WorldWideScience

Sample records for water surface wind

  1. Wind effect on water surface of water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary research of wind-water interactions was focused on coastal areas along the shores of world oceans and seas because a basic understanding of coastal meteorology is an important component in coastal and offshore design and planning. Over time the research showed the most important meteorological consideration relates to the dominant role of winds in wave generation. The rapid growth of building-up of dams in 20th century caused spreading of the water wave mechanics research to the inland water bodies. The attention was paid to the influence of waterwork on its vicinity, wave regime respectively, due to the shoreline deterioration, predominantly caused by wind waves. Consequently the similar principles of water wave mechanics are considered in conditions of water reservoirs. The paper deals with the fundamental factors associated with initial wind-water interactions resulting in the wave origination and growth. The aim of the paper is thepresentation of utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies with respect to actual state of the art. The authors compared foreign and national approach to the solved problems and worked out graphical interpretation and overview of related wind-water interaction factors.

  2. The Character of the Solar Wind, Surface Interactions, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the key characteristics of the proton-rich solar wind and describe how it may interact with the lunar surface. We suggest that solar wind can be both a source and loss of water/OH related volatiles, and review models showing both possibilities. Energy from the Sun in the form of radiation and solar wind plasma are in constant interaction with the lunar surface. As such, there is a solar-lunar energy connection, where solar energy and matter are continually bombarding the lunar surface, acting at the largest scale to erode the surface at 0.2 Angstroms per year via ion sputtering [1]. Figure 1 illustrates this dynamically Sun-Moon system.

  3. Wind effect on currents in a thin surface layer of coastal waters faced open-sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masanao; Isozaki, Hisaaki; Isozaki, Tokuju; Nemoto, Masashi; Hasunuma, Keiichi; Kitamura, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Two-years of continuous observation of wind and current were carried out to investigate the relationship between them in the coastal waters off Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Three instruments to measure the current were set in a thin surface layer of 3 m above the strong pycnocline, which is a common feature in coastal waters. Both of the power spectra of wind and currents showed very similar features, an outstanding high peak at 24-hour period and a range of high peaks longer than several-days period. The long term variation of the wind field always contained north-wind component, which contributed to forming the southward current along the shore throughout the year. A high correlation coefficient (0.64) was obtained between the wind and the current at a depth of 0.5 m on the basis of the two-year observation. Harmonic analysis revealed that an outstanding current with 24-hour period was the S 1 component (meteorological tide), and was driven by land and sea breezes. These breezes also contained solar tidal components such as K 1 , P 1 and S 2 . These wind components added their own wind driven currents on the original tidal currents. This meant that land and sea breezes generated wind driven currents with solar tidal periods which behaved like astronomical tidal currents. As result, coastal currents contained pseudo tidal currents which behaved like astronomical tidal currents. (author)

  4. Variation of air--water gas transfer with wind stress and surface viscoelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Frew, Nelson M.; Bock, Erik J.; McGillis, Wade R.; Karachintsev, Andrey V.; Hara, Tetsu; Münsterer, Thomas; Jähne, Bernd

    1995-01-01

    Previous parameterizations of gas transfer velocity have attempted to cast this quantity as a function of wind speed or wind-stress. This study demonstrates that the presence of a surface film is effective at reducing the gas transfer velocity at constant wind-stress. Gas exchange experiments were performed at WHOI and UH using annular wind-wave tanks of different scales. Systematic variations of wind-stress and surfactant concentration (Triton-X-100) were explored to determ...

  5. Wind and sunlight shape microbial diversity in surface waters of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A; Aylward, Frank O; Eppley, John M; Karl, David M; Church, Matthew J; DeLong, Edward F

    2016-06-01

    Few microbial time-series studies have been conducted in open ocean habitats having low seasonal variability such as the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), where surface waters experience comparatively mild seasonal variation. To better describe microbial seasonal variability in this habitat, we analyzed rRNA amplicon and shotgun metagenomic data over two years at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA. We postulated that this relatively stable habitat might reveal different environmental factors that influence planktonic microbial community diversity than those previously observed in more seasonally dynamic habitats. Unexpectedly, the data showed that microbial diversity at 25 m was positively correlated with average wind speed 3 to 10 days prior to sampling. In addition, microbial community composition at 25 m exhibited significant correlations with solar irradiance. Many bacterial groups whose relative abundances varied with solar radiation corresponded to taxa known to exhibit strong seasonality in other oceanic regions. Network co-correlation analysis of 25 m communities showed seasonal transitions in composition, and distinct successional cohorts of co-occurring phylogenetic groups. Similar network analyses of metagenomic data also indicated distinct seasonality in genes originating from cyanophage, and several bacterial clades including SAR116 and SAR324. At 500 m, microbial community diversity and composition did not vary significantly with any measured environmental parameters. The minimal seasonal variability in the NPSG facilitated detection of more subtle environmental influences, such as episodic wind variation, on surface water microbial diversity. Community composition in NPSG surface waters varied in response to solar irradiance, but less dramatically than reported in other ocean provinces.

  6. Extratropical Influence of Sea Surface Temperature and Wind on Water Recycling Rate Over Oceans and Coastal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Water vapor and precipitation are two important parameters confining the hydrological cycle in the atmosphere and over the ocean surface. In the extratropical areas, due to variations of midlatitude storm tracks and subtropical jetstreams, water vapor and precipitation have large variability. Recently, a concept of water recycling rate defined previously by Chahine et al. (GEWEX NEWS, August, 1997) has drawn increasing attention. The recycling rate of moisture is calculated as the ratio of precipitation to total precipitable water (its inverse is the water residence time). In this paper, using multi-sensor spacebased measurements we will study the role of sea surface temperature and ocean surface wind in determining the water recycling rate over oceans and coastal lands. Response of water recycling rate in midlatitudes to the El Nino event will also be discussed. Sea surface temperature data are derived from satellite observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) blended with in situ measurements, available for the period 1982-1998. Global sea surface wind observations are obtained from spaceborne scatterometers aboard on the European Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS1 and 2), available for the period 1991-1998. Global total precipitable water provided by the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) is available for the period 1988-1995. Global monthly mean precipitation provided by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is available for the period 1987-1998.

  7. Effects of wind on the dynamics of the central jet during drop impact onto a deep-water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinan; Wang, An; Wang, Shuang; Dai, Dejun

    2018-05-01

    The cavity and central jet generated by the impact of a single water drop on a deep-water surface in a wind field are experimentally studied. Different experiments are performed by varying the impacting drop diameter and wind speed. The contour profile histories of the cavity (also called crater) and central jet (also called stalk) are measured in detail with a backlit cinematic shadowgraph technique. The results show that shortly after the drop hits the water surface an asymmetrical cavity appears along the wind direction, with a train of capillary waves on the cavity wall. This is followed by the formation of an inclined central jet at the location of the drop impact. It is found that the wind has little effect on the penetration depth of the cavity at the early stage of the cavity expansion, but markedly changes the capillary waves during the retraction of the cavity. The capillary waves in turn shift the position of the central jet formation leeward. The dynamics of the central jet are dominated by two mechanisms: (i) the oblique drop impact produced by the wind and (ii) the wind drag force directly acting on the jet. The maximum height of the central jet, called the stalk height, is drastically affected by the wind, and the nondimensional stalk height H /D decreases with increasing θ Re-1 , where D is the drop diameter, θ is the impingement angle of drop impact, and Re=ρaUwD /μa is the Reynolds number with air density ρa, wind speed Uw, and air viscosity μa.

  8. Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashurin, V P; Ktitorov, L V; Lazareva, A S; Pletenev, F A; Budnikov, I N; Hatunkin, V Yu; Klevtsov, V A; Meshkov, E E; Novikova, I A; Yanbaev, G M

    2016-01-01

    As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines. (paper)

  9. The effect of foam on waves and the aerodynamic roughness of the water surface at high winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea coupling at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of explanation of the sea surface drag saturation at the wind speed exceeding 30 m/s. The idea on saturation (and even reduction) of the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of the sea surface at hurricane wind speed first suggested in [1] on the basis of theoretical analysis of sensitivity of maximum wind speed in a hurricane to the ratio of the enthalpy and momentum exchange coefficients was then confirmed by a number of field (e.g.[2]) and laboratory [3] experiments, which showed that the sea surface drag coefficient was significantly reduced in comparison with the parameterization obtained at moderate to strong wind conditions. The theoretical explanations of the effect of the sea surface drag reduction exploit either peculiarities of the air flow over breaking waves (e.g.[4,5]) or the effect of sea drops and spray on the wind-wave momentum exchange (e.g. [6,7]). Recently an alternative hypothesis was suggested in [8], where the surface drag reduction in hurricanes was explained by the influence of foam covering sea surface on its aerodynamic roughness. This paper describes a series of laboratory experiments in Thermostratified Wind-Wave Tank (TSWiWaT) of IAP directed to investigation of the foam impact on the short-wave part of the surface waves and the momentum exchange in the atmospheric boundary layer at high winds in the range of equivalent 10-m wind speed from 12 to 38 m/s. A special foam generator was designed for these experiments. The air flow parameters were retrieved from measurements of the velocity profiles. The frequency-wavenumber spectra of surface waves were retrieved from the measurements of water surface elevation by the array 3-channel wave gauge. Foam coverage of water surface was controlled by video filming of the water surface. The results of measurements were compared with predictions of the quasi-linear model of atmospheric boundary layer over

  10. Flexible Slippery Surface to Manipulate Droplet Coalescence and Sliding, and Its Practicability in Wind-Resistant Water Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Qian, Baitai; Lai, Chuilin; Wang, Xiaowen; Ma, Kaikai; Guo, Yujuan; Zhu, Xingli; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2017-07-26

    A flexible slippery membrane (FSM) with tunable morphology and high elastic deformability has been developed by infusing perfluoropolyether (PFPE) into a fluorinated-copolymer-modified thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofiberous membrane. To immobilize PFPE in TPU matrix, we synthesized a fluorinated-copolymer poly(DFMA-co-IBOA-co-LMA) with low surface energy, high chemical affinity to PFPE, adequate flexibility, and strong physical adhesion on TPU. Upon external tensile stress, the as-prepared FSM can realize a real-time manipulation of water sliding and coalescence on it. Furthermore, it exhibits the ability to preserve the captured water from being blown away by strong wind, which ensures the water collection efficiency in windy regions.

  11. An analytical two-flow model to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ming

    1997-06-01

    An analytical two-flow model is derived from the radiative transfer equation to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance. The model utilizes unique boundary conditions, including the surface slope of the downwelling and upwelling irradiance as well as the influence of wind and bottom reflectance on simulated surface reflectance. The developed model provides a simple mathematical concept for understanding the irradiant light flux and associated processes in coastal or fresh water as well as turbid estuarine waters. The model is applied to data from the Banana River and coastal Atlantic Ocean water off the east coast of central Florida, USA. The two-flow irradiance model is capable of simulating realistic above-surface reflectance signatures under wind-roughened air-water surface given realistic input parameters including a specular flux conversion coefficient, absorption coefficient, backscattering coefficient, atmospheric visibility, bottom reflectance, and water depth. The root-mean-squared error of the calculated above-surface reflectances is approximately 3% in the Banana River and is less than 15% in coastal Atlantic Ocean off the east of Florida. Result of the subsurface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the specular conversion coefficient is the most sensitive parameter in the model, followed by the beam attenuation coefficient, absorption coefficient, water depth, backscattering coefficient, specular irradiance, diffuse irradiance, bottom reflectance, and wind speed. On the other hand, result of the above-surface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the wind speed is the most important parameter, followed by bottom reflectance, attenuation coefficient, water depth, conversion coefficient, specular irradiance, downwelling irradiance, absorption coefficient, and backscattering coefficient. Model results depend on the accuracy of these parameters to a large degree and

  12. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  13. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  14. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  15. Influence of orographically steered winds on Mutsu Bay surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    Effects of spatially dependent sea surface wind field on currents in Mutsu Bay, which is located at the northern end of Japanese Honshu Island, are investigated using winds derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and a numerical model. A characteristic wind pattern over the bay was evidenced from analysis of 118 SAR images and coincided with in situ observations. Wind is topographically steered with easterly winds entering the bay through the terrestrial gap and stronger wind blowing over the central water toward its mouth. Nearshore winds are weaker due to terrestrial blockages. Using the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigated currents forced by the observed spatially dependent wind field. The predicted current pattern agrees well with available observations. For a uniform wind field of equal magnitude and average direction, the circulation pattern departs from observations demonstrating that vorticity input due to spatially dependent wind stress is essential in generation of the wind-driven current in Mutsu Bay.

  16. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Wind Resource Estimation using QuikSCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Guosheng; Cheng, Yongcun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the offshore wind resources in the East China Sea and South China Sea were estimated from over ten years of QuikSCAT scatterometer wind products. Since the errors of these products are larger close to the coast due to the land contamination of radar backscatter signal...... and the complexity of air-sea interaction processes, an empirical relationship that adjusts QuikSCAT winds in coastal waters was first proposed based on vessel measurements. Then the shape and scale parameters of Weibull function are determined for wind resource estimation. The wind roses are also plotted. Results...

  18. Turbulent wind waves on a water current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgensky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.

  19. Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, C.L.

    2010-12-15

    Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large fluctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large fluctuations in generated power are a particular problem for offshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that fluctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water, such as convective rolls and cellular convection, have length scales of tens of kilometers, and can cause large wind fluctuations on a time scale of around an hour. This thesis is an exploration of the predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations using observations from the world's first two large offshore wind farms - Horns Rev I in the North Sea, and Nysted in the Baltic Sea. The thesis begins with a climatological analysis of wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-10 hours at the two sites. A novel method for calculating conditional climatologies of spectral information is proposed, based on binning and averaging the time axis of the Hilbert spectrum. Results reveal clear patterns between wind fluctuations and locally observed meteorological conditions. The analysis is expanded by classifying wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-3 hours according to synoptic patterns, satellite pictures and wind classes. Results indicate that cold air outbreaks and open cellular convection are a significant contributor to mesoscale wind variability at Horns Rev. The predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations is tested by implementing standard statistical models that relate local wind variability to parameters based on a large scale weather analysis. The models show some skill, but only achieve a 15% improvement on a persistence forecast. The possibility of explicitly modelling

  20. Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2012-01-01

    Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling...

  1. Wind Stress Variability Observed Over Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    The wind stress on the ocean surface generates waves, drives currents, and enhances gas exchange; and a significant amount of work has been done to characterize the air-sea momentum flux in terms of bulk oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. However, the majority of this work to develop operational algorithms has been focused on the deep ocean and the suitability of these methods in the coastal regime has not been evaluated. The findings from a two-part field campaign will be presented which highlight the divergence of nearshore wind stress observations from conventional, deep water results. The first set of data comes from a coastal region near a relatively small, natural tidal inlet. A high degree of spatial variability was observed in both the wind stress magnitude and direction, suggestive of coastal processes (e.g., depth-limited wave affects and horizontal current shear) modulating the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. These shallow-water processes are typically not accounted for in conventional parameterizations. Across the experimental domain and for a given wind speed, the stress magnitude was found to be nearly 2.5 times that predicted by conventional methods; also, a high propensity for stress steering off the mean azimuthal wind direction (up to ±70 degrees) was observed and linked to horizontal current gradients produced by the tidal inlet. The preliminary findings from a second data set taken in the vicinity of the macrotidal Columbia River Mouth will also be presented. Compared to the first data set, a similar degree of variability is observed here, but the processes responsible for this are present at a much larger scale. Specifically, the Columbia River Mouth observations were made in the presence of significant swell wave energy and during periods of very high estuarine discharge. The relative angle between the wind and swell direction is expected to be significant with regards to the observed momentum flux. Also, these

  2. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. ... A case study using the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and ... parameter is essential when the values of the parameter ...

  3. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  4. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  5. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  6. Surface freezing of water

    OpenAIRE

    P?rez-D?az, J. L.; ?lvarez-Valenzuela, M. A.; Rodr?guez-Celis, F.

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered?exclusively?by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on ...

  7. 77 FR 31839 - Wind and Water Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program... projects. The 2012 Wind and Water Power Program, Wind Power Peer Review Meeting will review wind technology... portfolio. The 2012 Wind Power Peer Review Meeting will be held June 19 through June 21, 2012, in Alexandria...

  8. Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise

    in generated power are a particular problem for oshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that uctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water......Mesoscale wind uctuations aect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large uctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large uctuations...... that realistic hour-scale wind uctuations and open cellular convection patterns develop in WRF simulations with 2km horizontal grid spacing. The atmospheric conditions during one of the case studies are then used to initialise a simplied version of the model that has no large scale weather forcing, topography...

  9. Surface freezing of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, J L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, M A; Rodríguez-Celis, F

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered-exclusively-by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on humidity, presenting at least three different types of surface crystals. Humidity triggers surface freezing as soon as it overpasses a defined value for a given temperature, generating a plurality of nucleation nodes. An evidence of simultaneous nucleation of surface ice crystals is also provided.

  10. CYGNSS Surface Wind Observations and Surface Flux Estimates within Low-Latitude Extratropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, J.; Posselt, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), launched in December 2016, aims to improve estimates of surface wind speeds over the tropical oceans. While CYGNSS's core mission is to provide better estimates of surface winds within the core of tropical cyclones, previous research has shown that the constellation, with its orbital inclination of 35°, also has the ability to observe numerous extratropical cyclones that form in the lower latitudes. Along with its high spatial and temporal resolution, CYGNSS can provide new insights into how extratropical cyclones develop and evolve, especially in the presence of thick clouds and precipitation. We will demonstrate this by presenting case studies of multiple extratropical cyclones observed by CYGNSS early on in its mission in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. By using the improved estimates of surface wind speeds from CYGNSS, we can obtain better estimates of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes within and around extratropical cyclones. Surface heat fluxes, driven by surface winds and strong vertical gradients of water vapor and temperature, play a key role in marine cyclogenesis as they increase instability within the boundary layer and may contribute to extreme marine cyclogenesis. In the past, it has been difficult to estimate surface heat fluxes from space borne instruments, as these fluxes cannot be observed directly from space, and deficiencies in spatial coverage and attenuation from clouds and precipitation lead to inaccurate estimates of surface flux components, such as surface wind speeds. While CYGNSS only contributes estimates of surface wind speeds, we can combine this data with other reanalysis and satellite data to provide improved estimates of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes within and around extratropical cyclones and throughout the entire CYGNSS mission.

  11. Floating offshore wind turbines for shallow waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulder, B.H.; Henderson, A.; Huijsmans, R.H.M.; Peeringa, J.M.; Pierik, J.T.G.; Snijders, E.J.B.; Hees, M.Th. van; Wijnants, G.H.; Wolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom mounted Offshore wind turbines seem to have a promising future but they are restricted to shallow waters of Northern Europe. Many projects are planned or are in the phase of construction on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. All projects that are planned have a water depth up to approximately

  12. Wind direction dependent vertical wind shear and surface roughness parameter in two different coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathsingh, A.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Sardar Maran, P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface layer parameterizations are important prerequisites for air pollution dispersion analysis. The turbulent flow characteristics vary at coastal and inland sites where the nuclear facilities are situated. Many pollution sources and their dispersion occur within the roughness sub layer in the lower atmosphere. In this study analysis of wind direction dependence vertical wind shear, surface roughness lengths and surface layer wind condition has been carried out at a coastal and the urban coastal site for the different wind flow regime. The differential response of the near coastal and inland urban site SBL parameters (wind shear, roughness length, etc) was examined as a function of wind direction

  13. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  14. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  15. Pollen, water, and wind: Chaotic mixing in a puddle of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    and nutrient distribution in puddles and small ponds.The flow patterns are generated by wind blowing across the puddle surface. This causes a shear stress at the atmospheric interface, which drives a flow in the liquid below. Chaotic mixing can occur if the wind direction changes over time. A fluid patch......This paper talks about how pine pollen grains dispersedin an approximately 1 m wide and 1 cm deep water puddle. The pollen has mixed due to wind blowing across the liquid surface, revealing a strikingly complex flow pattern. The flows revealed by nature’s tracer particles may influence circulation...

  16. The Effect of Wind Velocity on the Cooling Rate of Water

    OpenAIRE

    Shrey Aryan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wind velocity on the cooling rate of water was investigated by blowing air horizontally over the surface of water contained in a plastic water-bottle cap. The time taken for the temperature to fall to the average of the surrounding and initial temperatures was recorded at different values of wind velocity. It was observed that on increasing the wind velocity, the time taken to achieve average temperature not only decreased but also remained the same after a certain point.

  17. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  18. Surface Water in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  19. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  20. Measurement of the sea surface wind speed and direction by an airborne microwave radar altimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrassov, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2001-07-01

    A pilot needs operational information about wind over sea as well as wave height to provide safety of a hydroplane landing on water. Near-surface wind speed and direction can be obtained with an airborne microwave scatterometer, radar designed for measuring the scatter characteristics of a surface. Mostly narrow-beam antennas are applied for such wind measurement. Unfortunately, a microwave narrow-beam antenna has considerable size that hampers its placing on flying apparatus. In this connection, a possibility to apply a conventional airborne radar altimeter as a scatterometer with a nadir-looking wide-beam antenna in conjunction with Doppler filtering for recovering the wind vector over sea is discussed, and measuring algorithms of sea surface wind speed and direction are proposed. The obtained results can be used for creation of an airborne radar system for operational measurement of the sea roughness characteristics and for safe landing of a hydroplane on water. (orig.)

  1. Effectiveness of WRF wind direction for retrieving coastal sea surface wind from synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Wind direction is required as input to the geophysical model function (GMF) for the retrieval of sea surface wind speed from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The present study verifies the effectiveness of using the wind direction obtained from the weather research and forecasting model (...

  2. 77 FR 38277 - Wind and Water Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program... public meeting. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program is planning a... in Washington, DC on June 13, 2012. Mark Higgins, Wind and Water Power Acting Program Manager, Office...

  3. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  4. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  5. Investigation of wind turbine effects on Evapotranspiration using surface energy balance model based on satellite-derived data

    Science.gov (United States)

    hassanpour Adeh, E.; Higgins, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines have been introduced as an energy source that does not require a large expenditure of water. However, recent simulation results indicate that wind turbines increase evaporation rates from the nearby land. In this research the effect of wind energy on irrigated agriculture is determined using a Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) on Landsat data spanning a 30 year interval. The analysis allows the characterization of evapotranspiration (ET) before and after wind turbine installations. The time history of ET from Landsat data will be presented for several major wind farms across the US. These data will be used to determine the impact on water demand due to presence of wind turbines.

  6. Will surface winds weaken in response to global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Foltz, Gregory R.; Soden, Brian J.; Huang, Gang; He, Jie; Dong, Changming

    2016-12-01

    The surface Walker and tropical tropospheric circulations have been inferred to slow down from historical observations and model projections, yet analysis of large-scale surface wind predictions is lacking. Satellite measurements of surface wind speed indicate strengthening trends averaged over the global and tropical oceans that are supported by precipitation and evaporation changes. Here we use corrected anemometer-based observations to show that the surface wind speed has not decreased in the averaged tropical oceans, despite its reduction in the region of the Walker circulation. Historical simulations and future projections for climate change also suggest a near-zero wind speed trend averaged in space, regardless of the Walker cell change. In the tropics, the sea surface temperature pattern effect acts against the large-scale circulation slow-down. For higher latitudes, the surface winds shift poleward along with the eddy-driven mid-latitude westerlies, resulting in a very small contribution to the global change in surface wind speed. Despite its importance for surface wind speed change, the influence of the SST pattern change on global-mean rainfall is insignificant since it cannot substantially alter the global energy balance. As a result, the precipitation response to global warming remains ‘muted’ relative to atmospheric moisture increase. Our results therefore show consistency between projections and observations of surface winds and precipitation.

  7. Deterministic prediction of surface wind speed variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Drisya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of wind speed is an important aspect of various tasks related to wind energy management such as wind turbine predictive control and wind power scheduling. The most typical characteristic of wind speed data is its persistent temporal variations. Most of the techniques reported in the literature for prediction of wind speed and power are based on statistical methods or probabilistic distribution of wind speed data. In this paper we demonstrate that deterministic forecasting methods can make accurate short-term predictions of wind speed using past data, at locations where the wind dynamics exhibit chaotic behaviour. The predictions are remarkably accurate up to 1 h with a normalised RMSE (root mean square error of less than 0.02 and reasonably accurate up to 3 h with an error of less than 0.06. Repeated application of these methods at 234 different geographical locations for predicting wind speeds at 30-day intervals for 3 years reveals that the accuracy of prediction is more or less the same across all locations and time periods. Comparison of the results with f-ARIMA model predictions shows that the deterministic models with suitable parameters are capable of returning improved prediction accuracy and capturing the dynamical variations of the actual time series more faithfully. These methods are simple and computationally efficient and require only records of past data for making short-term wind speed forecasts within practically tolerable margin of errors.

  8. Modelling of environmental and climatic problems: Wind and water erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Magnitude of wind and water erosion mainly depend on wind velocity, rainfall rate, slope and soil characteristics. The main purpose of this lecture is to define the role of small, meso and large scale phenomena (local and synoptic fluctuations) on water and wind erosion. These lecture notes present some results on wind speed simulation and seasonal fluctuations of water deficit for the selected station in different erosion risque and transition regions of Turkey. (author)

  9. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  10. Water on graphene surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, M C [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera, km 1, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Marti, J, E-mail: cgorbar@upo.e, E-mail: jordi.marti@upc.ed [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, B4-B5 Campus Nord, E-08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-07-21

    In this paper, we summarize the main results obtained in our group about the behavior of water confined inside or close to different graphene surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. These include the inside and outside of carbon nanotubes, and the confinement inside a slit pore or a single graphene sheet. We paid special attention to some thermodynamical (binding energies), structural (hydrogen-bond distributions) and dynamic (infrared spectra) properties, and their comparison to their bulk counterparts.

  11. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya Yuji; Karasudani Takashi; Nagai Tomoyuki; Watanabe Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW W...

  12. Wind-forced modulations in crossing sea states over infinite depth water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debsarma, Suma; Senapati, Sudipta; Das, K. P.

    2014-09-01

    The present work is motivated by the work of Leblanc ["Amplification of nonlinear surface waves by wind," Phys. Fluids 19, 101705 (2007)] which showed that Stokes waves grow super exponentially under fair wind as a result of modulational instability. Here, we have studied the effect of wind in a situation of crossing sea states characterized by two obliquely propagating wave systems in deep water. It is found that the wind-forced uniform wave solution in crossing seas grows explosively with a super-exponential growth rate even under a steady horizontal wind flow. This is an important piece of information in the context of the formation of freak waves.

  13. 76 FR 66284 - Wind and Water Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program... projects. The 2011 Wind and Water Power Program, Water Power Peer Review Meeting will review the Program's... 2011 Water Power Peer Review Meeting will be held November 1 through November 3, 2011 in Alexandria, VA...

  14. Offshore Wind Energy: Wind and Sea Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    as the entire atmosphere above. Under conditions of light winds and strong solar insolation, warming of the upper oceanic layer may occur. In this PhD study, remote sensing from satellites is used to obtain information for the near-surface ocean wind and the sea surface temperature over the North Sea......, demonstrate that wind information from SAR is more appropriate when small scale local features are of interest, not resolved by scatterometers. Hourly satellite observations of the sea surface temperature, from a thermal infra-red sensor, are used to identify and quantify the daily variability of the sea...

  15. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over wind-driven surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey; Stegmeir, Matt

    2017-11-01

    Complex interactions at the air-water interface result in two-way coupling between wind-driven surface waves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turbulence generated at the surface plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the ABL promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the ABL by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We employ time-resolved PIV to measure the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  16. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a highdimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project. The fit of the calibrated response surface is evaluated in terms of error between the model and the training data and in terms of the convergence. The Sobol SIs are calculated using the calibrated response surface, and the convergence is examined. The Sobol SIs reveal that, of the four turbulence parameters examined in this paper, the variance caused by the Kaimal length scale and nonstationarity parameter are negligible. Thus, the findings in this paper represent the first systematic evidence that stochastic wind turbine load response statistics can be modeled purely by mean wind wind speed and turbulence intensity. (paper)

  17. The Effect of Wind Velocity on the Cooling Rate of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrey Aryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wind velocity on the cooling rate of water was investigated by blowing air horizontally over the surface of water contained in a plastic water-bottle cap. The time taken for the temperature to fall to the average of the surrounding and initial temperatures was recorded at different values of wind velocity. It was observed that on increasing the wind velocity, the time taken to achieve average temperature not only decreased but also remained the same after a certain point.

  18. The tropical Atlantic surface wind divergence belt and its effect on clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tubul; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2015-01-01

    A well-defined surface wind divergence (SWD) belt with distinct cloud properties forms over the equatorial Atlantic during the boreal summer months. This belt separates the deep convective clouds of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) from the shallow marine stratocumulus cloud decks forming over the cold-water subtropical region of the southern Hadley cell. Using the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds and Aqua-MODIS instruments, we examined the large-scale spatiotemporal ...

  19. The tropical Atlantic surface wind divergence belt and its effect on clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tubul; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2015-01-01

    A well-defined surface wind divergence (SWD) belt with distinct cloud properties forms over the equatorial Atlantic during the boreal summer months. This belt separates the deep convective clouds of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from the shallow marine stratocumulus cloud decks forming over the cold-water subtropical region of the southern branch of the Hadley cell in the Atlantic. Using the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds and Aqua-MODIS instruments, we examined the large-scal...

  20. Wind Characteristics of Coastal and Inland Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Lazarus, Steven; Jin, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    Lidar measurements of the winds in the surface layer (up to 80 m) inland and near the beach are studied to better characterize the velocity profile and the effect of roughness. Mean and root-mean-squared profiles of horizontal and vertical wind components are analyzed. The effects of variable time (18, 60 and 600 seconds) averaging on the above profiles are discussed. The validity of common surface layer wind profile models to estimate skin friction drag is assessed in light of these measurements. Other turbulence statistics such as auto- and cross- correlations in spatial and temporal domains are also presented. The help of FIT DMES field measurement crew is acknowledged.

  1. Simulation of the Impact of New Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H*Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of surface wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new passive microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the current real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airbome Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude, or approximately 2 km from space). The instrument is described in a separate paper presented at this conference. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the relative impact of HIRAD and other instruments on H*Wind analyses, including the use of HIRAD from 2 aircraft altitudes and from a space-based platform.

  2. Observational study of surface wind along a sloping surface over mountainous terrain during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Gyuwon; Joo, Sangwon; Ahn, Kwang-Deuk

    2018-03-01

    The 2018 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Korea, during February and March. We examined the near surface winds and wind gusts along the sloping surface at two outdoor venues in Pyeongchang during February and March using surface wind data. The outdoor venues are located in a complex, mountainous terrain, and hence the near-surface winds form intricate patterns due to the interplay between large-scale and locally forced winds. During February and March, the dominant wind at the ridge level is westerly; however, a significant wind direction change is observed along the sloping surface at the venues. The winds on the sloping surface are also influenced by thermal forcing, showing increased upslope flow during daytime. When neutral air flows over the hill, the windward and leeward flows show a significantly different behavior. A higher correlation of the wind speed between upper- and lower-level stations is shown in the windward region compared with the leeward region. The strong synoptic wind, small width of the ridge, and steep leeward ridge slope angle provide favorable conditions for flow separation at the leeward foot of the ridge. The gust factor increases with decreasing surface elevation and is larger during daytime than nighttime. A significantly large gust factor is also observed in the leeward region.

  3. Water at surfaces with tunable surface chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie E.; Vanselous, Heather; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-03-01

    Aqueous interfaces are ubiquitous in natural environments, spanning atmospheric, geological, oceanographic, and biological systems, as well as in technical applications, such as fuel cells and membrane filtration. Where liquid water terminates at a surface, an interfacial region is formed, which exhibits distinct properties from the bulk aqueous phase. The unique properties of water are governed by the hydrogen-bonded network. The chemical and physical properties of the surface dictate the boundary conditions of the bulk hydrogen-bonded network and thus the interfacial properties of the water and any molecules in that region. Understanding the properties of interfacial water requires systematically characterizing the structure and dynamics of interfacial water as a function of the surface chemistry. In this review, we focus on the use of experimental surface-specific spectroscopic methods to understand the properties of interfacial water as a function of surface chemistry. Investigations of the air-water interface, as well as efforts in tuning the properties of the air-water interface by adding solutes or surfactants, are briefly discussed. Buried aqueous interfaces can be accessed with careful selection of spectroscopic technique and sample configuration, further expanding the range of chemical environments that can be probed, including solid inorganic materials, polymers, and water immiscible liquids. Solid substrates can be finely tuned by functionalization with self-assembled monolayers, polymers, or biomolecules. These variables provide a platform for systematically tuning the chemical nature of the interface and examining the resulting water structure. Finally, time-resolved methods to probe the dynamics of interfacial water are briefly summarized before discussing the current status and future directions in studying the structure and dynamics of interfacial water.

  4. Surface wind energy trends near Taiwan in winter since 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tropical surface wind speed in boreal winter reaches a maximum near Taiwan. This stable wind resource may be used for future clean energy development. How this surface wind energy source has changed in past 141 years is investigated using the 20th century reanalysis dataset and CMIP5 models. Our observational analysis shows that the surface wind speed experienced a weakening trend in the past 141 years (1871 - 2010. The average decreasing rate is around -1.4 m s-1 per century. The decrease is primarily attributed to the relative sea surface temperature (SST cooling in the subtropical North Pacific, which forces a large-scale low-level anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly in situ and is thus responsible for the southerly trend near Taiwan. The relative SST trend pattern is attributed mainly to the greenhouse gas effect associated with anthropogenic activities. The southerly trend near Taiwan is more pronounced in the boreal winter than in summer. Such seasonal difference is attributed to the reversed seasonal mean wind, which promotes more efficient positive feedback in the boreal winter. The CMIP5 historical run analysis reveals that climate models capture less SST warming and large-scale anti-cyclonic circulation in the subtropical North Pacific, but the simulated weakening trend of the surface wind speed near Taiwan is too small.

  5. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four......This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a high-dimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data...... turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project...

  6. Wind energy for water pumping in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechang, S.

    1991-01-01

    After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of China, a renewed interest for the application of wind energy was shown in many places. Therefore, the Chinese government began to pay more attention to wind energy utilization in rural areas. During the last ten years, several R ampersand D tasks for new modern wind pumps were carried out. Among them, three projects are the developments of wind energy screw pump systems (FDG-5 wind pump, FDG-7 wind pump and TFS-5 wind pump). At present, 50 of these wind pumps are working successfully in the rural areas for farmland drainage, salt ponds water lifting and aquatic product breeding, etc. The field tests show that these wind energy screw pump systems are suitable for low lifting head (< 3 meter) and large water flow (50 m/hr to 120 m/hr) operation in the coastal areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and the supply of electricity as well as fuels is insufficient in these areas, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large scale in the near future. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  7. Increased Surface Wind Speeds Follow Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduszewski, J.; Vavrus, S. J.; Wang, M.; Holland, M. M.; Landrum, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of Arctic sea ice through the end of the 21st century indicate the likelihood of a strong reduction in ice area and thickness in all seasons, leading to a substantial thermodynamic influence on the overlying atmosphere. This is likely to have an effect on winds over the Arctic Basin, due to changes in atmospheric stability and/or baroclinicity. Prior research on future Arctic wind changes is limited and has focused mainly on the practical impacts on wave heights in certain seasons. Here we attempt to identify patterns and likely mechanisms responsible for surface wind changes in all seasons across the Arctic, particularly those associated with sea ice loss in the marginal ice zone. Sea level pressure, near-surface (10 m) and upper-air (850 hPa) wind speeds, and lower-level dynamic and thermodynamic variables from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project (CESM-LE) were analyzed for the periods 1971-2000 and 2071-2100 to facilitate comparison between a present-day and future climate. Mean near-surface wind speeds over the Arctic Ocean are projected to increase by late century in all seasons but especially during autumn and winter, when they strengthen by up to 50% locally. The most extreme wind speeds in the 90th percentile change even more, increasing in frequency by over 100%. The strengthened winds are closely linked to decreasing lower-tropospheric stability resulting from the loss of sea ice cover and consequent surface warming (locally over 20 ºC warmer in autumn and winter). A muted pattern of these future changes is simulated in CESM-LE historical runs from 1920-2005. The enhanced winds near the surface are mostly collocated with weaker winds above the boundary layer during autumn and winter, implying more vigorous vertical mixing and a drawdown of high-momentum air.The implications of stronger future winds include increased coastal hazards and the potential for a positive feedback with sea ice by generating higher winds and

  8. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  9. Water on a Hydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Ryan; Zhu, Mengjue; Poynor, Adele

    2012-02-01

    Hydrophobicity, meaning literally fear of water, is exhibited on the surfaces of non-stick cooking pans and water resistant clothing, on the leaves of the lotus plan, or even during the protein folding process in our bodies. Hydrophobicity is directly measured by determining a contact angle between water and an objects surface. Associated with a hydrophobic surface is the depletion layer, a low density region approximately 0.2 nm thick. We study this region by comparing data found in lab using surface plasmon resonance techniques to theoretical calculations. Experiments use gold slides coated in ODT and Mercapto solutions to model both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces respectively.

  10. Martian Dune Ripples as Indicators of Recent Surface Wind Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sand dunes have been shown to preserve the most recent wind patterns in their ripple formations. This investigation continues the manual documentation of ripples on Martian dunes in order to assess surface wind flow. Study sites investigated must have clear HiRISE frames and be able to represent diverse locations across the surface, decided primarily by their spread of latitude and longitude values. Additionally, frames with stereo pairs are preferred because of their ability to create digital terrain models. This will assist in efforts to relate dune slopes and obstacles to ripple patterns. The search and analysis period resulted in 40 study sites with mapped ripples. Lines were drawn perpendicular to ripple crests across three adjacent ripples in order to document both ripple wavelength from line length and inferred wind direction from azimuth. It is not possible to infer a unique wind direction from ripple orientation alone and therefore these inferred directions have a 180 degree ambiguity. Initial results from all study sites support previous observations that the Martian surface has many dune types in areas with adequate sand supply. The complexity of ripple patterns varies greatly across sites as well as within individual sites. Some areas of uniform directionality for hundreds of kilometers suggest a unimodal wind regime while overlapping patterns suggest multiple dominant winds or seasonally varying winds. In most areas, form flow related to dune shape seems to have a large effect on orientation and must be considered along with the dune type. As long as the few steep slip faces on these small dunes are avoided, form flow can be considered the dominant cause of deviation from the regional wind direction. Regional results, wind roses, and comparisons to previous work will be presented for individual sites.

  11. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohya Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW Wind lens turbines and a 100 kW Wind lens turbine. In addition to the enhanced output power, Wind lens turbine is quiet. The technology is now used in an offshore experiment with a hexagonal float 18 meters in diameter set off the coast of Hakata Bay in Fukuoka City. Moreover, we are now pursuing larger size Wind lens turbines through multi-rotor design consisting of multiple Wind lens turbines in a same vertical plane to embody larger total power output.

  12. Modeling Solar-Wind Heavy-Ions' Potential Sputtering of Lunar KREEP Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Meyer, F. W.; Harris, R. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Recent laboratory data suggest that potential sputtering may be an important weathering mechanism that can affect the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere; its role and implications, however, remain unclear. Using a relatively simple kinetic model, we will demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering of KREEP surfaces is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We will also also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  13. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Fore- casts (NCMRWF), New .... mization of a generalized cost function using the. Spectral ... power from a given location on the sea surface at multiple ...

  14. Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity using Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A new approach to assessment of site specific wind turbine loads is proposed. •The approach can be applied in both fatigue and ultimate limit state. •Two different response surface methodologies have been investigated. •The model uncertainty introduced by the response surfaces...

  15. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  16. Observation and modeling of tide- and wind-induced surface currents in Galway Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency radar system has been deployed in Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the west coast of Ireland. The system provides surface currents with fine spatial resolution every hour. Prior to its use for model validation, the accuracy of the radar data was verified through comparison with measurements from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs and a good correlation between time series of surface current speeds and directions obtained from radar data and ADCP data. Since Galway Bay is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it is subject to relatively windy conditions, and surface currents are therefore strongly wind-driven. With a view to assimilating the radar data for forecasting purposes, a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC, was developed based on a terrain-following vertical (sigma coordinate system. This study shows that the performance and accuracy of the numerical model, particularly with regard to tide- and wind-induced surface currents, are sensitive to the vertical layer structure. Results of five models with different layer structures are presented and compared with radar measurements. A variable vertical structure with thin layers at the bottom and the surface and thicker layers in the middle of the water column was found to be the optimal layer structure for reproduction of tide- and wind-induced surface currents. This structure ensures that wind shear can properly propagate from the surface layer to the sub-surface layers, thereby ensuring that wind forcing is not overdamped by tidal forcing. The vertical layer structure affects not only the velocities at the surface layer but also the velocities further down in the water column.

  17. Observation and modeling of tide- and wind-induced surface currents in Galway Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei REN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency radar system has been deployed in Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the west coast of Ireland. The system provides surface currents with fine spatial resolution every hour. Prior to its use for model validation, the accuracy of the radar data was verified through comparison with measurements from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs and a good correlation between time series of surface current speeds and directions obtained from radar data and ADCP data. Since Galway Bay is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it is subject to relatively windy conditions, and surface currents are therefore strongly wind-driven. With a view to assimilating the radar data for forecasting purposes, a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC, was developed based on a terrain-following vertical (sigma coordinate system. This study shows that the performance and accuracy of the numerical model, particularly with regard to tide- and wind-induced surface currents, are sensitive to the vertical layer structure. Results of five models using different layer structures are presented and compared with radar measurements. A variable vertical structure with thin layers at the bottom and the surface and thicker layers in the middle of the water column was found to be the optimal layer structure for reproduction of tide- and wind-induced surface currents. This structure ensures that wind shear can properly propagate from the surface layer to the sub-surface layers, thereby ensuring that wind forcing is not overdamped by tidal forcing. The vertical layer structure affects not only the velocities at the surface layer but also the velocities further down in the water column.

  18. Field and numerical study of wind and surface waves at short fetches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2016-04-01

    Measurements were carried out in 2012-2015 from May to October in the waters of Gorky Reservoir belonging to the Volga Cascade. The methods of the experiment focus on the study of airflow in the close proximity to the water surface. The sensors were positioned at the oceanographic Froude buoy including five two-component ultrasonic sensors WindSonic by Gill Instruments at different levels (0.1, 0.85, 1.3, 2.27, 5.26 meters above the mean water surface level), one water and three air temperature sensors, and three-channel wire wave gauge. One of wind sensors (0.1 m) was located on the float tracking the waveform for measuring the wind speed in the close proximity to the water surface. Basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer (the friction velocity u∗, the wind speed U10 and the drag coefficient CD) were calculated from the measured profiles of wind speed. Parameters were obtained in the range of wind speeds of 1-12 m/s. For wind speeds stronger than 4 m/s CD values were lower than those obtained before (see eg. [1,2]) and those predicted by the bulk parameterization. However, for weak winds (less than 3 m/s) CD values considerably higher than expected ones. The new parameterization of surface drag coefficient was proposed on the basis of the obtained data. The suggested parameterization of drag coefficient CD(U10) was implemented within wind input source terms in WAVEWATCH III [3]. The results of the numerical experiments were compared with the results obtained in the field experiments on the Gorky Reservoir. The use of the new drag coefficient improves the agreement in significant wave heights HS [4]. At the same time, the predicted mean wave periods are overestimated using both built-in source terms and adjusted source terms. We associate it with the necessity of the adjusting of the DIA nonlinearity model in WAVEWATCH III to the conditions of the middle-sized reservoir. Test experiments on the adjusting were carried out. The work was supported by the

  19. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Aerodynamic Performance of Surface-Modification Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Katsuchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The wind-induced vibration of stay cables of cable-stayed bridges, which includes rain-wind-induced vibration (RWIV and dry galloping (DG, has been studied for a considerable amount of time. In general, mechanical dampers or surface modification are applied to suppress the vibration. In particular, several types of surface-modification cable, including indentation, longitudinally parallel protuberance, helical fillet, and U-shaped grooving, have been developed. Recently, a new type of aerodynamically stable cable with spiral protuberances was developed. It was confirmed that the cable has a low drag force coefficient, like an indented cable, and that it prevented the formation of water rivulets on the cable surface. In this study, the stability for RWIV of this cable was investigated with various flow angles and protuberance dimensions in a wind-tunnel test. It was found that the spiral protuberance cable is aerodynamically stable against both RWIV and DG for all test wind angles. The effects of the protuberance dimensions were also clarified. Keywords: Rain-wind-induced vibration, Dry galloping, Stay cable, Wind-tunnel test

  20. Interpretation of surface-water circulation, Aransas Pass, Texas, using Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, R. J.; Baumgardner, R. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The development of plumes of turbid surface water in the vicinity of Aransas Pass, Texas has been analyzed using Landsat imagery. The shape and extent of plumes present in the Gulf of Mexico is dependent on the wind regime and astronomical tide prior to and at the time of satellite overpass. The best developed plumes are evident when brisk northerly winds resuspend bay-bottom muds and flow through Aransas Pass is increased by wind stress. Seaward diversion of nearshore waters by the inlet jetties was also observed. A knowledge of surface-water circulation through Aransas Pass under various wind conditions is potentially valuable for monitoring suspended and surface pollutants

  1. Low-Frequency Rotation of Surface Winds over Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hourly surface observations from the Canadian Weather Energy and Engineering Dataset were analyzed with respect to long-term wind direction drift or rotation. Most of the Canadian landmass, including the High Arctic, exhibits a spatially consistent and remarkably steady anticyclonic rotation of wind direction. The period of anticyclonic rotation recorded at 144 out of 149 Canadian meteostations directly correlated with latitude and ranged from 7 days at Medicine Hat (50°N, 110°W to 25 days at Resolute (75°N, 95°W. Only five locations in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Coast were found to obey a “negative” (i.e., cyclonic rotation. The observed anticyclonic rotation appears to be a deterministic, virtually ubiquitous, and highly persistent feature of continental surface wind. These findings are directly applicable to probabilistic assessments of airborne pollutants.

  2. Surface Wind Gust Statistics at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects meteorological data for many purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) including weather forecasting. This study focuses on wind gusts and also, to a lesser degree, turbulence intensities that occur in fair weather conditions near the surface over time periods from 1 hour to one week (168 hours)

  3. Surface Winds and Dust Biases in Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, A. T.

    2018-01-01

    An analysis of North African dust from models participating in the Fifth Climate Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) suggested that, when forced by observed sea surface temperatures, these models were unable to reproduce any aspects of the observed year-to-year variability in dust from North Africa. Consequently, there would be little reason to have confidence in the models' projections of changes in dust over the 21st century. However, no subsequent study has elucidated the root causes of the disagreement between CMIP5 and observed dust. Here I develop an idealized model of dust emission and then use this model to show that, over North Africa, such biases in CMIP5 models are due to errors in the surface wind fields and not due to the representation of dust emission processes. These results also suggest that because the surface wind field over North Africa is highly spatially autocorrelated, intermodel differences in the spatial structure of dust emission have little effect on the relative change in year-to-year dust emission over the continent. I use these results to show that similar biases in North African dust from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) version 2 surface wind field biases but that these wind biases were not present in the first version of MERRA.

  4. Phase spectral composition of wind generated ocean surface waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    A study of the composition of the phase spectra of wind generated ocean surface waves is carried out using wave records collected employing a ship borne wave recorder. It is found that the raw phase spectral estimates could be fitted by the Uniform...

  5. "Rapid Revisit" Measurements of Sea Surface Winds Using CYGNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space-borne GNSS-R (GNSS-Reflectometry) mission that launched December 15, 2016 for ocean surface wind speed measurements. CYGNSS includes 8 small satellites in the same LEO orbit, so that the mission provides wind speed products having unprecedented coverage both in time and space to study multi-temporal behaviors of oceanic winds. The nature of CYGNSS coverage results in some locations on Earth experiencing multiple wind speed measurements within a short period of time (a "clump" of observations in time resulting in a "rapid revisit" series of measurements). Such observations could seemingly provide indications of regions experiencing rapid changes in wind speeds, and therefore be of scientific utility. Temporally "clumped" properties of CYGNSS measurements are investigated using early CYGNSS L1/L2 measurements, and the results show that clump durations and spacing vary with latitude. For example, the duration of a clump can extend as long as a few hours at higher latitudes, with gaps between clumps ranging from 6 to as high as 12 hours depending on latitude. Examples are provided to indicate the potential of changes within a clump to produce a "rapid revisit" product for detecting convective activity. Also, we investigate detector design for identifying convective activities. Results from analyses using recent CYGNSS L2 winds will be provided in the presentation.

  6. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  7. Total Nitrogen in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess nitrogen in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALN is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  8. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  9. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  10. The winds regime of surface in the Colombian coffee area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando Guzman Martinez; Lucia Gomez Gomez

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of the address and gust of wind of the surface winds have been studied in 15 stations of the Colombian coffee area. It was found that the relief plays an important paper in the wind circulation so that during the day (7 a.m. - 7 p.m.) these they blow of the low sector toward the mountain and at night (7 p.m. - 7 a.m.) this situation is invested, that which is consistent with the characteristic pattern of circulation valley-mountain of the mountainous regions. For this fact, in most of the analyzed places a single day and night dominant address that it takes the orientation in that it is the respective hydrographic basin. It was not observed that the Alisios winds of the northeast and southeast modify the address settled down by the local circulation (valley-mountain) on the other hand a remarkable increase of the gust of wind was appreciated in July and August in the Florida and Ospina, stations located to the south of the country, as direct consequence of the Alisios of the southeast. The daily gust of wind in most of the studied places is low and it doesn't exceed of the 10 km/h, reason why it can consider that the Colombian coffee area is free of important damages for the action of the wind. Nevertheless, in some stations as Alban, Maracay and Paraguaicito the daily maximum gust of wind can surpass the 30 km/h and in occasions to cause damage mechanic to cultivations of high behavior and not well anchored facilities

  11. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  12. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddoway, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author)

  13. Comparison of the ocean surface vector winds over the Nordic Seas and their application for ocean modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Bourassa, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Ocean processes in the Nordic Seas and northern North Atlantic are strongly controlled by air-sea heat and momentum fluxes. The predominantly cyclonic, large-scale atmospheric circulation brings the deep ocean layer up to the surface preconditioning the convective sites in the Nordic Seas for deep convection. In winter, intensive cooling and possibly salt flux from newly formed sea ice erodes the near-surface stratification and the mixed layer merges with the deeper domed layer, exposing the very weakly stratified deep water mass to direct interaction with the atmosphere. Surface wind is one of the atmospheric parameters required for estimating momentum and turbulent heat fluxes to the sea ice and ocean surface. In the ocean models forced by atmospheric analysis, errors in surface wind fields result in errors in air-sea heat and momentum fluxes, water mass formation, ocean circulation, as well as volume and heat transport in the straits. The goal of the study is to assess discrepancies across the wind vector fields from reanalysis data sets and scatterometer-derived gridded products over the Nordic Seas and northern North Atlantic and to demonstrate possible implications of these differences for ocean modeling. The analyzed data sets include the reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis 2 (NCEPR2), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) and satellite wind products Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) wind product version 1.1 and recently released version 2.0, and Remote Sensing Systems QuikSCAT data. Large-scale and mesoscale characteristics of winds are compared at interannual, seasonal, and synoptic timescales. Numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted with a coupled ice-ocean model forced by different wind fields. The sensitivity experiments demonstrate differences in the net surface heat fluxes during storm events. Next, it is hypothesized that discrepancies in the wind vorticity

  14. Blended 6-Hourly Sea Surface Wind Vectors and Wind Stress on a Global 0.25 Degree Grid (1987-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Blended Global Sea Surface Winds products contain ocean surface wind vectors and wind stress on a global 0.25 degree grid, in multiple time resolutions of...

  15. CYGNSS Surface Wind Validation and Characteristics in the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharaf, S.; Waliser, D. E.; Zhang, C.; Wandala, A.

    2017-12-01

    Surface wind over tropical oceans plays a crucial role in many local/regional weather and climate processes and helps to shape the global climate system. However, there is a lack of consistent high quality observations for surface winds. The newly launched NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission provides near surface wind speed over the tropical ocean with sampling that accounts for the diurnal cycle. In the early phase of the mission, validation is a critical task, and over-ocean validation is typically challenging due to a lack of robust validation resources that a cover a variety of environmental conditions. In addition, it can also be challenging to obtain in-situ observation resources and also to extract co-located CYGNSS records for some of the more scientifically interesting regions, such as the Maritime Continent (MC). The MC is regarded as a key tropical driver for the mean global circulation as well as important large-scale circulation variability such as the Madian-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The focus of this project and analysis is to take advantage of local in-situ resources from the MC regions (e.g. volunteer shipping, marine buoys, and the Year of Maritime Continent (YMC) campaign) to quantitatively characterize and validate the CYGNSS derived winds in the MC region and in turn work to unravel the complex multi-scale interactions between the MJO and MC. This presentation will show preliminary results of a comparison between the CYGNSS and the in-situ surface wind measurements focusing on the MC region. Details about the validation methods, uncertainties, and planned work will be discussed in this presentation.

  16. Controllability of Surface Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasi, M. Sadegh; Yeghiazarian, Lilit

    2017-12-01

    To sustainably manage water resources, we must understand how to control complex networked systems. In this paper, we study surface water networks from the perspective of structural controllability, a concept that integrates classical control theory with graph-theoretic formalism. We present structural controllability theory and compute four metrics: full and target controllability, control centrality and control profile (FTCP) that collectively determine the structural boundaries of the system's control space. We use these metrics to answer the following questions: How does the structure of a surface water network affect its controllability? How to efficiently control a preselected subset of the network? Which nodes have the highest control power? What types of topological structures dominate controllability? Finally, we demonstrate the structural controllability theory in the analysis of a wide range of surface water networks, such as tributary, deltaic, and braided river systems.

  17. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water.

  18. Wind Fab: Manufacturer of water pumping windmills in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurumoorthy, S.

    1991-01-01

    Wind Fab is one of the four manufacturers appointed recently by the Indian government to produce a classic gear type wind pump for deep well pumping (H = 50-100 meter). In various regions, the ground water table has been lowering considerably and a deep well wind pump is required. Wind Fab is still producing the 12PU500 windmill. The main problem is that the wind pumps are applied in a wide range of climatological, hydrological and agricultural conditions. Different types of windmills suitable for the different application ranges should be produced. It is explained that the drawings of the 12PU500 windmills were easily available and consequently the windmills were produced all over the country. There was no quality control and the 12PU500 was applied under low lift to high lift conditions. 5 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs) for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations...

  20. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  1. When land breezes collide: Converging diurnal winds over small bodies of water

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, ST; Llewellyn Smith, SG

    2014-01-01

    © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society. Over enclosed and semi-enclosed bodies of water, the land-breeze/sea-breeze circulation is expected to be modified by the presence of opposing coastlines. These effects are studied using satellite scatterometer surface wind observations from the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-2 tandem mission from April-October 2003. Winds are studied for six bodies of water: the Red Sea, the Gulf of California, the Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. T...

  2. Measurements of Operational Wind Turbine Noise in UK Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of wind farm operational noise have not been addressed to the same extent as their construction methods such as piling and drilling of the foundations despite their long operational lifetimes compared with weeks of construction. The results of five postconstruction underwater sound-monitoring surveys on wind farms located throughout the waters of the British Isles are discussed. These wind farms consist of differing turbine power outputs, from 3 to 3.6 MW, and differing numbers of turbines. This work presents an overview of the results obtained and discusses both the levels and frequency components of the sound in several metrics.

  3. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  4. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  5. Influence of glacial ice sheets on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation through surface wind change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff-Tadano, Sam; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Chan, Wing-Le

    2018-04-01

    Coupled modeling studies have recently shown that the existence of the glacial ice sheets intensifies the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, most models show a strong AMOC in their simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is biased compared to reconstructions that indicate both a weaker and stronger AMOC during the LGM. Therefore, a detailed investigation of the mechanism behind this intensification of the AMOC is important for a better understanding of the glacial climate and the LGM AMOC. Here, various numerical simulations are conducted to focus on the effect of wind changes due to glacial ice sheets on the AMOC and the crucial region where the wind modifies the AMOC. First, from atmospheric general circulation model experiments, the effect of glacial ice sheets on the surface wind is evaluated. Second, from ocean general circulation model experiments, the influence of the wind stress change on the AMOC is evaluated by applying wind stress anomalies regionally or at different magnitudes as a boundary condition. These experiments demonstrate that glacial ice sheets intensify the AMOC through an increase in the wind stress at the North Atlantic mid-latitudes, which is induced by the North American ice sheet. This intensification of the AMOC is caused by the increased oceanic horizontal and vertical transport of salt, while the change in sea ice transport has an opposite, though minor, effect. Experiments further show that the Eurasian ice sheet intensifies the AMOC by directly affecting the deep-water formation in the Norwegian Sea.

  6. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, T; Buhagiar, D; Farrugia, R N

    2014-01-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units

  7. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  8. The role of water content in triboelectric charging of wind-blown sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Wei, Wei; Su, Junwei; Yu, Chuck Wah

    2013-01-01

    Triboelectric charging is common in desert sandstorms and dust devils on Earth; however, it remains poorly understood. Here we show a charging mechanism of sands with the adsorbed water on micro-porous surface in wind-blown sand based on the fact that water content is universal but usually a minor component in most particle systems. The triboelectric charging could be resulted due to the different mobility of H(+)/OH(-) between the contacting sands with a temperature difference. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) were used to demonstrate the dynamics of the sand charging. The numerically simulated charge-to-mass ratios of sands and electric field strength established in wind tunnel agreed well with the experimental data. The charging mechanism could provide an explanation for the charging process of all identical granular systems with water content, including Martian dust devils, wind-blown snow, even powder electrification in industrial processes.

  9. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  10. Hope for water, wind, and warmth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuseler, H

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal energy finds its primary applications in the generation of electricity and the heating of homes and office buildings. The largest operational geothermal power plants are those of the Geysers, USA, and Larderello, Italy. The total output of electricity from geothermal sources in 1974 was 10 GW, a small figure compared to the total production of 600 GW. Promising geothermal areas have been discovered along the western edge of the Americas, in eastern Africa, Japan, the Philippines, and in West Germany. Estimates of future development of geothermal energy indicate that 150 GW should be available by 1985, and 500 GW by the year 2000. Small scale wind power plants are in operation in the USA and in Europe. It is estimated that by the turn of the century, the total output from wind sources could be equal to the annual electricity consumption of the USA. Another energy source with significant potential is that associated with ocean tides and currents. A 240 MW tidal power plant is operational at the Rance estuary in France and a second is under construction in the USSR. A system is also under consideration in Brazil. Theoretically, this resource could provide about 5.0 GW/yr. Several systems for the generation of power using ocean thermal gradients are also under study.

  11. Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Badger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical model functions (GMFs, the latest C-band GMF, CMOD5.N, has the smallest bias and root mean square error at both sites. All of the GMFs exhibit a negative bias in the retrieved wind speed. In order to understand the reason for this bias, all SAR-retrieved wind speeds are separated into two categories: onshore wind (blowing from sea to land and offshore wind (blowing from land to sea. Only offshore winds were found to exhibit the large negative bias, and short fetches from the coastline may be a possible reason for this. Moreover, it is clarified that in both the unstable and stable conditions, CMOD5.N has atmospheric stability effectiveness, and can keep the same accuracy with CMOD5 in the neutral condition. In short, at the moment, CMOD5.N is thought to be the most promising GMF for the SAR wind speed retrieval with the atmospheric stability correction in Japanese coastal waters, although there is ample room for future improvement for the effect from short fetch.

  12. Secondary current properties generated by wind-induced water waves in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Sanjou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary currents such as the Langmuir circulation are of high interest in natural rivers and the ocean because they have striking impacts on scour, sedimentation, and mass transport. Basic characteristics have been well-studied in straight open-channel flows. However, little is known regarding secondary circulation induced by wind waves. The presented study describes the generation properties of wind waves observed in the laboratory tank. Wind-induced water waves are known to produce large scale circulations. The phenomenon is observed together with high-speed and low-speed streaks, convergence and divergence zones, respectively. Therefore, it is important to determine the hydrodynamic properties of secondary currents for wind-induced water waves within rivers and lakes. In this study, using two high-speed CMOS cameras, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements were conducted in order to reveal the distribution of all three components of velocity vectors. The experiments allowed us to investigate the three-dimensional turbulent structure under water waves and the generation mechanism of large-scale circulations. Additionally, a third CMOS camera was used to measure the spanwise profile of thefree-surface elevation. The time-series of velocity components and the free-surface were obtained simultaneously. From our experiments, free-surface variations were found to influence the instantaneous velocity distributions of the cross-sectional plane. We also considered thegeneration process by the phase analysis related to gravity waves and compared the contribution of the apparent stress.

  13. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  14. Nutrient losses by wind and water, measurements and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Chardon, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of West-Africa, erosion by both wind and water causes a serious decline in fertility of the already low fertile soils. Despite the fact that the flow of nutrients has been intensively investigated by the use of nutrient balances, little attention has been paid to the

  15. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  16. DISTRIBUTED EXTERNAL SURFACE HARDENING OF CAR DESIGN BY WINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves coverage of features and results of the research conducted by the authors to determine the feasibility and establishment of pre-stressed-strained state of freight cars by winding in order to improve their strength characteristics. It is also necessary to present the theoretical justification for the effectiveness of the application of this method for car designs and an appropriate example for the tank-car. Methodology. The conducted study is based on an analysis of known works on the subject, mathematical justification and computer modeling. At the calculations of rolling stock components contemporary conventional techniques were used. Findings. Authors found that the winding method for pre-stressed-strained state is effective and appropriate for use in the construction of railway rolling stock and, in particular freight cars. Freight car designs with the pre-stressed-strained state are characterized by a number of strength advantages, among which there is an improvement of the work on the perception of operational loads and resource conservation. Originality. For the first time it is proposed the improvement of bearing capacity of freight car constructions through the creation of its component in the directed stress-strained state. It is also for the first time proposed the use of distributed external surface hardening by the method of winding to create a pre-stress-strained state of structural components of freight cars. The methods for winding designs of freight cars and their implementation were considered. Practical value. The studies developed a number of technical solutions for improving the design of freight cars and tank-container, which has been patented. Corresponding solutions for the tank-car are partially presented. Practical implementation of such solutions will significantly improve the technical, economic and operational performances of car designs.

  17. Some physical aspects of the surface waters around the little Andaman Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Das, P.K.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Along with the thermal and haline characteristics of the waters during the peak northeast monsoon period (February),observations on stratifications, inversions, mixed layers, nature and depth of thermocline, wind-induced surface drifts, zones...

  18. A new class of actuator surface models for wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2018-05-01

    Actuator line model has been widely employed in wind turbine simulations. However, the standard actuator line model does not include a model for the turbine nacelle which can significantly impact turbine wake characteristics as shown in the literature. Another disadvantage of the standard actuator line model is that more geometrical features of turbine blades cannot be resolved on a finer mesh. To alleviate these disadvantages of the standard model, we develop a new class of actuator surface models for turbine blades and nacelle to take into account more geometrical details of turbine blades and include the effect of turbine nacelle. In the actuator surface model for blade, the aerodynamic forces calculated using the blade element method are distributed from the surface formed by the foil chords at different radial locations. In the actuator surface model for nacelle, the forces are distributed from the actual nacelle surface with the normal force component computed in the same way as in the direct forcing immersed boundary method and the tangential force component computed using a friction coefficient and a reference velocity of the incoming flow. The actuator surface model for nacelle is evaluated by simulating the flow over periodically placed nacelles. Both the actuator surface simulation and the wall-resolved large-eddy simulation are carried out. The comparison shows that the actuator surface model is able to give acceptable results especially at far wake locations on a very coarse mesh. It is noted that although this model is employed for the turbine nacelle in this work, it is also applicable to other bluff bodies. The capability of the actuator surface model in predicting turbine wakes is assessed by simulating the flow over the MEXICO (Model experiments in Controlled Conditions) turbine and a hydrokinetic turbine.

  19. New method to design stellarator coils without the winding surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-01-01

    Finding an easy-to-build coils set has been a critical issue for stellarator design for decades. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ‘winding’ surface, but a poorly chosen winding surface can unnecessarily constrain the coil optimization algorithm, This article presents a new method to design coils for stellarators. Each discrete coil is represented as an arbitrary, closed, one-dimensional curve embedded in three-dimensional space. A target function to be minimized that includes both physical requirements and engineering constraints is constructed. The derivatives of the target function with respect to the parameters describing the coil geometries and currents are calculated analytically. A numerical code, named flexible optimized coils using space curves (FOCUS), has been developed. Applications to a simple stellarator configuration, W7-X and LHD vacuum fields are presented.

  20. Water from wind: the 'IT windpump'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenkel, P [IT Power, Eversley (United Kingdom)

    1991-09-01

    Today, in remote dusty corners of Kenya, over 200 'Kijito' windpumps deliver precious water; The 'Kijito' is the most established and successful variant so far of the IT Windpump, built by a small family-owned business, Bob Harries Engineering, near Thika. The oldest have operated reliably, every day, since as long ago as 1979. They are used for village and desert settlements, remote schools, church missions, commercial livestock ranches, and even for training farmers in small-scale irrigated agriculture. (author).

  1. Flume experiments on wind induced flow in static water bodies in the presence of protruding vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; Muste, Marian; Katul, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The problem of wind-induced flow in inland waters is drawing significant research attention given its relevance to a plethora of applications in wetlands including treatment designs, pollution reduction, and biogeochemical cycling. The present work addresses the role of wind induced turbulence and waves within an otherwise static water body in the presence of rigid and flexible emergent vegetation through flume experimentation and time series analysis. Because no prior example of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments involving air-water and flexible oscillating components have been found in the literature, a spectral analysis framework is needed and proposed here to guide the analysis involving noise, wave and turbulence separation. The experiments reveal that wave and turbulence effects are simultaneously produced at the air-water interface and the nature of their coexistence is found to vary with different flow parameters including water level, mean wind speed, vegetation density and its flexibility. For deep water levels, signature of fine-scaled inertial turbulence is found at deeper layers of the water system. The wave action appears stronger close to the air-water interface and damped by the turbulence deeper inside the water system. As expected, wave action is found to be dominated in a certain frequency range driven by the wind forcing, while it is also diffused to lower frequencies by means of (wind-induced) oscillations in vegetation. Regarding the mean water velocity, existence of a counter-current flow and its switching to fully forward flow in the direction of the wind under certain combinations of flow parameters were studied. The relative importance of wave and turbulence to the overall energy, degree of anisotropy in the turbulent energy components, and turbulent momentum transport at different depths from the air-water interface and flow combinations were then quantified. The flume experiments reported here differ from previous laboratory

  2. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  3. Validation of simulations of an underwater acoustic communication channel characterized by wind-generated surface waves and bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainlie, M.A.; Gerdes, F.; Schäfke, A.; Özkan Sertlekc, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that it is possible to simulate realistic shallow-water acoustic communication channels using available acoustic propagation models. Key factor is the incorporation of realistic time-dependent sea surface conditions, including both waves and bubbles due to wind.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds

  5. Wind effected redistribution of surface contamination. Progress report, September 1974--August 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical resuspension ratios were computed through the extension of a one-dimensional model used to simulate the wind effected movement of surface contaminants. The surface movement of contamination associated with inhalable size particles was considered in relation to time, space, wind velocity, distance from the source, soil resuspension ratios, and other variables. A computer program was developed to calculate the wind effected distribution of surface contaminants. (U.S.)

  6. Wind-sea surface temperature-sea ice relationship in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Stegall, Steve T.; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air-ice-sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentration (SIC) were analyzed. The results show a negative correlation between wind speed and SIC. The relationships between wind speed and SST are complicated by the presence of sea ice, with a negative correlation over open water but a positive correlation in sea ice dominated areas. The examination of spatial structures indicates that wind speed tends to increase when approaching the ice edge from open water and the area fully covered by sea ice. The anomalous downward radiation and thermal advection, as well as their regional distribution, play important roles in shaping these relationships, though wind-driven sub-grid scale boundary layer processes may also have contributions. Considering the feedback loop involved in the wind-SST-SIC relationships, climate model experiments would be required to further untangle the underlying complex physical processes.

  7. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  8. Wind-driven Water Bodies : a new paradigm for lake geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutz, A.; Schuster, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; Roquin, C.; Bouchette, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we emphasize the importance in some lakes of wind-related hydrodynamic processes (fair weather waves, storm waves, and longshore, cross-shore and bottom currents) as a first order forcing for clastics remobilization and basin infill. This alternative view contrasts with more classical depositional models for lakes where fluvial-driven sedimentation and settling dominates. Here we consider three large lakes/paleo-lakes that are located in different climatic and geodynamic settings: Megalake Chad (north-central Africa), Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada), and Lake Turkana (Kenya, East African Rift System). All of these three lake systems exhibit well developed modern and ancient high-energy littoral morphosedimentary structures which directly derive from wind-related hydrodynamics. The extensive paleo-shorelines of Megalake Chad are composed of beach-foredune ridges, spits, wave-dominated deltas, barriers, and wave-ravinment surface. For Lake Saint-Jean the influence of wind is also identified below the wave-base at lake bottom from erosional surfaces, and sediment drifts. In the Lake Turkana Basin, littoral landforms and deposits are identified for three different time intervals (today, Holocene, Plio-Pleistocene) evidencing that wind-driven hydrodynamics can be preserved in the geological record. Moreover, a preliminary global survey suggests that numerous modern lakes (remote sensing) and paleo-lakes (bibliographic review) behave as such. We thus coin the term "Wind-driven Water Bodies" (WWB) to refer to those lake systems where sedimentation (erosion, transport, deposition) is dominated by wind-induced hydrodynamics at any depth, as it is the case in the marine realm for shallow seas. Integrating wind forcing in lake models has strong implications for basin analysis (paleoenvironments and paleoclimates restitutions, resources exploration), but also for coastal engineering, wildlife and reservoirs management, or leisure activities.

  9. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Wind variability and sheltering effects on measurements and modeling of air-water exchange for a small lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Resseger, Emily; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Stefan, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Lakes with a surface area of less than 10 km2 account for over 50% of the global cumulative lake surface water area, and make up more than 99% of the total number of global lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Within the boreal regions as well as some temperate and tropical areas, a significant proportion of land cover is characterized by lakes or wetlands, which can have a dramatic effect on land-atmosphere fluxes as well as the local and regional energy budget. Many of these small water bodies are surrounded by complex terrain and forest, which cause the wind blowing over a small lake or wetland to be highly variable. Wind mixing of the lake surface layer affects thermal stratification, surface temperature and air-water gas transfer, e.g. O2, CO2, and CH4. As the wind blows from the land to the lake, wake turbulence behind trees and other shoreline obstacles leads to a recirculation zone and enhanced turbulence. This wake flow results in the delay of the development of wind shear stress on the lake surface, and the fetch required for surface shear stress to fully develop may be ~O(1 km). Interpretation of wind measurements made on the lake is hampered by the unknown effect of wake turbulence. We present field measurements designed to quantify wind variability over a sheltered lake. The wind data and water column temperature profiles are used to evaluate a new method to quantify wind sheltering of lakes that takes into account lake size, shape and the surrounding landscape features. The model is validated against field data for 36 Minnesota lakes. Effects of non-uniform sheltering and lake shape are also demonstrated. The effects of wind sheltering must be included in lake models to determine the effect of wind-derived energy inputs on lake stratification, surface gas transfer, lake water quality, and fish habitat. These effects are also important for correctly modeling momentum, heat, moisture and trace gas flux to the atmosphere.

  11. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    68

    characteristics and variable features where the wind circulation pattern is ..... is extended to understand the quality of AMSR-2 wind speed in a constructive ...... New Disclosures (potential conflicts of interest, funding, acknowledgements):.

  12. Wind waves modelling on the water body with coupled WRF and WAVEWATCH III models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Baydakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Papko, Vladislav; Sergeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Simulation of ocean and sea waves is an accepted instrument for the improvement of the weather forecasts. Wave modelling, coupled models modelling is applied to open seas [1] and is less developed for moderate and small inland water reservoirs and lakes, though being of considerable interest for inland navigation. Our goal is to tune the WAVEWATCH III model to the conditions of the inland reservoir and to carry out the simulations of surface wind waves with coupled WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and WAVEWATCH III models. Gorky Reservoir, an artificial lake in the central part of the Volga River formed by a hydroelectric dam, was considered as an example of inland reservoir. Comparing to [2] where moderate constant winds (u10 is up to 9 m/s) of different directions blowing steadily all over the surface of the reservoir were considered, here we apply atmospheric model WRF to get wind input to WAVEWATCH III. WRF computations were held on the Yellowstone supercomputer for 4 nested domains with minimum scale of 1 km. WAVEWATCH III model was tuned for the conditions of the Gorky Reservoir. Satellite topographic data on altitudes ranged from 56,6° N to 57,5° N and from 42.9° E to 43.5° E with increments 0,00833 ° in both directions was used. 31 frequencies ranged from 0,2 Hz to 4 Hz and 30 directions were considered. The minimal significant wave height was changed to the lower one. The waves in the model were developing from some initial seeding spectral distribution (Gaussian in frequency and space, cosine in direction). The range of the observed significant wave height in the numerical experiment was from less than 1 cm up to 30 cm. The field experiments were carried out in the south part of the Gorky reservoir from the boat [2, 3]. 1-D spectra of the field experiment were compared with those obtained in the numerical experiments with different parameterizations of flux provided in WAVEWATCH III both with constant wind input and WRF wind input. For all the

  13. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The SST–wind relation is analyzed using data both from the buoy and satellite. As a result, the low- SST is associated with low-wind condition (positive slope) in the northern part of the Bay of Bengal (BoB), while low SST values are associated with high wind conditions (negative slope) over the southern BoB. Moreover, the ...

  14. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Erodibility of waste (Loess) soils from construction sites under water and wind erosional forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Argaman, Eli; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2018-03-01

    Excess soils from construction sites (waste soils) become a problem when exposed to soil erosion by water or wind. Understanding waste soil erodibility can contribute to its proper reuse for various surface applications. The general objective of the study was to provide a better understanding of the effects of soil properties on erodibility of waste soils excavated from various depths in a semiarid region under rainfall and wind erosive forces. Soil samples excavated from the topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil layers (0.3-0.9 and >1m depths) were subjected to simulated rainfall and wind. Under rainfall erosive forces, the subsoils were more erodible than the topsoil, in contrast to the results obtained under wind erosive forces. Exchangeable sodium percentage was the main factor controlling soil erodibility (K i ) under rainfall, and a significant logarithmic regression line was found between these two parameters. In addition, a significant, linear regression was found between K i and slaking values for the studied soil samples, suggesting that the former can be predicted from the latter. Soil erodibility under wind erosion force was controlled mainly by the dry aggregate characteristics (mean weight diameter and aggregate density): their higher values in the subsoil layers resulted in lower soil erodibility compared to the topsoil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct measurements of wind-water momentum coupling in a marsh with emergent vegetation and implications for gas transfer estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, I.; Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Among the numerous ecological benefits of restoring wetlands is carbon sequestration. As emergent vegetation thrive, atmospheric CO2 is removed and converted into biomass that gradually become additional soil. Forecasts and management for these systems rely on accurate knowledge of gas exchange between the atmosphere and the wetland surface waters. Our previous work showed that the rate of gas transfer across the air-water interface is affected by the amount of water column mixing caused by winds penetrating through the plant canopy. Here, we present the first direct measurements of wind-water momentum coupling made within a tule marsh. This work in Twitchell Island in the California Delta shows how momentum is imparted into the water from wind stress and that this wind stress interacts with the surface waters in an interesting way. By correlating three-component velocity signals from a sonic anemometer placed within the plant canopy with data from a novel Volumetric Particle Imager (VoPI) placed in the water, we measure the flux of kinetic energy through the plant canopy and the time-scale of the response. We also use this unique dataset to estimate the air-water drag coefficient using an adjoint method.

  17. CWEX: Crop/wind-energy experiment: Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large wind turbines perturb mean and turbulent wind characteristics, which modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could create significant changes in surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds ...

  18. Crop/Wind-energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perturbations of mean and turbulent wind characteristics by large wind turbines modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could significantly change surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds of s...

  19. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  20. The interaction of wind and water in the desertification environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    An appropriate process/response model for the physical basis of desertification is provided by the interactions of wind and water in the desert fringe environment. Essentially, the process of desertification can be thought of as a progressive environmental transition from predominantly fluvial to aeolian processes. This is a simple but useful way of looking at desertification; in this context, desertification is morphogenetic in character. To illustrate the model, a study of drought-related changes in central Mali will serve to trace the interrelated responses of geomorphologic processes to drought conditions.

  1. Satellite retrieved cloud optical thickness sensitive to surface wind speed in the subarctic marine boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The optical and microphysical properties of low level marine clouds, presented over the Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea, have been investigated for the period 2000-2006. The air masses were transported for more or less seven days over the warmer North Atlantic before they arrived at the area investigated. The main focus in this study is on investigating the relationship between cloud optical thickness (COT) and surface wind speed (U 10m ) using satellite retrievals in combination with operational meteorological data. A relatively strong correlation (R 2 = 0.97) is obtained for wind speeds up to 12 m s -1 , in air masses that were probably to a major degree influenced by wind shears and to a minor degree by buoyancy. The relationship (U 2.5 ) is also in between those most commonly found in the literature for water vapor (∼U 1 ) and sea salt (∼U 3.4 ). The present results highlight the magnitude of marine sea-spray influence on COT and their global climatic importance.

  2. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Stochastic dynamic stiffness of surface footing for offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights •This study concerns the stochastic dynamic stiffness of foundations for large offshore wind turbines. •A simple model of wind turbine structure with equivalent coupled springs at the base is utilized. •The level of uncertainties is quantified through a sensitivity analysis. •Estimation...

  4. QuikSCAT and SSM/I ocean surface winds for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Nielsen, Per

    2007-01-01

    -European mid-latitudes and in the Atlantic trade belt zone are compared. Distinct differences are identified and these agree well with independent data from meteorological masts in the two regions. Seven years of twice daily observations from QuikSCAT are used for the offshore wind resource assessment. Wind...

  5. Addressing Spatial Variability of Surface-Layer Wind with Long-Range WindScanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    of the WindScanner data is high, although the fidelity of the estimated vertical velocity component is significantly limited by the elevation angles of the scanner heads. The system of long-range WindScanners presented in this paper is close to being fully operational, with the pilot study herein serving...

  6. Wind wave analysis in depth limited water using OCEANLYZ, A MATLAB toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin

    2017-09-01

    There are a number of well established methods in the literature describing how to assess and analyze measured wind wave data. However, obtaining reliable results from these methods requires adequate knowledge on their behavior, strengths and weaknesses. A proper implementation of these methods requires a series of procedures including a pretreatment of the raw measurements, and adjustment and refinement of the processed data to provide quality assurance of the outcomes, otherwise it can lead to untrustworthy results. This paper discusses potential issues in these procedures, explains what parameters are influential for the outcomes and suggests practical solutions to avoid and minimize the errors in the wave results. The procedure of converting the water pressure data into the water surface elevation data, treating the high frequency data with a low signal-to-noise ratio, partitioning swell energy from wind sea, and estimating the peak wave frequency from the weighted integral of the wave power spectrum are described. Conversion and recovery of the data acquired by a pressure transducer, particularly in depth-limited water like estuaries and lakes, are explained in detail. To provide researchers with tools for a reliable estimation of wind wave parameters, the Ocean Wave Analyzing toolbox, OCEANLYZ, is introduced. The toolbox contains a number of MATLAB functions for estimation of the wave properties in time and frequency domains. The toolbox has been developed and examined during a number of the field study projects in Louisiana's estuaries.

  7. Wind-driven export of Weddell Sea slope water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, A. J. S.; Meredith, M. P.; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Morales Maqueda, M. A.; Jones, D. C.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    The export of waters from the Weddell Gyre to lower latitudes is an integral component of the southern subpolar contribution to the three-dimensional oceanic circulation. Here we use more than 20 years of repeat hydrographic data on the continental slope on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and 5 years of bottom lander data on the slope at 1000 m to show the intermittent presence of a relatively cold, fresh, westward flowing current. This is often bottom-intensified between 600 and 2000 dbar with velocities of over 20 cm s-1, transporting an average of 1.5 ± 1.5 Sv. By comparison with hydrography on the continental slope within the Weddell Sea and modeled tracer release experiments we show that this slope current is an extension of the Antarctic Slope Current that has crossed the South Scotia Ridge west of Orkney Plateau. On monthly to interannual time scales the density of the slope current is negatively correlated (r > 0.6 with a significance of over 95%) with eastward wind stress over the northern Weddell Sea, but lagging it by 6-13 months. This relationship holds in both the high temporal resolution bottom lander time series and the 20+ year annual hydrographic occupations and agrees with Weddell Sea export variability observed further east. We compare several alternative hypotheses for this wind stress/export relationship and find that it is most consistent with wind-driven acceleration of the gyre boundary current, possibly modulated by eddy dynamics, and represents a mechanism by which climatic perturbations can be rapidly transmitted as fluctuations in the supply of intermediate-level waters to lower latitudes.

  8. A preliminary evaluation of short-term thunderstorm forecasting using surface winds at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew I.; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.; Nicholson, James R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987 NASA expanded its surface wind network onto the mainland west of Kennedy Space Center, increasing the network area from nearly 800 sq km to over 1600 sq km. Here, the results of this expansion are reported using three years of wind and lightning information collected during June, July, August, and September of 1987, 1988, and 1989. The divergence-lightning relationships and the importance of wind direction are addressed, and the verification is summarized.

  9. Wind Doesn't Just Stop at the Earth's Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Wind turbines are increasingly being installed in complex terrain such as the pre-Alpine regions of Germany, Austria, and other European Alpine regions, mountainous regions across USA and Canada, and many other parts of the world. In these areas, the system of the atmosphere, terrain, geology, people, and power system has is deeply interconnected but couplings are not completely known. This leads to challenging development conditions, increased cost of energy compared to flat terrain, and sometimes to tensions between different stakeholders. In this presentation, an overview of the wind energy system will be presented, and the challenges of developing wind energy in complex terrain will be highlighted. Results from several recent measurement campaigns and associated modelling carried out by members of WindForS will be used as examples. WindForS is a southern Germany-based research consortium of more than 20 groups at higher education and research institutes, with strong links to government and industry. Finally, the new WindForS wind energy research facility in complex terrain will be introduced. The new test site will be located in the hilly, forested terrain of the Swabian Alps between Stuttgart and Germany, and will consist of two wind turbines with four meteorological towers. The test site will be used for accompanying ecological research and will also have mobile eddy covariance measurement stations as well as bird and bat monitoring systems. Seismic and noise monitoring systems are also planned. The large number of auxiliary measurements at this facility are intended to allow the complete atmosphere-wind turbine-environment-people system to be characterized. A major focus of the presentation will be on opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration between the atmospheric science and geosciences communities and other stakeholders.

  10. Ocean Surface Wind Speed of Hurricane Helene Observed by SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Prediction System (NOGAPS) model, C-band geophysical model functions (GMFs) which describe the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) dependence on the wind speed and the geometry of radar observations (i.e., incidence angle and azimuth angle with respect to wind direction) such as CMOD5 and newly developed......The hurricanes can be detected by many remote sensors, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can yield high-resolution (sub-kilometer) and low-level wind information that cannot be seen below the cloud by other sensors. In this paper, an assessment of SAR capability of monitoring high...

  11. Wind energy applications for municipal water services: Opportunities, situational analyses, and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miner-Nordstrom, L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Especially in arid U.S. regions, communities may soon face hard choices with respect to water and electric power. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can potentially offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Technologies Program has been exploring the potential for wind power to meet growing challenges for water supply and treatment. The DOE is currently characterizing the U.S. regions that are most likely to benefit from wind-water applications and is also exploring the associated technical and policy issues associated with bringing wind energy to bear on water resource challenges.

  12. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  13. Influence of Persistent Wind Scour on the Surface Mass Balance of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indrani; Bell, Robin E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Wolovick, Michael; Creyts, Timothy T.; Studinger, Michael; Fearson, Nicholas; Nicolas, Julien P.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; vandenBroeke, Michiel R.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow accumulation over Antarctica is a key constraint for estimates of the Antarctic mass balance, as well as climatic interpretations of ice-core records. Over Antarctica, near-surface winds accelerate down relatively steep surface slopes, eroding and sublimating the snow. This wind scour results in numerous localized regions (Antarctica. The scour zones are persistent because they are controlled by bedrock topography. On the basis of our Dome A observations, we develop an empirical model to predict wind-scour zones across the Antarctic continent and find that these zones are predominantly located in East Antarctica. We estimate that approx. 2.7-6.6% of the surface area of Antarctica has persistent negative net accumulation due to wind scour, which suggests that, across the continent, the snow mass input is overestimated by 11-36.5 Gt /yr in present surface-mass-balance calculations.

  14. Investigation of Airflow Patterns in a New Design of Wind Tower with a Wetted Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Soltani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive cooling systems, such as wind towers, can help to reduce energy consumption in buildings and at the same time reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Wind towers can naturally ventilate buildings and also can create enhanced thermal comfort for occupants during the warm months. This study proposes a modern wind tower design with a moistened pad. The new design includes a fixed column, a rotating and movable head, an air opening with a screen, and two windows at the end of the column. The wind tower can be installed on roof-tops to take advantage of ambient airflow. The wind tower’s head can be controlled manually or automatically to capture optimum wind velocity based on desired thermal condition. To maximize its performance, a small pump was considered to circulate and spray water on an evaporative cooling pad. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of airflow around and inside the proposed wind tower is conducted to analyze the ventilation performance of this new design of wind tower. Thereby, the velocity, total pressure, and pressure coefficient distributions around and within the wind tower for different wind velocities are examined. The simulation results illustrate that the new wind tower design with a moistened pad can be a reasonable solution to improve naturally the thermal comfort of buildings in hot and dry climates.

  15. Wind fields of storms from surface isobars for wave hindcasting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Santanam, K.

    Marine operations of various types are critically linked to mean and extreme wave statistics. In the Indian seas extreme wave conditions are caused by cyclones and steady strong monsoon winds. Wave data from cyclone areas are not directly available...

  16. Characteristics of pulse corona discharge over water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomio; Arao, Yasushi; Rea, Massimo

    2008-12-01

    Production of ozone and OH radical is required to advance the plasma chemical reactions in the NOx removal processes for combustion gas treatment. The corona discharge to the water surface is expected to induce the good conditions for the proceeding of the NO oxidation and the NO2 dissolution removal into water. In order to get the fundamental data of the corona discharge over the water surface, the positive and negative V-I characteristics and the ozone production were measured with the multi needle and the saw-edge type of the discharge electrodes. The pulse corona characteristics were also measured with some different waveforms of the applied pulse voltage. The experiments were carried out under the atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Both the DC and the pulse corona to the water surface showed a stable and almost the same V-I characteristics as to plate electrodes though the surface of water was waved by corona wind. The positive streamer corona showed more ozone production than the negative one both in the DC and in the pulse corona.

  17. Characteristics of pulse corona discharge over water surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tomio; Arao, Yasushi; Rea, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Production of ozone and OH radical is required to advance the plasma chemical reactions in the NOx removal processes for combustion gas treatment. The corona discharge to the water surface is expected to induce the good conditions for the proceeding of the NO oxidation and the NO 2 dissolution removal into water. In order to get the fundamental data of the corona discharge over the water surface, the positive and negative V-I characteristics and the ozone production were measured with the multi needle and the saw-edge type of the discharge electrodes. The pulse corona characteristics were also measured with some different waveforms of the applied pulse voltage. The experiments were carried out under the atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Both the DC and the pulse corona to the water surface showed a stable and almost the same V-I characteristics as to plate electrodes though the surface of water was waved by corona wind. The positive streamer corona showed more ozone production than the negative one both in the DC and in the pulse corona.

  18. Initialization of high resolution surface wind simulations using NWS gridded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Forthofer; K. Shannon; Bret Butler

    2010-01-01

    WindNinja is a standalone computer model designed to provide the user with simulations of surface wind flow. It is deterministic and steady state. It is currently being modified to allow the user to initialize the flow calculation using National Digital Forecast Database. It essentially allows the user to downscale the coarse scale simulations from meso-scale models to...

  19. Objective estimation of tropical cyclone innercore surface wind structure using infrared satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changjiang; Dai, Lijie; Ma, Leiming; Qian, Jinfang; Yang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    An objective technique is presented for estimating tropical cyclone (TC) innercore two-dimensional (2-D) surface wind field structure using infrared satellite imagery and machine learning. For a TC with eye, the eye contour is first segmented by a geodesic active contour model, based on which the eye circumference is obtained as the TC eye size. A mathematical model is then established between the eye size and the radius of maximum wind obtained from the past official TC report to derive the 2-D surface wind field within the TC eye. Meanwhile, the composite information about the latitude of TC center, surface maximum wind speed, TC age, and critical wind radii of 34- and 50-kt winds can be combined to build another mathematical model for deriving the innercore wind structure. After that, least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and linear regression are introduced, respectively, in the two mathematical models, which are then tested with sensitivity experiments on real TC cases. Verification shows that the innercore 2-D surface wind field structure estimated by LSSVM is better than that of RBFNN and linear regression.

  20. An Improved Local Gradient Method for Sea Surface Wind Direction Retrieval from SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind affects the fluxes of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore regional and global weather and climate. With various satellite microwave sensors, sea surface wind can be measured with large spatial coverage in almost all-weather conditions, day or night. Like any other remote sensing measurements, sea surface wind measurement is also indirect. Therefore, it is important to develop appropriate wind speed and direction retrieval models for different types of microwave instruments. In this paper, a new sea surface wind direction retrieval method from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is developed. In the method, local gradients are computed in frequency domain by combining the operation of smoothing and computing local gradients in one step to simplify the process and avoid the difference approximation. This improved local gradients (ILG method is compared with the traditional two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT method and local gradients (LG method, using interpolating wind directions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF reanalysis data and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP wind vector product. The sensitivities to the salt-and-pepper noise, the additive noise and the multiplicative noise are analyzed. The ILG method shows a better performance of retrieval wind directions than the other two methods.

  1. How important is getting the land surface energy exchange correct in WRF for wind energy forecasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, S.; Simpson, M.; Osuna, J. L.; Newman, J. F.; Biraud, S.

    2013-12-01

    Wind power forecasting is plagued with difficulties in accurately predicting the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric conditions at the heights spanned by industrial-scale turbines (~ 40 to 200 m above ground level). Better simulation of the relevant physics would enable operational practices such as integration of large fractions of wind power into power grids, scheduling maintenance on wind energy facilities, and deciding design criteria based on complex loads for next-generation turbines and siting. Accurately simulating the surface energy processes in numerical models may be critically important for wind energy forecasting as energy exchange at the surface strongly drives atmospheric mixing (i.e., stability) in the lower layers of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which in turn largely determines wind shear and turbulence at heights found in the turbine rotor-disk. We hypothesize that simulating accurate a surface-atmosphere energy coupling should lead to more accurate predictions of wind speed and turbulence at heights within the turbine rotor-disk. Here, we tested 10 different land surface model configurations in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model including Noah, Noah-MP, SSiB, Pleim-Xiu, RUC, and others to evaluate (1) the accuracy of simulated surface energy fluxes to flux tower measurements, (2) the accuracy of forecasted wind speeds to observations at rotor-disk heights, and (3) the sensitivity of forecasting hub-height rotor disk wind speed to the choice of land surface model. WRF was run for four, two-week periods covering both summer and winter periods over the Southern Great Plains ARM site in Oklahoma. Continuous measurements of surface energy fluxes and lidar-based wind speed, direction and turbulence were also available. The SGP ARM site provided an ideal location for this evaluation as it centrally located in the wind-rich Great Plains and multi-MW wind farms are rapidly expanding in the area. We found significant differences in

  2. Liquid Water may Stick on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Common Perception. A surface can be classified as. > Wetting. > Non-wetting. Depending on the spreading characteristics of a droplet of water that splashes on the surface. The behavior of fluid on a solid surface under static and dynamic ..... color of the number density profile. Ions at the interface tend to form pinning zones ...

  3. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  4. Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ... (2/1, v/v) followed by ethanol, using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ... polar organic solvents and non-polar n-alkane hydrocarbons is discussed.

  5. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  6. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  7. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Modular Design of Wind Tower with Wetted Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad M.R. Khani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind towers or wind catchers, as passive cooling systems, can provide natural ventilation in buildings located in hot, arid regions. These natural cooling systems can provide thermal comfort for the building inhabitants throughout the warm months. In this paper, a modular design of a wind tower is introduced. The design, called a modular wind tower with wetted surfaces, was investigated experimentally and analytically. To determine the performance of the wind tower, air temperature, relative humidity (RH and air velocity were measured at different points. Measurements were carried out when the wind speed was zero. The experimental results were compared with the analytical ones. The results illustrated that the modular wind tower can decrease the air temperature significantly and increase the relative humidity of airflow into the building. The average differences for air temperature and air relative humidity between ambient air and air exiting from the wind tower were approximately 10 °C and 40%, respectively. The main advantage of the proposed wind tower is that it is a modular design that can reduce the cost of wind tower construction.

  9. Doppler lidar investigation of wind turbine wake characteristics and atmospheric turbulence under different surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi

    2017-06-12

    Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.

  10. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  11. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2015-12-01

    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  12. Farmers' perceptions of erosion by wind and water in northern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Leenders, J.K.; Leeuwis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Wind and water erosion are widespread phenomena throughout the Sahel, especially in the early rainy season, when high-intensity rainstorms are often preceded by severe windstorms. This paper describes the results of a survey on the farmers' perceptions of wind and water erosion processes and control

  13. On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wind waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, H.K.; Højstrup, J.; Vested, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    that calculations of the wind friction velocities using the wave-spectra-dependent expression of Hansen and Larsen agrees quite well with measured values during RASEX. It also gives a trend in Charnock parameter consistent with that found by combining the field data. Last, calculations using a constant Charnock...

  14. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  15. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  16. Multisensor satellite data integration for sea surface wind speed and direction determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Pihos, G. G.; Wheelock, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to integrate meteorological data from various satellite sensors to yield a global measure of sea surface wind speed and direction for input to the Navy's operational weather forecast models were investigated. The sensors were launched or will be launched, specifically the GOES visible and infrared imaging sensor, the Nimbus-7 SMMR, and the DMSP SSM/I instrument. An algorithm for the extrapolation to the sea surface of wind directions as derived from successive GOES cloud images was developed. This wind veering algorithm is relatively simple, accounts for the major physical variables, and seems to represent the best solution that can be found with existing data. An algorithm for the interpolation of the scattered observed data to a common geographical grid was implemented. The algorithm is based on a combination of inverse distance weighting and trend surface fitting, and is suited to combing wind data from disparate sources.

  17. The Alignment of the Mean Wind and Stress Vectors in the Unstable Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, M.; Dias, N. L.

    2010-01-01

    A significant non-alignment between the mean horizontal wind vector and the stress vector was observed for turbulence measurements both above the water surface of a large lake, and over a land surface (soybean crop). Possible causes for this discrepancy such as flow distortion, averaging times and the procedure used for extracting the turbulent fluctuations (low-pass filtering and filter widths etc.), were dismissed after a detailed analysis. Minimum averaging times always less than 30 min were established by calculating ogives, and error bounds for the turbulent stresses were derived with three different approaches, based on integral time scales (first-crossing and lag-window estimates) and on a bootstrap technique. It was found that the mean absolute value of the angle between the mean wind and stress vectors is highly related to atmospheric stability, with the non-alignment increasing distinctively with increasing instability. Given a coordinate rotation that aligns the mean wind with the x direction, this behaviour can be explained by the growth of the relative error of the u- w component with instability. As a result, under more unstable conditions the u- w and the v- w components become of the same order of magnitude, and the local stress vector gives the impression of being non-aligned with the mean wind vector. The relative error of the v- w component is large enough to make it undistinguishable from zero throughout the range of stabilities. Therefore, the standard assumptions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory hold: it is fair to assume that the v- w stress component is actually zero, and that the non-alignment is a purely statistical effect. An analysis of the dimensionless budgets of the u- w and the v- w components confirms this interpretation, with both shear and buoyant production of u- w decreasing with increasing instability. In the v- w budget, shear production is zero by definition, while buoyancy displays very low-intensity fluctuations around

  18. A modified surface-resistance approach for representing bare-soil evaporation: wind tunnel experiments under various atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Takeda, A.; Sugita, F.

    1997-01-01

    A physically based (i.e., nonempirical) representation of surface-moisture availability is proposed, and its applicability is investigated. This method is based on the surface-resistance approaches, and it uses the depth of evaporating surface rather than the water content of the surface soil as the determining factor of surface-moisture availability. A simple energy-balance model including this representation is developed and tested against wind tunnel experiments under various atmospheric conditions. This model can estimate not only the latent heat flux but also the depth of the evaporating surface simultaneously by solving the inverse problem of energy balance at both the soil surface and the evaporating surface. It was found that the depth of the evaporating surface and the latent heat flux estimated by the model agreed well with those observed. The agreements were commonly found out under different atmospheric conditions. The only limitation of this representation is that it is not valid under conditions of drastic change in the radiation input, owing to the influence of transient phase transition of water in the dry surface layer. The main advantage of the approach proposed is that it can determine the surface moisture availability on the basis of the basic properties of soils instead of empirical fitting, although further investigations on its practical use are needed

  19. Surface drag effects on simulated wind fields in high-resolution atmospheric forecast model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kyo Sun; Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Yum [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Hong, Jin Kyu [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    It has been reported that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model generally shows a substantial over prediction bias at low to moderate wind speeds and winds are too geostrophic (Cheng and Steenburgh 2005), which limits the application of WRF model in the area that requires the accurate surface wind estimation such as wind-energy application, air-quality studies, and radioactive-pollutants dispersion studies. The surface drag generated by the subgrid-scale orography is represented by introducing a sink term in the momentum equation in their studies. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the simulated meteorological fields in the high-resolution WRF framework, that includes the parameterization of subgrid-scale orography developed by Mass and Ovens (2010), and enhance the forecast skill of low-level wind fields, which plays an important role in transport and dispersion of air pollutants including radioactive pollutants. The positive bias in 10-m wind speed is significantly alleviated by implementing the subgrid-scale orography parameterization, while other meteorological fields including 10-m wind direction are not changed. Increased variance of subgrid- scale orography enhances the sink of momentum and further reduces the bias in 10-m wind speed.

  20. Global composites of surface wind speeds in tropical cyclones based on a 12 year scatterometer database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Bradley W.; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-10-01

    A 12 year global database of rain-corrected satellite scatterometer surface winds for tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to produce composites of TC surface wind speed distributions relative to vertical wind shear and storm motion directions in each TC-prone basin and various TC intensity stages. These composites corroborate ideas presented in earlier studies, where maxima are located right of motion in the Earth-relative framework. The entire TC surface wind asymmetry is down motion left for all basins and for lower strength TCs after removing the motion vector. Relative to the shear direction, the motion-removed composites indicate that the surface wind asymmetry is located down shear left for the outer region of all TCs, but for the inner-core region it varies from left of shear to down shear right for different basin and TC intensity groups. Quantification of the surface wind asymmetric structure in further stratifications is a necessary next step for this scatterometer data set.

  1. Understanding the Role of Wind in Reducing the Surface Mass Balance Estimates over East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Scambos, T. A.; Koenig, L.; Creyts, T. T.; Bell, R. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J.; Paden, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate quantification of surface snow-accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on ice core records. An improved estimate of surface mass balance must include the significant role near-surface wind plays in the sublimation and redistribution of snow across Antarctica. We have developed an empirical model based on airborne radar and lidar observations, and modeled surface mass balance and wind fields to produce a continent-wide prediction of wind-scour zones over Antarctica. These zones have zero to negative surface mass balance, are located over locally steep ice sheet areas (>0.002) and controlled by bedrock topography. The near-surface winds accelerate over these zones, eroding and sublimating the surface snow. This scouring results in numerous localized regions (≤ 200 km2) with reduced surface accumulation. Each year, tens of gigatons of snow on the Antarctic ice sheet are ablated by persistent near-surface katabatic winds over these wind-scour zones. Large uncertainties remain in the surface mass balance estimates over East Antarctica as climate models do not adequately represent the small-scale physical processes that lead to mass loss through sublimation or redistribution over the wind-scour zones. In this study, we integrate Operation IceBridge's snow radar over the Recovery Ice Stream with a series of ice core dielectric and depth-density profiles for improved surface mass balance estimates that reflect the mass loss over the wind-scour zones. Accurate surface mass balance estimates from snow radars require spatially variable depth-density profiles. Using an ensemble of firn cores, MODIS-derived surface snow grain size, modeled accumulation rates and surface temperatures from RACMO2, we assemble spatially variable depth-density profiles and use our mapping of snow density variations to estimate layer mass and net accumulation rates from snow radar layer data. Our study improves the quantification of

  2. Energy-water nexus of wind power in China: The balancing act between CO2 emissions and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Feng Kuishuang; Siu, Yim Ling; Hubacek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2010, China's contribution to global CO 2 emissions reached 25.1%. Estimates show that power generation accounts for 37.2% of the Chinese CO 2 emissions. Even though there is an increasing number of studies using life cycle analysis (LCA) to examine energy consumption and CO 2 emissions required by different types of power generation technologies, there are very few studies focusing on China. Furthermore, the nexus between water consumption and energy production has largely been ignored. In this paper, we adopt input–output based hybrid life cycle analysis to evaluate water consumption and CO 2 emissions of wind power in China. Our results show that China's wind energy consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 emission. Given that the Chinese government aims to increase the wind power generation capacity to 200 GW by 2020, wind power could contribute a 23% reduction in carbon intensity and could save 800 million m 3 of water which could be sufficient enough for use by 11.2 million households. Thus, given the often postulated water crisis, China's energy policy would reap double benefits through progressive energy policies when increasing the share of wind power as part of overall efforts to diversify its electricity generation technologies. - Highlights: ► The nexus of water consumption and CO 2 emission of China's wind power is examined. ► Wind power consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 . ► Wind power could save 800 million m 3 of water for use by 11.2 million households. ► Wind power could contribute 23% of China's carbon intensity target by 2020. ► Wind power deemed to be a viable means of achieving carbon and water savings.

  3. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  4. Integrating wind power using intelligent electric water heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Niall; Foley, Aoife M.; McKeogh, Eamon

    2012-01-01

    Dwindling fossil fuel resources and pressures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will result in a more diverse range of generation portfolios for future electricity systems. Irrespective of the portfolio mix the overarching requirement for all electricity suppliers and system operators is to instantaneously meet demand, to operate to standards and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore all electricity market participants will ultimately need to use a variety of tools to balance the power system. Thus the role of demand side management with energy storage will be paramount to integrate future diverse generation portfolios. Electric water heating has been studied previously, particularly at the domestic level to provide load control, peak shave and to benefit end-users financially with lower bills, particularly in vertically integrated monopolies. In this paper a number of continuous direct load control demand response based electric water heating algorithms are modelled to test the effectiveness of wholesale electricity market signals to study the system benefits. The results are compared and contrasted to determine which control algorithm showed the best potential for energy savings, system marginal price savings and wind integration.

  5. Spectral Properties of ENVISAT ASAR and QuikSCAT Surface Winds in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Badger, Merete

    2013-01-01

    as an increase in spectral density over similar wavenumber ranges as the spatial resolution increases. The 600-m SAR wind product reveals a range of wavenumbers in which the exchange processes between micro- and meso-scales occur; this range is not captured by the wind products with a resolution of 1.5 km......Spectra derived from ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) and QuikSCAT near-surface ocean winds are investigated over the North Sea. The two sensors offer a wide range of spatial resolutions, from 600 m to 25 km, with different spatial coverage over the area of interest. This provides...... a unique opportunity to study the impact of the spatial resolution on the spectral properties of the wind over a wide range of length scales. Initially, a sub-domain in the North Sea is chosen, due to the overlap of 87 wind scenes from both sensors. The impact of the spatial resolution is manifested...

  6. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  7. Wind energy input into the upper ocean over a lengthening open water season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Rolph, R.; Walsh, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Wind energy input into the ocean has important consequences for upper ocean mixing, heat and gas exchange, and air-sea momentum transfer. In the Arctic, the open water season is increasing and extending further into the fall storm season, allowing for more wind energy input into the water column. The rate at which the delayed freeze-up timing extends into fall storm season is an important metric to evaluate because the expanding overlap between the open water period and storm season could contribute a significant amount of wind energy into the water column in a relatively short period of time. We have shown that time-integrated wind speeds over open water in the Chukchi Sea and southern Beaufort region have increased since 1979 through 2014. An integrated wind energy input value is calculated for each year in this domain over the open water season, as well as for periods over partial concentrations of ice cover. Spatial variation of this integrated wind energy is shown along the Alaskan coastline, which can have implications for different rates of coastal erosion. Spatial correlation between average wind speed over open water and open water season length from 1979-2014 show positive values in the southern Beaufort, but negative values in the northern Chukchi. This suggests possible differences in the role of the ocean on open water season length depending on region. We speculate that the warm Pacific water outflow plays a more dominant role in extending the open water season length in the northern Chukchi when compared to the southern Beaufort, and might help explain why we can show there is a relatively longer open water season length there. The negative and positive correlations in wind speeds over open water and open water season length might also be explained by oceanic changes tending to operate on longer timescales than the atmosphere. Seasonal timescales of wind events such as regional differences in overlap of the extended open water season due to regional

  8. A Response Surface-Based Cost Model for Wind Farm Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille; Castillo, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    A Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model is developed for the engineering planning of wind farms. The RS-WFC model is developed using Extended Radial Basis Functions (E-RBF) for onshore wind farms in the U.S. This model is then used to explore the influences of different design and economic parameters, including number of turbines, rotor diameter and labor cost, on the cost of a wind farm. The RS-WFC model is composed of three components that estimate the effects of engineering and economic factors on (i) the installation cost, (ii) the annual Operation and Maintenance (O and M) cost, and (iii) the total annual cost of a wind farm. The accuracy of the cost model is favorably established through comparison with pertinent commercial data. The final RS-WFC model provided interesting insights into cost variation with respect to critical engineering and economic parameters. In addition, a newly developed analytical wind farm engineering model is used to determine the power generated by the farm, and the subsequent Cost of Energy (COE). This COE is optimized for a unidirectional uniform “incoming wind speed” scenario using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). We found that the COE could be appreciably minimized through layout optimization, thereby yielding significant cost savings. - Highlights: ► We present a Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model for wind farm design. ► The model could estimate installation cost, Operation and Maintenance cost, and total annual cost of a wind farm. ► The Cost of Energy is optimized using Particle Swarm Optimization. ► Layout optimization could yield significant cost savings.

  9. Sea surface wind perturbations over the Kashevarov Bank of the Okhotsk Sea. A satellite study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkhova, T.I.; Permyakov, M.S.; Potalova, E.Yu.; Semykin, V.I. [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation). Lab. of the Ocean and Atmosphere Interaction Studies

    2011-07-01

    Sea surface wind perturbations over sea surface temperature (SST) cold anomalies over the Kashevarov Bank (KB) of the Okhotsk Sea are analyzed using satellite (AMSR-E and QuikSCAT) data during the summerautumn period of 2006-2009. It is shown, that frequency of cases of wind speed decreasing over a cold spot in August- September reaches up to 67%. In the cold spot center SST cold anomalies reached 10.5 C and wind speed lowered down to {proportional_to}7ms {sup -1} relative its value on the periphery. The wind difference between a periphery and a centre of the cold spot is proportional to SST difference with the correlations 0.5 for daily satellite passes data, 0.66 for 3-day mean data and 0.9 for monthly ones. For all types of data the coefficient of proportionality consists of {proportional_to}0.3 {sup -1} on 1 C. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Kamiyama, Hideo

    1991-07-01

    Radionuclides migration in ground surface water flow is considered to be one of the important path way in the scenario for environmental migration of radionuclides leaked from low level radioactive waste repository. Simulating the slightly sloped surface on which contaminated solution is flowing downward, testing for radionuclide migration on ground surface had been started. As it's first step, an experiment was carried out under the condition of restricted infiltration in order to elucidate the adsorption behavior of radionuclides onto the loamy soil surface in related with hydraulic conditions. Radionuclides concentration change in effluent solution with time and a concentration distribution of radionuclides adsorbed on the ground surface were obtained from several experimental conditions combining the rate and the duration time of the water flow. The radionuclides concentration in the effluent solution was nearly constant during each experimental period, and was reduced under the condition of lower flow rate. The surface distribution of radionuclides concentration showed two distinctive regions. The one was near the inlet vessel where the concentration was promptly reducing, and the other was following the former where the concentration was nearly constant. The characteristic surface distribution of radionuclides concentration can be explained by a two dimensional diffusion model with a first order adsorption reaction, based on the advection of flow rate distribution in perpendicular direction. (author)

  11. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped...... the influence of water jet slug velocity and impact frequency. In the present work, the effects on coating erosion of water cushioning, substrate curvature, and water nozzle-coating distance were explored. The investigations showed that in some cases water cushioning (the presence of a liquid film...... on the coating surface prior to impact) influences the erosion. Contrary to this, substrate curvature and the water nozzle-coating distance (

  12. LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.

  13. Manufacturing and characterisation of water repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Botija, Pablo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    design criteria for such surfaces. The problem of adapting this behaviour to artificially roughened surfaces is addressed by providing design criteria for superhydrophobic, water-repellent and self-cleaning surfaces according to the concrete performance desired for them. Different kind of manufacturing...... techniques are investigated and the production of patterned micro structured surfaces following two different manufacturing techniques is reported. The first is a combination of laser manufacturing and hot embossing on polystyrene. To compare geometry and functionality a non-silicon based lithography...

  14. Observations of Martian surface winds at the Viking Lander 1 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.R.; Leovy, C.B.; Tillman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Partial failure of the wind instrumentation on the Viking Lander 1 (VL1) in the Martian subtropics (22.5 degree N) has limited previous analyses of meteorological data for this site. The authors describe a method for reconstructing surface winds using data from the partially failed sensor and present and analyze a time series of wind, pressure, and temperature at the site covering 350 Mars days (sols). At the beginning of the mission during early summer, winds were controlled by regional topography, but they soon underwent a transition to a regime controlled by the Hadley circulation. Diurnal and semidiurnal wind oscillations and synoptic variations have been analyzed and compared with the corresponding variations at the Viking Lander 2 middle latitude site (48 degree N). Diurnal wind oscillations were controlled primarily by regional topography and boundary layer forcing, although a global mode may have been influencing them during two brief episodes. Semidiurnal wind oscillations were controlled by the westward propagating semidiurnal tide from sol 210 onward. Comparison of the synoptic variations at the two sites suggests that the same eastward propagating wave trains were present at both sites, at least following the first 1977 great dust storm, but discordant inferred zonal wave numbers and phase speeds at the two sites cast doubt on the zonal wave numbers deduced from analyses of combined wind and pressure data, particularly at the VL1 site where the signal to noise ratio of the dominant synoptic waves is relatively small

  15. High wind speeds prevent formation of a distinct bacterioneuston community in the sea-surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlff, Janina; Stolle, Christian; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wurl, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air-sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability. We found that enrichment of bacteria in the SML occurred solely at a U10 wind speed of ≤5.6 m s-1 in the tunnel and ≤4.1 m s-1 in the Baltic Sea. High pCO2 levels further intensified the bacterial enrichment in the SML during low wind speed. In addition, low wind speed and pCO2 induced the formation of a distinctive bacterial community as revealed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and influenced the presence or absence of individual taxonomic units within the SML. We conclude that physical stability of the SML below a system-specific wind speed threshold induces specific bacterial communities in the SML entailing strong implications for ecosystem functioning by wind-driven impacts on habitat properties, gas exchange and matter cycling processes. © FEMS 2017.

  16. Spectral Properties of ENVISAT ASAR and QuikSCAT Surface Winds in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Karagali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spectra derived from ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR and QuikSCAT near-surface ocean winds are investigated over the North Sea. The two sensors offer a wide range of spatial resolutions, from 600 m to 25 km, with different spatial coverage over the area of interest. This provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of the spatial resolution on the spectral properties of the wind over a wide range of length scales. Initially, a sub-domain in the North Sea is chosen, due to the overlap of 87 wind scenes from both sensors. The impact of the spatial resolution is manifested as an increase in spectral density over similar wavenumber ranges as the spatial resolution increases. The 600-m SAR wind product reveals a range of wavenumbers in which the exchange processes between micro- and meso-scales occur; this range is not captured by the wind products with a resolution of 1.5 km or lower. The lower power levels of coarser resolution wind products, particularly when comparing QuikSCAT to ENVISAT ASAR, strongly suggest that the effective resolution of the wind products should be high enough to resolve the spectral properties. Spectra computed from 87 wind maps are consistent with those obtained from several thousands of samples. Long-term spectra from QuikSCAT show that during the winter, slightly higher energy content is identified compared to the other seasons.

  17. Doppler Navigation System with a Non-Stabilized Antenna as a Sea-Surface Wind Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, Alexey; Khachaturian, Alena; Veremyev, Vladimir; Bogachev, Mikhail

    2017-06-09

    We propose a concept of the utilization of an aircraft Doppler Navigation System (DNS) as a sea-surface wind sensor complementary to its normal functionality. The DNS with an antenna, which is non-stabilized physically to the local horizontal with x -configured beams, is considered. We consider the wind measurements by the DNS configured in the multi-beam scatterometer mode for a rectilinear flight scenario. The system feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed wind algorithm retrieval are supported by computer simulations. Finally, the associated limitations of the proposed approach are considered.

  18. Annual and interannual variability of scatterometer ocean surface wind over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GS; Xu, Q.; Gong, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the annual and interannual variability of ocean surface wind over the South China Sea (SCS), the vector empirical orthogonal function (VEOF) method and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method were employed to analyze a set of combined satellite scatterometer wind data during.......3% of the total variance and represents the East Asian monsoon features. The second mode of VEOF corresponds to a spring-autumn oscillation which accounts for 8.3% of the total variance. To analyze the interannual variability, the annual signal was removed from the wind data set and the VEOFs of the residuals...

  19. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  20. Radioactivity in surface waters and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeber, I.

    1987-01-01

    In consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the State Office for Water and Waste Disposal of North-Rhine Westphalia implemented immediate programmes for monitoring radioactivity in surface waters, including their sediments and organisms. Of the initially-measured radionuclides, only cesium-137, with its long half-life of 30 years, is of interest. Only trace amounts of the almost equally long-lived strontium 90 (half-life 28 years) were present in rainfall. Cs-137 is a non-natural-radionuclide, occurring solely as a by-product of nuclear installations and atomic bomb tests. Following the ban on surface testing of nuclear weapons, the Cs-137 content of surface waters had fallen significantly up to April 1986. The load due to the reactor disaster is of the same order of magnitude as that produced by atomic testing at the end of the nineteen-sixties. The paper surveys radioactive pollution of surface waters in North-Rhine Westphalia and its effects on water use, especially in regard to potable water supplies and the fish population. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Surface tension of normal and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, J.; Rosner, N.; Grigull, V.

    1980-01-01

    A Skeleton Table and simple interpolation equation for the surface tension of light water was developed by the Working Group III of the International Association for the Properties of Steam and is recommended as an International Standard. The Skeleton Table is based on all known measurements of the surface tension and individual data were weighted corresponding to the accuracy of the measurements. The form of the interpolation equation is based on a physical concept. It represents an extension of van der Waals-equation, where the exponent conforms to the 'Scaling Laws'. In addition for application purposes simple relations for the Laplace-coefficient and for the density difference between the liquid and gaseous phases of light water are given. The same form of interpolation equation for the surface tension can be used for heavy water, for which the coefficients are given. However, this equation is based only on a single set of data. (orig.) [de

  2. Water-hydraulic power transmission for offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.; Kempenaar, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art of offshore wind turbine power transmission technology is expensive, heavy and maintenance intensive. The Delft Offshore Turbine project considers a radically new concept for power transmission in an offshore wind farm: using seawater as power transmission medium. For

  3. Role of sea surface wind stress forcing on transport between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.

    Using an Indian-Pacific Ocean Circulation Model (IPOM) a simulation study on the Transports of between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean such as Indonesian Through flow (ITF) has been done. IPOM covered the area 25°E-70°W, 35°S-60°N. There are 31 levels in the vertical with 22 levels upper 400m in it. The horizontal resolution is 1/3° lat x 1.5° lon between 10°S and 10°N. The coastline and ocean topography of IPOM is prepared from Scripps topography data on 1x1°grid. Forcing IPOM with monthly observational wind stress in 1990-1999 the interannual variation of sea temperature has been reproduced well, not only on El Nino in the Pacific but also on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Therefore, the oceanic circulations in the tropical ocean are reasonable. The analyses of the oceanic circulations from the simulations suggest that the transport southward through Makassar Strait is the primary route of thermocline water masses from the North Pacific to the Indonesian sea. The transport westward through Bali-Western Australian Transect (BWAT, at 117.5E) can be thought as the final output of ITF through the archipelago to Indian Ocean. The transport westward through BWAT is in 8-12S above 150m, its core centered near surface 10S, which looks like a jet. The westward velocity is more than 50 cm/s. The transport shows significant seasonal and interannual variations. The maximum is in Jul-Oct, minimum in Jan-Mar. These results are consistent with some observation basically. The correlation analyses indict that the variations of transport westward is related with the southeasterly anomaly in the east tropical Indian ocean. The transport variation lags wind anomaly about 3 months. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.6. The transport is strong during IOD, for example in 1994 and 1997. The variations are also related with the northwesterly anomaly in the center equatorial Pacific and the easterly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The transport is strong in most ENSO

  4. Electrolysis of water on (oxidized) metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used as the basis for an analysis of the electrochemical process, where by water is split to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen. We develop a method for obtaining the thermochemistry of the electrochemical water splitting process as a function of the bias...... directly from the electronic structure calculations. We consider electrodes of Pt(111) and Au(111) in detail and then discuss trends for a series of different metals. We show that the difficult step in the water splitting process is the formation of superoxy-type (OOH) species on the surface...... by the splitting of a water molecule on top an adsorbed oxygen atom. One conclusion is that this is only possible on metal surfaces that are (partly) oxidized. We show that the binding energies of the different intermediates are linearly correlated for a number of metals. In a simple analysis, where the linear...

  5. Occurrence of Surface Water Contaminations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabudin, M. M.; Musa, S.

    2018-04-01

    Water is a part of our life and needed by all organisms. As time goes by, the needs by human increased transforming water quality into bad conditions. Surface water contaminated in various ways which is pointed sources and non-pointed sources. Pointed sources means the source are distinguished from the source such from drains or factory but the non-pointed always occurred in mixed of elements of pollutants. This paper is reviewing the occurrence of the contaminations with effects that occurred around us. Pollutant factors from natural or anthropology factors such nutrients, pathogens, and chemical elements contributed to contaminations. Most of the effects from contaminated surface water contributed to the public health effects also to the environments.

  6. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  7. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach: Surface moisture, wind fetch, and mean transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B. O.; Davidson-Arnott, R. G. D.; Hesp, P. A.; Namikas, S. L.; Ollerhead, J.; Walker, I. J.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in wind speed, wind direction, and moisture content are ubiquitous across sandy coastal beaches. Often these factors interact in unknown ways to create complexity that confounds our ability to model sediment transport at any point across the beach as well as our capacity to predict sediment delivery into the adjacent foredunes. This study was designed to measure wind flow and sediment transport over a beach and foredune at Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island National Park, with the express purpose of addressing these complex interactions. Detailed measurements are reported for one stormy day, October 11, 2004, during which meteorological conditions were highly variable. Wind speed ranged from 4 ms - 1 to over 20 ms - 1 , wind direction was highly oblique varying between 60° and 85° from shore perpendicular, and moisture content of the sand surface ranged from a minimum of about 3% (by mass) to complete saturation depending on precipitation, tidal excursion, and storm surge that progressively inundated the beach. The data indicate that short-term variations (i.e., minutes to hours) in sediment transport across this beach arise predominantly because of short-term changes in wind speed, as is expected, but also because of variations in wind direction, precipitation intensity, and tide level. Even slight increases in wind speed are capable of driving more intense saltation events, but this relationship is mediated by other factors on this characteristically narrow beach. As the angle of wind approach becomes more oblique, the fetch distance increases and allows greater opportunity for the saltation system to evolve toward an equilibrium transport state before reaching the foredunes. Whether the theoretically-predicted maximum rate of transport is ever achieved depends on the character of the sand surface (e.g., grain size, slope, roughness, vegetation, moisture content) and on various attributes of the wind field (e.g., average wind

  8. Statistical downscaling of IPCC sea surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the Caribbean Sea. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.

  9. Light reflection from a rough liquid surface including wind-wave effects in a scattering atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Liew, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-IR images of the ocean surface, taken from remote satellites, often contain important information of near-surface or sub-surface processes, which occur on, or over the ocean. Remote measurements of near surface winds, sea surface temperature and salinity, ocean color and underwater bathymetry, all, one way or another, depend on how well we understand sea surface roughness. However, in order to extract useful information from our remote measurements, we need to construct accurate models of the transfer of solar radiation inside the atmosphere as well as, its reflection from the sea surface. To approach this problem, we numerically solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by implementing a model for the atmosphere-ocean system. A one-dimensional atmospheric radiation model is solved via the widely known doubling and adding method and the ocean body is treated as a boundary condition to the problem. The ocean surface is modeled as a rough liquid surface which includes wind interaction and wave states, such as wave age. The model can have possible applications to the retrieval of wind and wave states, such as wave age, near a Sun glint region

  10. Surface-Water Conditions in Georgia, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jaime A.; Landers, Mark N.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center-in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies-collected surface-water streamflow, water-quality, and ecological data during the 2005 Water Year (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). These data were compiled into layers of an interactive ArcReaderTM published map document (pmf). ArcReaderTM is a product of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI?). Datasets represented on the interactive map are * continuous daily mean streamflow * continuous daily mean water levels * continuous daily total precipitation * continuous daily water quality (water temperature, specific conductance dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) * noncontinuous peak streamflow * miscellaneous streamflow measurements * lake or reservoir elevation * periodic surface-water quality * periodic ecological data * historical continuous daily mean streamflow discontinued prior to the 2005 water year The map interface provides the ability to identify a station in spatial reference to the political boundaries of the State of Georgia and other features-such as major streams, major roads, and other collection stations. Each station is hyperlinked to a station summary showing seasonal and annual stream characteristics for the current year and for the period of record. For continuous discharge stations, the station summary includes a one page graphical summary page containing five graphs, a station map, and a photograph of the station. The graphs provide a quick overview of the current and period-of-record hydrologic conditions of the station by providing a daily mean discharge graph for the water year, monthly statistics graph for the water year and period of record, an annual mean streamflow graph for the period of record, an annual minimum 7-day average streamflow graph for the period of record, and an annual peak streamflow graph for the period of record. Additionally, data can be accessed through the layer's link

  11. Global modelling of Cryptosporidium in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie; Hofstra, Nynke

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Waterborne pathogens that cause diarrhoea, such as Cryptosporidium, pose a health risk all over the world. In many regions quantitative information on pathogens in surface water is unavailable. Our main objective is to model Cryptosporidium concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We present the GloWPa-Crypto model and use the model in a scenario analysis. A first exploration of global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface waters has been published by Hofstra et al. (2013). Further work has focused on modelling emissions of Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus to surface waters from human sources (Vermeulen et al 2015, Kiulia et al 2015). A global waterborne pathogen model can provide valuable insights by (1) providing quantitative information on pathogen levels in data-sparse regions, (2) identifying pathogen hotspots, (3) enabling future projections under global change scenarios and (4) supporting decision making. Material and Methods GloWPa-Crypto runs on a monthly time step and represents conditions for approximately the year 2010. The spatial resolution is a 0.5 x 0.5 degree latitude x longitude grid for the world. We use livestock maps (http://livestock.geo-wiki.org/) combined with literature estimates to calculate spatially explicit livestock Cryptosporidium emissions. For human Cryptosporidium emissions, we use UN population estimates, the WHO/UNICEF JMP sanitation country data and literature estimates of wastewater treatment. We combine our emissions model with a river routing model and data from the VIC hydrological model (http://vic.readthedocs.org/en/master/) to calculate concentrations in surface water. Cryptosporidium survival during transport depends on UV radiation and water temperature. We explore pathogen emissions and concentrations in 2050 with the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) 1 and 3. These scenarios describe plausible future trends in demographics, economic development and the degree of global integration. Results and

  12. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  13. Statistical downscaling of sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region: diagnosing the impact of climate change from the IPSL-CM4 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubanova, K. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Echevin, V.; Terray, P. [IPSL/UPMC/IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et de Climatologie, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); Dewitte, B. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Codron, F. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Takahashi, K. [Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Vrac, M. [IPSL/CNRS/CEA/UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-04-15

    The key aspect of the ocean circulation off Peru-Chile is the wind-driven upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters that promote a rich marine ecosystem. It has been suggested that global warming may be associated with an intensification of upwelling-favorable winds. However, the lack of high-resolution long-term observations has been a limitation for a quantitative analysis of this process. In this study, we use a statistical downscaling method to assess the regional impact of climate change on the sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region as simulated by the global coupled general circulation model IPSL-CM4. Taking advantage of the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind product and of the NCEP reanalysis data, a statistical model based on multiple linear regressions is built for the daily mean meridional and zonal wind at 10 m for the period 2000-2008. The large-scale 10 m wind components and sea level pressure are used as regional circulation predictors. The skill of the downscaling method is assessed by comparing with the surface wind derived from the ERS satellite measurements, with in situ wind observations collected by ICOADS and through cross-validation. It is then applied to the outputs of the IPSL-CM4 model over stabilized periods of the pre-industrial, 2 x CO{sub 2} and 4 x CO{sub 2} IPCC climate scenarios. The results indicate that surface along-shore winds off central Chile (off central Peru) experience a significant intensification (weakening) during Austral winter (summer) in warmer climates. This is associated with a general decrease in intra-seasonal variability. (orig.)

  14. Organic Matter in the Surface Microlayer: Insights From a Wind Wave Channel Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Engel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface microlayer (SML is the uppermost thin layer of the ocean and influencing interactions between the air and sea, such as gas exchange, atmospheric deposition and aerosol emission. Organic matter (OM plays a key role in air-sea exchange processes, but studying how the accumulation of organic compounds in the SML relates to biological processes is impeded in the field by a changing physical environment, in particular wind speed and wave breaking. Here, we studied OM dynamics in the SML under controlled physical conditions in a large annular wind wave channel, filled with natural seawater, over a period of 26 days. Biology in both SML and bulk water was dominated by bacterioneuston and -plankton, respectively, while autotrophic biomass in the two compartments was very low. In general, SML thickness was related to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC but not to enrichment of DOC or of specific OM components in the SML. Pronounced changes in OM enrichment and molecular composition were observed in the course of the study and correlated significantly to bacterial abundance. Thereby, hydrolysable amino acids, in particular arginine, were more enriched in the SML than combined carbohydrates. Amino acid composition indicated that less degraded OM accumulated preferentially in the SML. A strong correlation was established between the amount of surfactants coverage and γ-aminobutric acid, suggesting that microbial cycling of amino acids can control physiochemical traits of the SML. Our study shows that accumulation and cycling of OM in the SML can occur independently of recent autotrophic production, indicating a widespread biogenic control of process across the air-sea exchange.

  15. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: Renewable energy; pumping water; technical optimization; ... The country already start on a mega-project of solar power production (2000 MW) ...... with a wind turbine in a standalone renewable energy system based on hydrogen.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of water solvating biomolecular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyden, Matthias

    Changes in the potential energy and entropy of water molecules hydrating biomolecular interfaces play a significant role for biomolecular solubility and association. Free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods allow calculations of free energy differences between two states from simulations. However, these methods are computationally demanding and do not provide insights into individual thermodynamic contributions, i.e. changes in the solvent energy or entropy. Here, we employ methods to spatially resolve distributions of hydration water thermodynamic properties in the vicinity of biomolecular surfaces. This allows direct insights into thermodynamic signatures of the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvent accessible sites of proteins and small molecules and comparisons to ideal model surfaces. We correlate dynamic properties of hydration water molecules, i.e. translational and rotational mobility, to their thermodynamics. The latter can be used as a guide to extract thermodynamic information from experimental measurements of site-resolved water dynamics. Further, we study energy-entropy compensations of water at different hydration sites of biomolecular surfaces. This work is supported by the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (EXC 1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  17. On the Clouds of Bubbles Formed by Breaking Wind-Waves in Deep Water, and their Role in Air -- Sea Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1982-02-01

    Clouds of small bubbles generated by wind waves breaking and producing whitecaps in deep water have been observed below the surface by using an inverted echo sounder. The bubbles are diffused down to several metres below the surface by turbulence against their natural tendency to rise. Measurements have been made at two sites, one in fresh water at Loch Ness and the other in the sea near Oban, northwest Scotland. Sonagraph records show bubble clouds of two distinct types, `columnar clouds' which appear in unstable or convective conditions when the air temperature is less than the surface water temperature, and `billow clouds' which appear in stable conditions when the air temperature exceeds that of the water. Clouds penetrate deeper as the wind speed increases, and deeper in convective conditions than in stable conditions at the same wind speed. The response to a change in wind speed occurs in a period of only a few minutes. Measurements of the acoustic scattering cross section per unit volume, Mv, of the bubbles have been made at several depths. The distributions of Mv at constant depth are close to logarithmic normal. The time-averaged value of Mv, {M}v, decreases exponentially with depth over scales of 40-85 cm (winds up to 12 m s-1),, the scale increasing as the wind increases. Values of {M}v at the same depth and at the same wind speed are greater in the sea than in the fresh-water loch, even at smaller fetches. Estimates have been made of the least mean vertical speed at which bubbles must be advected for them to reach the observed depths. Several centimetres per second are needed, the speeds increasing with wind. Results depend on the conditions at the surfaces of the bubbles, that is whether they are covered by a surface active-film. The presence of oxygen (or gases other than nitrogen) in the gas composing the bubbles appears not to be important in determining their general behaviour. The presence of turbulence in the water also appears unlikely to affect

  18. Surface-Water Data, Georgia, Water Year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, S. Jack; Landers, Mark N.; McCallum, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1999 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in one volume in a digital format on a CD-ROM. This volume contains discharge records of 121 gaging stations; stage for 13 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water quality records for 10 stations; and the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 75 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Records of discharge and stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological water-supply papers entitled, 'Surface-Water Supply of the United States.' Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were in an annual series and then in a 5-year series for 1961-65 and 1966-70. Records of chemical quality, water temperature, and suspended sediment were published from 1941 to 1970 in an annual series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Quality of Surface Waters of the United States.' Records of ground-water levels were published from 1935 to 1974 in a series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Ground-Water Levels in the United States.' Water-supply papers may be consulted in the libraries of the principal cities in the United States or may be purchased from the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Services, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225. For water years 1961 through 1970, streamflow data were released by the U.S. Geological Survey in annual reports on a State-boundary basis prior to the two 5-year series water-supply papers, which cover this period. The data contained in the water-supply papers are considered the official record. Water-quality records for water years 1964 through 1970 were similarly released

  19. Near-surface wind pattern in regional climate projections over the broader Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic region is characterized by the complex coastline, strong topographic gradients and specific wind regimes. This represents excellent test area for the latest generation of the regional climate models (RCMs) applied over the European domain. The most famous wind along the Adriatic coast is bora, which due to its strength, has a strong impact on all types of human activities in the Adriatic region. The typical bora wind is a severe gusty downslope flow perpendicular to the mountains. Besides bora, in the Adriatic region, typical winds are sirocco (mostly during the wintertime) and sea/land breezes (dominantly in the warm part of the year) as a part of the regional Mediterranean wind system. Thus, it is substantial to determine future changes in the wind filed characteristics (e.g., changes in strength and frequencies). The first step was the evaluation of a suite of ten EURO- and MED-CORDEX models (at 50 km and 12.5 km resolution), and two additional high resolution models from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ, at 12.5 km and 2.2. km resolution) in the present climate. These results provided a basis for the next step where wind field features, in an ensemble of RCMs forced by global climate models (GCMs) in historical and future runs are examined. Our aim is to determine the influence of the particular combination of RCMs and GCMs, horizontal resolution and emission scenario on the future changes in the near-surface wind field. The analysis reveals strong sensitivity of the simulated wind flow and its statistics to both season and location analyzed, to the horizontal resolution of the RCM and on the choice of the particular GCM that provides boundary conditions.

  20. Statistics of surface divergence and their relation to air-water gas transfer velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, William E.; Liang, Hanzhuang; Zappa, Christopher J.; Loewen, Mark R.; Mukto, Moniz A.; Litchendorf, Trina M.; Jessup, Andrew T.

    2012-05-01

    Air-sea gas fluxes are generally defined in terms of the air/water concentration difference of the gas and the gas transfer velocity,kL. Because it is difficult to measure kLin the ocean, it is often parameterized using more easily measured physical properties. Surface divergence theory suggests that infrared (IR) images of the water surface, which contain information concerning the movement of water very near the air-water interface, might be used to estimatekL. Therefore, a series of experiments testing whether IR imagery could provide a convenient means for estimating the surface divergence applicable to air-sea exchange were conducted in a synthetic jet array tank embedded in a wind tunnel. Gas transfer velocities were measured as a function of wind stress and mechanically generated turbulence; laser-induced fluorescence was used to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide in the top 300 μm of the water surface; IR imagery was used to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of the aqueous skin temperature; and particle image velocimetry was used to measure turbulence at a depth of 1 cm below the air-water interface. It is shown that an estimate of the surface divergence for both wind-shear driven turbulence and mechanically generated turbulence can be derived from the surface skin temperature. The estimates derived from the IR images are compared to velocity field divergences measured by the PIV and to independent estimates of the divergence made using the laser-induced fluorescence data. Divergence is shown to scale withkLvalues measured using gaseous tracers as predicted by conceptual models for both wind-driven and mechanically generated turbulence.

  1. Surface water, particulate matter, and sediments of inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG) since 1958 runs a system for monitoring the surface water and sediments of Federal German waterways in its capacity as a directing water monitoring centre. The data recorded over the years show that the radioactivity released by the various emission sources leads to radionuclide concentrations in water, particulate matter, or sediments that generally are below the detection limits defined in the relevant legal provisions governing monitoring and surveillance of nuclear facilities effluents. Representative examples of measuring methods and results (as for e.g. for H-3) are given. (DG) [de

  2. Combining the Power of Wind and Water in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, D.

    2007-07-01

    Wind varies and is impossible to store, major factors that have curbed and continue to curb the development of wind power. Hydroelectric generating stations with reservoirs, on the other hand, are quite capable of adjusting their output and can thus buffer fluctuations in consumption or in the output of other generating facilities on the grid. Combining wind power and hydropower thus involves using hydroelectric generating stations to offset the intermittent nature of wind power. The consumer, however, does not automatically reap the benefits of this complementarity. To achieve this, Quebec has implemented a 1,000-MW balancing agreement between the hydropower producer and the electricity distributor, which has signed wind power purchase agreements. The balancing agreement establishes two charges: one based on firming capacity provided by the producer and another linked to errors in the forecast of wind power generation that the distributor makes each day. This structure compensates the producer for the reduced margin of flexibility it has to engage in energy trading. (auth)

  3. Design of monopiles for multi-megawatt wind turbines at 50 m water depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njomo Wandji, Wilfried; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2015-01-01

    The design of a monopile substructure for wind turbines of 10 MW capacity installed at 50 m water depth is presented. The design process starts with the design of a monopile at a moderate water depth of 26 m and is then up scaled to a 50 m water depth. The baseline geometry is then modified...

  4. Climatic variability and trends in the surface waters of coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Multi-decadal records of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) collected at a set of lighthouse stations are used to examine climatic variability and trends in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Particular attention is given to relations between the water property anomalies and variability in coastal freshwater discharge and alongshore wind stress. Within the Strait of Georgia, SSS anomalies are closely related to Fraser River discharge anomalies. Along the Pacific coast, anomalies in alongshore wind stress and freshwater runoff have the characteristics of white noise processes. A cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that SST and SSS variability along the open west coast is consistent with the response of a first-order autoregressive process driven by anomalous alongshore wind stress and coastal freshwater discharge, respectively. Thus climatic variability of SST and SSS along the Pacific coast of British Columbia occurs, in part, through the integration of noisy atmospheric forcing and coastal precipitation. Seasonal correlations show that SST is strongly related to wind stress during winter and fall. Conversely, SSS is relatively weakly related to the alongshore wind during spring, suggesting that variability in upwelling makes only a modest contribution to variability of SSS in the nearshore environment. Consistent with previous studies, secular trends indicate long-term warming and freshening of the coastal ocean at most stations. It is shown that long-term SST trends can be obscured by the pronounced climatic variability of these waters, requiring that time series extend for several decades to be reliably detected.

  5. Observations of the structure and evolution of surface and flight-level wind asymmetries in Hurricane Rita (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and distribution of surface winds, including the structure of azimuthal asymmetries in the wind field, are important factors for tropical cyclone forecasting. With its ability to remotely measure surface wind speeds, the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) has assumed a prominent role for the operational tropical cyclone forecasting community. An example of this instrument's utility is presented here, where concurrent measurements of aircraft flight-level and SFMR surface winds are used to document the wind field evolution over three days in Hurricane Rita (2005). The amplitude and azimuthal location (phase) of the wavenumber-1 asymmetry in the storm-relative winds varied at both levels over time. The peak was found to the right of storm track at both levels on the first day. By the third day, the peak in flight-level storm-relative winds remained to the right of storm track, but it shifted to left of storm track at the surface, resulting in a 60-degree shift between the surface and flight-level and azimuthal variations in the ratio of surface to flight-level winds. The asymmetric differences between the surface and flight-level maximum wind radii also varied, indicating a vortex whose tilt was increasing.

  6. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  7. Conceptions of Tornado Wind Speed and Land Surface Interactions among Undergraduate Students in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broeke, Matthew S.; Arthurs, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain novice conceptions of tornado wind speed and the influence of surface characteristics on tornado occurrence, 613 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory science courses at a large state university in Nebraska were surveyed. Our findings show that students lack understanding of the fundamental concepts that (1) tornadoes are…

  8. Surface Wind Regionalization over Complex Terrain: Evaluation and Analysis of a High-Resolution WRF Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, P.A.; González-Rouco, J.F.; García-Bustamante, E.; Navarro, J.; Montávez, J.P.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Dudhia, J.; Muñoz-Roldan, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the daily-mean surface wind variability over an area characterized by complex topography through comparing observations and a 2-km-spatial-resolution simulation performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the period 1992–2005. The evaluation focuses on the

  9. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main non-platform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modeling

  10. Surface-water investigations at Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stanley H.

    1972-01-01

    The U.S. Public Health Service is currently developing plans for a long-term water supply and sewage treatment system for the village of Barrow, Alaska. To assist in planning, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to initiate a cooperative streamflow data-collection program with the U.S. Public Health Service in June 1972 to determine the availability of surface water and the areal distribution of runoff in the Barrow area. This basic-data report summarizes the streamflow data collected from June 1 through July 10, 1972, at three gaging stations in the Barrow area (fig. 1) and discusses the future data-collection program.

  11. WIND SPEED AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY TRENDS FOR SELECTED UNITED STATES SURFACE STATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Allen H. Weber, A

    2006-11-01

    Recently it has been suggested that global warming and a decrease in mean wind speeds over most land masses are related. Decreases in near surface wind speeds have been reported by previous investigators looking at records with time spans of 15 to 30 years. This study focuses on United States (US) surface stations that have little or no location change since the late 1940s or the 1950s--a time range of up to 58 years. Data were selected from 62 stations (24 of which had not changed location) and separated into ten groups for analysis. The group's annual averages of temperature, wind speed, and percentage of Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability categories were fitted with linear least squares regression lines. The results showed that the temperatures have increased for eight of the ten groups as expected. Wind speeds have decreased for nine of the ten groups. The mean slope of the wind speed trend lines for stations within the coterminous US was -0.77 m s{sup -1} per century. The percentage frequency of occurrence for the neutral (D) PG stability category decreased, while that for the unstable (B) and the stable (F) categories increased in almost all cases except for the group of stations located in Alaska.

  12. An experimental study of the surface elevation probability distribution and statistics of wind-generated waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the surface elevation probability density function and associated statistical properties for a wind-generated wave field. The laboratory data along with some limited field data were compared. The statistical properties of the surface elevation were processed for comparison with the results derived from the Longuet-Higgins (1963) theory. It is found that, even for the highly non-Gaussian cases, the distribution function proposed by Longuet-Higgins still gives good approximations.

  13. Transport and transformation of surface water masses across the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transport and transformation of surface water masses across the Mascarene Plateau during the Northeast Monsoon season. ... Mixing occurs in the central gap between intermediate water masses (Red Sea Water [RSW] and Antarctic Intermediate Water [AAIW]) as well as in the upper waters (Subtropical Surface Water ...

  14. Feasibility study of a wind powered water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the primary source of life for mankind and one of the most basic necessities for rural development. Most of the rural areas of Ethiopia do not have access to potable water. Is some regions of the country access potable water is available through use of manual pumping and Diesel engine. In this research, wind water pump is designed to supply drinking water for three selected rural locations in Ethiopia. The design results show that a 5.7 m diameter windmill is required for pumping water from borehole through a total head of 75, 66 and 44 m for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta to meet the daily water demand of 10, 12 and 15 m3, respectively. The simulation for performance of the selected wind pump is conducted using MATLAB software and the result showed that monthly water discharge is proportional to the monthly average wind speed at the peak monthly discharge of 685 m3 in June, 888 m3 in May and 1203 m3 in March for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta sites, respectively. An economic comparison is conducted, using life cycle cost analysis, for wind mill and Diesel water pumping systems and the results show that windmill water pumping systems are more feasible than Diesel based systems.

  15. Radiological monitoring. Controlling surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    Throughout France, surface waters (from rivers to brooks) located at the vicinity of nuclear or industrial sites, are subject to regular radiological monitoring. An example is given with the radiological monitoring of a small river near La Hague Areva's plant, where contaminations have been detected with the help of the French IRSN nuclear safety research organization. The sampling method and various measurement types are described

  16. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  17. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    This contribution will focus on combining Object Based Image Analysis (i.e. OBIA with e-Cognition 8) and recent sensors (i.e. Spot 5 XS, Pan and ALOS Prism, Avnir2, Palsar) to address the technical feasibility for an operational monitoring of surface water. Three cases of river meandering (India), flood mapping (Nepal) and dam's seasonal water level monitoring (Morocco) using recent sensors will present various application of surface water monitoring. The operational aspect will be demonstrated either by sensor properties (i.e. spatial resolution and bandwidth), data acquisition properties (i.e. multi sensor, return period and near real-time acquisition) but also with OBIA algorithms (i.e. fusion of multi sensors / multi resolution data and batch processes). In the first case of river meandering (India) we will address multi sensor and multi date satellite acquisition to monitor the river bed mobility within a floodplain using an ALOS dataset. It will demonstrate the possibility of an operational monitoring system that helps the geomorphologist in the analysis of fluvial dynamic and sediment budget for high energy rivers. In the second case of flood mapping (Nepal) we will address near real time Palsar data acquisition at high spatial resolution to monitor and to map a flood extension. This ALOS sensor takes benefit both from SAR and L band properties (i.e. atmospheric transparency, day/night acquisition, low sensibility to surface wind). It's a real achievement compared to optical imagery or even other high resolution SAR properties (i.e. acquisition swath, bandwidth and data price). These advantages meet the operational needs set by crisis management of hydrological disasters but also for the implementation of flood risk management plans. The last case of dam surface water monitoring (Morocco) will address an important issue of water resource management in countries affected by water scarcity. In such countries water users have to cope with over exploitation

  18. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  19. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft- and Satellite-Based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses and Numerical Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric; Krishnamurti, T. N.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the realtime airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath ( 3 x the aircraft altitude). The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. The H*Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data_sub/wind.html. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRAD instrument on H*Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future time the HIRAD instrument is implemented. Also shown will be preliminary results of numerical weather prediction OSSEs in which the impact of the addition of HIRAD observations to the initial state

  20. 77 FR 5002 - Wind and Water Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...), DE-FOA-0000410 including specifically the topical areas identified here: Types of demonstrations... with offshore wind turbine support structures, will not be accepted. DOE may fund specific technical... funds may also support capital expenditures within these projects for materials or equipment that are...

  1. The environmental impacts of wind and water power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twidell, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The success of a typical renewable energy project depends about 40% on technology and about 60% on institutional factors. The latter include regulations, financing and environmental impact, with many of the regulations and some financial factors themselves relating to environmental impact. This paper attempts to define and categorize aspects of environmental impact, especially regarding wind and hydro power projects. (author)

  2. Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Karimov, K.S.; Akhmedov, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

  3. Convergent surface water distributions in U.S. cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.K. Steele; J.B. Heffernan; N. Bettez; J. Cavender-Bares; P.M. Groffman; J.M. Grove; S. Hall; S.E. Hobbie; K. Larson; J.L. Morse; C. Neill; K.C. Nelson; J. O' Neil-Dunne; L. Ogden; D.E. Pataki; C. Polsky; R. Roy Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Earth's surface is rapidly urbanizing, resulting in dramatic changes in the abundance, distribution and character of surface water features in urban landscapes. However, the scope and consequences of surface water redistribution at broad spatial scales are not well understood. We hypothesized that urbanization would lead to convergent surface water abundance and...

  4. A New Instrument for Testing Wind Erosion by Soil Surface Shape Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, C.; Yuan, X.; Jiang, H.; Zhou, R.; Wang, J.; Liu, B.; Ye, Y.; Du, P.

    2010-01-01

    Wind erosion, a primary cause of soil degeneration, is a problem in arid and semiarid areas throughout the world. Many methods are available to study soil erosion, but there is no an effective method for making quantitative measurements in the field. To solve this problem, we have developed a new instrument that can measure the change in the shape of the soil surface, allowing quick quantification of wind erosion. In this paper, the construction and principle of the new instrument are described. Field experiments are carried out using the instrument, and the data are analyzed. The erosion depth is found to vary by 11% compared to the average for measurement areas ranging from 30 x 30 cm 2 to 10 x 10 cm 2 . The results show that the instrument is convenient and reliable for quantitatively measuring wind erosion in the field.

  5. On the extension of the wind profile over homogeneous terrain beyond the surface boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Brümmer, B.

    2007-01-01

    -Obukhov similarity. Above the surface layer the second length scale (L-MBL ) becomes independent of height but not of stability, and at the top of the boundary layer the third length scale is assumed to be negligible. A simple model for the combined length scale that controls the wind profile and its stability...... dependence is formulated by inverse summation. Based on these assumptions the wind profile for the entire boundary layer is derived. A parameterization of L-MBL is formulated using the geostrophic drag law, which relates friction velocity and geostrophic wind. The empirical parameterization of the resistance...... law functions A and B in the geostrophic drag law is uncertain, making it impractical. Therefore an expression for the length scale, L-MBL , for applied use is suggested, based on measurements from the two sites....

  6. An experimental study of water absorption characteristics for generator stator winding insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Bae, Y. C.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H.

    2004-01-01

    Leaking water coolant into stator electrical insulation is a growing concern for the aging water-cooled generator since leaks in the generator water-cooled stator winding can affect machine availability and insulation life. But a domestic techniques of such field are insufficient and depend wholly on GE or TOSHIBA technique. Therefore this paper introduces measuring principle and developed measuring system, which has been used to detecting wet absorption. We accomplished the experiment with a stator promotion of virtue which is used in actual power plant. Also, experimental method of generator stator winding, which is investigated into wet absorption test

  7. The aerodynamic performance of the water pumping wind turbine for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Islam, M.Q.

    2004-01-01

    In order to examine the feasibility of wind energy for water pumping in Bangladesh, an experimental investigation of performance characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines has been conducted. Wind characteristics of various regions of Bangladesh have been analysed and hence a compatible design of horizontal axis wind turbine applicable to the pump has been suggested. The wind data collected by the meteorological department of Bangladesh for a period 16 years of 20 stations at different heights between 5m and 10m have been converted to 20m hub-height using power law. From these data monthly average speeds have been calculated. It is observed that for few regions of Bangladesh, there is reasonable wind speed available throughout the year to extract useful power. Considering a particular prospective region of Bangladesh a wind turbine has been designed for water pumping. The design incorporates the generalized procedure for determination of rotor and pump sizes. Thus it can be also used for any other region as well. In this paper, a generalized design for Bangladesh, a nomogram and an empirical relation have been developed for the rotor and the pump size for a particular region of Bangladesh.(author)

  8. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  9. The thermal structure of an air–water interface at low wind speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Handler, R. A.; Smith, G. B.; Leighton, R. I.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution infrared imagery of an air–water interface at wind speeds of 1 to 4 ms−1 wasobtained. Spectral analysis of the data reveals several important features of the thermal structureof the so-called cool skin. At wind speeds for which wind waves are not generated, the interfacialboundary layer appears to be composed of buoyant plumes that are stretched by the surfaceshear as they reach the interface. The plumes appear to form overlapping laminae with ahead–tail...

  10. Water droplet evaporation from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Kim, Wuseok; Lee, Sanghee; Baek, Seunghyeon; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin

    2017-07-01

    The evaporation dynamics of water from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microresonator and an optical microscope. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers with different pore sizes were directly fabricated onto quartz crystal substrates and hydrophobized via chemical modification. The resulting AAO layers exhibited hydrophobic or superhydrophobic characteristics with strong adhesion to water due to the presence of sealed air pockets inside the nanopores. After placing a water droplet on the AAO membranes, variations in the resonance frequency and Q-factor were measured throughout the evaporation process, which were related to changes in mass and viscous damping, respectively. It was found that droplet evaporation from a sticky superhydrophobic surface followed a constant contact radius (CCR) mode in the early stage of evaporation and a combination of CCR and constant contact angle modes without a Cassie-Wenzel transition in the final stage. Furthermore, AAO membranes with larger pore sizes exhibited longer evaporation times, which were attributed to evaporative cooling at the droplet interface.

  11. Impact of the future water value on wind-reversible hydro offering strategies in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez de la Nieta, A.A.; Contreras, J.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value. • Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) is used for risk-hedging. • The offer strategies analyzed are single and separate, with and without a physical connection. • The effect of considering the future water value of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons. - Abstract: A coordinated offering strategy between a wind farm and a reversible hydro plant can reduce wind power imbalances, improving the system efficiency whilst decreasing the total imbalances. A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value FWV of the system using Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) for risk-hedging. The offer strategies analyzed are: (i) single wind-reversible hydro offer with a physical connection between wind and hydro units to store spare wind energy, and (ii) separate wind and reversible hydro offers without a physical connection between them. The effect of considering the FWV of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons: one week (168 h) and one month (720 h) using an illustrative case study. Conclusions are duly drawn from the case study to show the impact of FWV in the results.

  12. Sea surface wind perturbations over the Kashevarov Bank of the Okhotsk Sea: a satellite study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Tarkhova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind perturbations over sea surface temperature (SST cold anomalies over the Kashevarov Bank (KB of the Okhotsk Sea are analyzed using satellite (AMSR-E and QuikSCAT data during the summer-autumn period of 2006–2009. It is shown, that frequency of cases of wind speed decreasing over a cold spot in August–September reaches up to 67%. In the cold spot center SST cold anomalies reached 10.5 °C and wind speed lowered down to ~7 m s−1 relative its value on the periphery. The wind difference between a periphery and a centre of the cold spot is proportional to SST difference with the correlations 0.5 for daily satellite passes data, 0.66 for 3-day mean data and 0.9 for monthly ones. For all types of data the coefficient of proportionality consists of ~0.3 m s−1 on 1 °C.

  13. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Shitao [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  14. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  15. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  16. Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Water Surface in Building Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyao; Pan, Yuqing; Yang, Li

    2018-03-01

    Water body could affect the thermal environment and airflow field in the building districts, because of its special thermal characteristics, evaporation and flat surface. The thermal influence of water body in Tongji University Jiading Campus front area was evaluated. First, a suitable evaporation model was selected and then was applied to calculate the boundary conditions of the water surface in the Fluent software. Next, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted on the models both with and without water, following the CFD practices guidelines. Finally, the outputs of the two simulations were compared with each other. Results showed that the effect of evaporative cooling from water surface strongly depends on the wind direction and temperature decrease was about 2∼5°C. The relative humidity within the enclosing area was affected by both the building arrangement and surrounding water. An increase of about 0.1∼0.2m/s of wind speed induced by the water evaporation was observed in the open space.

  17. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  18. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    concentrations and bacteriological content. Evaluation of the results ... and Aninri local government areas of Enugu state. Surface water ... surface water bodies are prone to impacts from ... Coal Measures (Akamigbo, 1987). The geologic map ...

  19. Design Preliminaries for Direct Drive under Water Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preliminary design process of a 20 MW electric generator. The application calls for an offshore, vertical axis, direct drive wind turbine. Arguments for selecting the type of electric machine for the application are presented and discussed. Comparison criteria for deciding...... on a type of machine are listed. Additional constraints emerging from the direct drive, vertical axis concepts are considered. General rules and a preliminary algorithm are discussed for the machine selected to be most suitable for the imposed conditions....

  20. Mathematical aspects of surface water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Walter; Wayne, Clarence E

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the motion of a free surface over a body of water is a fascinating subject, with a long history in both applied and pure mathematical research, and with a continuing relevance to the enterprises of mankind having to do with the sea. Despite the recent advances in the field (some of which we will hear about during this Workshop on Mathematical Hydrodynamics at the Steklov Institute), and the current focus of the mathematical community on the topic, many fundamental mathematical questions remain. These have to do with the evolution of surface water waves, their approximation by model equations and by computer simulations, the detailed dynamics of wave interactions, such as would produce rogue waves in an open ocean, and the theory (partially probabilistic) of approximating wave fields over large regions by averaged 'macroscopic' quantities which satisfy essentially kinetic equations of motion. In this note we would like to point out open problems and some of the directions of current research in the field. We believe that the introduction of new analytical techniques and novel points of view will play an important role in the future development of the area.

  1. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. An Initial Assessment of the Impact of CYGNSS Ocean Surface Wind Assimilation on Navy Global and Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, N. L.; Tsu, J.; Swadley, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    We assess the impact of assimilation of CYclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) ocean surface winds observations into the NAVGEM[i] global and COAMPS®[ii] mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems. Both NAVGEM and COAMPS® used the NRL 4DVar assimilation system NAVDAS-AR[iii]. Long term monitoring of the NAVGEM Forecast Sensitivity Observation Impact (FSOI) indicates that the forecast error reduction for ocean surface wind vectors (ASCAT and WindSat) are significantly larger than for SSMIS wind speed observations. These differences are larger than can be explained by simply two pieces of information (for wind vectors) versus one (wind speed). To help understand these results, we conducted a series of Observing System Experiments (OSEs) to compare the assimilation of ASCAT wind vectors with the equivalent (computed) ASCAT wind speed observations. We found that wind vector assimilation was typically 3 times more effective at reducing the NAVGEM forecast error, with a higher percentage of beneficial observations. These results suggested that 4DVar, in the absence of an additional nonlinear outer loop, has limited ability to modify the analysis wind direction. We examined several strategies for assimilating CYGNSS ocean surface wind speed observations. In the first approach, we assimilated CYGNSS as wind speed observations, following the same methodology used for SSMIS winds. The next two approaches converted CYGNSS wind speed to wind vectors, using NAVGEM sea level pressure fields (following Holton, 1979), and using NAVGEM 10-m wind fields with the AER Variational Analysis Method. Finally, we compared these methods to CYGNSS wind speed assimilation using multiple outer loops with NAVGEM Hybrid 4DVar. Results support the earlier studies suggesting that NAVDAS-AR wind speed assimilation is sub-optimal. We present detailed results from multi-month NAVGEM assimilation runs along with case studies using COAMPS®. Comparisons include the fit of

  3. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  4. A wind tunnel study of flows over idealised urban surfaces with roughness sublayer corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Dynamics in the roughness (RSLs) and inertial (ISLs) sublayers in the turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over idealised urban surfaces are investigated analytically and experimentally. In this paper, we derive an analytical solution to the mean velocity profile, which is a continuous function applicable to both RSL and ISL, over rough surfaces in isothermal conditions. Afterwards, a modified mixing-length model for RSL/ISL transport is developed that elucidates how surface roughness affects the turbulence motions. A series of wind tunnel experiments are conducted to measure the vertical profiles of mean and fluctuating velocities, together with momentum flux over various configurations of surface-mounted ribs in cross flows using hot-wire anemometry (HWA). The analytical solution agrees well with the wind tunnel result that improves the estimate to mean velocity profile over urban surfaces and TBL dynamics as well. The thicknesses of RSL and ISL are calculated by monitoring the convergence/divergence between the temporally averaged and spatio-temporally averaged profiles of momentum flux. It is found that the height of RSL/ISL interface is a function of surface roughness. Examining the direct, physical influence of roughness elements on near-surface RSL flows reveals that the TBL flows over rough surfaces exhibit turbulence motions of two different length scales which are functions of the RSL and ISL structure. Conclusively, given a TBL, the rougher the surface, the higher is the RSL intruding upward that would thinner the ISL up to 50 %. Therefore, the conventional ISL log-law approximation to TBL flows over urban surfaces should be applied with caution.

  5. Shale gas, wind and water: assessing the potential cumulative impacts of energy development on ecosystem services within the Marcellus play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeffrey S; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Global demand for energy has increased by more than 50 percent in the last half-century, and a similar increase is projected by 2030. This demand will increasingly be met with alternative and unconventional energy sources. Development of these resources causes disturbances that strongly impact terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The Marcellus Shale gas play covers more than 160,934 km(2) in an area that provides drinking water for over 22 million people in several of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g. New York City, Washington DC, Philadelphia & Pittsburgh). Here we created probability surfaces representing development potential of wind and shale gas for portions of six states in the Central Appalachians. We used these predictions and published projections to model future energy build-out scenarios to quantify future potential impacts on surface drinking water. Our analysis predicts up to 106,004 new wells and 10,798 new wind turbines resulting up to 535,023 ha of impervious surface (3% of the study area) and upwards of 447,134 ha of impacted forest (2% of the study area). In light of this new energy future, mitigating the impacts of energy development will be one of the major challenges in the coming decades.

  6. Wind vs Water in Hurricanes: The Challenge of Multi-peril Hazard Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the advancing threat of Sea Level Rise much of the U. S. is in danger of falling into the "protection gap". Residential property flood risk is not yet covered by the insurance market. Many coastal properties are not paying into the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) at premiums commensurate with the risk. This is exasperated by the program being deep in debt, despite only covering a fraction of the potential loss, while windstorm insurance covers up to replacement value. This results in a battle that benefits nobody. Any significant hurricane will include both wind and storm surge perils at the same time and any coastal property has to contend with the risk of damage by both. If you have extensive flood damage your wind storm policy might deny your claim and your flood policy (if you even have one) will in most cases be constrained to a $250,000 limit. Bring on the litigators! Some homeowners will claim that the wind destroyed the home first and then it was carried away by flood waters or pulverized by waves. Insurers might respond that the storm surge did all the damage and deny the claim. We've seen this already following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008, with thousands of litigation claims and a cottage industry of scientists serving as expert witnesses on both sides of the aisle. Congress responded in 2012 with the Coastal Act, which provided an "unfunded mandate" directing NOAA to provide wind and water level data to FEMA for input to their "Coastal Formula" for attributing loss to wind and water. The results of the formula would then limit the amount paid by the NFIP by subtracting out the wind loss portion. The Texas Windstorm Insurance Association (TWIA) went further by assembling a panel of experts to recommend guidelines for how the state should respond to future hurricane impacting properties on the Texas coast. The expert panel report was released in April of 2016, and TWIA is currently developing a comprehensive

  7. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  8. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface water; groundwater; stable isotopes; water quality; Second Songhua River basin. .... The total dissolved solid (TDS) was calculated by the con- centrations of major ions in ...... evaluating water quality management effectiveness; J.

  9. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH

  10. Horns Rev offshore wind power farm. Environmental impact assessment on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Per

    2000-05-01

    As part of an overall Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken in connection with a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, an assessment was made of the effects the wind farm would have on the water quality in the area. This EIA study was drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication 'Guidelines for the preparation of EIA studies for offshore wind farms'. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. Only local and minor changes are anticipated in connection with the currents, sediments and wave conditions during the production phase. These will occur in the immediate vicinity of the individual foundations. For these reasons, no changes are expected in the water quality. This also includes also the pelagic primary production and the occurrence of plankton in the area. Increased local copper contamination of phytoplankton and zooplankton may be expected during the production phase, as a result of the total annual discharge of 206 kg copper from the slip-rings in the wind turbines. The contamination will potentially result in a local reduction of the pelagic primary production and changes in the species composition of the plankton. The wind turbines will be sandblasted and painted once during their lifetime, as part of the routine maintenance. The sandblasting and painting will lead to a temporary spill of paint, paint waste and sand. The impacts on water quality and plankton production are unknown. It is recommended that factors such as the toxicity of the paint be investigated, and that spills and the impact of waste be reduced as much as possible. The water quality and the plankton in the wind farm area and along the cable line's passage to shore through the international protected area, will only be affected in a minor way

  11. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  12. Potentially hazardous substances in surface waters. II. Cholinesterase inhibitors in Dutch surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, P.A.; Freudenthal, J.; Wit, S.L.

    1972-01-01

    Several analytical methods were employed to determine the concentrations of cholinesterase inhibitors in several Dutch surface waters. An Auto-Analyzer method was used for screening purposes; thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for identification and

  13. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the Sentinel-1 satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of high resolution sea surface winds data produced from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites. This...

  14. Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin

    2016-06-01

    The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North Atlantic SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North Atlantic. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual period, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North Atlantic Ocean surface. Notably, the North Atlantic Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North Atlantic SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.

  15. Protection of surface assets on Mars from wind blown jettisoned spacecraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Jettisoned Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) hardware from landing spacecraft have been observed by orbiting spacecraft, strewn over the Martian surface. Future Mars missions that land spacecraft close to prelanded assets will have to use a landing architecture that somehow minimises the possibility of impacts from these jettisoned EDLS components. Computer modelling is used here to investigate the influence of wind speed and direction on the distribution of EDLS components on the surface. Typical wind speeds encountered in the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) were found to be of sufficient strength to blow items having a low ballistic coefficient, i.e. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) or parachutes, onto prelanded assets even when the lander itself touches down several kilometres away. Employing meteorological measurements and careful characterisation of the Martian PBL, e.g. appropriate wind speed probability density functions, may then benefit future spacecraft landings, increase safety and possibly help reduce the delta v budget for Mars landers that rely on aerodynamic decelerators.

  16. A New Small Drifter for Shallow Water Basins: Application to the Study of Surface Currents in the Muggia Bay (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Nasello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new small drifter prototype for measuring current immediately below the free surface in a water basin is proposed in this paper. The drifter dimensions make it useful for shallow water applications. The drifter transmits its GPS location via GSM phone network. The drifter was used to study the trajectory of the surface current in the Muggia bay, the latter containing the industrial harbor of the city of Trieste (Italy. The analysis has been carried out under a wide variety of wind conditions. As regards the behavior of the drifter, the analysis has shown that it is well suited to detect the water current since its motion is marginally affected by the wind. The study has allowed detecting the main features of the surface circulation within the Muggia bay under different meteorological conditions. Also, the study has shown that the trajectory of the surface current within the bay is weakly affected by the Coriolis force.

  17. Interaction between water and wind as a driver of passive dispersal in mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Van der Stocken

    Full Text Available Although knowledge on dispersal patterns is essential for predicting long-term population dynamics, critical information on the modalities of passive dispersal and potential interactions between vectors is often missing. Here, we use mangrove propagules with a wide variety of morphologies to investigate the interaction between water and wind as a driver of passive dispersal. We imposed 16 combinations of wind and hydrodynamic conditions in a flume tank, using propagules of six important mangrove species (and genera, resulting in a set of dispersal morphologies that covers most variation present in mangrove propagules worldwide. Additionally, we discussed the broader implications of the outcome of this flume study on the potential of long distance dispersal for mangrove propagules in nature, applying a conceptual model to a natural mangrove system in Gazi Bay (Kenya. Overall, the effect of wind on dispersal depended on propagule density (g l(-1. The low-density Heritiera littoralis propagules were most affected by wind, while the high-density vertically floating propagules of Ceriops tagal and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza were least affected. Avicennia marina, and horizontally floating Rhizophora mucronata and C. tagal propagules behaved similarly. Morphological propagule traits, such as the dorsal sail of H. littoralis, explained another part of the interspecific differences. Within species, differences in dispersal velocities can be explained by differences in density and for H. littoralis also by variations in the shape of the dorsal sail. Our conceptual model illustrates that different propagule types have a different likelihood of reaching the open ocean depending on prevailing water and wind currents. Results suggest that in open water, propagule traits (density, morphology, and floating orientation appear to determine the effect of water and wind currents on dispersal dynamics. This has important implications for inter- and intraspecific

  18. Spar-Type Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines in Moderate Water Depth: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Rui Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of floating vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs in deep water have been proposed and studied by several researchers recently. However, the feasibility of deploying a floating VAWT at a moderate water depth has not yet been studied. In this paper, this feasibility is thoroughly addressed by comparing the dynamic responses of spar-type VAWTs in deep water and moderate water depth. A short spar VAWT supporting a 5 MW Darrieus rotor at moderate water depth is proposed by following the deep spar concept in deep water. A fully coupled simulation tool, SIMO-RIFLEX-DMS code, is utilized to carry out time domain simulations under turbulent wind and irregular waves. Dynamic responses of the short spar and deep spar VAWTs are analyzed and compared, including the natural periods, wind turbine performance, platform motions, tower base bending moments, and tension of mooring lines. The statistical characteristics of the thrust and power production for both spars are similar. The comparison of platform motions and tower base bending moments demonstrate a good agreement for both spars, but the short spar has better performance in surge/sway motions and side–side bending moments. The 2P response dominates the bending moment spectra for both spars. A significant variation in tension of Mooring Line 1 and a larger corresponding spectrum value are found in the short spar concept. The results indicate that the application of short spar VAWTs is feasible and could become an alternative concept at moderate water depth.

  19. In situ biodenitrification of nitrate surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.C.; Ballew, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project has successfully operated a full-scale in situ biodenitrification system to treat water with elevated nitrate levels in abandoned raffinate pits. Bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to support its full-scale design and application. Bench testing evaluated variables that would influence development of an active denitrifying biological culture. The variables were carbon source, phosphate source, presence and absence of raffinate sludge, addition of a commercially available denitrifying microbial culture, and the use of a microbial growth medium. Nitrate levels were reduced from 750 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 10 mg/L NO 3 -N within 17 days. Pilot testing simulated the full-scale process to determine if nitrate levels could be reduced to less than 10 mg/L NO 3 -N when high levels are present below the sludge surface. Four separate test systems were examined along with two control systems. Nitrates were reduced from 1,200 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 2 mg/L NO 3 -N within 21 days. Full-scale operation has been initiated to denitrify 900,000-gal batches alternating between two 1-acre ponds. The process used commercially available calcium acetate solution and monosodium/disodium phosphate solution as a nutrient source for indigenous microorganisms to convert nitrates to molecular nitrogen and water

  20. Wind Systems for Pumping Water: A Training Manual. No. T-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, Willis

    This document was prepared as a training manual for people interested in developing appropriate technological approaches to using wind power to pump water. The training program is divided into two basic formats, one in which a session focuses on the design process and participants are expected to do some design work in groups, and another which…

  1. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an optimization method for a hybrid (wind-solar) autonomous system designed for pumping water. This method is based on mathematical models demonstrated for the analysis and control of the performance of the various components of the hybrid system. These models provide an estimate of ...

  2. The Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Inflow: An Evaluation of Multiple Land Surface Models in WRF for the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, Sonia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osuna, Jessica [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biraud, Sebastien [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM) on the near-surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil-plant-atmosphere feedbacks for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility in Oklahoma. Surface-flux and wind-profile measurements were available for validation. The WRF model was run for three two-week periods during which varying canopy and meteorological conditions existed. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy-flux and wind-shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil-plant-atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear also were sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to the accuracy of energy flux data. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high, suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in the WRF model remains a significant source of uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  3. Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wharton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma, USA. Surface flux and wind profile measurements were available for validation. WRF was run for three, two-week periods covering varying canopy and meteorological conditions. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy flux and wind shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear were also sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to energy flux accuracy. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in WRF remains a large source of model uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  4. Effect of water depth on wind-wave frequency spectrum I. Spectral form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sheng-Chang; Guan, Chang-Long; Sun, Shi-Cai; Wu, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Da-Cuo

    1996-06-01

    Wen et al's method developed to obtain wind-wave frequency spectrum in deep water was used to derive the spectrum in finite depth water. The spectrum S(ω) (ω being angular frequency) when normalized with the zeroth moment m 0 and peak frequency {ie97-1}, contains in addition to the peakness factor {ie97-2} a depth parameter η=(2π m o)1/2/ d ( d being water depth), so the spectrum behavior can be studied for different wave growth stages and water depths.

  5. Residence time of contaminants released in surface coal mines -- a wind-tunnel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Surface coal mining operations (blasting, shoveling, loading, trucking, etc.) are sources of airborne particles. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the EPA to analyze the accuracy of the Industrial Source Complex model and the AP-42 emission factors, and to make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-prediction of air concentration of fugitive particles from surface coal mines. A wind-tunnel study was performed at the US EPA`s Fluid Modeling Facility to investigate dispersion from surface coal mines in support of the dispersion modeling activities. Described here is the portion of the study directed at determining the residence time that material released near the floor of a mine will stay within the mine.

  6. Probability function of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated waves of ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wave breaking on the probability function of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by wave breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original wave elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density function zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of wave breaking on the probability density function of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density function, a phenomenon also observed in wind wave tank experiments.

  7. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong

    2017-06-23

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) to elucidate their roles on water mass collection efficiency. The experimental results indicate that a hydrophilic surface promotes nucleation and individual droplets growth, and a surface with a low CAH tends to let a smaller droplet to slide down, but the overall water mass collection efficiency is independent of both surface contact angle and CAH. The experimental results agree well with our theoretical calculations. During water condensation, a balance has to be struck between single droplet growth and droplet density on a surface so as to maintain a constant water droplet surface coverage ratio, which renders the role of both surface wettability and hysteresis insignificant to the ultimate water mass collection. Moreover, water droplets on the edges of a surface grow much faster than those on the non-edge areas and thus dominate the contribution to the water mass collection by the entire surface, directly pointing out the very important role of edge effect on water condensation and collection.

  8. Characterisation of the inorganic chemistry of surface waters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to determine a simple inorganic chemistry index that can be used for all surface waters in South Africa, in order to characterise the inorganic chemistry of surface waters. Water quality data collected up until 1999 from all sample monitoring stations (2 068 monitoring stations, 364 659 ...

  9. Numerical Buckling Analysis of Large Suction Caissons for Wind Turbines on Deep Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Using large suction caissons for offshore wind turbines is an upcoming cost-effective technology also referred to as bucket foundations. During operation, the monopod bucket foundation is loaded by a large overturning moment from the wind turbine and the wave loads. However, during installation...... the suction caisson is loaded by external pressure (internal suction) due to evacuation of water inside the bucket and vertical forces due to gravity. The risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter suction caissons is addressed using numerical methods. Initial imperfect geometries...

  10. Dependence of Lunar Surface Charging on Solar Wind Plasma Conditions and Solar Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Burchill, J. K.; Collier, M. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Vondrak, R. R.; Delory, G. T.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of the Moon is electrically charged by exposure to solar radiation on its dayside, as well as by the continuous flux of charged particles from the various plasma environments that surround it. An electric potential develops between the lunar surface and ambient plasma, which manifests itself in a near-surface plasma sheath with a scale height of order the Debye length. This study investigates surface charging on the lunar dayside and near-terminator regions in the solar wind, for which the dominant current sources are usually from the pohotoemission of electrons, J(sub p), and the collection of plasma electrons J(sub e) and ions J(sub i). These currents are dependent on the following six parameters: plasma concentration n(sub 0), electron temperature T(sub e), ion temperature T(sub i), bulk flow velocity V, photoemission current at normal incidence J(sub P0), and photo electron temperature T(sub p). Using a numerical model, derived from a set of eleven basic assumptions, the influence of these six parameters on surface charging - characterized by the equilibrium surface potential, Debye length, and surface electric field - is investigated as a function of solar zenith angle. Overall, T(sub e) is the most important parameter, especially near the terminator, while J(sub P0) and T(sub p) dominate over most of the dayside.

  11. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ingo; Xie, Shang-Ping; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role.

  12. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Wittenberg, Andrew T. [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Masumoto, Yukio [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role. (orig.)

  13. Thermophoretically driven water droplets on graphene and boron nitride surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajegowda, Rakesh; Kannam, Sridhar Kumar; Hartkamp, Remco; Sathian, Sarith P.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate thermally driven water droplet transport on graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) surfaces using molecular dynamics simulations. The two surfaces considered here have different wettabilities with a significant difference in the mode of droplet transport. The water droplet travels along a straighter path on the h-BN sheet than on graphene. The h-BN surface produced a higher driving force on the droplet than the graphene surface. The water droplet is found to move faster on h-BN surface compared to graphene surface. The instantaneous contact angle was monitored as a measure of droplet deformation during thermal transport. The characteristics of the droplet motion on both surfaces is determined through the moment scaling spectrum. The water droplet on h-BN surface showed the attributes of the super-diffusive process, whereas it was sub-diffusive on the graphene surface.

  14. The Carbon Dioxide System in the Baltic Sea Surface Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesslander, Karin

    2011-05-15

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere is steadily increasing because of human activities such as fossil fuel burning. To understand how this is affecting the planet, several pieces of knowledge of the CO{sub 2} system have to be investigated. One piece is how the coastal seas, which are used by people and influenced by industrialization, are functioning. In this thesis, the CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea surface water has been investigated using observations from the last century to the present. The Baltic Sea is characterized of a restricted water exchange with the open ocean and a large inflow of river water. The CO{sub 2} system, including parameters such as pH and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), has large seasonal and inter-annual variability in the Baltic Sea. These parameters are affected by several processes, such as air-sea gas exchange, physical mixing, and biological processes. Inorganic carbon is assimilated in the primary production and pCO{sub 2} declines to approx150 muatm in summer. In winter, pCO{sub 2} levels increase because of prevailing mineralization and mixing processes. The wind-mixed surface layer deepens to the halocline (approx60 m) and brings CO{sub 2}- enriched water to the surface. Winter pCO{sub 2} may be as high as 600 muatm in the surface water. The CO{sub 2} system is also exposed to short-term variations caused by the daily biological cycle and physical events such as upwelling. A cruise was made in the central Baltic Sea to make synoptic measurements of oceanographic, chemical, and meteorological parameters with high temporal resolution. Large short-term variations were found in pCO{sub 2} and oxygen (O{sub 2}), which were highly correlated. The diurnal variation of pCO{sub 2} was up to 40 muatm. The CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea changed as the industrialization increased around 1950, which was demonstrated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the CO{sub 2} system

  15. Estimating a relationship between aerosol optical thickness and surface wind speed over the ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Glantz , P.; Nilsson , D. E.; Von Hoyningen-Huene , W.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Retrieved aerosol optical thickness (AOT) based on data obtained by the Sea viewing Wide Field Sensor (SeaWiFS) is combined with surface wind speed, obtained at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWFs), over the North Pacific for September 2001. In this study a cloud screening approach is introduced in an attempt to exclude pixels partly or fully covered by clouds. The relatively broad swath width for which the nadir looking SeaWiFS instrument sc...

  16. Simulating damage for wind storms in the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Gardiner, Barry; Pasztor, Ferenc; Blennow, Kristina; Ryder, James; Valade, Aude; Naudts, Kim; Otto, Juliane; McGrath, Matthew J.; Planque, Carole; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2018-03-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) are currently the most advanced tools with which to study the interactions among humans, ecosystem productivity, and the climate. The inclusion of storm damage in ESMs has long been hampered by their big-leaf approach, which ignores the canopy structure information that is required for process-based wind-throw modelling. Recently the big-leaf assumptions in the large-scale land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN were replaced by a three-dimensional description of the canopy structure. This opened the way to the integration of the processes from the small-scale wind damage risk model ForestGALES into ORCHIDEE-CAN. The integration of ForestGALES into ORCHIDEE-CAN required, however, developing numerically efficient solutions to deal with (1) landscape heterogeneity, i.e. account for newly established forest edges for the parameterization of gusts; (2) downscaling spatially and temporally aggregated wind fields to obtain more realistic wind speeds that would represents gusts; and (3) downscaling storm damage within the 2500 km2 pixels of ORCHIDEE-CAN. This new version of ORCHIDEE-CAN was parameterized over Sweden. Subsequently, the performance of the model was tested against data for historical storms in southern Sweden between 1951 and 2010 and south-western France in 2009. In years without big storms, here defined as a storm damaging less than 15 × 106 m3 of wood in Sweden, the model error is 1.62 × 106 m3, which is about 100 % of the observed damage. For years with big storms, such as Gudrun in 2005, the model error increased to 5.05 × 106 m3, which is between 10 and 50 % of the observed damage. When the same model parameters were used over France, the model reproduced a decrease in leaf area index and an increase in albedo, in accordance with SPOT-VGT and MODIS records following the passing of Cyclone Klaus in 2009. The current version of ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262) is therefore expected to have the capability to capture the dynamics of

  17. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft- and Satellite-based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on Estimates of Hurricane Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhorn, Eric; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Buckley, Courtney; Chen, Shuyi; El-Nimri, Salem; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor currently under development to enhance real-time hurricane ocean surface wind observations. HIRAD builds on the capabilities of the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which now operates on NOAA P-3, G-4, and AFRC C-130 aircraft. Unlike the SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 times the aircraft altitude). To demonstrate potential improvement in the measurement of peak hurricane winds, we present a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing platforms (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a high-resolution (approximately 1.7 km) numerical model. Simulated retrieval errors due to both instrument noise as well as model function accuracy are considered over the expected range of incidence angles, wind speeds and rain rates. Based on numerous simulated flight patterns and data source combinations, statistics are developed to describe relationships between the observed and true (from the model s perspective) peak wind speed. These results have implications for improving the estimation of hurricane intensity (as defined by the peak sustained wind anywhere in the storm), which may often go un-observed due to sampling limitations.

  18. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vione, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter pollutants to be assessed and modelled. For instance, it is possible to predict pollutant half-life times by knowing absorption spectrum, direct photolysis quantum yield and reaction rate constants with °OH, CO3

  19. Estimating the maritime component of aerosol optical depth and its dependency on surface wind speed using satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lehahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Six years (2003–2008 of satellite measurements of aerosol parameters from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and surface wind speeds from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, are used to provide a comprehensive perspective on the link between surface wind speed and marine aerosol optical depth over tropical and subtropical oceanic regions. A systematic comparison between the satellite derived fields in these regions allows to: (i separate the relative contribution of wind-induced marine aerosol to the aerosol optical depth; (ii extract an empirical linear equation linking coarse marine aerosol optical depth and wind intensity; and (iii identify a time scale for correlating marine aerosol optical depth and surface wind speed. The contribution of wind induced marine aerosol to aerosol optical depth is found to be dominated by the coarse mode elements. When wind intensity exceeds 4 m/s, coarse marine aerosol optical depth is linearly correlated with the surface wind speed, with a remarkably consistent slope of 0.009±0.002 s/m. A detailed time scale analysis shows that the linear correlation between the fields is well kept within a 12 h time frame, while sharply decreasing when the time lag between measurements is longer. The background aerosol optical depth, associated with aerosols that are not produced in-situ through wind driven processes, can be used for estimating the contributions of terrestrial and biogenic marine aerosol to over-ocean satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth.

  20. The effect of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island property sales price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Susan Shim

    This dissertation uses the hedonic pricing model to study the impact of lake water quality and wind turbines on Rhode Island house sales prices. The first two manuscripts are on lake water quality and use RI house sales transactions from 1988--2012. The third studies wind turbines using RI house sales transactions from 2000--2013. The first study shows that good lake water quality increases lakefront property price premium. It also shows that environmental amenities, such as forests, substitute for lake amenity as the property's distance from the lake increases. The second lake water quality study incorporates time variables to examine how environmental amenity values change over time. The results show that property price premium associated with good lake water quality does not change as it is constant in proportion to housing prices with short term economic fluctuations. The third study shows that wind turbines have a negative and significant impact on housing prices. However, this is highly location specific and varies with neighborhood demographics. All three studies have policy implications which are discussed in detail in the manuscripts below.

  1. GHRSST Level 3U Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer on the Coriolis satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer, launched on January 6, 2003 aboard the Department of Defense Coriolis satellite, was designed to measure the ocean surface wind...

  2. Evolution of offshore wind waves tracked by surface drifters with a point-positioning GPS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, momentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious disasters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal regions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and direction sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by the

  3. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  4. Emissivity Measurements of Foam-Covered Water Surface at L-Band for Low Water Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Bo Wei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a foam-covered sea surface, it is difficult to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS with L-band brightness temperature (1.4 GHz because of the effect of a foam layer with wind speeds stronger than 7 m/s, especially at low sea surface temperature (SST. With foam-controlled experiments, emissivities of a foam-covered water surface at low SST (−1.4 °C to 1.7 °C are measured for varying SSS, foam thickness, incidence angle, and polarization. Furthermore, a theoretical model of emissivity is introduced by combining wave approach theory with the effective medium approximation method. Good agreement is obtained upon comparing theoretical emissivities with those of experiments. The results indicate that foam parameters have a strong influence on increasing emissivity of a foam-covered water surface. Increments of experimental emissivities caused by foam thickness of 1 cm increase from about 0.014 to 0.131 for horizontal polarization and 0.022 to 0.150 for vertical polarization with SSS increase and SST decrease. Contributions of the interface between the foam layer and water surface to the foam layer emissivity increments are discussed for frequencies between 1 and 37 GHz.

  5. Distribution of {sup 129}I in terrestrial surface water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuegao [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Meng [College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Yi, Peng, E-mail: pengyi1915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Aldahan, Ala [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Yu, Zhongbo [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Possnert, Göran [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Li [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. {sup 129}I level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of {sup 129}I appear around 50°N and 40°S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of {sup 129}I from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on {sup 129}I distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  6. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisin, E A; Tarakanov, V P; Petrov, O F; Popel, S I

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered. (paper)

  7. Reminiscences on the study of wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MITSUYASU, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The wind blowing over sea surface generates tiny wind waves. They develop with time and space absorbing wind energy, and become huge wind waves usually referred to ocean surface waves. The wind waves cause not only serious sea disasters but also take important roles in the local and global climate changes by affecting the fluxes of momentum, heat and gases (e.g. CO2) through the air-sea boundary. The present paper reviews the selected studies on wind waves conducted by our group in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University. The themes discussed are interactions between water waves and winds, the energy spectrum of wind waves, nonlinear properties of wind waves, and the effects of surfactant on some air-sea interaction phenomena. PMID:25864467

  8. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... and trailing edge noise, recognized to be the two main sources of noise from wind turbines, this work contributes to a more detailed insight into noise from wind turbines. The study comprises analysis and interpretation of measurement data that were acquired during an experimental campaign involving a 2 MW...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush...

  9. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, William Jowett [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind`s interactions with a building`s superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport.

  10. Anomalous Arctic surface wind patterns and their impacts on September sea ice minima and trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyi Wu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used monthly mean surface wind data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Centers for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset during the period 1979–2010 to describe the first two patterns of Arctic surface wind variability by means of the complex vector empirical orthogonal function (CVEOF analysis. The first two patterns respectively account for 31 and 16% of its total anomalous kinetic energy. The leading pattern consists of the two subpatterns: the northern Laptev Sea (NLS pattern and the Arctic dipole (AD pattern. The second pattern contains the northern Kara Sea (NKS pattern and the central Arctic (CA pattern. Over the past two decades, the combined dynamical forcing of the first two patterns has contributed to Arctic September sea ice extent (SIE minima and its declining trend. September SIE minima are mainly associated with the negative phase of the AD pattern and the positive phase of the CA pattern during the summer (July to September season, and both phases coherently show an anomalous anticyclone over the Arctic Ocean. Wind patterns affect September SIE through their frequency and intensity. The negative trend in September SIE over the past two decades is associated with increased frequency and enhanced intensity of the CA pattern during the melting season from April to September. Thus, it cannot be simply attributed to the AD anomaly characterised by the second empirical orthogonal function mode of sea level pressure north of 70°N. The CA pattern exhibited interdecadal variability in the late 1990s, and an anomalous cyclone prevailed before 1997 and was then replaced by an anomalous anticyclone over the Arctic Ocean that is consistent with the rapid decline trend in September SIE. This paper provides an alternative way to identify the dominant patterns of climate variability and investigate their associated Arctic sea ice variability from a dynamical perspective. Indeed, this study

  11. Variability in chemistry of surface and soil waters of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water chemistry is important for the maintenance of wetland structure and function. Interpreting ecological patterns in a wetland system therefore requires an in-depth understanding of the water chemistry of that system. We investigated the spatial distribution of chemical solutes both in soil pore water and surface water, ...

  12. Short Communication: Conductivity as an indicator of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various water- soluble species are present in FeCr waste materials and in process water. Considering the size of the South African FeCr industry and its global importance, it is essential to assess the extent of potential surface water pollution in the proximity of FeCr smelters by such watersoluble species. In this study water ...

  13. The Role of Hierarchy in Response Surface Modeling of Wind Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a tutorial introduction to certain aspects of response surface modeling, for the experimentalist who has started to explore these methods as a means of improving productivity and quality in wind tunnel testing and other aerospace applications. A brief review of the productivity advantages of response surface modeling in aerospace research is followed by a description of the advantages of a common coding scheme that scales and centers independent variables. The benefits of model term reduction are reviewed. A constraint on model term reduction with coded factors is described in some detail, which requires such models to be well-formulated, or hierarchical. Examples illustrate the consequences of ignoring this constraint. The implication for automated regression model reduction procedures is discussed, and some opinions formed from the author s experience are offered on coding, model reduction, and hierarchy.

  14. TURBIDITY REMOVAL FROM SURFACE WATER USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. ... Conventional water treatment systems involve the use of synthetic ..... Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),.

  15. Research on improved design of airfoil profiles based on the continuity of airfoil surface curvature of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic of airfoil performance is closely related to the continuity of its surface curvature, and airfoil profiles with a better aerodynamic performance plays an important role in the design of wind turbine. The surface curvature distribution along the chord direction and pressure distributio...

  16. Impact, runoff and drying of wind-driven rain on a window glass surface: numerical modelling based on experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of two models to study both the impingement and the contact and surface phenomena of rainwater on a glass window surface: a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for the calculation of the distribution of the wind-driven rain (WDR) across the building facade and

  17. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Houshuo

    2009-01-01

    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward-blowing summer daily wind jet originating from the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese Red Sea coast, and (2) wintertime westward-blowing wind-jet bands along the northwestern Saudi Arabian coast, which occur every 10-20 days and can last for several days when occurring. Both wind jets can attain wind speeds over 15 m s-1 and contribute significantly to monthly mean surface wind stress, especially in the cross-axis components, which could be of importance to ocean eddy formation in the Red Sea. The wintertime wind jets can cause significant evaporation and ocean heat loss along the northeastern Red Sea coast and may potentially drive deep convection in that region. An initial characterization of these wind jets is presented. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Chul Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface. The Response Surface Method (RSM is generally used to predict the system performance in engi-neering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM. The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance, we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  19. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Shin, Sung-Chul; Kim, Soo-Young

    2015-07-01

    The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface). The Response Surface Method (RSM) is generally used to predict the system performance in engineering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN) which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM). The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance), we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  20. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was applied to realize the conceptualization of each water quality index. As a result, it is observed that there are several important methods for determining the water quality index applied in surface water bodies.

  1. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  2. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft-and Satellite-based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on Wind Analyses and Numerical Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, TImothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric; Gamache, John; Amarin, Ruba; El-Nimri, Salem; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the realtime airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx. 3 x the aircraft altitude). The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRAD instrument on H*Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future time the HIRAD instrument is implemented. Also shown will be preliminary results of numerical weather prediction OSSEs in which the impact of the addition of HIRAD observations to the initial state on numerical forecasts of the hurricane intensity and structure is assessed.

  3. Fire, wind, earth, and water: raising the education threshold through teacher self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolder, Mary Ellen; Hydo, Sharon K; Zorn, Cecelia R; Bottoms, Marjorie S

    2007-07-01

    The ancient Greeks, as well as current writers, prompt us to examine the self as teacher. Seeing the self as a border crosser is used to reveal both the light-side and shadow-side of self, as metaphorically suggested by fire, wind, earth, and water. Only through teacher self-awareness can respect be used to expand our lives as teachers and enrich students' learning and growth.

  4. Surface emissions of heat, water and GHGs from a NYC greenroof

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, W. R.; Jacobson, G.; Culligan, P.; Gaffin, S.; Carson, T.; Marasco, D.; Hsueh, D.; Rella, C.

    2012-04-01

    The budgets of heat, water, and GHGs from greenroofs in New York City, needed for adaptation and sustainable policy and infrastructure strategies, requires an accurate measure of their surface emissions. A high speed, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) based analyzer for measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water (H2O) and an ultrasonic wind and temperature anemometer for measuring heat and momentum is used to assess greenroof performance during seasonal, diurnal, and episodic weather conditions. The flux instrument has proven capable of raw 10 Hz precision (one standard deviation) better than 110 parts-per-billion (ppbv) for carbon dioxide, better than 3 ppbv for methane and better than 6 ppmv +0.3% of reading for water vapor. In the water and heat budget, comparison and reconciliation of greenroof evapotranspiration (ET) using micrometeorological techniques, water balance, and heat balance was conducted. The water balance (month timescales), the heat balance (week timescale) show agreement to the micrometeorological surface ET (hour timescale). By using boundary layer flux measurements of ET, the fundamental performance of greenroofs on climate and weather conditions can be explored. These boundary layer measured surface fluxes provide critical information on the physiology of the built environment in New York City. Faced with sewage failures due to water management and exacerbated heating, the accurate assessment of greenroof performance on high spatial and temporal scales in required for the urban environment. Results will be presented and discussed.

  5. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jian; Dong Gang; Sun Yimei; Zhang Zhaoyang; Wu Yuqin

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. (paper)

  6. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Water quality assessment in the Ethiopian highlands is crucial owing to increasing ... and provide information for formulating appropriate framework for an integrated ... with four seasons (rainy, dry period, small rains ..... treatment. Annual conference proceedings, American Water Works ... Towns' water supply and sanitation.

  7. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip John

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream......, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short......, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using...

  8. The impact of urbanization on wind speed and surface aerodynamic characteristics in Beijing during 1991-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junkai; Gao, Zhiqiu; Wang, Linlin; Li, Yubin; Gao, Chloe Y.

    2018-06-01

    Urbanization has a significant influence on climate and meteorological conditions through altering surface aerodynamic characteristics. Based on observational data collected at 15 levels on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing during 1991-2011, changes in wind speed, vertical profile, aerodynamic roughness length (z0), and zero-plane displacement height (zd) were analyzed. Decreasing trends were observed predominantly during this period, especially for levels between 65 and 140 m where the largest decreasing rates often occur. The annual and seasonal (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) mean wind speeds at 15 levels all present decreasing trends with average rates of 0.029, 0.024, 0.023, 0.040, and 0.019 m s-1 a-1, respectively. The decreases in strong wind categories contribute most to the reduction of mean wind speed. Furthermore, in 2005-2011, the diurnal maximum wind speeds at lower levels tend to appear earlier as compared to those in 1991-1997, while the patterns of diurnal cycle between different levels become more similar in these periods. Besides, the phenomena of "kink" in wind profiles are visible in various atmospheric stabilities, and the average height of a kink has increased from about 40 m to nearly 80 m associated with urbanization during 1991-2011. In addition, the results of z0 and zd calculated using the wind profile method vary with wind directions due to surface heterogeneity and that larger values often occur along with southerly winds. Both z0 and zd show increasing trends in different sectors during 1991-2011, and the annual mean z0 and zd have increased from less than 1 m to greater than 2 m, and from less than 10 m to greater than 20 m, respectively.

  9. Instability of confined water films between elastic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; 't Mannetje, Dieter; Zantema, Sietske; Mugele, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of nanometer thin water films at controlled ambient humidity adsorbed onto two atomically smooth mica sheets upon rapidly bringing the surfaces into contact. Using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) in imaging mode, we found that the water films break up into a

  10. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  11. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  12. The impact of uncontrolled waste disposal on surface water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main threat to the surface water quality in Addis Ababa is environmental pollution derived from domestic and industrial activities. Due to the inadequacy of controlled waste management strategies and waste treatment plants, people are forced to discharge wastes both on open surface and within water bodies.

  13. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  14. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  15. Variations of Sea Surface Temperature, Wind Stress, and Rainfall over the Tropical Atlantic and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Paulo; Srukla, J.

    1996-10-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (E0Fs) and composite analyses are used to investigate the development of sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly patterns over the tropical Atlantic. The evolution of large-scale rainfall anomaly patterns over the equatorial Atlantic and South America are also investigated. 71e EOF analyses revealed that a pattern of anomalous SST and wind stress asymmetric relative to the equator is the dominant mode of interannual and longer variability over the tropical Atlantic. The most important findings of this study are as follows.Atmospheric circulation anomalies precede the development of basinwide anomalous SST patterns over the tropical Atlantic. Anomalous SST originate off the African coast simultaneously with atmospheric circulation anomalies and expand westward afterward. The time lag between wind stress relaxation (strengthening) and maximum SST warming (cooling) is about two months.Anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns over northern tropical Atlantic are phase locked to the seasonal cycle. Composite fields of SLP and wind stress over northern tropical Atlantic can be distinguished from random only within a few months preceding the March-May (MAM) season. Observational evidence is presented to show that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the Pacific influences atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies over northern tropical Atlantic through atmospheric teleconnection patterns into higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.The well-known droughts over northeastern Brazil (Nordeste) are a local manifestation of a much larger-scale rainfall anomaly pattern encompassing the whole equatorial Atlantic and Amazon region. Negative rainfall anomalies to the south of the equator during MAM, which is the rainy season for the Nordeste region, are related to an early withdrawal of the intertropical convergence zone toward the warm SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic. Also, it is shown that precipitation anomalies

  16. Correlation between sea surface temperature and wind speed in Greenland Sea and their relationships with NAO variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO is one of the major causes of many recent changes in the Arctic Ocean. Generally, it is related to wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST, and sea ice cover. In this study, we analyzed the distributions of and correlations between SST, wind speed, NAO, and sea ice cover from 2003 to 2009 in the Greenland Sea at 10°W to 10°E, 65°N to 80°N. SST reached its peak in July, while wind speed reached its minimum in July. Seasonal variability of SST and wind speed was different for different regions. SST and wind speed mainly had negative correlations. Detailed correlation research was focused on the 75°N to 80°N band. Regression analysis shows that in this band, the variation of SST lagged three months behind that of wind speed. Ice cover and NAO had a positive correlation, and the correlation coefficient between ice cover and NAO in the year 2007 was 0.61. SST and NAO also had a positive correlation, and SST influenced NAO one month in advance. The correlation coefficients between SST and NAO reached 0.944 for the year 2005, 0.7 for the year 2008, and 0.74 for the year 2009 after shifting SST one month later. NAO also had a positive correlation with wind speed, and it also influenced wind speed one month in advance. The correlation coefficients between NAO and wind speed reached 0.783, 0.813, and 0.818 for the years 2004, 2005, and 2008, respectively, after shifting wind speed one month earlier.

  17. Sand Dune Dynamics on Mars: Integration of Surface Imaging, Wind Measurements, and Orbital Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ewing, R. C.; Newman, C. E.; Ayoub, F.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; van Beek, J.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the Mars Science Laboratory rover completed the first in situ investigation of an active dune field on another planetary body, the "Bagnold Dunes" in Gale Crater. During the campaign, a series of Mastcam and RMI time-series images of local sand patches, dump piles, ripples, and the lee face and margin of Namib Dune (a barchan in the Bagnold field) were acquired. These were at cadences of a sol or more that were generally at nearly the same local time, and intra-sol imaging bridged by continuous wind measurements from REMS. The dune field has also been imaged 16 times by HiRISE since 2008. By combining the two datasets, long term dune dynamics over the whole field can be compared to small-scale and short-term observations on the surface. From HiRISE, Namib Dune and other barchans and longitudinal dunes to the south and west migrate generally toward the south to southeast. The most active sand deposits are the longitudinal and barchans dunes, with the highest ripple migration rates found on the highest elevations. Rippled sand patches exhibit little of no motion. From MSL, the scrambling of grains on the surfaces of local rippled sand patches and Namib Dune is obvious over periods as short as a single sol, with light-toned grains showing the greatest tendency. On the lee face of Namib, images show grain scrambling, one case of modification to a secondary grainflow, and possibly ripple motion over 3-16 sols. At the dune margin, grain scrambling and one major slump on the lee face of a dune ripple are seen. The daytime REMS record shows wind speeds up to 20 m/s with confidence. As yet, we do not have a demonstrable correlation between measured wind speeds and changes, suggesting that short term gusts or non-aeolian processes acting as triggers may precede significant activity. The changes, occurring in a low flux season based on HiRISE analysis and global circulation models, indicate an active surface at all times of the year to some degree.

  18. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwater –surface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  19. Seasonal Cycle of the Near-Surface Diurnal Wind Field Over the Bay of La Paz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrent, Cuauhtémoc; Zaitsev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The results of numerical simulations of the troposphere over the Bay of La Paz, calculated for the months of January, April, July and October during the period 2006-2010 with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF v3.5) regional model, are used to describe the seasonal features of the diurnal cycle of planetary boundary-layer winds. Two distinct near-surface diurnal flows with strong seasonal variability were identified: (1) a nocturnal and matutinal breeze directed from the subtropical Pacific Ocean, over the Baja California peninsula and the Bay of La Paz, into the Gulf of California that is associated with the regional sea-surface temperature difference between those two major water bodies; and (2) a mid to late afternoon onshore sea-breeze related to the peninsula's daily cycle of insolation heating that evolves with counter-clockwise rotation over the Bay of La Paz. The model results reveal the interaction over Baja California of opposing afternoon sea-breeze fronts that originate from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California, with a convergence line forming over the peaks of the peninsula's topography and the associated presence of a closed vertical circulation cell over the Bay of La Paz and the adjacent Gulf. The collision of the opposing sea-breeze fronts over the narrow peninsula drives convection that is relatively weak due to the reduced heat source and only appears to produce precipitation sporadically. The spatial structure of the sea-breeze fronts over the Bay of La Paz region is complex due to shoreline curvature and nearby topographic features. A comparison of the numerical results with available meteorological near-surface observations indicates that the modelling methodology adequately reproduced the observed features of the seasonal variability of the local planetary boundary-layer diurnal wind cycle and confirms that the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Bay of La Paz is dominated by kinetic energy in the diurnal band

  20. Wind-Tunnel Investigations of Blunt-Body Drag Reduction Using Forebody Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Sprague, Stephanie; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Curry, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of wind-tunnel tests that demonstrate a novel drag reduction technique for blunt-based vehicles. For these tests, the forebody roughness of a blunt-based model was modified using micomachined surface overlays. As forebody roughness increases, boundary layer at the model aft thickens and reduces the shearing effect of external flow on the separated flow behind the base region, resulting in reduced base drag. For vehicle configurations with large base drag, existing data predict that a small increment in forebody friction drag will result in a relatively large decrease in base drag. If the added increment in forebody skin drag is optimized with respect to base drag, reducing the total drag of the configuration is possible. The wind-tunnel tests results conclusively demonstrate the existence of a forebody dragbase drag optimal point. The data demonstrate that the base drag coefficient corresponding to the drag minimum lies between 0.225 and 0.275, referenced to the base area. Most importantly, the data show a drag reduction of approximately 15% when the drag optimum is reached. When this drag reduction is scaled to the X-33 base area, drag savings approaching 45,000 N (10,000 lbf) can be realized.

  1. A comparison of three approaches for simulating fine-scale surface winds in support of wildland fire management: Part I. Model formulation and comparison against measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Forthofer; Bret W. Butler; Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2014-01-01

    For this study three types of wind models have been defined for simulating surface wind flow in support of wildland fire management: (1) a uniform wind field (typically acquired from coarse-resolution (,4 km) weather service forecast models); (2) a newly developed mass-conserving model and (3) a newly developed mass and momentumconserving model (referred to as the...

  2. High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; N. S. Wagenbrenner; J. M. Forthofer; B. K. Lamb; K. S. Shannon; D. Finn; R. M. Eckman; K. Clawson; L. Bradshaw; P. Sopko; S. Beard; D. Jimenez; C. Wold; M. Vosburgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high-resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The...

  3. Issues of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawrylik Eliza

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters. Characteristics of the most frequently recognized pathogens responsible for water-borne outbreaks were described, as well as sources of contamination and surface waters contamination due to protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium and Giardia were presented. The methods of destroying the cysts and oocysts of parasitic protozoa used nowadays in the world were also presented in a review.

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-3 - Surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface water. 257.3-3 Section 257.3-3... and Practices § 257.3-3 Surface water. (a) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility... Water Act, as amended. (b) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility shall not cause a...

  5. Homogenization of Tianjin monthly near-surface wind speed using RHtestsV4 for 1951-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Peng; Luo, Chuanjun; Liang, Dongpo

    2018-05-01

    Historical Chinese surface meteorological records provided by the special fund for basic meteorological data from the National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) were processed to produce accurate wind speed data. Monthly 2-min near-surface wind speeds from 13 observation stations in Tianjin covering 1951-2014 were homogenized using RHtestV4 combined with their metadata. Results indicate that 10 stations had significant breakpoints—77% of the Tianjin stations—suggesting that inhomogeneity was common in the Tianjin wind speed series. Instrument change accounted for most changes, based on the metadata, including changes in type and height, especially for the instrument type. Average positive quantile matching (QM) adjustments were more than negative adjustments at 10 stations; positive biases with a probability density of 0.2 or more were mainly concentrates in the range 0.2 m s-1 to 1.2 m s-1, while the corresponding negative biases were mainly in the range -0.1 to -1.2 m s-1. Here, changes in variances and trends in the monthly mean surface wind speed series at 10 stations before and after adjustment were compared. Climate characteristics of wind speed in Tianjin were more reasonably reflected by the adjusted data; inhomogeneity in wind speed series was largely corrected. Moreover, error analysis reveals that there was a high consistency between the two datasets here and that from the NMIC, with the latter as the reference. The adjusted monthly near-surface wind speed series shows a certain reliability for the period 1951-2014 in Tianjin.

  6. Coupling of WRF meteorological model to WAM spectral wave model through sea surface roughness at the Balearic Sea: impact on wind and wave forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    scope of the 7th EU FP Project FIELD_AC, assesses the impact of coupling WAM and WRF on wind and wave forecasts on the Balearic Sea, and compares it with other possible improvements, like using available high-resolution circulation information from MyOcean GMES core services, or assimilating altimeter data on the Western Mediterranean. This is done in an ordered fashion following statistical design rules, which allows to extract main effects of each of the factors considered (coupling, better circulation information, data assimilation following Lionello et al., 1992) as well as two-factor interactions. Moreover, the statistical significance of these improvements can be tested in the future, though this requires maximum likelihood ratio tests with correlated data. Charnock, H. (1955) Wind stress on a water surface. Quart.J. Row. Met. Soc. 81: 639-640 Donelan, M. (1982) The dependence of aerodynamic drag coefficient on wave parameters. Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Meteorology and Air-Sea Interactions of teh Coastal Zone. The Hague (Netherlands). AMS. 381-387 Janssen, P.A.E.M., Doyle, J., Bidlot, J., Hansen, B., Isaksen, L. and Viterbo, P. (1990) The impact of oean waves on the atmosphere. Seminars of the ECMWF. Lionello, P., Günther, H., and Janssen P.A.E.M. (1992) Assimilation of altimeter data in a global third-generation wave model. Journal of Geophysical Research 97 (C9): 453-474. Warner, J., Armstrong, B., He, R. and Zambon, J.B. (2010) Development of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System. Ocean Modelling 35: 230-244.

  7. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to...

  8. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  9. Treatability of South African surface waters by enhanced coagulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of South African inland surface water sources are compromised due to a long-standing national policy of mandatory return flows. With renewed emphasis on the removal of organic carbon in the latest SANS 241 water quality standard, many South African water treatment managers may need to consider ...

  10. Environmental impact of by pass channel of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismara, R.; Renoldi, M.; Torretta, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper are analyzed the impacts generated by surface waters drawing on river course. This impacts are generated also by reduction of water flow. This effect is most important for the presence of biological community: algae, fiches, micro invertebrates. Are also reported regional laws, water master plan of Lombardia region

  11. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, W.J.

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind's interactions with a building's superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport

  12. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  13. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  14. Wind turbines in Danish waters - a survey of the authorities' interests, evaluations and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The document produced by a committee under the Danish Ministry for Energy and the Environment aims at meeting the current need for clarifying potentials for placing wind turbine arrays in Danish waters. It deals with (a) marine areas which are of especial interest, a fact which would be a barrier for the establishment of wind turbine arrays, and with (b) marine areas in connection with which permission to establish such arrays is only granted after serious consideration of local needs and interests. In connection with (a) special interests are defined: areas with a bird-life protected by European Union (EU) legislation, conservation areas, land where raw materials can be mined etc., places where buildings or ruins etc, of cultural/historical interest are to be found, military training grounds, principal shipping routes, cable and piping locations, or areas where a bridge is planned to be built. In connection with (b), local interests are defined as fishing areas, places included in landscaping projects, areas where there are large numbers of birds, harbours, areas near airports, radio or navigations systems etc., areas where raw materials are to be found, places where Stone Age habitations exist, marine areas where private yachts are sailed, military training areas, etc. A number of Danish fjords are mentioned as being included in the survey which should result in the choice of Danish waters where wind farm arrays could be established. (AB) 15 maps

  15. Wind Tunnel Study on Flows over Various Two-dimensional Idealized Urban-liked Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Extensive human activities (e.g. increased traffic emissions) emit a wide range of pollutants resulting in poor urban area air quality. Unlike open, flat and homogenous rural terrain, urban surface is complicated by the presence of buildings, obstacles and narrow streets. The irregular urban surfaces thus form a random roughness that further modifies the near-surface flows and pollutant dispersion. In this study, a physical modelling approach is employed to commence a series of wind tunnel experiments to study the urban-area air pollution problems. The flow characteristics over different hypothetical urban roughness surfaces were studied in a wind tunnel in isothermal conditions. Preliminary experiments were conducted based on six types of idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyon models with various building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios (ARs) 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/12. The main instrumentation is an in-house 90o X-hotwire anemometry. In each set of configuration, a sampling street canyon was selected near the end of the streamwise domain. Its roof level, i.e. the transverse between the mid points of the upstream and downstream buildings, was divided into eight segments. The measurements were then recorded on the mid-plane of the spannwise domain along the vertical profile (from building roof level to the ceiling of wind tunnel) of the eight segments. All the data acquisition processes were handled by the NI data acquisition modules, NI 9239 and CompactDAQ-9188 hardware. Velocity calculation was carried out in the post-processing stage on a digital computer. The two-component flow velocities and velocity fluctuations were calculated at each sampling points, therefore, for each model, a streamwise average of eight vertical profiles of mean velocity and velocity fluctuations was presented. A plot of air-exchange rate (ACH) against ARs was also presented in order to examine the ventilation performance of different tested models. Preliminary results

  16. Migration of two antibiotics during resuspension under simulated wind-wave disturbances in a water-sediment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yu-Qing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jing-Ge; Liao, Qian-Jia-Hua

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the migration of antibiotics (norfloxacin, NOR; and sulfamethoxazole, SMX) under simulated resuspension conditions across the sediment-water interface were quantified for two locations in China: point A, located in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, and point B, located in Dapukou of Lake Taihu. The concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the overlying water amounted to 100, 500, and 1000 mg/L during background, moderate, and strong simulated wind-wave disturbances, respectively. At each SS level, the initial concentrations of the two antibiotics were set to 1, 5, and 10 mg/L. The results showed that both resuspended SS and the initial concentration of antibiotics could influence the migration of NOR in the water-sediment system. Specifically, both higher SS and initial antibiotic concentrations were associated with higher rates of migration and accumulation of NOR from water to sediment. In contrast, the migration of SMX in the water-sediment system was not impacted by SS or initial antibiotic concentration. The adsorption capacities of sediments for NOR and SMX were significantly different at both locations, possibly reflecting differences in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic material (OM) contents. In general, higher CEC and OM values were found in sediments with a higher adsorption capacity for the antibiotics. When CEC and OM values of sediments were higher, the adsorption capacity reached up to 51.73 mg/kg. Large differences in the migration from water to sediment were observed for the two antibiotics, with NOR migration rates higher than those of SMX. The accumulation of NOR in surface sediment during resuspension was about 14 times higher than that of SMX. The main reason for this is that the chemical adsorption of NOR is seldom reversible. Overall, this study demonstrates that resuspension of NOR and SMX attached to sediments under simulated wind-wave disturbances can promote the migration of the antibiotics from water to sediment

  17. Where do winds come from? A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, A. M.; Gorshkov, V. G.; Sheil, D.; Nobre, A. D.; Li, B.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the latent heat release. Building from fundamental physical principles we show that condensation is associated with a decline in air pressure in the lower atmosphere. This decline occurs up to a certain height, which ranges from 3 to 4 km for surface temperatures from 10 to 30 °C. We then estimate the horizontal pressure differences associated with water vapor condensation and find that these are comparable in magnitude with the pressure differences driving observed circulation patterns. The water vapor delivered to the atmosphere via evaporation represents a store of potential energy available to accelerate air and thus drive winds. Our estimates suggest that the global mean power at which this potential energy is released by condensation is around one per cent of the global solar power - this is similar to the known stationary dissipative power of general atmospheric circulation. We conclude that condensation and evaporation merit attention as major, if previously overlooked, factors in driving atmospheric dynamics.

  18. Presence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in surface water and drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters in the nano- to microgram per liter range, and in drinking water in the nanogram/L range. The environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters have been evaluated and generally found to be low if the wastewater is treated...

  19. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  20. Investigating the role of wind in generating surface currents over the slope area of the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mixing mechanisms of the Arctic Ocean have profound impacts on sea ice, global ocean dynamics, and arctic communities. This project used a two-year long time series of ocean current velocities collected from eight moorings located on the Eurasian basin, as well as ERA-interim wind data, to compare and assess relationships between current and wind velocities at different depths. Determining the strength of these correlations will further scientific understanding of the degree to which wind influences mixing, with implications for heat flux, diffusion, and sea ice changes. Using statistical analysis, I calculated whether a significant relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents existed beginning at the surface level ( 50m) .The final correlation values, ranging from R = 0.11 to R = 0.28, indicated a weak relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents at the surface for all eight mooring sites. The results for the surface depth imply that correlation likely decreases with increasing depths, and thus further testing of deeper depth levels was unnecessary. This finding suggests that there is another dominant factor at play in the ocean; we postulate that topography exerts a significant influence on subsurface mixing. This study highlights the need for further research of the different mechanisms and their importance in influencing the dynamic structure of the ocean.

  1. A GPU-based mipmapping method for water surface visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Quan, Wei; Xu, Chao; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Visualization of water surface is a hot topic in computer graphics. In this paper, we presented a fast method to generate wide range of water surface with good image quality both near and far from the viewpoint. This method utilized uniform mesh and Fractal Perlin noise to model water surface. Mipmapping technology was enforced to the surface textures, which adjust the resolution with respect to the distance from the viewpoint and reduce the computing cost. Lighting effect was computed based on shadow mapping technology, Snell's law and Fresnel term. The render pipeline utilizes a CPU-GPU shared memory structure, which improves the rendering efficiency. Experiment results show that our approach visualizes water surface with good image quality at real-time frame rates performance.

  2. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, V L; Mikkelsen, R; Sørensen, J N; Naumov, I N; Kabardin, I

    2014-01-01

    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert's optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities. The near wake characteristics (development of expansion, tip vortex position, deficit velocity and rotation in the wake) have been measured for different tip speed ratio to compare with main assumptions and conclusions of various rotor theories

  3. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor; Kabardin, I.

    2014-01-01

    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert’s optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between...... the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities....... The near wake characteristics (development of expansion, tip vortex position, deficit velocity and rotation in the wake) have been measured for different tip speed ratio to compare with main assumptions and conclusions of various rotor theories....

  4. Trends in significant wave height and surface wind speed in the China Seas between 1988 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chongwei; Zhang, Ren; Shi, Weilai; Li, Xin; Chen, Xuan

    2017-10-01

    Wind and waves are key components of the climate system as they drive air-sea interactions and influence weather systems and atmospheric circulation. In marine environments, understanding surface wind and wave fields and their evolution over time is important for conducting safe and efficient human activities, such as navigation and engineering. This study considers long-term trends in the sea surface wind speed (WS) and significant wave height (SWH) in the China Seas over the period 1988-2011 using the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) ocean surface wind product and a 24-year hindcast wave dataset obtained from the WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) wave model forced with CCMP winds. The long-term trends in WS and SWH in the China Seas are analyzed over the past 24 years to provide a reference point from which to assess future climate change and offshore wind and wave energy resource development in the region. Results demonstrate that over the period 1988-2011 in the China Seas: 1) WS and SWH showed a significant increasing trend of 3.38 cm s-1 yr-1 and 1.52 cm yr-1, respectively; 2) there were notable regional differences in the long-term trends of WS and SWH; 3) areas with strong increasing trends were located mainly in the middle of the Tsushima Strait, the northern and southern areas of the Taiwan Strait, and in nearshore regions of the northern South China Sea; and 4) the long-term trend in WS was closely associated with El Niño and a significant increase in the occurrence of gale force winds in the region.

  5. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  6. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  7. Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena C, R; Pollastri J, A.; Suzuki S, O.

    1984-01-01

    One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

  8. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  9. Beyond Tree Throw: Wind, Water, Rock and the Mechanics of Tree-Driven Bedrock Physical Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. A.; Anderson, R. S.; Dawson, T. E.; Dietrich, W. E.; Minear, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    bedrock suggest that these fluctuations may impart a cyclic stress fatigue that over the lifetime of a tree could considerably weaken the enfolding rock (104 to 106 days depending on the species). Combined, our results suggest that wind-driven root torque and water uptake may be the primary mechanisms driving bedrock erosion and soil production in thin soil settings.

  10. Desert Beetle-Inspired Superwettable Patterned Surfaces for Water Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenwei; Yun, Frank F; Wang, Yanqin; Yao, Li; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    With the impacts of climate change and impending crisis of clean drinking water, designing functional materials for water harvesting from fog with large water capacity has received much attention in recent years. Nature has evolved different strategies for surviving dry, arid, and xeric conditions. Nature is a school for human beings. In this contribution, inspired by the Stenocara beetle, superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces are fabricated on the silica poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated superhydrophobic surfaces using a pulsed laser deposition approach with masks. The resultant samples with patterned wettability demonstrate water-harvesting efficiency in comparison with the silica PDMS-coated superhydrophobic surface and the Pt nanoparticles-coated superhydrophilic surface. The maximum water-harvesting efficiency can reach about 5.3 g cm -2 h -1 . Both the size and the percentage of the Pt-coated superhydrophilic square regions on the patterned surface affect the condensation and coalescence of the water droplet, as well as the final water-harvesting efficiency. The present water-harvesting strategy should provide an avenue to alleviate the water crisis facing mankind in certain arid regions of the world. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A. S. Guru; Sharath, U.; Nagarjun, V.; Hegde, G. M.; Asokan, S.

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other.

  12. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru Prasad, A S; Sharath, U; Asokan, S; Nagarjun, V; Hegde, G M

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other. (paper)

  13. The impact of grid and spectral nudging on the variance of the near-surface wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2015-01-01

    Grid and spectral nudging are effective ways of preventing drift from large scale weather patterns in regional climate models. However, the effect of nudging on the wind-speed variance is unclear. In this study, the impact of grid and spectral nudging on near-surface and upper boundary layer wind...... nudging at and above 1150 m above ground level (AGL). Nested 5 km simulations are not nudged directly, but inherit boundary conditions from the 15 km experiments. Spatial and temporal spectra show that grid nudging causes smoothing of the wind in the 15 km domain at all wavenumbers, both at 1150 m AGL...... and near the surface where nudging is not applied directly, while spectral nudging mainly affects longer wavenumbers. Maps of mesoscale variance show spatial smoothing for both grid and spectral nudging, although the effect is less pronounced for spectral nudging. On the inner, 5 km domain, an indirect...

  14. Ionization by a pulsed plasma surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloyet, E.; Leprince, P.; Marec, J.; Llamas Blasco, M.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization mechanism is studied of a pulsed surface wave generating a microwave discharge. When the plasma is dominated by collisions, it is found that the velocity of the ionization front depends on the ponderomotive force due to the field gradient in the front. (orig.)

  15. Laboratory Measurements of the Water/Air Flux of Dimethylsulfide Using a Wind/Wave Tank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dacey, John

    1998-01-01

    The flux of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the surface water of the ocean to the atmosphere is an important biogeochemical problem, since DMS contributes to optical haze and potentially impacts global climate by influencing earth's albedo...

  16. Methods development for cost-effective marine environmental monitoring at offshore wind farms in Norwegian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Thomas; Schlaeppy, Marie-Lise; Olenin, Sergej; Shashkov, Alexej; Heggoey, Erling; Troedsson, Christofer

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Current understanding of the environmental impact from offshore wind farms and experiences in monitoring practices, are restricted to soft-bottom habitats. Due to the large expansion of this source of energy, and the national and international drive to place large parks offshore, there is at present a strong need to further increase our knowledge of the impact on the marine environment in a wider range of habitats. At a national level, it is of importance to develop monitoring methods that are suitable for Norwegian sites and that are adjusted to impact levels expected from wind parks. Biological data on the impact of offshore wind farms in marine ecosystems are predominantly focused on the southern Baltic and southern North Sea. It is shown that large wind farms do have an impact on the marine ecosystem. The most studied effects relate to the introduction of hard substrate (the turbine foundation and scour protection) in an area made exclusively of soft sediments. This leads to an introduction of a new category of fauna, a higher productivity and a shift in community structure and species composition. In addition, the construction of an offshore wind farm excludes other activities with potentially high negative impacts on the marine ecosystem such as bottom trawling. These findings are not necessary applicable to rocky shorelines such as those bordering the Norwegian coast and the first full-scale offshore wind farm, Havsul 1. The Havsul site borders an open ocean with high average yearly wind-speeds of more than 20 knots. A relatively narrow shelf and steep underwater topography creates waves of substantial heights and a benthic marine ecosystem that is fundamentally different from the shallow water, soft sediment substrates in the southern Baltic and North Seas. Instead, areas in Norway with water depths suitable for today.s design of offshore wind farms (down to a depth of about 30-50 m) have a complex topography and a mosaic of substrate types are

  17. Guidelines for surface water quality, vol. l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A literature survey was carried out on the chemically toxic effects of uranium and uranium compounds on human health, aquatic life, plants and livestock. All the information collected is summarized in this document and, from it, maximum uranium concentrations in water at which toxic effects will not appear are recommended

  18. Water's Interfacial Hydrogen Bonding Structure Reveals the Effective Strength of Surface-Water Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sucheol; Willard, Adam P

    2018-06-05

    We combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a mean field model of interfacial hydrogen bonding to analyze the effect of surface-water interactions on the structural and energetic properties of the liquid water interface. We show that the molecular structure of water at a weakly interacting ( i.e., hydrophobic) surface is resistant to change unless the strength of surface-water interactions are above a certain threshold. We find that below this threshold water's interfacial structure is homogeneous and insensitive to the details of the disordered surface, however, above this threshold water's interfacial structure is heterogeneous. Despite this heterogeneity, we demonstrate that the equilibrium distribution of molecular orientations can be used to quantify the energetic component of the surface-water interactions that contribute specifically to modifying the interfacial hydrogen bonding network. We identify this specific energetic component as a new measure of hydrophilicity, which we refer to as the intrinsic hydropathy.

  19. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  20. Effect of water table dynamics on land surface hydrologic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2010-11-01

    The representation of groundwater dynamics in land surface models has received considerable attention in recent years. Most studies have found that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component because of the additional supply of water to the root zone. However, the effect of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory (persistence) has not been explored thoroughly. In this study we investigate the effect of water table dynamics on National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model hydrologic simulations in terms of land surface hydrologic memory. Unlike soil water or evapotranspiration, results show that land surface hydrologic memory does not always increase after adding a groundwater component. In regions where the water table level is intermediate, land surface hydrologic memory can even decrease, which occurs when soil moisture and capillary rise from groundwater are not in phase with each other. Further, we explore the hypothesis that in addition to atmospheric forcing, groundwater variations may also play an important role in affecting land surface hydrologic memory. Analyses show that feedbacks of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory can be positive, negative, or neutral, depending on water table dynamics. In regions where the water table is shallow, the damping process of soil moisture variations by groundwater is not significant, and soil moisture variations are mostly controlled by random noise from atmospheric forcing. In contrast, in regions where the water table is very deep, capillary fluxes from groundwater are small, having limited potential to affect soil moisture variations. Therefore, a positive feedback of groundwater to land surface hydrologic memory is observed in a transition zone between deep and shallow water tables, where capillary fluxes act as a buffer by reducing high-frequency soil moisture variations resulting in longer land surface hydrologic memory.

  1. Turbulent flow over an interactive alternating land-water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The alternating land-water surface is a challenging surface to represent accurately in weather and climate models, but it is of great importance for the surface energy balance in polar regions. The complexity of this surface lies in the fact that secondary circulations, which form at the boundary of water and land, interact strongly with the surface energy balance. Due to its large heat capacity, the water temperature adapts slowly to the flow, thus the properties of the atmosphere determine the uptake of energy from the water. In order to study this complex system in a simpler way, retaining only the most essential physics, we have simplified the full surface energy balance including radiation. We have derived a boundary condition that mimics the full balance and can be formulated as a so-called Robin boundary condition: a linear combination of Dirichlet (fixed temperature) and Neumann (fixed temperature gradient) ones. By spatially varying the coefficients, we are able to express land and water using this boundary condition. We have done a series of direct numerical simulations in which we generate artificial land-water patterns from noise created from a Gaussian spectrum centered around a dominant wave number. This method creates realistic random patterns, but we are still in control of the length scales. We show that the system can manifest itself in three regimes: micro-, meso- and macro-scale. In the micro-scale, we find perfect mixing of the near-surface atmosphere that results in identical air properties over water and land. In the meso-scale, secondary circulations alter the heat exchange considerably by advecting air between land and water. In addition, they bring the surface temperature of the land closer to that of the air, thereby modulating the energy loss due to outgoing longwave radiation. In the macro-scale regime, the flow over land and water become independent of each other and only the large scale forcings determine the energy balance.

  2. A new geometrical construction using rounded surfaces proposed for the transverse flux machine for direct drive wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new construction for transverse flux machines (TFM) using a rounded surfaces core geometry. The new concept has been developed for TFM with U core geometry. In this case a new analytic design procedure was proposed. The analytic design of the new TFM construction is further ...... proposed concept is more attractive for the direct-drive wind turbine application....

  3. An evaluation of WRF's ability to reproduce the surface wind over complex terrain based on typical circulation patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, P.A.; Dudhia, J.; González-Rouco, J.F.; Montávez, J.P.; Garcia-Bustamante, E.; Navarro, J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Munoz-Roldán, A.

    2013-01-01

    [1] The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to reproduce the surface wind circulations over complex terrain is examined. The atmospheric evolution is simulated using two versions of the WRF model during an over 13¿year period (1992 to 2005) over a complex terrain region

  4. One-level modeling for diagnosing surface winds over complex terrain. II - Applicability to short-range forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Getenio, B.; Zak-Rosenthal, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Alpert and Getenio (1988) modification of the Mass and Dempsey (1985) one-level sigma-surface model was used to study four synoptic events that included two winter cases (a Cyprus low and a Siberian high) and two summer cases. Results of statistical verification showed that the model is not only capable of diagnosing many details of surface mesoscale flow, but might also be useful for various applications which require operative short-range prediction of the diurnal changes of high-resolution surface flow over complex terrain, for example, in locating wildland fires, determining the dispersion of air pollutants, and predicting changes in wind energy or of surface wind for low-level air flights.

  5. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  6. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two samples from two effluent sources ... Ezeagu, Udi, Nkanu, Oji River and some parts of Awgu and Aninri ..... Study of Stream Output from Small Catchments.

  7. Exciton-Promoted Desorption From Solid Water Surfaces A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCoustra, M.R.S.; Thrower, J.D.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Desorption from solid water surfaces resulting from interaction with electromagnetic and particle radiation is reviewed in the context of the role of nonthermal desorption in astrophysical environments. Experimental observations are interpreted in terms of mechanisms sharing a common basis...

  8. Titanium Dioxide-Based Antibacterial Surfaces for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of water disinfection is gaining much interest since waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms directly endanger human health. Antibacterial surfaces offer a new, ecofriendly technique to reduce the harmful disinfection byproducts that form in medical and ...

  9. Insight into Chemistry on Cloud/Aerosol Water Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2018-05-15

    Cloud/aerosol water surfaces exert significant influence over atmospheric chemical processes. Atmospheric processes at the water surface are observed to follow mechanisms that are quite different from those in the gas phase. This Account summarizes our recent findings of new reaction pathways on the water surface. We have studied these surface reactions using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provide useful information on the reaction time scale, the underlying mechanism of surface reactions, and the dynamic behavior of the product formed on the aqueous surface. According to these studies, the aerosol water surfaces confine the atmospheric species into a specific orientation depending on the hydrophilicity of atmospheric species or the hydrogen-bonding interactions between atmospheric species and interfacial water. As a result, atmospheric species are activated toward a particular reaction on the aerosol water surface. For example, the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH 2 OO) exhibits high reactivity toward the interfacial water and hydrogen sulfide, with the reaction times being a few picoseconds, 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than that in the gas phase. The presence of interfacial water molecules induces proton-transfer-based stepwise pathways for these reactions, which are not possible in the gas phase. The strong hydrophobicity of methyl substituents in larger Criegee intermediates (>C1), such as CH 3 CHOO and (CH 3 ) 2 COO, blocks the formation of the necessary prereaction complexes for the Criegee-water reaction to occur at the water droplet surface, which lowers their proton-transfer ability and hampers the reaction. The aerosol water surface provides a solvent medium for acids (e.g., HNO 3 and HCOOH) to participate in reactions via mechanisms that are different from those in the gas and bulk aqueous phases. For example, the anti-CH 3 CHOO-HNO 3 reaction in the gas phase follows a direct reaction between anti-CH 3 CHOO and HNO 3

  10. An Airborne Campaign Measuring Wind Signatures from the Sea Surface using an L-band Polarimetric Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A series of circle flights have been carried out over the sea surface, using the EMIRAD L-band polarimetric radiometer. Motion compensation is applied, and polarimetric azimuth signatures are generated. Single tracks show geophysical noise, typically about 2 K, but averaging decreases the noise, ......, but a comparison of the signature to the downwelling galactic background radiation indicates, that the signature may not origin from the wind driven sea surface pattern....

  11. Near-surface wind variability over the broader Adriatic region: insights from an ensemble of regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    Over the past few decades the horizontal resolution of regional climate models (RCMs) has steadily increased, leading to a better representation of small-scale topographic features and more details in simulating dynamical aspects, especially in coastal regions and over complex terrain. Due to its complex terrain, the broader Adriatic region represents a major challenge to state-of-the-art RCMs in simulating local wind systems realistically. The objective of this study is to identify the added value in near-surface wind due to the refined grid spacing of RCMs. For this purpose, we use a multi-model ensemble composed of CORDEX regional climate simulations at 0.11° and 0.44° grid spacing, forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, a COSMO convection-parameterizing simulation at 0.11° and a COSMO convection-resolving simulation at 0.02° grid spacing. Surface station observations from this region and satellite QuikSCAT data over the Adriatic Sea have been compared against daily output obtained from the available simulations. Both day-to-day wind and its frequency distribution are examined. The results indicate that the 0.44° RCMs rarely outperform ERA-Interim reanalysis, while the performance of the high-resolution simulations surpasses that of ERA-Interim. We also disclose that refining the grid spacing to a few km is needed to properly capture the small-scale wind systems. Finally, we show that the simulations frequently yield the accurate angle of local wind regimes, such as for the Bora flow, but overestimate the associated wind magnitude. Finally, spectral analysis shows good agreement between measurements and simulations, indicating the correct temporal variability of the wind speed.

  12. Radiolysis of water in the vicinity of passive surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, S.; Fenart, M.; Renault, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HO° production through water radiolysis is enhanced near metal surfaces. • Hastelloy and Stainless steel surfaces can also produce HO° radicals through hydrogen peroxide activation. • There is a deficit in solvated electron production compared to hydroxyl radicals near metal surfaces. - Abstract: Porous metals were used to describe the water radiolysis in the vicinity of metal surfaces. The hydroxyl radical production under gamma irradiation was measured by benzoate scavenging in water confined in a 200 nm porous Ni base alloy or in Stainless steel. The presence of the metallic surfaces changed drastically the HO° production level and lifetime. The solvated electron production was measured via glycylglycine scavenging for Stainless steel and was found to be significantly smaller than hydroxyl production. These observations imply that interfacial radiolysis may deeply impact the corrosion behavior of the SS and Ni based alloys

  13. Water evaporation from substrate tooth surface during dentin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Mizuho; Itoh, Kazuo; Gokan, Yuka; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Tani, Chihiro; Hisamitsu, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the quantity of water evaporation from tooth surfaces. The amount of water evaporation was measured using Multi probe adapter MPA5 and Tewameter TM300 (Courage+Khazaka Electric GmbH, Köln, Germany) after acid etching and GM priming of enamel; and after EDTA conditioning and GM priming of dentin. The results indicated that the amount of water evaporation from the enamel surface was significantly less than that from the dentin. Acid etching did not affect the water evaporation from enamel, though GM priming significantly decreased the evaporation (83.48 ± 15.14% of that before priming). The evaporation from dentin was significantly increased by EDTA conditioning (131.38 ± 42.08% of that before conditioning) and significantly reduced by GM priming (80.26 ± 7.43% of that before priming). It was concluded that dentin priming reduced water evaporation from the dentin surface.

  14. Unique water-water coordination tailored by a metal surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Andersson, Klas Jerker; MacNaughton, J.

    2013-01-01

    (2006)]. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy we find an anomalous low-energy resonance at ~533.1 eV which, based on density functional theory spectrum simulations, we assign to an unexpected configuration of water units whose uncoordinated O-H bonds directly face those of their neighbors...

  15. Anomalous water dynamics at surfaces and interfaces: synergistic effects of confinement and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2018-01-01

    In nature, water is often found in contact with surfaces that are extended on the scale of molecule size but small on a macroscopic scale. Examples include lipid bilayers and reverse micelles as well as biomolecules like proteins, DNA and zeolites, to name a few. While the presence of surfaces and interfaces interrupts the continuous hydrogen bond network of liquid water, confinement on a mesoscopic scale introduces new features. Even when extended on a molecular scale, natural and biological surfaces often have features (like charge, hydrophobicity) that vary on the scale of the molecular diameter of water. As a result, many new and exotic features, which are not seen in the bulk, appear in the dynamics of water close to the surface. These different behaviors bear the signature of both water-surface interactions and of confinement. In other words, the altered properties are the result of the synergistic effects of surface-water interactions and confinement. Ultrafast spectroscopy, theoretical modeling and computer simulations together form powerful synergistic approaches towards an understanding of the properties of confined water in such systems as nanocavities, reverse micelles (RMs), water inside and outside biomolecules like proteins and DNA, and also between two hydrophobic walls. We shall review the experimental results and place them in the context of theory and simulations. For water confined within RMs, we discuss the possible interference effects propagating from opposite surfaces. Similar interference is found to give rise to an effective attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed and kept fixed at a separation of d, with the force showing an exponential dependence on this distance. For protein and DNA hydration, we shall examine a multitude of timescales that arise from frustration effects due to the inherent heterogeneity of these surfaces. We pay particular attention to the role of orientational correlations and modification of the

  16. The Winddrinker. Brackish water desalination in Somalia by means of wind energy; De Winddrinker. Brak water ontzilting in Somaliland door middel van windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generaal, C. [Faculteit Luchtvaart- en Ruimtetechniek, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The Winddrinker turns salt water into clean drinking water utilizing solely wind energy. It is a promising solution to solve water problems in dry coastal areas of developing countries. The Winddrinker combines a windmill and a desalination pump in the most efficient way. A mechanical coupling ensures a cheap, simple and reliable technology. [Dutch] De Winddrinker kan brak water ontzouten en veranderen in drinkwater met behulp van wind energie. Het is een veelbelovende oplossing voor het drinkwaterprobleem in droge kustgebieden in ontwikkelingslanden. De Winddrinker is een zeer efficient systeem bestaande uit een windmolen en een ontziltingspomp. Een mechanische koppeling zorgt voor een goedkope, eenvoudige en betrouwbare technologie.

  17. Water vapour and wind measurements by a two micron space lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibaudo, J.-B.; Labandibar, J.-Y.

    2018-04-01

    AEROSPATIALE presents the main results of the feasibility study under ESA contract on a coherent 2μm lidar instrument capable of measuring water vapour and wind velocity in the planetary boundary layer. The selected instrument configuration and the associated performance are provided, and the main critical subsystems identified (laser configuration, coherent receiver chain architecture, frequency locking and offsetting architecture. The second phase of this study is dedicated to breadboard the most critical elements of such an instrument in order to technologically consolidate its feasibility.

  18. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  19. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  20. A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Katie; Hall, Jim; Glenis, Vassilis; Kilsby, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall, often characterized by short duration and high-intensity events, is known as "surface water flooding." Analyzing surface water flood risk is complex as it requires understanding of biophysical and human factors, such as the localized scale and nature of heavy precipitation events, characteristics of the urban area affected (including detailed topography and drainage networks), and the spatial distribution of economic and social vulnerability. Climate change is recognized as having the potential to enhance the intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events. This study develops a methodology to link high spatial resolution probabilistic projections of hourly precipitation with detailed surface water flood depth maps and characterization of urban vulnerability to estimate surface water flood risk. It incorporates probabilistic information on the range of uncertainties in future precipitation in a changing climate. The method is applied to a case study of Greater London and highlights that both the frequency and spatial extent of surface water flood events are set to increase under future climate change. The expected annual damage from surface water flooding is estimated to be to be £171 million, £343 million, and £390 million/year under the baseline, 2030 high, and 2050 high climate change scenarios, respectively. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  2. The Modelling Analysis of the Response of Convective Transport of Energy and Water to Multiscale Surface Heterogeneity over Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, G.; Hu, Z.; Ma, Y.; Ma, W.

    2017-12-01

    The land-atmospheric interactions over a heterogeneous surface is a tricky issue for accurately understanding the energy-water exchanges between land surface and atmosphere. We investigate the vertical transport of energy and water over a heterogeneous land surface in Tibetan Plateau during the evolution of the convective boundary layer using large eddy simulation (WRF_LES). The surface heterogeneity is created according to remote sensing images from high spatial resolution LandSat ETM+ images. The PBL characteristics over a heterogeneous surface are analyzed in terms of secondary circulations under different background wind conditions based on the horizontal and vertical distribution and evolution of wind. The characteristics of vertical transport of energy and heat over a heterogeneous surface are analyzed in terms of the horizontal distribution as well as temporal evolution of sensible and latent heat fluxes at different heights under different wind conditions on basis of the simulated results from WRF_LES. The characteristics of the heat and water transported into the free atmosphere from surface are also analyzed and quantified according to the simulated results from WRF_LES. The convective transport of energy and water are analyzed according to horizontal and vertical distributions of potential temperature and vapor under different background wind conditions. With the analysis based on the WRF_LES simulation, the performance of PBL schemes of mesoscale simulation (WRF_meso) is evaluated. The comparison between horizontal distribution of vertical fluxes and domain-averaged vertical fluxes of the energy and water in the free atmosphere is used to evaluate the performance of PBL schemes of WRF_meso in the simulation of vertical exchange of energy and water. This is an important variable because only the energy and water transported into free atmosphere is able to influence the regional and even global climate. This work would will be of great significance not

  3. Impact of industrial effluents on surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    2000-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated municipal and industrial effluents has given rise to serious problems of water pollution and human health in Pakistan. The City of Lahore discharges about 365 mgd of wastewater with a BOD load of 250 tons per day, without treatment, into Ravi river. Because of the untreated industrial discharges, river Ravi is devoid of dissolved oxygen through most of its react between Lahore and Upper Chenab Canal under low flow conditions. Pollution levels can be controlled if each industry treats its own wastewater prior to disposal, in accordance with NEQS (Pakistan). (author)

  4. Recovery from acidification in European surface waters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, C. D.; Cullen, J. M.; Alewell, C.; Kopáček, Jiří; Marchetto, A.; Moldan, F.; Prechtel, A.; Rogora, M.; Veselý, J.; Wright, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2001), s. 283-297 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0063 Grant - others:CEC RECOVER(XE) 2010 EVK1-CT-1999-00018; GMER(DE) PT BEO 51-0339476; UKDETR(GB) EPG1/3/92; NNP(NO) SFT2000; CEC(XE) EMERGE EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Keywords : acidification * recovery * sulphate Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2001

  5. Recovery of acidified European surface waters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wright, R. F.; Larssen, T.; Camarero, L.; Cosby, B. J.; Ferrier, R. C.; Helliwell, R.; Forsius, M.; Jenkins, A.; Kopáček, Jiří; Majer, V.; Moldan, F.; Posch, M.; Rogora, M.; Schöpp, W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2005), 64A-72A ISSN 0013-936X. [ Acid Rain 2005. International Conference on Acid Deposition /7./. Prague, 12.06.2005-17.06.2005] Grant - others:EC(XE) EMERGE EVK1-CT-1999-00032; EC(XE) RECOVER:2010 EVK1-CT-1999-00018; DEFRA(GB) EPG 1/3/194; ICST(ES) REN2000-0889/GLO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : acid ification * recovery * European lake districts Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 4.054, year: 2005

  6. Adsorption of surface functionalized silica nanoparticles onto mineral surfaces and decane/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metin, Cigdem O.; Baran, Jimmie R.; Nguyen, Quoc P.

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of silica nanoparticles onto representative mineral surfaces and at the decane/water interface was studied. The effects of particle size (the mean diameters from 5 to 75 nm), concentration and surface type on the adsorption were studied in detail. Silica nanoparticles with four different surfaces [unmodified, surface modified with anionic (sulfonate), cationic (quaternary ammonium (quat)) or nonionic (polyethylene glycol (PEG)) surfactant] were used. The zeta potential of these silica nanoparticles ranges from −79.8 to 15.3 mV. The shape of silica particles examined by a Hitachi-S5500 scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is quite spherical. The adsorption of all the nanoparticles (unmodified or surface modified) on quartz and calcite surfaces was found to be insignificant. We used interfacial tension (IFT) measurements to investigate the adsorption of silica nanoparticles at the decane/water interface. Unmodified nanoparticles or surface modified ones with sulfonate or quat do not significantly affect the IFT of the decane/water interface. It also does not appear that the particle size or concentration influences the IFT. However, the presence of PEG as a surface modifying material significantly reduces the IFT. The PEG surface modifier alone in an aqueous solution, without the nanoparticles, yields the same IFT reduction for an equivalent PEG concentration as that used for modifying the surface of nanoparticles. Contact angle measurements of a decane droplet on quartz or calcite plate immersed in water (or aqueous nanoparticle dispersion) showed a slight change in the contact angle in the presence of the studied nanoparticles. The results of contact angle measurements are in good agreement with experiments of adsorption of nanoparticles on mineral surfaces or decane/water interface. This study brings new insights into the understanding and modeling of the adsorption of surface-modified silica nanoparticles onto mineral surfaces and

  7. Methods on estimation of the evaporation from water surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajanovska, Lidija; Tanushevska, Dushanka; Aleksovska, Nina

    2001-01-01

    The whole world water supply on the Earth is in close dependence on hydrological cycle connected with water circulation at Earth-Atmosphere route through evaporation, precipitation and water runoff. Evaporation exists worldwide where the atmosphere is unsatiated of water steam (when there is humidity in short supply) and it depends on climatic conditions in some regions. The purpose of this paper is to determine a method for estimation of evaporation of natural water surface in our areas, that means its determination as exact as possible. (Original)

  8. Dynamics of ice nucleation on water repellent surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Azar; Yamada, Masako; Li, Ri; Shang, Wen; Otta, Shourya; Zhong, Sheng; Ge, Liehui; Dhinojwala, Ali; Conway, Ken R; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Vinciquerra, A Joseph; Stephens, Brian; Blohm, Margaret L

    2012-02-14

    Prevention of ice accretion and adhesion on surfaces is relevant to many applications, leading to improved operation safety, increased energy efficiency, and cost reduction. Development of passive nonicing coatings is highly desirable, since current antiicing strategies are energy and cost intensive. Superhydrophobicity has been proposed as a lead passive nonicing strategy, yet the exact mechanism of delayed icing on these surfaces is not clearly understood. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of ice formation dynamics upon water droplet impact on surfaces with different wettabilities. We experimentally demonstrate that ice nucleation under low-humidity conditions can be delayed through control of surface chemistry and texture. Combining infrared (IR) thermometry and high-speed photography, we observe that the reduction of water-surface contact area on superhydrophobic surfaces plays a dual role in delaying nucleation: first by reducing heat transfer and second by reducing the probability of heterogeneous nucleation at the water-substrate interface. This work also includes an analysis (based on classical nucleation theory) to estimate various homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation rates in icing situations. The key finding is that ice nucleation delay on superhydrophobic surfaces is more prominent at moderate degrees of supercooling, while closer to the homogeneous nucleation temperature, bulk and air-water interface nucleation effects become equally important. The study presented here offers a comprehensive perspective on the efficacy of textured surfaces for nonicing applications.

  9. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun; Yang, Jieyi; Wan, Fang; Ge, Quan; Yang, Longlai; Ding, Zunliang; Yang, Dequan; Sacher, Edward R.; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a

  10. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  11. Pesticides distribution in surface waters and sediments of lotic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the availability and distribution of Lindane (HCHs) and Total organochlorine phosphate (TOCP) in the surface waters and sediments of selected water bodies in Agbede wetlands was carried out from December, 2012 to May, 2014 in order to cover seasonal trends in both matrixes. A Gas Chromatograph ...

  12. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.; van Staalduinen, M.A.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we

  13. Exploring the link between multiscale entropy and fractal scaling behavior in near-surface wind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Nogueira

    Full Text Available The equivalency between the power law behavior of Multiscale Entropy (MSE and of power spectra opens a promising path for interpretation of complex time-series, which is explored here for the first time for atmospheric fields. Additionally, the present manuscript represents a new independent empirical validation of such relationship, the first one for the atmosphere. The MSE-fractal relationship is verified for synthetic fractal time-series covering the full range of exponents typically observed in the atmosphere. It is also verified for near-surface wind observations from anemometers and CFSR re-analysis product. The results show a ubiquitous β ≈ 5/3 behavior inside the inertial range. A scaling break emerges at scales around a few seconds, with a tendency towards 1/f noise. The presence, extension and fractal exponent of this intermediate range are dependent on the particular surface forcing and atmospheric conditions. MSE shows an identical picture which is consistent with the turbulent energy cascade model: viscous dissipation at the small-scale end of the inertial range works as an information sink, while at the larger (energy-containing scales the multiple forcings in the boundary layer act as widespread information sources. Another scaling transition occurs at scales around 1-10 days, with an abrupt flattening of the spectrum. MSE shows that this transition corresponds to a maximum of the new information introduced, occurring at the time-scales of the synoptic features that dominate weather patterns. At larger scales, a scaling regime with flatter slopes emerges extending to scales larger than 1 year. MSE analysis shows that the amount of new information created decreases with increasing scale in this low-frequency regime. Additionally, in this region the energy injection is concentrated in two large energy peaks: daily and yearly time-scales. The results demonstrate that the superposition of these periodic signals does not destroy the

  14. Exploring the link between multiscale entropy and fractal scaling behavior in near-surface wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The equivalency between the power law behavior of Multiscale Entropy (MSE) and of power spectra opens a promising path for interpretation of complex time-series, which is explored here for the first time for atmospheric fields. Additionally, the present manuscript represents a new independent empirical validation of such relationship, the first one for the atmosphere. The MSE-fractal relationship is verified for synthetic fractal time-series covering the full range of exponents typically observed in the atmosphere. It is also verified for near-surface wind observations from anemometers and CFSR re-analysis product. The results show a ubiquitous β ≈ 5/3 behavior inside the inertial range. A scaling break emerges at scales around a few seconds, with a tendency towards 1/f noise. The presence, extension and fractal exponent of this intermediate range are dependent on the particular surface forcing and atmospheric conditions. MSE shows an identical picture which is consistent with the turbulent energy cascade model: viscous dissipation at the small-scale end of the inertial range works as an information sink, while at the larger (energy-containing) scales the multiple forcings in the boundary layer act as widespread information sources. Another scaling transition occurs at scales around 1-10 days, with an abrupt flattening of the spectrum. MSE shows that this transition corresponds to a maximum of the new information introduced, occurring at the time-scales of the synoptic features that dominate weather patterns. At larger scales, a scaling regime with flatter slopes emerges extending to scales larger than 1 year. MSE analysis shows that the amount of new information created decreases with increasing scale in this low-frequency regime. Additionally, in this region the energy injection is concentrated in two large energy peaks: daily and yearly time-scales. The results demonstrate that the superposition of these periodic signals does not destroy the underlying

  15. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  16. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Gaurav [Ohio University; Mark, David [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Kolas, Dave [Raytheon BBN Technologies; Varanka, Dalia [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Romero, Boleslo E [University of California, Santa Barbara; Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Usery, Lynn [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Liebermann, Joshua [Tumbling Walls, LLC; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  17. Nonzero Ideal Gas Contribution to the Surface Tension of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2017-06-15

    Surface tension, the tendency of fluid interfaces to behave elastically and minimize their surface, is routinely calculated as the difference between the lateral and normal components of the pressure or, invoking isotropy in momentum space, of the virial tensor. Here we show that the anisotropy of the kinetic energy tensor close to a liquid-vapor interface can be responsible for a large part of its surface tension (about 15% for water, independent from temperature).

  18. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  19. Influence of Road Surface Microtexture on Thin Water Film Traction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUTRU , Yannick; Kane , Malal; Do , Minh Tan; Cerezo , Véronique

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the contribution of road surface microtexture to the relationship between tire/road friction and water depth. The main objectives are the estimation of local water depths trapped at the tire/road interface and the definition of a critical water depth which can be used for driver assistance and information systems. Tests are performed in laboratory. Specimens are slabs made of asphalt concrete and mosaics composed of coarse aggregates. The aggregate mosaics are sandblaste...

  20. Wind and water tunnel testing of a morphing aquatic micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Robert; Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Aerial robots capable of locomotion in both air and water would enable novel mission profiles in complex environments, such as water sampling after floods or underwater structural inspections. The design of such a vehicle is challenging because it implies significant propulsive and structural design trade-offs for operation in both fluids. In this paper, we present a unique Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV), which uses a reconfigurable wing to dive into the water from flight, inspired by the plunge diving strategy of water diving birds in the family Sulidae . The vehicle's performance is investigated in wind and water tunnel experiments, from which we develop a planar trajectory model. This model is used to predict the dive behaviour of the AquaMAV, and investigate the efficacy of passive dives initiated by wing folding as a means of water entry. The paper also includes first field tests of the AquaMAV prototype where the folding wings are used to initiate a plunge dive.

  1. Analysis of Water Mist Suppression with Foam Additive in Wind Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Wei Chiu[1; Yin-Tsz Lin[1; Yi-Liang Shu[2

    2015-01-01

    The study adopted a 20-foot long container to simulate the situation inside a turbine cabin. Water mist sprays were installed internally and used to perform fire extinguishing tests. Under these different scenarios, several operating factors were adjusted with the results of each adjustment subsequently measured. The operating factors studied included: operating pressures, foam concentrations, cabin opening issues, and obstacles. Each of the factors was compared with the others so as to find out which combinations would be most suitable for a water mist spray system installed inside a wind turbine cabin. The presence of obstructions hinders the direct impact of the mist spray on the fire source and in average an additional 2 to 3 minutes is required to put out the fire. This study found that the effect of the foam-water ratio is linear. Regardless of the scenario, the optimum mixture ratio is 3%. The line graph shows that the most unsuitable aqueous film-forming mixture ratio is 6%. This experiment found that the main fire extinguishing mechanism of water mist spray is the cooling of a large area via water droplets. This system is very effective in bringing down the temperature. The addition of foam in water mist spray, however, impaired the effectiveness of the cooling effect although the fire control mechanism via emulsification markedly reduced the time required to put out the fire. The increase in foam magnification will considerably enhance the fire extinguishing efficiency.

  2. Dynamic Impacts of Water Droplets onto Icephobic Soft Surfaces at High Weber Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqun; Liu, Yang; Hu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Kota, Arun

    2017-11-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to examine the effects of the stiffness of icephobic soft PDMS materials on the impact dynamics of water drops at high weber numbers pertinent to aircraft icing phenomena. The experimental study was performed in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). During the experiments, both the shear modulus of the soft PDMS surface and the Weber numbers of the impinging water droplets are controlled for the comparative study. While the shear modulus of the soft PDMS surface was changed by tuning the recipes to make the PDMS materials, the Weber number of the impinging water droplets was altered by adjusting the airflow speed in the wind tunnel. A suite of advanced flow diagnostic techniques, which include high-speed photographic imaging, digital image projection (DIP), and infrared (IR) imaging thermometry, were used to quantify the transient behavior of water droplet impingement, unsteady heat transfer and dynamic ice accreting process over the icephobic soft airfoil surfaces. The findings derived from the icing physics studies can be used to improve current icing accretion models for more accurate prediction of ice formation and accretion on aircraft wings and to develop effective anti-/deicing strategies for safer and more efficient operation of aircraft in cold weather.

  3. Reduction of fatigue loads on jacket substructure through blade design optimization for multimegawatt wind turbines at 50 m water depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried; Pavese, Christian; Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the reduction of the fore-aft damage equivalent moment at the tower base for multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines mounted on jacket type substructures at 50 m water depths. The study investigates blade design optimization of a reference 10 MW wind turbine under standard wind...... conditions of onshore sites. The blade geometry and structure is optimized to yield a design that minimizes tower base fatigue loads without significant loss of power production compared to that of the reference setup. The resulting blade design is then mounted on a turbine supported by a jacket and placed...

  4. Development of an Extratropical Storm Wind, Wave, and Water Level Climatology for the Offshore Mid-Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    windfield improvements in WIS result in a superior hindcast product. ERDC/CHL TR-15-11 16 Figure 6. Station 44025 full hindcast evaluations. See...using IOKA winds and WAVEWATCH III modeling technology. Furthermore, the NCEP reanalysis hindcast will likely be rerun with improved WAVEWATCH III...surface wind speeds. Part I: Theory and seawinds observations. Journal of Climate 19:497–520. Ramsey, R., D. Leathers , D. Wells, and H. Talley. 1998

  5. Water slip and friction at a solid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigo, L; Pierno, M; Mammano, F; Sada, C; Fois, G; Pozzato, A; Zilio, S dal; Mistura, G [Dipartimento di Fisica G Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Natali, M [Istituto di Chimica Inorganica e delle Superfici (ICIS), CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Tormen, M [TASC-INFM, CNR, S S 14 km 163.5 Area Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: mistura@padova.infm.it

    2008-09-03

    A versatile micro-particle imaging velocimetry ({mu}-PIV) recording system is described, which allows us to make fluid velocity measurements in a wide range of flow conditions both inside microchannels and at liquid-solid interfaces by using epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence excitation. This set-up has been applied to study the slippage of water over flat surfaces characterized by different degrees of hydrophobicity and the effects that a grooved surface has on the fluid flow inside a microchannel. Preliminary measurements of the slip length of water past various flat surfaces show no significant dependence on the contact angle.

  6. Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants...... however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatment prior to discharge into receiving surface waters, as the mixing may be insufficient in small streams....

  7. Context of surveillance of underground and surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document briefly describes the evolutions of regulations on site liquid effluents and of guideline values concerning radioactive wastes, briefly presents the surveillance of underground and surface waters of CEA sites, comments the guideline values of the radiological quality of waters aimed at human consumption, and gives an overview of information which are brought to public's attention. Then, for different CEA sites (Cadarache, Marcoule, Saclay, Grenoble, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Valduc, DIF), this document proposes a presentation of the hydrological context, regulatory context, the surface and underground water surveillance process and values, the storing zones of old wastes

  8. The variation in visibility and its relationship with surface wind speed in China from 1960 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianze; Che, Huizheng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-01-01

    This study used daily visibility and surface wind speed observational data over the 50-year period from 1960 to 2009, from 464 national meteorological stations in China, to examine the relationship between these two variables. Specifically, using the statistical methods of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and wavelet analysis, the data were processed into anomaly data to study their spatial and temporal distributions and the characteristics of each pattern's periodicity after EOF analysis of the whole country's visibility and surface wind speed. Correlation analysis and composite analysis were then used to elucidate the relationship between the two variables on different time scales. The results showed a gradual reduction in visibility nationally, with the nine-point moving mean implying decadal variability of the visibility with a downward trend. However, an irregular oscillation was found for the inter-annual variability of visibility. For the anomaly series of visibility during the 50-year period, a long-period oscillation of around 32 years was apparent. Up until the 1990s, there was an approximate 16-year medium-term oscillation period, whereas, after the 1990s, an approximate 8-year oscillation period was generated. In terms of high correlation between the two variables, for the decadal variability, the changes in visibility and surface wind speed at this time scale were almost in agreement. Meanwhile, with respect to the serious pollution in the Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone, the correlation between the two variables was reasonably high, suggesting that surface wind had a significant influence on the scattering of aerosol particles. However, in the Sichuan Basin, the correlation was relatively low, possibly on account of its landscape limiting the variation of wind speed.

  9. The Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Alsdorf, Douglas; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Morrow, Rosemary; Mognard, Nelly; Vaze, Parag; Lafon, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    A new space mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is being developed jointly by a collaborative effort of the international oceanographic and hydrological communities for making high-resolution measurement of the water elevation of both the ocean and land surface water to answer the questions about the oceanic submesoscale processes and the storage and discharge of land surface water. The key instrument payload would be a Ka-band radar interferometer capable of making high-resolution wide-swath altimetry measurement. This paper describes the proposed science objectives and requirements as well as the measurement approach of SWOT, which is baselined to be launched in 2019. SWOT would demonstrate this new approach to advancing both oceanography and land hydrology and set a standard for future altimetry missions.

  10. Unit for wind power plants and water power. Aggregat fuer Windkraftanlagen und Wasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armonies, H.; Armonies, G.

    1983-01-13

    The invention concerns the manufacture and process of kinetic thermal units for wind power plants and water power. It is characterized by the fact that the supporting frame of the unit is made so that it carries the unit shaft bearing and also a fixed flange for a hollow body, pump part, unit shaft pushback device and thermal insulation. The unit shaft running in bearings is made so that it can rotate in the two bearings or a double bearing and can also slide between 2 flanges on the unit shaft in the longitudinal direction of the bearings. The end of the unit shaft projecting beyond the supporting frame is made so that the wind blades, rotors or water turbines can be connected to it by flanges. The rotor shaft can be pressed against a hollow body carrying a liquid by a friction disc. A heat resistant liquid pump is also situated on the supporting frame. It is driven by the unit shaft. (HWJ).

  11. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  12. North Atlantic atmospheric circulation and surface wind in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: uncertainty and long term downscaled variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Bustamante, E.; Jimenez, P.A. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Rouco, J.F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Madrid (Spain); Navarro, J. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Xoplaki, E. [University of Bern, Institute of Geography and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, Bern (Switzerland); Montavez, J.P. [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Fisica, Murcia (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The variability and predictability of the surface wind field at the regional scale is explored over a complex terrain region in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula by means of a downscaling technique based on Canonical Correlation Analysis. More than a decade of observations (1992-2005) allows for calibrating and validating a statistical method that elicits the main associations between the large scale atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and Mediterranean areas and the regional wind field. In an initial step the downscaling model is designed by selecting parameter values from practise. To a large extent, the variability of the wind at monthly timescales is found to be governed by the large scale circulation modulated by the particular orographic features of the area. The sensitivity of the downscaling methodology to the selection of the model parameter values is explored, in a second step, by performing a systematic sampling of the parameters space, avoiding a heuristic selection. This provides a metric for the uncertainty associated with the various possible model configurations. The uncertainties associated with the model configuration are considerably dependent on the spatial variability of the wind. While the sampling of the parameters space in the model set up moderately impact estimations during the calibration period, the regional wind variability is very sensitive to the parameters selection at longer timescales. This fact illustrates that downscaling exercises based on a single configuration of parameters should be interpreted with extreme caution. The downscaling model is used to extend the estimations several centuries to the past using long datasets of sea level pressure, thereby illustrating the large temporal variability of the regional wind field from interannual to multicentennial timescales. The analysis does not evidence long term trends throughout the twentieth century, however anomalous episodes of high/low wind speeds are identified

  13. The role of atmospheric precipitation in introducing contaminants to the surface waters of the Fuglebekken catchment, Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the Svalbard Archipelago is located at a high latitude, far from potential contaminant sources, it is not free from anthropogenic impact. Towards the Fuglebekken catchment, in the southern part of Spitsbergen, north of Hornsund fjord, contaminants can be transported from mainland pollution sources. In the precipitation and surface water collected in the catchment, the following elements were detected and quantified: Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn. Additionally, pH, electrical conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in those samples. The acidic reaction of precipitation waters was identified as an important factor intensifying the metal migration in this Arctic tundra environment. The air mass trajectory, surprisingly, explained the variability of only a small fraction of trace elements in precipitation water. The air mass origin area was correlated only with the concentrations of As, V and Cr. Wind directions were helpful in explaining the variability of Mn, U and Ba concentrations (east–north-easterly wind and the contents of B, As, Rb, Se, Sr and Li in precipitation (south-westerly wind, which may indicate the local geological source of those. Atmospheric deposition was found to play a key role in the transport of contaminants into the Fuglebekken catchment; however, the surface water composition was modified by its pH and TOC content.

  14. Simulation of Irregular Waves and Wave Induced Loads on Wind Power Plants in Shallow Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumars, Jenny [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Water Environment Transport

    2004-05-01

    The essay gives a short introduction to waves and discusses the problem with non-linear waves in shallow water and how they effect an offshore wind energy converter. The focus is on the realisation of non-linear waves in the time domain from short-term statistics in the form of a variance density spectrum of the wave elevation. For this purpose the wave transformation from deep water to the near to shore site of a wind energy farm at Bockstigen has been calculated with the use of SWAN (Simulating Waves Near Shore). The result is a wave spectrum, which can be used as input to the realisation. The realisation of waves is done by perturbation theory to the first and second-order. The properties calculated are the wave elevation, water particle velocity and acceleration. The wave heights from the second order perturbation equations are higher than those from the first order perturbation equations. This is also the case for the water particle kinematics. The increase of variance is significant between the first order and the second order realisation. The calculated wave elevation exhibits non-linear features as the peaks become sharper and the troughs flatter. The resulting forces are calculated using Morison's equation. For second order force and base moment there is an increase in the maximum values. The force and base moment are largest approximately at the zero up and down crossing of the wave elevation. This indicates an inertia dominated wave load. So far the flexibility and the response of the structure have not been taken into account. They are, however, of vital importance. For verification of the wave model the results will later on be compared with measurements at Bockstigen off the coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water in southwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John C; George, Gregory; Fry, David; Benneyworth, Laura; Wilson, Carol; Auerbach, Leslie; Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Goodbred, Steven

    2017-09-11

    To identify the causes of salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water on an embanked island (i.e., polder) in the tidal delta plain of SW Bangladesh we collected and analyzed water samples in the dry (May) and wet (October) seasons in 2012-2013. Samples were collected from rice paddies (wet season), saltwater ponds used for brine shrimp aquaculture (dry season), freshwater ponds and tidal channels (both wet and dry season), and rainwater collectors. Continuous measurements of salinity from March 2012 to February 2013 show that tidal channel water increases from ~0.15 ppt in the wet season up to ~20 ppt in the dry season. On the polder, surface water exceeds the World Health Organization drinking water guideline of 10 μg As/L in 78% of shrimp ponds and 27% of rice paddies, raising concerns that produced shrimp and rice could have unsafe levels of As. Drinking water sources also often have unsafe As levels, with 83% of tubewell and 43% of freshwater pond samples having >10 μg As/L. Water compositions and field observations are consistent with shrimp pond water being sourced from tidal channels during the dry season, rather than the locally saline groundwater from tubewells. Irrigation water for rice paddies is also obtained from the tidal channels, but during the wet season when surface waters are fresh. Salts become concentrated in irrigation water through evaporation, with average salinity increasing from 0.43 ppt in the tidal channel source to 0.91 ppt in the rice paddies. Our observations suggest that the practice of seasonally alternating rice and shrimp farming in a field has a negligible effect on rice paddy water salinity. Also, shrimp ponds do not significantly affect the salinity of adjacent surface water bodies or subjacent groundwater because impermeable shallow surface deposits of silt and clay mostly isolate surface water bodies from each other and from the shallow groundwater aquifer. Bivariate plots of conservative element

  16. Simulation of Time-Varying Spatially Uniform Pressure and Near-Surface Wind Flows on Building Components and Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraphy Y. Shen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new full-scale (FS testing apparatus for conducting performance evaluations of FS building envelope systems. The simulator can generate spatially uniform, time-varying pressure conditions associated with Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale Category 5 winds while compensating for large air leakage through the specimen and also operate a high-speed wind tunnel, both with dynamic control. This paper presents system details, operating characteristics, and an early case study on the performance of large sectional door systems under wind pressure loading. Failure mechanisms are discussed, and finite element modeling is validated for two specimens. It demonstrates successful dynamic load control for large component and cladding systems, as well as simulation of flows near the building surface. These capabilities serve to complement other FS wind tunnel facilities by offering tools to generate ultimate load conditions on portions of the building. Further, the paper successfully demonstrates the utility of combining physical testing and computational analysis as a matter of routine, which underscores the potential of evolving FS testing to encompass cyber–physical approaches.

  17. Issues of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylik, Eliza

    2018-02-01

    Parasitic protozoa are very numerous organisms in the environment that play an important role in the spread of water-borne diseases. Water-borne epidemics caused by parasitic protozoa are noted throughout the world. Within these organisms, intestinal protozoa of the genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ones of the most serious health hazards for humans. This paper focuses on the problem of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters. Characteristics of the most frequently recognized pathogens responsible for water-borne outbreaks were described, as well as sources of contamination and surface waters contamination due to protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium and Giardia were presented. The methods of destroying the cysts and oocysts of parasitic protozoa used nowadays in the world were also presented in a review.

  18. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Time Series for Flood Detection and Surface Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioresita, Filsa; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of environmental changes surface waters are undergoing changes in time and space. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface waters resources becomes essential to support sustainable policies and development activities. Especially because surface waters, are not only a vital sweet water resource, but can also pose hazards to human settlements and infrastructures through flooding. Floods are a highly frequent disaster in the world and can caused huge material losses. Detecting and mapping their spatial distribution is fundamental to ascertain damages and for relief efforts. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective way to monitor surface waters bodies over large areas since it provides excellent temporal coverage and, all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. However, emergent vegetation, trees, wind or flow turbulence can increase radar back-scatter returns and pose problems for the delineation of inundated areas. In such areas, passive remote sensing data can be used to identify vegetated areas and support the interpretation of SAR data. The availability of new Earth Observation products, for example Sentinel-1 (active) and Sentinel-2 (passive) imageries, with both high spatial and temporal resolution, have the potential to facilitate flood detection and monitoring of surface waters changes which are very dynamic in space and time. In this context, the research consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is to propose generic and reproducible methodologies for the analysis of Sentinel-1 time series data for floods detection and surface waters mapping. The processing chain comprises a series of pre-processing steps and the statistical modeling of the pixel value distribution to produce probabilistic maps for the presence of surface waters. Images pre-processing for all Sentinel-1 images comprise the reduction SAR effect like orbit errors, speckle noise, and geometric effects. A modified

  19. Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2017-12-01

    One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of substantial quantities of high quality potable water. This supports a saving of around US$ 4.1 trillion per year globally by limiting the cost of expensive drinking water treatments and provision of unnecessary infrastructure. Even low levels of contaminants specifically organics and metals in catchments when in a mobile state can reduce these economic benefits by seriously affecting the water quality. Contamination and contaminant mobility can occur through natural and anthropogenic activities including forest fires. Moderate to high intensity forest fires are able to alter soil properties and release sequestered metals from sediments, soil organic matter and fragments of vegetation. In addition, the increase in post-fire erosion rate by rainfall runoff and strong winds facilitates the rapid transport of these metals downslope and downstream. The subsequent metal deposition in distal soil and water bodies can influence surface water quality with potential impacts to the larger ecosystems inclusive of negative effects on humans. This is of substantial concern as 4 billion hectares of forest catchments provide high quality water to global communities. Redressing this problem requires quantification of the potential effects on water resources and instituting rigorous fire and environmental management plans to mitigate deleterious effects on catchment areas. This paper is a review of the current state of the art literature dealing with the risk of post-fire mobilization of the metals into surface water resources. It is intended to inform discussion on the preparation of suitable management plans and policies during and after fire events in order to maintain potable water quality in a cost-effective manner. In these times of climate fluctuation and increased incidence of fires, the need for development of new policies and management frameworks

  20. Surface to 90 km winds for Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth, from 0 through 90 km altitude, for Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California are presented. Wind probability distributions and statistics for any rotation of axes can be computed from the five given parameters.

  1. Reaction of water vapor with a clean liquid uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-01-01

    To study the reaction of water vapor with uranium, we have exposed clean liquid uranium surfaces to H 2 O under UHV conditions. We have measured the surface concentration of oxygen as a function of exposure, and determined the maximum attainable surface oxygen concentration X 0 /sup s/ as a function of temperature. We have used these measurements to estimate, close to the melting point, the solubility of oxygen (X 0 /sup b/, -4 ) and its surface segregation coefficient β/sup s/(> 10 3 ). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Nanodroplets on Silica Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    and DNA microarrays technologies.4,5,6,7,8 Although extensive experimental, theoretical and computational work has been devoted to study the nature of the interaction between silica and water,2,9-16 at the molecular level a complete understanding of silica-water systems has not been reached. Contact angle...... computations of water droplets on silica surfaces offers a useful fundamental and quantitative measurement in order to study chemical and physical properties of water-silica systems.3,16,17,18 For hydrophobic systems the static and dynamic properties of the fluid-solid interface are influenced by the presence...

  3. Impacts of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, Q.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water are outlined. The major impacts of nuclear power plants on aquatic resources are disruption during construction, intake of cooling water, discharge problems, and interactions with other water users. The following topics are included under the heading, assessment of aquatic ecology: identification of flora and fauna; abundance of aquatic organisms; species-environment relationships; and identification of pre-existing environmental stress. The following topics are included under the heading, environmental effects of plant operation: entrapment of fish by cooling water; passage of plankton through cooling system; discharge area and thermal plume; chemical effluents; and plant construction. (U.S.)

  4. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  5. Hydraulics and drones: observations of water level, bathymetry and water surface velocity from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo

    -navigable rivers and overpass obstacles (e.g. river structures). Computer vision, autopilot system and beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS) flights will ensure the possibility to retrieve hyper-spatial observations of water depth, without requiring the operator to access the area. Surface water speed can......The planet faces several water-related threats, including water scarcity, floods, and pollution. Satellite and airborne sensing technology is rapidly evolving to improve the observation and prediction of surface water and thus prevent natural disasters. While technological developments require....... Although UAV-borne measurements of surface water speed have already been documented in the literature, a novel approach was developed to avoid GCPs. This research is the first demonstration that orthometric water level can be measured from UAVs with a radar system and a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite...

  6. Surface water classification and monitoring using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Katherine Elizabeth

    Surface water classification using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an established practice for monitoring flood hazards due to the high temporal and spatial resolution it provides. Surface water change is a dynamic process that varies both spatially and temporally, and can occur on various scales resulting in significant impacts on affected areas. Small-scale flooding hazards, caused by beaver dam failure, is an example of surface water change, which can impact nearby infrastructure and ecosystems. Assessing these hazards is essential to transportation and infrastructure maintenance. With current satellite missions operating in multiple polarizations, spatio-temporal resolutions, and frequencies, a comprehensive comparison between SAR products for surface water monitoring is necessary. In this thesis, surface water extent models derived from high resolution single-polarization TerraSAR-X (TSX) data, medium resolution dual-polarization TSX data and low resolution quad-polarization RADARSAT-2 (RS-2) data are compared. There exists a compromise between acquiring SAR data with a high resolution or high information content. Multi-polarization data provides additional phase and intensity information, which makes it possible to better classify areas of flooded vegetation and wetlands. These locations are often where fluctuations in surface water occur and are essential for understanding dynamic underlying processes. However, often multi-polarized data is acquired at a low resolution, which cannot image these zones effectively. High spatial resolution, single-polarization TSX data provides the best model of open water. However, these single-polarization observations have limited information content and are affected by shadow and layover errors. This often hinders the classification of other land cover types. The dual-polarization TSX data allows for the classification of flooded vegetation, but classification is less accurate compared to the quad-polarization RS-2 data

  7. Satellite observations of rainfall effect on sea surface salinity in the waters adjacent to Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chung-Ru; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chih; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2017-10-01

    Changes of oceanic salinity are highly related to the variations of evaporation and precipitation. To understand the influence of rainfall on the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the waters adjacent to Taiwan, satellite remote sensing data from the year of 2012 to 2014 are employed in this study. The daily rain rate data obtained from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Microwave Imager (TRMM/TMI), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), and WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer. The SSS data was derived from the measurements of radiometer instruments onboard the Aquarius satellite. The results show the average values of SSS in east of Taiwan, east of Luzon and South China Sea are 33.83 psu, 34.05 psu, and 32.84 psu, respectively, in the condition of daily rain rate higher than 1 mm/hr. In contrast to the rainfall condition, the average values of SSS are 34.07 psu, 34.26 psu, and 33.09 psu in the three areas, respectively at no rain condition (rain rate less than 1 mm/hr). During the cases of heavy rainfall caused by spiral rain bands of typhoon, the SSS is diluted with an average value of -0.78 psu when the average rain rate is higher than 4 mm/hr. However, the SSS was increased after temporarily decreased during the typhoon cases. A possible reason to explain this phenomenon is that the heavy rainfall caused by the spiral rain bands of typhoon may dilute the sea surface water, but the strong winds can uplift the higher salinity of subsurface water to the sea surface.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site

  9. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  10. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-01-01

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H 2 O 2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  11. Dry deposition of submicron atmospheric aerosol over water surfaces in motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevenick, Calec

    2013-01-01

    Whether by chronic or accidental releases, the impact of a nuclear installation on the environment mainly depends on atmospheric transfers; and as the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima show, affect the contamination of surfaces and impacts in the medium and long-term on the environment and the population. In this context, this work focuses on the characterization and modeling of dry deposition of submicron aerosols on liquid surfaces in motion such as rivers. Unlike wet deposition which is conditioned by washout and rainout (rain and clouds), dry deposition is a phenomenon that depends entirely on the characteristics of aerosols, receiving surfaces, and air flow. In practice, the evaluation of dry deposition is based on the estimation of flux modeling as the product of particle concentration and deposition velocity which can vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the receiving surfaces (forest, snow, urban, grassland...). This topic is motivated by the virtual non-existence of studies on the mechanisms of dry deposition on continental water systems such as rivers; and respect for submicron aerosols. They have the lowest deposition efficiencies and filtration and the longer residence time in the atmosphere. In addition, they are potentially the most dangerous to living beings because they can penetrate deeper into the airway. Due to the lack of data on the dry deposition of submicron aerosols on a liquid surface in motion, the approach was based on two axes: 1) the acquisition of experimental deposition velocities and 2) the analysis and interpretation of results through modeling. The experiments were performed with uranine aerosols released into the IOA wind tunnel (Interface Ocean Atmosphere) of the Institute for Research on Non Equilibrium Phenomena which is configured to study the coupling between the air flow and water. These experiments have given many dry deposition velocities for different configurations characterized according to wind

  12. Dry deposition of submicron atmospheric aerosol over water surfaces in motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calec, Nevenick

    2013-01-01

    Whether by chronic or accidental releases, the impact of a nuclear installation on the environment mainly depends on atmospheric transfers; and as the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima show, affect the contamination of surfaces and impacts in the medium and long-term on the environment and the population. In this context, this work focuses on the characterization and modeling of dry deposition of submicron aerosols on liquid surfaces in motion such as rivers. Unlike wet deposition which is conditioned by washout and rainout (rain and clouds), dry deposition is a phenomenon that depends entirely on the characteristics of aerosols, receiving surfaces, and air flow. In practice, the evaluation of dry deposition is based on the estimation of flux modeling as the product of particle concentration and deposition velocity which can vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the receiving surfaces (forest, snow, urban, grassland..). This topic is motivated by the virtual non-existence of studies on the mechanisms of dry deposition on continental water systems such as rivers; and respect for submicron aerosols. They have the lowest deposition efficiencies and filtration and the longer residence time in the atmosphere. In addition, they are potentially the most dangerous to living beings because they can penetrate deeper into the airway. Due to the lack of data on the dry deposition of submicron aerosols on a liquid surface in motion, the approach was based on two axes: 1) the acquisition of experimental deposition velocities and 2) the analysis and interpretation of results through modeling. The experiments were performed with uranine aerosols released into the IOA wind tunnel (Interface Ocean Atmosphere) of the Institute for Research on Non Equilibrium Phenomena which is configured to study the coupling between the air flow and water. These experiments have given many dry deposition velocities for different configurations characterized according to wind

  13. Water redistribution at the soil surface : ponding and surface runoff in flat areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, one of the most important targets for the improvement of surface water quality as aimed for in the European Water Framework Directive, is the reduction of nutrient concentrations (both nitrogen and phosphorus). To identify the most suitable and effective measures for reducing the

  14. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  15. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  16. Changes in terrestrial near-surface wind speed and their possible causes: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zha, Jinlin; Zhao, Deming; Yang, Qidong

    2017-11-01

    Changes in terrestrial near-surface wind speed (SWS) are induced by a combination of anthropogenic activities and natural climate changes. Thus, the study of the long-term changes of SWS and their causes is very important for recognizing the effects of these processes. Although the slowdown in SWS has been analyzed in previous studies, to the best of knowledge, no overall comparison or detailed examination of this research has been performed. Similarly, the causes of the decreases in SWS and the best directions of future research have not been discussed in depth. Therefore, we analyzed a series of studies reporting SWS trends spanning the last 30 years from around the world. The changes in SWS differ among different regions. The most significant decreases have occurred in Central Asia and North America, with mean linear trends of - 0.11 m s-1 decade-1; the second most significant decreases have occurred in Europe, East Asia, and South Asia, with mean linear trends of - 0.08 m s-1 decade-1; and the weakest decrease has occurred in Australia. Although the SWS in Africa has decreased, this region lacks long-term observational data. Therefore, the uncertainties in the long-term SWS trend are higher in this region than in other regions. The changes in SWS, caused by a mixture of global-, regional-, and local-scale factors, are mainly due to changes in driving forces and drag forces. The changes in the driving forces are caused by changes in atmospheric circulation, and the changes in the drag forces are caused by changes in the external and internal friction in the atmosphere. Changes in surface friction are mainly caused by changes in the surface roughness due to land use and cover change (LUCC), including urbanization, and changes in internal friction are mainly induced by changes in the boundary layer characteristics. Future studies should compare the spatio-temporal differences in SWS between high and low altitudes and quantify the effects of different factors on

  17. Effects of wind-wave disturbances on adsorption and desorption of tetracycline and sulfadimidine in water-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qianjiahua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Shu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yuqing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jingge

    2018-05-28

    Wind-wave disturbances frequently disperse sediment particles into overlying water, which facilitates the adsorption and desorption of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Tetracycline (TC) and sulfadimidine (SM2) are common antibiotics that are frequently found in aquatic environments. This study utilized microcosms, comprising sediment and water from Lake Taihu, China, to examine the adsorption and desorption of TC and SM2 under different wind-wave disturbances in a shallow lake environment. The adsorption experiments were conducted with three different concentrations (1, 5, 10 mg/L) of TC and SM2 in the overlying water, and two different (background and strong) wind-wave conditions for 72 h. Subsequently, four microcosms were employed in a 12-h desorption study. Analysis of adsorption progress showed that TC concentration in the overlying water decreased quickly, while SM2 remained almost constant. In the desorption experiments, SM2 released to the overlying water was an order of magnitude greater than TC. These results indicate that sediment particles strongly adsorb TC but weakly adsorb SM2. Compared to background conditions, the strong wind-wave conditions resulted in higher concentrations of TC and SM2 in sediment and facilitated their migration to deeper sediment during adsorption, correspondingly promoting greater release of TC and SM2 from sediment particles into the overlying water during desorption.

  18. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  19. Macroelements in the surface microlayer of water of urban ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonowicz Józef Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses were conducted concerning the accumulation of four metals representing the group of macroelements, i.e. sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in two ponds located in the city of Słupsk. Water samples for chemical analyses were collected from the surface microlayer using a Garrett net. At the same time subsurface water samples were collected. Concentrations of metals were determined using a mass spectrometer. Generally, amounts of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were similar in surface microlayer and subsurface water. Only in the case of potassium and calcium was low enrichment observed in the surface microlayer in one pond, while the greatest extent for magnesium enrichment was observed in the spring period.

  20. Wavefront modulation of water surface wave by a metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hai-Tao; Cheng Ying; Liu Xiao-Jun; Wang Jing-Shi

    2015-01-01

    We design a planar metasurface to modulate the wavefront of a water surface wave (WSW) on a deep sub-wavelength scale. The metasurface is composed of an array of coiling-up-space units with specially designed parameters, and can take on the work of steering the wavefront when it is pierced into water. Like their acoustic counterparts, the modulation of WSW is ascribed to the gradient phase shift of the coiling-up-space units, which can be perfectly tuned by changing the coiling plate length and channel number inside the units. According to the generalized Snell’s law, negative refraction and ‘driven’ surface mode of WSW are also demonstrated at certain incidences. Specially, the transmitted WSW could be efficiently guided out by linking a symmetrically-corrugated channel in ‘driven’ surface mode. This work may have potential applications in water wave energy extraction and coastal protection. (paper)

  1. On the sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to remotely sensed marine surface wind data - A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, M. A.; Cardone, V. J.; Halem, M.; Halberstam, I.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation has the objective to assess the potential impact on numerical weather prediction (NWP) of remotely sensed surface wind data. Other investigations conducted with similar objectives have not been satisfactory in connection with a use of procedures providing an unrealistic distribution of initial errors. In the current study, care has been taken to duplicate the actual distribution of information in the conventional observing system, thus shifting the emphasis from accuracy of the data to the data coverage. It is pointed out that this is an important consideration in assessing satellite observing systems since experience with sounder data has shown that improvements in forecasts due to satellite-derived information is due less to a general error reduction than to the ability to fill data-sparse regions. The reported study concentrates on the evaluation of the observing system simulation experimental design and on the assessment of the potential of remotely sensed marine surface wind data.

  2. Distinctive Features of Surface Winds over Indian Ocean Between Strong and Weak Indian Summer Monsoons: Implications With Respect To Regional Rainfall Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M. A.; Ali, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This observational study focuses on characterizing the surface winds in the Arabian Sea (AS), the Bay of Bengal (BoB), and the southern Indian Ocean (SIO) with special reference to the strong and weak Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) using the latest daily gridded rainfall dataset provided by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) gridded wind product version 2.0 produced by Remote Sensing System (RSS) over the overlapped period 1991-2014. The potential links between surface winds and Indian regional rainfall are also examined. Results indicate that the surface wind speeds in AS and BoB during June-August are almost similar during strong ISMRs and weak ISMRs, whereas significant discrepancies are observed during September. By contrast, the surface wind speeds in SIO during June-August are found to be significantly different between strong and weak ISMRs, where they are similar during September. The significant differences in monthly mean surface wind convergence between strong and weak ISMRs are not coherent in space in the three regions. However, the probability density function (PDF) distributions of daily mean area-averaged values are distinctive between strong and weak ISMRs in the three regions. The correlation analysis indicates the area-averaged surface wind speeds in AS and the area-averaged wind convergence in BoB are highly correlated with regional rainfall for both strong and weak ISMRs. The wind convergence in BoB during strong ISMRs is relatively better correlated with regional rainfall than during weak ISMRs. The surface winds in SIO do not greatly affect Indian rainfall in short timescales, however, they will ultimately affect the strength of monsoon circulation by modulating Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode via atmosphere-ocean interactions.

  3. A laboratory investigation of mixing dynamics between biofuels and surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiang; Cotel, Aline

    2017-11-01

    Recently, production and usage of ethanol-blend fuels or biofuels have increased dramatically along with increasing risk of spilling into surface waters. Lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and absence of standard clean-up procedures make it crucial to study the mixing behavior between biofuels and water. Biofuels are represented by a solution of ethanol and glycol. A Plexiglas tank in conjunction with a wave generator is used to simulate the mixing of surface waters and biofuels under different natural conditions. In our previous experiments, two distinct mixing regimes were observed. One regime was driven by turbulence and the other by interfacial instabilities. However, under more realistic situations, without wind driven waves, only the first mixing regime was found. After one minute of rapid turbulent mixing, biofuels and water were fully mixed and no interface was formed. During the mixing process, chemical reactions happened simultaneously and influenced mixing dynamics. Current experiments are investigating the effect of waves on the mixing dynamics. Support from NSF CBET 1335878.

  4. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2006-04-01

    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/ 3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d -1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  5. Particle dry deposition to water surfaces: Processes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    flux to coastal waters, atmosphere-surface exchange represents a significant component of the total flux and may be particularly critical during the summertime when both the riverine input and ambient nutrient concentrations are often at a minimum. In this chapter, we present an overview...... of the physical and chemical processes which dictate the quantity (and direction) of atmosphere-surface fluxes of trace chemicals to (and above) water surfaces with particular emphasis on the role of particles. Dry deposition (transfer to the surface in the absence of precipitation) of particles is determined...... efforts to simulate and measure fluxes close to the coastline. These arise in part from the complexity of atmospheric flow in this region where energy and chemical fluxes are highly inhomogeneous in space and time and thermally generated atmospheric circulations are commonplace. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  6. A study on the dryness judgement criterion for leak test in water-cooled generator stator windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Bae, Yong Chae; Lee, Wook Ryun; Lee, Doo Young; Cho, Sung Won

    2009-01-01

    The complete dryness of stator inside is a necessary and sufficient condition for leak test. Microcracks by high cycle fatigue due to operation are generated in stator windings and they are interrupted by water molecules during leak test. For this reason, during leak test, the wrong value is indicated as follows: There are no leaks in stator windings. Generator manufacturers presents unique dryness judgement criteria for leak test but actually any criteria never indicate accurate dryness point for leak test. The reason is that stator winding has a complexity of structure and absence of an effective dryness equipment in power plant. In this paper, dryness judgement criterion to judge if stator winding inside is dried completely is proposed and is testified experimentally.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Overbased Detergents on a Water Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, M S; Dini, D; Heyes, D M; Breakspear, A; Chahine, S

    2017-07-25

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are reported of model overbased detergent nanoparticles on a model water surface which mimic their behavior on a Langmuir trough or large water droplet in engine oil. The simulations predict that the structure of the nanoparticle on a water surface is different to when it is immersed in a bulk hydrophobic solvent. The surfactant tails are partly directed out of the water, while the carbonate core maximizes its extent of contact with the water. Umbrella sampling calculations of the potential of mean force between two particles showed that they are associated with varying degrees with a maximum binding free energy of ca. 10 k B T for the salicylate stabilized particle, ca. 8 k B T for a sulfurized alkyl phenate stabilized particle, and ca. 5 k B T for a sulfonate stabilized particle. The differences in the strength of attraction depend on the proximity of nearest approach and the energy penalty associated with the disruption of the hydration shell of water molecules around the calcium carbonate core when the two particles approach. This is greatest for the sulfonate particle, which partially loses the surfactant ions to the solution, and least for the salicylate, which forms the weakest water "cage". The particles are separated by a water hydration layer, even at the point of closest approach.

  8. Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of surface, spring and borehole waters associated with the ophiolite rocks of Cyprus shows five broad water types (1 Mg-HCO3, (2 Na-SO4-Cl-HCO3, (3 Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-OH-CO3, (4 Na-Cl-SO4 and (5 Ca-SO4. The waters represent a progression in chemical reactivity from surface waters that evolve within a groundwater setting due to hydrolysis of the basic/ultrabasic rock as modified by CO2-weathering. An increase in salinity is also observed which is due to mixing with a saline end-member (modified sea-water and dissolution of gypsum/anhydrite. In some cases, the waters have pH values greater than 11. Such high values are associated with low temperature serpentinisation reactions. The system is a net sink for CO2. This feature is related not only to the hydrolysis of the primary minerals in the rock, but also to CaCO3 or Ca-Mg-CO3 solubility controls. Under hyperalkaline conditions, virtually all the carbon dioxide is lost from the water due to the sufficiently high calcium levels and carbonate buffering is then insignificant. Calcium sulphate solubility controls may also be operative when calcium and sulphate concentrations are particularly high. Keywords: Cyprus, Troodos, ophiolite, serpentinisation, spring, stream, water quality, bromide, iodine, boron, trace elements, hyperalkaline.

  9. Modification of surface properties of LLDPE by water plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantara Thevy Ratnam; Hill, D.J.T.; Firas Rasoul; Whittaker, A.K.; Imelda Keen

    2007-01-01

    Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) surface was modified by water plasma treatment. The LLDPE surface was treated at 10 and 20 W discharge power at various exposure times. A laboratory scale Megatherm radio frequency (RF) plasma apparatus that operates at 27 MHz was used to generate the water plasmas. The changes in chemical structure of the LLDPE polymeric chain upon plasma treatment were characterized by FTIR and XPS techniques. The selectivity of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) toward hydroxyl groups is used to quantify the hydroxyl groups formed on the polymer surface upon plasma treatment. After exposition to the plasma discharge a decline in water contact angle were observed. FTIR and XPS measurements indicate an oxidation of degraded polymeric chains and creation of hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester and carboxyl groups. Chemical derivatization with TFAA of water plasma treated polymer surfaces has shown that under the conditions employed, a very small (less than 5%) of the oxygen introduced by the water plasma treatment was present as hydroxyl group. (Author)

  10. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. - Highlights: • First global map on insecticide runoff through modelling. • Model predicts upper limit of insecticide exposure when compared to field data. • Water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects. • Insecticide application rate, terrain slope and rainfall main drivers of exposure. - We provide the first global map on insecticide runoff to surface water predicting that water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects

  11. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  12. Near 7-day response of ocean bottom pressure to atmospheric surface pressure and winds in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Ruixiang

    2018-02-01

    Ocean bottom pressures, observed by five pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs) from October 2012 to July 2014, exhibit strong near 7-day variability in the northern South China Sea (SCS) where long-term in situ bottom pressure observations are quite sparse. This variability was strongest in October 2013 during the near two years observation period. By joint analysis with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data, it is shown that the near 7-day ocean bottom pressure variability is closely related to the local atmospheric surface pressure and winds. Within a period band near 7 days, there are high coherences, exceeding 95% significance level, of observed ocean bottom pressure with local atmospheric surface pressure and with both zonal and meridional components of the wind. Ekman pumping/suction caused by the meridional component of the wind in particular, is suggested as one driving mechanism. A Kelvin wave response to the near 7-day oscillation would propagate down along the continental slope, observed at the Qui Nhon in the Vietnam. By multiple and partial coherence analyses, we find that local atmospheric surface pressure and Ekman pumping/suction show nearly equal influence on ocean bottom pressure variability at near 7-day periods. A schematic diagram representing an idealized model gives us a possible mechanism to explain the relationship between ocean bottom pressure and local atmospheric forcing at near 7-day periods in the northern SCS.

  13. Studies Concerning Water-Surface Deposits in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, O; Arvesen, J; Dahl, L

    1971-11-15

    The Feed-water Committee of the Stiftelsen Svensk Cellulosaforskning (Foundation for Swedish Cellulose Research) has initiated research and investigations which aim to increase knowledge about water-surface deposits in boiler tubes, and the resulting risks of gas-surface corrosion in chemical recovery boilers (sulphate pulp industry). The Committee has arranged with AB Atomenergi, Studsvik, for investigations into the water-surface deposits on tubes from six Scandinavian boilers. These investigations have included direct measurements of the thermal conductivity of the deposits, and determinations of their quantity, thickness and structure have been carried out. Previous investigations have shown that gas-surface corrosion can occur at tube temperatures above 330 deg C. The measured values for the thermal conductivity of the deposits indicate that even with small quantities of deposit (c. 1 g/dm2 ) and a moderate boiler pressure (40 atm), certain types of deposit can give rise to the above-mentioned surface temperature, at which the risk of gas-surface corrosion becomes appreciable. For higher boiler pressures the risk is great even with a minimal layer of deposit. The critical deposit thickness can be as low as 0.1 mm

  14. Surface water management at a mixed waste remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlotzhauer, D.S.; Warbritton, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) deals with chemical and radiological contaminants. MK-Ferguson Company is managing the project under contract with the US Department of Energy. Remedial activities include demolishing buildings, constructing material storage and staging areas, excavating and consolidating waste materials, and treating and disposing of the materials in a land disposal facility. Due to the excavation and construction required during remediation, a well-planned surface water management system is essential. Planning involves characterization of source areas and surface water transport mechanisms and identification of applicable regulations. System components include: erosion control sediment control, flow attenuation, and management of contaminated water. Combinations of these components may be utilized during actual construction and remediation to obtain optimum control. Monitoring is performed during implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of control measures. This management scheme provides for comprehensive management of surface water at this site by providing control and/or treatment to appropriate standards. Although some treatment methodologies for contaminated water are specific to site contaminants, this comprehensive program provides a management approach which is applicable to many remedial projects in order to minimize contaminant release and meet Clean Water Act requirements

  15. Surface microlayer enrichment of volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds in drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Ya-juan; Zhang, Ai-qian; Han, Shuo-kui; Wang, Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Enrichment of volatile organic compounds(VOC) and semi-volatility organic compounds(SVOC) in surface microlayer(SM) of three drinking water sources were studied. The enrichment factor(EFs) were 0.67 to 13.37 and 0.16 to 136, respectively. The results showed some VOC and most SVOC could enrich in SM. Some EFs of SVOC was quite high. Suspension and temperature could affect EFs of SVOC, slim wind and water movement do not destroy enrichment of organic in SM.

  16. Comparison of the ocean surface vector winds from atmospheric reanalysis and scatterometer-based wind products over the Nordic Seas and the northern North Atlantic and their application for ocean modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Petersen, Gudrún Nína; Steffen, John

    2017-03-01

    Ocean surface vector wind fields from reanalysis data sets and scatterometer-derived gridded products are analyzed over the Nordic Seas and the northern North Atlantic for the time period from 2000 to 2009. The data sets include the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis 2 (NCEPR2), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR), Cross-Calibrated Multiplatform (CCMP) wind product version 1.1 and recently released version 2.0, and QuikSCAT. The goal of the study is to assess discrepancies across the wind vector fields in the data sets and demonstrate possible implications of these differences for ocean modeling. Large-scale and mesoscale characteristics of winds are compared at interannual, seasonal, and synoptic timescales. A cyclone tracking methodology is developed and applied to the wind fields to compare cyclone characteristics in the data sets. Additionally, the winds are evaluated against observations collected from meteorological buoys deployed in the Iceland and Irminger Seas. The agreement among the wind fields is better for longer time and larger spatial scales. The discrepancies are clearly apparent for synoptic timescales and mesoscales. CCMP, ASR, and CFSR show the closest overall agreement with each other. Substantial biases are found in the NCEPR2 winds. Numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted with a coupled ice-ocean model forced by different wind fields. The experiments demonstrate differences in the net surface heat fluxes during storms. In the experiment forced by NCEPR2 winds, there are discrepancies in the large-scale wind-driven ocean dynamics compared to the other experiments.

  17. Water and nutrient budgets at field and regional scale : travel times of drainage water and nutrient loads to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, van den G.A.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : water and nutrient budget, travel time of drainage water, dual-porosity concept, agricultural nutrient losses, loads to surface water, field-scale experiments, regional-scale

  18. Impact of model resolution on simulated wind, drifting snow and surface mass balance in Terre Adélie, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Scarchilli, C.; Agosta, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of model resolution on the simulated wind speed, drifting snow climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Terre Ad´elie and its surroundings, East Antarctica. We compare regional climate model simulations at 27 and 5.5 km resolution for the year 2009. The wind speed

  19. Delay of turbulent by surface heating in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layer flow visualization studies in water on a 1.5 cal tangent ogive body with surface heating are reported. Existing laminar boundary layer separation was observed to be eliminated with sufficient surface heating. In addition, transition location was observed to be significantly delayed. With surface temperature difference of about 27 0 C no disturbances in the boundary layer could be detected up to (X/D) = 2.5 as compared to observed transition at about (X/D) = 1.32 under slightly heated conditions. Present observations are found to be in agreement with the theoretical computations of Wazzan et al. in a qualitative sense. (orig.)

  20. Nanofiltration in Transforming Surface Water into Healthy Water: Comparison with Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Naidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural surface water, especially available through rivers, is the main source of healthy water for the living beings throughout the world from ancient days as it consists of all essential minerals. With the advent of industrialization, gradually even the most prominent rivers have been polluted in all parts of the world. Although there are lots of technologies, nanofiltration (NF has been chosen to transform river water into healthy water due to its unique advantages of retaining optimum TDS (with essential minerals required for human body, consuming of lower energy, and no usage of any chemicals. The prominent parameters of surface water and macro/microminerals of treated water have been analyzed. It is shown that NF is better in producing healthy water with high flux by consuming low energy.

  1. Surface fluxes and water balance of spatially varying vegetation within a small mountainous headwater catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Flerchinger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation variability and complex topography often create a mosaic of vegetation communities in mountainous headwater catchments, creating a challenge for measuring and interpreting energy and mass fluxes. Understanding the role of these communities in modulating energy, water and carbon fluxes is critical to quantifying the variability in energy, carbon, and water balances across landscapes. The focus of this paper was: (1 to demonstrate the utility of eddy covariance (EC systems in estimating the evapotranspiration component of the water balance of complex headwater mountain catchments; and (2 to compare and contrast the seasonal surface energy and carbon fluxes across a headwater catchment characterized by large variability in precipitation and vegetation cover. Eddy covariance systems were used to measure surface fluxes over sagebrush (Artemesia arbuscula and Artemesia tridentada vaseyana, aspen (Populus tremuloides and the understory of grasses and forbs beneath the aspen canopy. Peak leaf area index of the sagebrush, aspen, and aspen understory was 0.77, 1.35, and 1.20, respectively. The sagebrush and aspen canopies were subject to similar meteorological forces, while the understory of the aspen was sheltered from the wind. Missing periods of measured data were common and made it necessary to extrapolate measured fluxes to the missing periods using a combination of measured and simulated data. Estimated cumulative evapotranspiratation from the sagebrush, aspen trees, and aspen understory were 384 mm, 314 mm and 185 mm. A water balance of the catchment indicated that of the 699 mm of areal average precipitation, 421 mm was lost to evapotranspiration, and 254 mm of streamflow was measured from the catchment; water balance closure for the catchment was within 22 mm. Fluxes of latent heat and carbon for all sites were minimal through the winter. Growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon were consistently higher

  2. Elephant overflows: Multi-annual variability in Weddell Sea Deep Water driven by surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Andrew; Meredith, Michael; Abrahamsen, Povl; Naviera-Garabato, Alberto; Ángel Morales Maqueda, Miguel; Polzin, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    The volume of the deepest and densest water mass in Drake Passage, Lower Weddell Sea Deep Water (LWSDW), is shown to have been decreasing over the last 20 years of observations, with an associated reduction in density driven by freshening. Superimposed on this long term trend is a multi-annual oscillation with a period of 3-5 years. This variability only appears in Drake Passage; observations in the east of the Scotia Sea show a similar long term trend, but with no apparent multi-annual variability. Clues as to the source of this variability may be found on the continental slope at approximately 1000 m immediately north of Elephant Island on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here there is an intermittent westward flowing cold/fresh slope current whose volume and properties are strongly correlated with the LWSDW multi-annual variability, although leading the LWSDW by around one year. As the slope current and LWSDW are separated from each other both geographically and in water mass characteristics, their co-variability implies that they are responding to a common forcing, while the lag between deep LWSDW and shallow slope current provides information on the timescale of this response. A newly available high resolution temperature and salinity multi-year time series from the Elephant Island slope at 1000 m is compared with reanalysis and model derived surface fluxes, sea ice extent and wind stress. We find that there are strong positive relationships between the surface wind stress and heat flux over the shelf at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the properties of the slope current at 1000 m on seasonal to annual timescales. We use tracer release experiments in the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) model to investigate the lag between the slope current and LWSDW timeseries and hypothesise that the observed multi-annual variability in both water masses is driven by surface forcing over the shelf and the overflow of modified water from the slope in

  3. Air and water trade winds, hurricanes, gulf stream, tsunamis and other striking phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, René

    2017-01-01

    Air and water are so familiar that we all think we know them. Yet how difficult it remains to predict their behavior, with so many questions butting against the limits of our knowledge. How are cyclones, tornadoes, thunderstorms, tsunamis or floods generated — sometimes causing devastation and death? What will the weather be tomorrow, next week, next summer? This book brings some answers to these questions with a strategy of describing before explaining. Starting by considering air and water in equilibrium (i.e., at rest), it progresses to discuss dynamic phenomena first focusing on large scale structures, such as El Niño or trade winds, then on ever smaller structures, such as low-pressure zones in the atmosphere, clouds, rain, as well as tides and waves. It finishes by describing man-mad e constructions (dams, ports, power plants, etc.) that serve to domesticate our water resources and put them to work for us.  Including over one hundred illustrations and very few equations, most of the�...

  4. Changes in the Amplitude and Phase of the Annual Cycle: quantifying from surface wind series in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is not only reflected in the changes in annual means of climate variables but also in the changes in their annual cycles (seasonality), especially in the regions outside the tropics. Changes in the timing of seasons, especially the wind season, have gained much attention worldwide in recent decade or so. We introduce long-range correlated surrogate data to Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method, which represent the statistic characteristics of data better than white noise. The new method we named Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Long-range Correlated noise (EEMD-LRC) and applied to 600 station wind speed records. This new method is applied to investigate the trend in the amplitude of the annual cycle of China's daily mean surface wind speed for the period 1971-2005. The amplitude of seasonal variation decrease significantly in the past half century over China, which can be well explained by Annual Cycle component from EEMD-LRC. Furthermore, the phase change of annual cycle lead to strongly shorten of wind season in spring, and corresponding with strong windy day frequency change over Northern China.

  5. Potential of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Ocean Surface Wind Observations for Determining Tropical Storm Vortex Intensity and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative technology development, which offers the potential of new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation from either UAS or satellite platforms. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven aircraft remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by the NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard version of the instrument is complete and has been successfully tested in an anechoic chamber, and development of the aircraft instrument is well underway. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean vector winds and rain during hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered. Preliminary studies show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor.

  6. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Droplets On Hydrophilic Silica Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    and DNA microarrays technologies.Although extensive experimental, theoretical and computational work has been devoted to study the nature of the interaction between silica and water, at the molecular level a complete understanding of silica-water systems has not been reached. Contact angle computations...... dynamics (MD) simulations of a hydrophilic air-water-silica system using the MD package FASTTUBE. We employ quantum chemistry calculation to obtain air-silica interaction parameters for the simulations. Our simulations are based in the following force fields: i) The silica-silica interaction is based...... of water droplets on silica surfaces offers a useful fundamental and quantitative measurement in order to study chemical and physical properties of water-silica systems. For hydrophobic systems the static and dynamic properties of the fluid-solid interface are influenced by the presence of air. Hence...

  8. Theoretical Study of Sodium-Water Surface Reaction Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR).

  9. Theoretical study of sodium-water surface reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    2012-01-01

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  10. Impacts of transportation infrastructure on storm water and surfaces waters in Chittenden County, Vermont, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a major source of stormwater runoff that can alter hydrology and : contribute significant loading of nutrients, sediment, and other pollutants to surface waters. These : increased loads can contribute to impairment of...

  11. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 1998 Water Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaull, D.A.; Alexander, M.R.; Reynolds, R.P.; McLean, C.T.; Romero, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 19 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Caiion de Vane

  12. Development of Offshore Wind Recommended Practice for U.S. Waters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. D.; Sheppard, R. E.; Dolan, D.; Naughton, B.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses how the American Petroleum Institute oil and gas standards were interfaced with International Electrotechnical Commission and other wind turbine and offshore industry standards to provide guidance for reliable engineering design practices for offshore wind energy systems.

  13. Water and oil wettability of anodized 6016 aluminum alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S. P.; Alves, C. F. Almeida; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the control of wettability behaviour of a 6000 series aluminum (Al) alloy surface (Al6016-T4), which is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries. In order to induce the surface micro-nanostructuring of the surface, a combination of prior mechanical polishing steps followed by anodization process with different conditions was used. The surface polishing with sandpaper grit size 1000 promoted aligned grooves on the surface leading to static water contact angle (WCA) of 91° and oil (α-bromonaphthalene) contact angle (OCA) of 32°, indicating a slightly hydrophobic and oleophilic character. H2SO4 and H3PO4 acid electrolytes were used to grow aluminum oxide layers (Al2O3) by anodization, working at 15 V/18° C and 100 V/0 °C, respectively, in one or two-steps configuration. Overall, the anodization results showed that the structured Al surfaces were hydrophilic and oleophilic-like with both WCA and OCA below 90°. The one-step configuration led to a dimple-shaped Al alloy surface with small diameter of around 31 nm, in case of H2SO4, and with larger diameters of around 223 nm in case of H3PO4. The larger dimples achieved with H3PO4 electrolyte allowed to reach a slight hydrophobic surface. The thicker porous Al oxide layers, produced by anodization in two-step configuration, revealed that the liquids can penetrate easily inside the non-ordered porous structures and, thus, the surface wettability tended to superhydrophilic and superoleophilic character (CA OCA. This inversion in favour of the hydrophilic-oleophobic surface behaviour is of great interest either for lubrication of mechanical components or in water-oil separation process.

  14. The effects of sorting by aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of surface materials: a wind tunnel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Lang, Lili; Hua, Ting; Zhang, Caixia; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    The geochemical characteristics of aeolian and surface materials in potential source areas of dust are frequently employed in environmental reconstructions as proxies of past climate and as source tracers of aeolian sediments deposited in downwind areas. However, variations in the geochemical characteristics of these aeolian deposits that result from near-surface winds are currently poorly understood. In this study, we collected surface samples from the Ala Shan Plateau (a major potential dust source area in Central Asia) to determine the influence of aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of aeolian transported materials. Correlation analyses show that compared with surface materials, the elements in transported materials (e.g., Cu, As, Pb, Mn, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, Ga, K, Mg, P, Rb, Co, Cr, Na, Nb, Si, and Zr) were subjected to significant sorting by aeolian processes, and the sorting also varied among different particle size fractions and elements. Variations in wind velocity were significantly correlated with the contents of Cr, Ga, Sr, Ca, Y, Nd, Zr, Nb, Ba, and Al, and with the Zr/Al, Zr/Rb, K/Ca, Sr/Ca, Rb/Sr, and Ca/Al ratios. Given the great variation in the geochemical characteristics of materials transported under different aeolian processes relative to those of the source materials, these results indicate that considerable uncertainty may be introduced to analyses by using surface materials to trace the potential source areas of aeolian deposits that accumulate in downwind areas.

  15. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  16. Hydrobiological constraints of trace metals in surface water, coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... of Calabar River are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Table 4, 5 and 6 present the correlation matrices for sediment, surface water and N. lotus samples respec- tively, showing values of Pearson's correlation coefficient. (p<0.05, n=4) for pairs of heavy metals at the four locations. The concentrations of As, Cd, ...

  17. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Deneer, J.W.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small

  18. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Tropical East Atlantic Surface Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Jong, E. de

    1999-01-01

    Variability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) is discussed for tropical East Atlantic surface waters in October–November 1993 and May–June 1994. High precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, river input and equatorial upwelling

  19. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  20. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms