, V.M.; Wagh, A.B.

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) of 161 water samples collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000m) at 21 stations was measured. The POC concentrations ranged from 154 to 554 kappa g per litre at the surface and decreased in the upper 300 m water...

  3. Impact of wet season river flood discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties in the southern Great Barrier Reef region coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Brando, Vittorio E.; Blondeau-Patissier, David; Ford, Phillip W.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Robson, Barbara J.

    2017-09-01

    Light absorption due to particulate and dissolved material plays an important role in controlling the underwater light environment and the above water reflectance signature. Thorough understanding of absorption properties and their variability is important to estimate light propagation in the water column. However, knowledge of light absorption properties in flood impacted coastal waters is limited. To address this knowledge gap we investigated a bio-optical dataset collected during a flood (2008) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region coastal waters. Results presented here show strong impact of river flood discharges on water column stratification, distribution of suspended substances and light absorption properties in the study area. Bio-optical analysis showed phytoplankton absorption efficiency to reduce in response to increased coloured dissolved organic matter presence in flood impacted coastal waters. Biogeophysical property ranges, relationships and parametrisation presented here will help model realistic underwater light environment and optical signature in flood impacted coastal waters.

  4. Spectral signature of suspended fine particulate material on light absorption properties of CDOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massicotte, Philippe; Stedmon, Colin; Markager, Stiig

    2017-01-01

    Fine submicron organic particles can represent an important fraction of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool in aquatic ecosystems and their optical properties differ from those normally considered dissolved (< 0.2 μm), which means that the choice of filter type/pore size can influence the lig...

  5. The effect of suspended particulate material on cyanobacteria--cyanophage interactions in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, Y M; Daft, M J; Stewart, W D

    1984-02-01

    The effect of the lytic phage LPP-DUN1 on the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum has been investigated in batch and in continuous cultures in the presence and absence of silt. In batch culture Plectonema without added phage grew normally; the presence of phage caused rapid lysis of the cyanobacterium and the addition of silt prevented lysis by the phage. In continuous culture the numbers of cyanobacterial cells and phage particles oscillated in a reciprocal manner, but the addition of silt damped down the oscillations in Plectonema biomass without decreasing the numbers of phage particles isolated from the cultures. The presence of silt thus appears to protect the cyanobacterium from lysis by phage, although the total numbers of phage particles are relatively unaffected by the silt, at least in the short-term.

  6. 78 FR 40000 - Method for the Determination of Lead in Total Suspended Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... extraction, and also knowledge in the recognition and in the correction of spectral, chemical and physical... improved extraction methods that are now available with improved precision, sample throughput, and extraction efficiency; (2) address advances in measurement technology that have occurred since promulgation...

  7. Signature of terrestrial influence on nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; Sardessai, S.; Patel, P.P.

    Institute of Oceanography, Goa 403 004, I n dia 4 M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India Nitrogen concentration and its isotopic composition in surface su spended matter have been measured at 24 di f- ferent loc a tions during..., primarily the aste r oids and occasionally Mars and the Moon. They also pr o vide information about the energetic environment in the inte r- planetary space where they spend a considerable p e riod of time, ranging from less than a million years to a few...

  8. Consequences of hydrological events on the delivery of suspended sediment and associated radionuclides from the Rhone River to the Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyrolle, Frederique; Antonelli, Christelle; Ferrand, Emmanuelle [IRSN, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France). Pole Radioprotection environnement, dechets et crise, PRP-ENV, Service d' Etude et de Surveillance de la Radioactivite dans l' Environnement; Raimbault, Patrick [Institut Mediterraneen d' Oceanologie, OSU Pytheas, Marseille (France); Aubert, Dominique [CEFREM, Univ. de Perpignan Via Domitia CNRS UMR, Perpignan (France); Jacquet, Stephanie; Radakovitch, Olivier; Raccasi, Guillaume [Aix-Marseille Univ.-CNR-IRD-College de France, Aix en Provence (France); Charmasson, Sabine [IRSN, La Seyne sur mer (France). Pole Radioprotection, environnement, dechets et crise, PRP-ENV, Service d' Etude et de Surveillance de la Radioactivite dans l' Environnement; Gurriaran, Rodolfo [IRSN, Orsay (France). Pole Radioprotection, environnement, dechets et crise, PRP-ENV, Service de Traitement des echantillos et de Metrologie pour l' Environnement

    2012-10-15

    Almost 20 nuclear reactors are situated along the Rhone valley, representing Europe's largest concentration of nuclear power plants. The fate of suspended sediments and natural and artificial particle-bound radionuclides in relation to extreme hydrological events was assessed at the lower course of the Rhone River, which provides the main source of water and sediment inputs to the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We sampled water at a high frequency over the period 2001-2008 and measured suspended particulate matter (SPM) loads and particle-bound natural and artificial radionuclide concentrations at the SORA observatory station in Arles, France. We monitored various hydrological events (either natural or anthropogenic origin) and characterize their influence on concentrations and fluxes. The relationship between SPM concentration and the very wide range of water discharges did not differ significantly from previous periods, indicating no significant shift in the average sediment delivery over the last 20 years. Unexpected hydrological events of anthropogenic origin, in particular those associated with flushing of reservoirs that are generally not captured by sampling strategies, were recorded and were shown to transfer significant additional sediment and associated contaminants towards the marine environment. Concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides associated with sediment (i.e., {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 110m}Ag, and Pu isotopes) varied over two to three orders of magnitude during periods of low and moderate flow due to variations in the liquid release from nuclear facilities. Except for Pu isotopes, the concentrations of the various particle-bound radionuclides generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing discharge, revealing the geochemical or anthropogenic background values, and providing a useful flood fingerprint for this large fluvial system before its entry into the marine environment. Our approach produced key data on the

  9. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  10. Influence of suspended kelp culture on seabed sediment composition in Heini Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxia; Huang, Haijun; Yan, Liwen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-11-01

    Kelp aquaculture activities occupy large nearshore areas with significant effects on sediment properties, primarily caused by the influence of the suspended kelp on local hydrodynamics. Changes in sediment composition and grain-size distributions were investigated prior to and following the commencement of kelp aquaculture activities in Heini Bay in eastern China. Seabed sediment types and the particulate matter in suspension during the kelp seeding and harvesting periods, and in sediment cores, were analyzed. While suspended sediment in the kelp aquaculture area was up to 20% organic material, sediment organic content on the seabed remained at similar levels as areas lacking aquaculture. The composition of the seabed sediment in the kelp aquaculture area became finer-grained by the capture of fine particles. Within the kelp aquaculture area, the sediments are poorly sorted and positively skewed, whereas at the shoreward and seaward of the aquaculture area the sediments are relatively coarse-grained, well-sorted and nearly symmetrically distributed. Therefore, the kelp aquaculture activities not only increase the fine particulate fraction in the sediments within the aquaculture area, but also result in similar deposits seaward of it, indicating that seabed erosion and accretion is also controlled by the sediment source and the hydrodynamic conditions. The analysis of sediment cores showed that kelp culturing refines the sediment by preferentially capturing particles in the 38-40 μm size class, while having no effect on the kelp aquaculture area. The same effect was observed in the seabed sediments seaward of the aquaculture area.

  11. A review of the impact of fireworks on particulate matter in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of fireworks (FW) and firecrackers (FC) on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air, we reviewed evidence related to ambient PM during FW/FC periods; specifically, PM concentration, size, morphology, chemical components, including water-soluble ions and trace metals, and associated human health risks caused by exposure to FW/FC PM were reviewed. A large body of research suggests that outdoor ambient PM levels increase significantly during FW/FC displays. Furthermore, FW/FC PM remains suspended in the air, contributing to high PM concentrations for a long period. Increased PM from burning FW and FC mainly comprises fine and ultrafine spherical particles. Elevated levels of various trace metals, ions, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and organics in PM are present during FW/FC periods. Unique physical and chemical properties of ambient PM during short-term FW/FC burning can lead to a substantial increase in adverse health effects compared with during non-FW/FC periods. Further epidemiological and toxicological research into the potential health effects resulting from exposure to various pollutants from FW/FC is vital. Geographical distributions of PM concentrations during FW displays highlight the importance of implementing PM controls at the regional level and formulating stricter protective environmental legislation, particularly in Asian (e.g., India, China, or Taiwan) where festivals are not the only periods celebrated with FW/FC.

  12. 9 CFR 201.81 - Suspended registrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 201.81 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.81 Suspended registrants. No stockyard owner, packer, market agency, or dealer shall employ...

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  14. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face area, shape, minerals and source) and conse- quent interaction with heavy metal concentrations. (HMCs). Recent studies have shown a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine grain sediment in ...

  15. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  16. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  17. Flow Laminarization and Acceleration by Suspended Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, M.; Hulshof, J.; Prostokishin, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    In [Comm. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 4(2009), pp. 153-175], Barenblatt presents a model for partial laminarization and acceleration of shear flows by the presence of suspended particles of different sizes, and provides a formal asymptotic analysis of the resulting velocity equation. In the present

  18. Emulsifying and Suspending Properties of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The thermodynamic instability of emulsions and suspensions necessitate the incorporation of emulsifiers and suspending agents respectively, in order to stabilize the formulations and ensure administration of accurate doses. Objective:Enterolobium cyclocarpum gum was characterized and evaluated for its ...

  19. Application of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager to Mapping the Diurnal and Seasonal Variability of Surface Suspended Matter in a Macro-Tidal Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended particulate matter (TSM in estuarine and coastal regions usually exhibits significant natural variations. The understanding of such variations is of great significance in coastal waters. The aim of this study is to investigate and assess the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface TSM distribution and its mechanisms in coastal waters based on Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI data. As a case study, dynamic variations of TSM in the macro-tidal Yalu River estuary (YRE of China were analysed. With regard to diurnal variability, there were usually two peaks of TSM in a tidal cycle corresponding to the maximum flood and ebb current. Tidal action appears to play a vital role in diurnal variations of TSM. Both the processes of tidal re-suspension and advection could be identified; however, the diurnal variation of TSM was mainly affected by a re-suspension process. In addition, spring-neap tides can affect the magnitude of TSM diurnal variations in the YRE. The GOCI-retrieved TSM results clearly showed the seasonal variability of surface TSM in this area, with the highest level occurring in winter and the lowest in summer. Moreover, although river discharge to the YRE was much greater in the wet season than the dry season, TSM concentrations were significantly higher in the dry season. Wind waves were considered to be the main factor affecting TSM seasonal variation in the YRE.

  20. SEBARAN TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS PADA PROFIL VERTIKAL DI PERAIRAN SELAT MADURA KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Dwi Siswanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (Total Suspended Solid (TSS dapat dipelajari secara horizontal maupun vertikal. Akumulasi sedimen tersuspensi (TSS secara horizontal sangat dipengaruhi oleh arus permukaan maupun gelombang yang dibangkitkan oleh angin. Keterdapatan TSS ini diduga berpengaruh terhadap sebarannya pada profil vertical. Kedua kondisi sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (TSS berpengaruh terhadap optimalisasi penetrasi cahaya matahari di perairan. Sedimen tersuspensi (TSS menjadi salah satu factor fisika yang penting sebagai indicator kondisi perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sebaran Total Suspended Solid (TSS di perairan Kabupaten Bangkalan. Materi utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah contoh air dan data parameter lingkungan (pasang surut dan kecerahan yang diambil pada 7 stasiun pada bulan Agustus-September 2013 di Perairan Selat Madura, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Metode gravimetric (SNI-06-6989.3-2004 digunakan untuk analisa Total Suspended Solid (TSS. Data parameter lingkungan dianalisa secara deskriptif. Analisa TSS menunjukkan nilai yang berbeda pada beberapa stasiun penelitian untuk setiap minggunya. Konsentrasi TSS terendah sebesar 35 mg/L (Stasiun 3, profil permukaan, minggu pertama dan tertinggi sebesar 620 mg/L (Stasiun 4, profil dasar, minggu pertama. Secara umum, konsentrasi TSS secara vertikal (dari permukaan-dasar cenderung semakin besar, diduga dipengaruhi oleh jenis substrat dan parameter arus yang berpeluang untuk menimbulkan pengadukan di profil dasar. Kondisi lingkungan (kecerahan dan arus menunjukkan bahwa daerah dengan konsentrasi TSS yang tinggi cenderung memilki nilai kecerahan yang rendah dengan kecepatan arus yang lebih besar.Kata Kunci: kecerahan, pola arus, Total Suspended Solid (TSS DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS IN THE VERTICAL PROFILE IN THE MADURA STRAIT WATERS BANGKALAN DISTRICTABSTRACTDistribution of suspended sediment (Total Suspended Solid (TSS can be studied through

  1. Turbidity and suspended sediment in the upper Esopus Creek watershed, Ulster County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were measured for 2 to 3 years at 14 monitoring sites throughout the upper Esopus Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The upper Esopus Creek watershed is part of the New York City water-supply system that supplies water to more than 9 million people every day. Turbidity, caused primarily by high concentrations of inorganic suspended particles, is a potential water-quality concern because it colors the water and can reduce the effectiveness of drinking-water disinfection. The purposes of this study were to quantify concentrations of suspended sediment and turbidity levels, to estimate suspended-sediment loads within the upper Esopus Creek watershed, and to investigate the relations between SSC and turbidity. Samples were collected at four locations along the main channel of Esopus Creek and at all of the principal tributaries. Samples were collected monthly and during storms and were analyzed for SSC and turbidity in the laboratory. Turbidity was also measured every 15 minutes at six of the sampling stations with in situ turbidity probes.

  2. [Impacts of Sediment Disturbance on the Distribution of Suspended Particle Size and Phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-rui; Li, Da-peng; Liu, Yan-jian

    2016-04-15

    To clarify the influence of the sediments disturbance on the particle size distribution of suspended solids, and the influence of particle distribution on the forms of dissolved phosphorous in the overlaying water, the sediments and overlying water from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, were used to conduct the indoor simulation experiments to investigate the particle size of suspended solids according to the Ubbelobde particle size criteria and the distribution of phosphorus compounds in the overlying water under the disturbance circumstances. The results indicated that the average proportions of small (0-10 microm), middle (10-20 microm) and large (> or = 20 microm) diameter particles presented different trends of increasing, decreasing and staying stable, respectively. It indicated the possible transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter. In addition, the data of DTP/TP and DIP/TP showed a periodical variation with the corresponding periodical variety of particle diameter in suspended solids, while ns obvious variety of DTP and DIP was observed. It suggested that disturbance enhanced the ability of phosphorus immobilization by suspended solids. On the other band, the percentages of DTP in TP and DIP in TP were 19% and 13% under the disturbance, respectively, and they were obviously lower than those (DTP/TP, 80% and DIP/TP, 69% ) in the control. It indicated that tbs transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter due to disturbance was in favor of tbe adsorption and sedimentation of dissolved phosphorus. Accordingly, the formation of particle phosphorus was enhanced. Therefore, it delayed the development of eutrophication in the water body.

  3. Surface clogging process modeling of suspended solids during urban stormwater aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijia; Du, Xinqiang; Yang, Yuesuo; Ye, Xueyan

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer recharge, which uses urban stormwater, is an effective technique to control the negative effects of groundwater over-exploitation, while clogging problems in infiltration systems remain the key restricting factor in broadening its practice. Quantitative understanding of the clogging process is still very poor. A laboratory study was conducted to understand surface physical clogging processes, with the primary aim of developing a model for predicting suspended solid clogging processes before aquifer recharge projects start. The experiments investigated the clogging characteristics of different suspended solid sizes in recharge water by using a series of one-dimensional fine quartz sand columns. The results showed that the smaller the suspended particles in recharge water, the farther the distance of movement and the larger the scope of clogging in porous media. Clogging extents in fine sand were 1 cm, for suspended particle size ranging from 0.075 to 0.0385 mm, and 2 cm, for particles less than 0.0385 mm. In addition, clogging development occurred more rapidly for smaller suspended solid particles. It took 48, 42, and 36 hr respectively, for large-, medium-, and small-sized particles to reach pre-determined clogging standards. An empirical formula and iteration model for the surface clogging evolution process were derived. The verification results obtained from stormwater recharge into fine sand demonstrated that the model could reflect the real laws of the surface clogging process.

  4. Suspended material availability and filtration-biodeposition processes performed by a native and invasive bivalve species in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.L.; First, M.R.; Covich, A.P.; Opsahl, S.P.; Golladay, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are among the most threatened group of freshwater organisms globally. They are known for their ability to filter food particles from flowing and standing waters. However, invasive bivalve species, such as the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) in North America, have the potential to overlap in feeding and potentially out-compete the native species. Yet, the feeding preferences of unionid mussels and C. fluminea are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that Elliptio crassidens (native) and C. fluminea (invasive) would select for specific organic components present within seston. We examined changes in seston (dry mass and ash-free dry mass) resulting from bivalve feeding activity for three size classes of material that were isolated using gravimetric filtration. The treatments were also sub-sampled for flow cytometry (FC) which separated the suspended materials in the stream water into five categories: detritus, heterotrophic bacteria, picoautotrophs, nanoautotrophs, and heterotrophic nanoeukaryotes. Our results indicated that both species of bivalve showed preferences for organic and living materials. E. crassidens preferentially filtered nanoeukaryotes, whose decreases were associated with an increase in bacteria. In contrast, C. fluminea preferred smaller materials through selective filtration of picoautotrophs. In addition, both species increased the concentration of large materials toward the end of the experiment because of the suspension of their pseudofeces biodeposits. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine grazing by bivalve species on natural stream particulate matter using FC. Our results suggest that native and non-native mussels have different functional roles, which has important implications for organic matter processing and food webs in streams. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data from water samples collected in 2014-15 by the U.S. Geological Survey in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey scientists and technical support staff measured oceanographic, water quality, seabed elevation change, and meteorological parameters in...

  6. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  7. The optical properties of greenlandic coastal waters: Modelling light penetration in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, Colin; Markager, S.S.; Pedersen, T.J.

    of these waters. Although solar elevation and sea ice cover play an important role, during the summer month’s light is also regulated by water constituents such as dissolved and particulate organic matter, phytoplankton and suspended sediments. The relative importance of each of these constituents varies...... depending on the influence of shelf water entering the fjords, extent of glacial ice melt and the size and vertical distribution of the phytoplankton biomass. In this study the data from two contrasting sites are compared: Young Sound, a fjord system in Northeast Greenland that imports shelf waters...... with a considerable amount of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the Arctic Ocean; and Godthåbsfjord a fjord in Southwest Greenland where strong tides ensure a regular supply of warm shelf water which melt glacial ice before it can leave the fjord...

  8. The nature and distribution of particulate matter in the Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Mehra, P.; Viegas, B.E.

    ecosystems of south Brittany (Lorient and Vilaine Bays) with particular reference to the effect of the turbidity maxima. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 42, 737-753. Manheim, F. T. and J. C. Hathaway, 1972. Suspended matter in surface water...

  9. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  10. Hafnium and neodymium isotopes and REY distribution in the truly dissolved, nanoparticulate/colloidal and suspended loads of rivers in the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Schmidt, Katja; Münker, Carsten; Dantas, Elton L.

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic isotopes in river sediments and river waters have been widely used in provenance studies, as these samples naturally integrate the geology/chemistry of the entire catchment. While the Hf and Nd isotope systems are coupled during igneous processes, they are decoupled during supergene processes at the Earth's surface, which is reflected by the isotope composition of riverine sediments. We present the first data for both Hf and Nd isotope compositions of the dissolved (0.2 μm-filtrates rich in nanoparticles and colloids, NPCs) and the truly dissolved (1 kDa-ultrafiltrates) load of rivers. Hafnium and Nd isotope compositions and concentrations of the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) and Hf were determined for suspended particles (>0.2 μm) as well as for the dissolved and the truly dissolved load of the Rio Solimões, the Amazon's largest tributary draining the Andes, and of the Rio Negro, an organic NPC- and particle-rich river draining the rainforest of northern Amazonia. We also analyzed the Nd isotope compositions of suspended sediments and 0.2 μm-filtered water samples from the Amazon River and its tributaries Rio Tapajos, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari. Our novel results clearly show that the decoupling of the Hf and Nd isotope systems is related to incongruent weathering processes on the continent, as this decoupling can already be observed in the different Hf and Nd pools, i.e. in the particulate, the NPC-dominated dissolved and the truly dissolved load of rivers. In the Rio Negro and Rio Solimões, a strong particle size-dependent difference in Hf isotope composition is observed. Values of εHf become more radiogenic as filter poresize decreases, which can be related to the density- and size-dependent distribution of Hf-rich minerals, e.g. zircons, and their absence from the truly dissolved pool. In contrast, the Nd isotope composition of Amazonian river waters reflects that of their catchment geology. Tributaries draining the Precambrian Brazilian and

  11. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  12. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... particle size distribution (PSD) were correlated with HMC by using bivariate and multivariate regression models. Proposed models were then selected based on statistical criteria. The results showed high correlation between dissolved and particulate chromium content with efficiency coefficients beyond 77% ( > 0.001).

  13. The significance of suspended organic sediments to turbidity, sediment flux, and fish-feeding behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Madej; Margaret Wilzbach; Kenneth Cummins; Colleen Ellis; Samantha Hadden

    2007-01-01

    For over three decades, geologists, hydrologists and stream ecologists have shown significant interest in suspended load in running waters. Physical scientists have focused on turbidity, the development of sediment-rating curves and estimation of sediment yields, often as an indicator of changing land uses (Beschta 1981). Stream ecologists, on the other hand, have...

  14. Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...

  15. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  17. Effect of evaporative weathering and oil-sediment interactions on the fate and behavior of diluted bitumen in marine environments. Part 1. Spill-related properties, oil buoyancy, and oil-particulate aggregates characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Mirnaghi, Fatemeh S; Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E

    2018-01-01

    The fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spilled in marine conditions has recently become a topic of much interest, yet, only limited knowledge is available. One of the major issues of a diluted bitumen spill on water is whether the product will sink, especially when suspended sediment is present in the water column. This study demonstrated how weathering processes influenced the key spill-related properties of a diluted bitumen product (Cold Lake Blend-Winter), and how interaction of diluted bitumen with sediment affected its tendency to float or sink in water. This study showed that the weathering states of the oils as well as the size of sediment are important factors influencing oil-sediment interactions and the tendency of the formed oil-particulate aggregates for buoyancy. When mixing with fine- and medium-sized sediments, the fresh to moderately weathered oils formed oil-particulate aggregates and sank in saltwater, while the very heavily-weathered oil formed discrete free-floating tarballs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Systematic Evaluation of Dissolved Lead Sorption Losses to Particulate Syringe Filter Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distinguishing between soluble and particulate lead in drinking water is useful in understanding the mechanism of lead release and identifying remedial action. Typically, particulate lead is defined as the amount of lead removed by a 0.45 µm filter. Unfortunately, there is little...

  19. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected every 20 days at 2 hour and 4 minute intervals for 2 complete tidal cycles (26 hours) with an ISCO automated...

  20. Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2ω6 and 18:3ω3) and cyanobacteria (16:1ω7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time

  1. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  2. Recent developments in particulate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-04

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are the dominant type of particulate control in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) plant; fabric filters (FF) play a smaller role. Environmental pressures and subsequent tighter regulations have lowered emission limit values (ELV) for particulate matter from PCC plant, and they are now extending to specific toxic metals, such as mercury. Lower ELV are generally met by increasing the efficiency of the existing particulate control via numerous enhancements. However, the existing fleet is ageing, various restrictions on site limit what work can be done and PCC plant is progressively operating under non-design conditions. Despite this, further developments in technology have led to significant improvements in collection efficiency and regulations have been met. New hybrid ESP/FF systems aim to become more viable than the individual technology by utilising the advantages of both technologies. The purpose of this report is to review the technical and economic considerations of enhancements in particulate control for PCC plant over the last decade.

  3. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  4. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median an