WorldWideScience

Sample records for water supply waste

  1. Reuse of waste water: impact on water supply planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, G.F. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    As the urban population of the world increases and demands on easily developable water supplies are exceeded, cities have recourse to a range of management alternatives to balance municipal water supply and demand. These alternatives range from doing nothing to modifying either the supply or the demand variable in the supply-demand relationship. The reuse or recycling of urban waste water in many circumstances may be an economically attractive and effective management strategy for extending existing supplies of developed water, for providing additional water where no developable supplies exist and for meeting water quality effluent discharge standards. The relationship among municipal, industrial and agricultural water use and the treatment links which may be required to modify the quality of a municipal waste effluent for either recycling or reuse purposes is described. A procedure is described for analyzing water reuse alternatives within a framework of regional water supply and waste water disposal planning and management.

  2. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  3. Radioactivity in waste water samples from COGEMA supplied by Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Kwakman, P.J.M.; Overwater, R.M.W.; Tax, R.B.; Nissan, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organization Greenpeace sampled waste water from the reprocessing plant COGEMA in La Hague, France, in May 1999. On request of the Inspection Environmental Hygiene, The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) determined the radioactivity of the waste water samples. 5 refs

  4. Water supply, waste water cleaning and waste disposal. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoch, W.

    1994-01-01

    The first part of the book contains fundamentals of chemistry, always having environmental protection in mind. Numerous examples are calculated. The second part gives detailed explanations of the material-scientific and analytical bases of the indispensable resource water and its conditioning, waste water cleaning and sludge treatment. Collection, transport, handling, disposal and recycling of unavoidable wastes and toxic wastes are finally dealt with. (orig./EF) [de

  5. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  6. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  7. Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

  8. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  9. Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Matharu, A S

    2017-09-21

    Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7-24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21 st century.

  10. Environment-friendly heat supply with natural refrigerants. Large heat pumps use industrial waste heat and waste water; Umweltschonende Waermeversorgung mit natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln. Grosswaermepumpen nutzen industrielle Abwaerme und Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-01-15

    Everywhere, where industrial processes occur or coldness is produced, simultaneously heat is produced. While many private houses use geothermal energy or ambient air for the production of heat, waste water and waste heat prove to be optimal energy sources for the industrial need due to higher output temperatures. By means of large heat pumps the residual heat is used for heating or the supply of hot water for example in local heat supply grids and makes an important contribution to climate protection.

  11. Development of Low-Cost Solar Water Heater Using Recycled Solid Waste for Domestic Hot Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Din Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the development of a low-cost solar water heater (SWH system by utilizing solid waste material as part of system elements. Available technologies of the solar water heater systems, heat collectors and its components were reviewed and the best system combinations for low cost design were chosen. The passive-thermosiphon system have been chosen due to its simplicity and independency on external power as well as conventional pump. For the heat collector, flat plate type was identified as the most suitable collector for low cost design and suits with Malaysia climate. Detail study on the flat plate collector components found that the heat absorber is the main component that can significantly reduce the solar collector price if it is replaced with recycled solid waste material. Review on common solid wastes concluded that crushed glass is a non-metal material that has potential to either enhance or become the main heat absorber in solar collector. A collector prototype were then designed and fabricated based on crashed glass heat collector media. Thermal performance test were conducted for three configurations where configuration A (black painted aluminum absorber used as benchmark, configuration B (crushed glass added partially that use glass for improvement, and lastly configuration C (black colored crushed glass that use colored glass as main absorber. Result for configuration B have shown a negative effect where the maximum collector efficiency is 26.8% lower than configuration A. Nevertheless, configuration C which use black crushed glass as main heat absorber shown a comparable maximum efficiency which is at 82.5% of the maximum efficiency for configuration A and furthermore have shown quite impressive increment of efficiency at the end of the experiment. Hence, black colored crushed glass is said to have quite a good potential as the heat absorber material and therefore turn out to be a new contender to other non

  12. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  13. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  14. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  15. Management of rural drinking water supplies and waste using the participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) initiative in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayane, N

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) and how the methodology can be taken to scale. It uses the Zimbabwe experience and highlights some of the benefits in the application of PHAST, conditions necessary for scaling up and possible constraints. The PHAST initiative started off as a pilot process seeking to promote improved hygiene behaviour and promotion of sanitation. Having successfully piloted PHAST, Zimbabwe has scaled up the use of the methodology at a country level. While impact studies have not yet been conducted, reviews of the effects of the process have indicated positive behaviour change in such areas as management of water, construction and use of latrines. The process has also led to a change of institutional approaches in planning for improved water and sanitation from supply driven projects to demand responsive approaches. Some lessons learnt have included the need for baseline surveys at the start of the use of PHAST, the difficulty in developing monitoring indicators and hence difficulty in measuring impacts. Conclusions being drawn using assessment studies are that the use of participatory approaches has led to improved hygiene behaviour with communities being able to link causes and effects. The use of participatory methods also necessitates a change in institutional approaches from supply driven approaches to demand responsiveness. Other lessons drawn were related to the creation of an enabling environment for the application of participatory processes. Such enabling environment includes capacity building, resource allocation, policy and institutional support.

  16. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  17. Security management of water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to present operational problems concerning the safety of the water supply and the procedures for risk management systems functioning public water supply (CWSS and including methods of hazard identification and risk assessment. Developed a problem analysis and risk assessment, including procedures called. WSP, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as a tool for comprehensive security management of water supply from source to consumer. Water safety plan is a key element of the strategy for prevention of adverse events in CWSS.

  18. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  19. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  20. Tanzania - Water Supply & Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  1. Natural radioactivity in water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book outlines the scientific aspects of the control of natural radioactivity in water supplies, as well as the labyrinthine uncertainties in water quality regulation concerning natural radiocontamination of water. The author provides an introduction to the theory of natural radioactivity; addresses risk assessment, sources of natural radiocontamination of water, radiobiology of natural radioactivity in water, and federal water law concerning natural radiocontamination. It presents an account of how one city dealt with the perplexes that mark the rapidly evolving area of water quality regulation. The contents include: radioactivity and risk; an introduction to the atomic theory; an introduction to natural radioactivity; risk assessment; uranium and radium contamination of water; radiobiology of uranium and radium in water. Determination of risk from exposure to uranium and radium in water; the legal milieu; one city's experience; and summary: the determinants of evolving regulation

  2. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless when...

  3. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6... POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With proper... forth in the comprehensive plan. (c) The Commission shall study the basin's water supply needs, the...

  4. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Badyuk, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Badyuk N. S. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS. АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ МЕДИЦИНЫ № 3 (17), 2009 г. P. 96-104 DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1020024 http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/23091/13-Badyuk.pdf?sequence=1 WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS Badyuk N. S. Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport, Odessa, Ukraine Summary In the work presented they discuss several peculiarities of wa...

  5. Water Utility Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews roles and responsibilities among various levels of government regarding emergency water supplies and seeks to encourage collaboration and partnership regarding emergency water supply planning.

  6. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at a...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home, a...

  8. Water supply and management concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1965-01-01

    If I had to cite one fact about water in the United States which would be not only the most important but also the most informative, the one I would choose would k this: Over 50 percent of all the water presently being used in the United States is used by industry, and nearly all of that is used for cooling.The large amount of attention recently being given to water shortage and the expected rapid increase in demand for water is probably to some extent clouded because there are certain simple facts about water availability and water use which, though readily available, are not generally either known or understood.Probably most people react to information in the public press about present and possible future water shortages with the thought that it is going to be more difficult in the future to supply the ordinary household with water for drinking, washing, and tbe culinary arts. As a matter of fact that may be true to some extent, but it is not the salient aspect.

  9. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an

  10. Margins of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickel, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author examines legal questions coming from points of contact of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways on the one hand with the Waste Management Law, the Atomic Energy Law and Criminal Law on the other hand. He tries to find ways for solving the practical problems which arise with the execution of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways. (HSCH) [de

  11. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  12. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State health...

  13. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich; Komarov Anatoliy Sergeevich; Mel’nikov Fedor Alekseevich; Serov Aleksandr Evgen’evich

    2015-01-01

    Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold) as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of ...

  14. Nevada test site water-supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 15 water-supply wells are currently being used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this report is to bring together the information gleaned from investigations of these water-supply wells. This report should serve as a reference on well construction and completion, static water levels, lithologic and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers penetrated, and general water quality of water-supply wells at the NTS. Possible sources for contamination of the water-supply wells are also evaluated. Existing wells and underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 meters (m)) or below the water table within 2 kilometers (km) of a water-supply were located and their hydrogeologic relationship to the water-supply well determined

  15. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  16. Energy saving type area hot water supply system using heat of hot waste water from the sludge center as hot source for hot water; New energy rokko airando CITY. Surajjisenta karano onhaisuinetsu wo kyuyuyo netsugen ni riyosuru sho energy gata chiiki onsui kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Heat source of area hot water supply system in Rokko island City (man-made island) is heat of combustion at the sludge center (sludge incineration plant) in this island. Dehydrated sludge cakes (230ton/day) brought from seven sewage disposal plants in Kobe City is combusted (850degC) in the fluid bed hearth. Combustion gas washed in the scrubber, hot waste water after the washing give heat into heat transfer water in the first heat exchanger. Temperature being 64degC in summer and about 50degC in winter, this heat transfer water is sent into the second heat exchanger at every condominium building throughout the pipe line system circulating in the area. At each home, gas heater and hot water supply devices fitted, additional combustion is not necessary in summer but is used according to demand in other seasons. This hot water supply service has been carried out since 1988 and at present has been used by 3600 homes. Amount of supplying hot water being about 3000cu.m/day, saving is calculated roughly as 60% of gas for hot water supply. Fee for this system is 1500/yen/month uniformly for each home. 14 figs.

  17. Uranium removal from the water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranzadeh, Mohammad Bagher.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium can be naturally occurring radionuclides that contaminate some potable water supplies. Uranium is found both in surface water and ground water supplies. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed a maximum contaminant of 20 micro gram/liter for uranium because of concerns about its association with kidney disease and cancer. uranium can be removed from the supply by strong base anion-resin. Exhausted resin is regenerated by sodium chloride solution. (Author)

  18. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  19. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle......-criteria decision analysis method was used to develop a decision support system and applied to the study. In this thesis a standard LCA of the drinking water supply technology of today (base case) and 4 alternative cases for water supply technologies is conducted. The standard LCA points at the case rain...

  20. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  1. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Panching Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.; Hadi, Iqmal H.

    2018-03-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is scarce and overexploited. The purpose of this study is to determine the water footprint of Water Supply Treatment Process (WSTP) at Panching Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as to identify the sustainability of the Sg. Kuantan as an intake resource due to the effect of land use development. The total water footprint (WF) will be calculated by using WF accounting manual. The results obtained shows that the water intake resource is still available but it is believed that it will not be able to cope with the increasing WF. The increment of water demand percentage by 1.8% from 2015 to 2016 has increased 11 times higher of the water footprint percentage, 19.9%. This result shows that the water consumption during the water supply treatment process is two times higher than the demand thus it shows the inefficient of the water management

  2. Brookhaven National Laboratory source water assessment for drinking water supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.B.; Paquette, D.E.; Klaus, K.; Dorsch, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  3. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  4. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1978-08-01

    The Los Alamos water supply for 1977 consisted of 1474 x 10 6 gal from wells in three fields and 57 x 10 6 gal from the gallery in Water Canyon. The production from the well fields was at its lowest volume since 1970. Water-level trends were as anticipated under current production practices. Well rehabilitation should be continued to ensure an adequate and reliable supply from wells that are 10 to over 25 yr old

  5. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  7. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challengi...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain.......The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  8. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  9. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. POTABLE WATER SUPPLY IN OWERRI METROPOLIS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    address the problems of water supply and management. These include: ..... total replacement of under-laid water pipes has not been done, and there is no modern way .... If the present trend continues, the vast majority of these people will be living ... maintenance and management of water facilities and other logistics.

  11. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  12. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  13. Future heat supply of our cities. Heating by waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachetti, H E [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1976-08-01

    The energy-price crisis resulted in structural changes of the complete energy supply and reactivated the question of energy management with respect to the optimum solution of meeting the energy requirements for space heating. Condensation power plants are increasingly replaced by thermal stations, the waste heat of which is used as so-called district heat. Thermal power stations must be situated close to urban areas. The problem of emission of harmful materials can partly be overcome by high-level emission. The main subject of the article, however, is the problem of conducting and distributing the heat. The building costs of heat pipeline systems and the requirements to be met by heat pipelines such as strength, heat insulation and protection against humidity and ground water are investigated.

  14. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  15. Burned forests impact water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis W. Hallema; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven P. Norman; Erika C. Cohen; Yongqiang Liu; Kevin D. Bladon; Steven G. McNulty

    2018-01-01

    Wildland fire impacts on surface freshwater resources have not previously been measured, nor factored into regional water management strategies. But, large wildland fires are increasing and raise concerns about fire impacts on potable water. Here we synthesize longterm records of wildland fire, climate, and river flow for 168 locations across the United States. We show...

  16. Using Water Transfers to Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.

    2007-12-01

    Most cities currently rely on water supplies with sufficient capacity to meet demand under almost all conditions. However, the rising costs of water supply development make the maintenance of infrequently used excess capacity increasingly expensive, and more utilities are considering the use of water transfers as a means of more cost effectively meeting demand under drought conditions. Transfers can take place between utilities, as well as different user groups (e.g., municipal and agricultural), and can involve both treated and untreated water. In cases where both the "buyer" and "seller" draw water from the same supply, contractual agreements alone can facilitate a transfer, but in other cases new infrastructure (e.g., pipelines) will be required. Developing and valuing transfer agreements and/or infrastructure investments requires probabilistic supply/demand analyses that incorporate elements of both hydrology and economics. The complexity of these analyses increases as more sophisticated types of agreements (e. g., options) are considered, and as utilities begin to consider how to integrate transfers into long-term planning efforts involving a more diversified portfolio of supply assets. This discussion will revolve around the methods used to develop minimum (expected) cost portfolios of supply assets that meet specified reliability goals. Two different case studies, one in both the eastern and western U.S., will be described with attention to: the role that transfers can play in reducing average supply costs; tradeoffs between costs and supply reliability, and; the effects of different transfer agreement types on the infrastructure capacity required to complete the transfers. Results will provide insights into the cost savings potential of more flexible water supply strategies.

  17. Emergency water supply facility for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Water is stored previously in an equipment storage pit disposed on an operator floor of a reactor building instead of a condensate storage vessel. Upon occurrence of an emergency, water is supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a sucking pipeline to a pump of a high pressure reactor core water injection circuit and a pump of a reactor-isolation cooling circuit to supply water to a reactor. The equipment storage pit is arranged in a building so that the depth thereof is determined to keep the required amount of water by storing water at a level lower than the lower end of a pool gate during normal operation. Water is also supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a supply pipeline to a spent fuel storage pool on the operation floor of the reactor building. Namely, water is supplied to the spent fuel storage pool by a pump of a fuel pool cooling and cleaning circuit. This can eliminate a suppression pool cleaning circuit. (I.N.)

  18. Public water supply sources - the practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)

  19. Optimal Dynamics of Intermittent Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris

    2014-11-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. These consequences include degradation of distribution system components, compromised water quality, and inequitable water availability. The goal of this work is to model the important dynamics and identify operating conditions that mitigate certain negative effects of intermittent water supply. Specifically, we will look at valve parameters occurring as boundary conditions in a network model of transient, transition flow through closed pipes. Optimization will be used to find boundary values to minimize pressure gradients and ensure equitable water availability.

  20. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Göbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC. The aim of this study is (1 to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2 to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste occurs at all stages in the food chain. Thus, there is no single culprit to be blamed. Besides, the identified reasons for food waste differ between product groups; not a single solution can cause notable change. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that the causes and effects of food waste are to be found at different stages of the value chain. Hence, it is of high importance to improve communication and to raise a new appreciation for food among all stakeholders of the food supply chain in order to develop a more sustainable food system. Information on the topic of food waste needs to be shared among all actors of the supply chain. They need to share responsibility and work together to reduce food waste.

  1. Waste-wood resource supply assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The report documents and analyzes the availability and supply of wood waste in New York State to determine the type and amount currently generated to estimate its potential future use as a fuel. Detailed, current information is included on the availability, quantity and price of wood waste. Topics include wood waste markets; the harvesting and supply infrastructure; current and project prices; competing markets; environmental impacts of harvesting, processing and burning wood waste for fuel; and factors affecting long-term availability and supply. New York State's waste wood resource was evaluated to complete the Energy Authority's recent investigation of the potential role of wood in producing electric power. In 1989 approximately 11.8 million tons of wood waste were generated in New York State. More than 8 million tons or 68 percent, were disposed of by municipal solid waste and construction and demolition debris facilities. Just under 3.8 million tons or 32 percent, were reused and/or recycled. More than 25.7 million tons of wood waste could be available annually for fuel. Of the amount, more than 17.2 million tons per year, or 67 percent, could be produced by silvicultural activities that improve the health and productivity of forests

  2. Water reuse achieved by zero discharge of aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelchner, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for zero discharge of aqueous waste from ERDA's nuclear weapons plant near Denver are discussed. Two plants - a process waste treatment facility now under construction, and a reverse osmosis desalting plant now under design, will provide total reuse of waste water for boiler feed and cooling tower supply. Seventy million gallons of water per year will be conserved and downstream municipalities will be free of inadvertent pollution hazards

  3. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  4. The Canadian heavy water supply program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; McNally, P.J.

    1976-06-01

    The performance to date of individual Canadian heavy water plants is described in detail as are the current plant construction plans. These data, when related to the long-term electricity demand indicate that heavy water supply and demand are in reasonable balance and that the CANDU program will not be inhibited because of shortages of the commodity. (author)

  5. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  7. Waste water treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Badulescu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

  8. Public-supply water use and self-supplied industrial water use in Tennessee, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John A.

    2018-04-26

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Water Resources, prepared this report and displayed and analyzed water use by self-supplied industrial and public-supply water systems in Tennessee for 2010. Public-supply water systems in Tennessee provide water for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses and for municipal services. In 2010, 474 public-supply water systems distributed 917 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of surface water (67 percent, 617 Mgal/d) and groundwater (33 percent, 300 Mgal/d) to a population of 5.7 million in Tennessee. Gross per capita water use in Tennessee during 2010 was 162 gallons per day.Since 1950, water withdrawals by public-supply water systems in Tennessee have increased from 160 Mgal/d to 917 Mgal/d in 2010. Each of the 95 counties in Tennessee was served by at least 1 public-supply water system in 2010. Tennessee public-supply water systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. Since 2005, surface-water withdrawals have increased by 26 Mgal/d, and groundwater withdrawals have decreased by 29 Mgal/d, which is the first decrease in groundwater withdrawals since 1950; however, 29 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2010, and 12 of these 29 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. Davidson County had the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (136 Mgal/d) in 2010. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (151 Mgal/d) by a single public-supply water system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served more than 669,000 people in Shelby County in 2010.Self-supplied industrial water use includes water for such purposes as fabrication, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs in facilities that manufacture various products. Water withdrawals for self-supplied

  9. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like...... going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment....... softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish...

  10. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  11. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuniwa, Fumio; Maekoya, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Watahiki, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Water supply impacts of nuclear fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Luo, Y.; Maciejowski, M.E.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    “Nuclear winter,” more properly called “nuclear fall,” could be caused by injection of large amounts of dust into the atmosphere. Besides causing a decrease in temperature, it could be accompanied by “nuclear drought,” a catastrophic decrease in precipitation. Dry land agriculture would then be impossible, and municipal, industrial, and irrigation water supplies would be diminished. It has been argued that nuclear winter/fall poses a much greater threat to human survival than do fall out or the direct impacts of a conflict. However, this does not appear to be true, at least for the U.S. Even under the unprecedented drought that could result from nuclear fall, water supplies would be available for many essential activities. For the most part, ground water supplies would be relatively invulnerable to nuclear drought, and adequate surface supplies would be available for potable uses. This assumes that conveyance facilities and power supplies survive a conflict largely intact or can be repaired

  13. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  14. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design...

  15. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.

  16. Supply, operation and radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.; Krey, M.; Haag, G.; Wolters, J.; Merz, E.; Sauermann, P.F.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle' is treated in 5 reports: 1. Uranium supply; 2. Fabrication and characteristics of fuel elements; 3. Design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants after Harrisburg; 4. Radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants - changed political scenery after 1979; 5. Shutdown and dismantling of LWR-KKW - state of knowledge and feasibility. (HP) [de

  17. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  18. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  19. Wildland Fire Research: Water Supply and Ecosystem Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is critical to better understand how fires affect water quality and supply and the overall health of an ecosystem. This information can be used to protect the safety of drinking water and assess the vulnerability of water supplies.

  20. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  1. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  2. Reduction of radon from household water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, P.S.; Sorg, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater can be a major source of indoor radon in homes that use individual wells or are served by very small community water supply systems. In the United States, several wells have been found to contain more than 37,000,000 Bq.m -3 of radon dissolved in the water. This radon can be released in the indoor air in the course of using water for normal household activities. A measurement of the radon in the drinking water can be made when an indoor radon problem is suspected. While ventilation may reduce indoor radon levels that result from household water usage, the most common control technique presently applied is removing the radon from the water using a granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment system. Aeration methods are also effective and have been proven to be economical for small community water supplies. Some of the issues faced in using GAC are sizing and maintaining the unit and shielding and disposing of the GAC to prevent exposure from gamma radiation. (author)

  3. Citrus processing waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawash, S; Hafez, A J; El-Diwani, G

    1988-02-01

    The process utilizes biological treatment to decompose organic matter and decreases the COD to a value of 230 ppm, using 161 of air per 1 of treated waste water for a contact time of 2.5 h. Ozone is used subsequently for further purification of the waste water by destroying refractory organics. This reduces the COD to a value of 40 ppm, and consequently also lowers the BOD. Ozone also effectively removed the yellow-brown colour due to humic substances in dissolved or colloidal form; their oxidation leaves the water sparkling. Iron and manganese are also eliminated.

  4. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

  5. Exploring the water-energy nexus in Brazil: The electricity use for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo; Perrella Balestieri, José Antônio

    2015-01-01

    The present work evaluates the electricity use for the water production and supply in Brazil. Five categories of indicators were proposed, that is, per capita, water losses, energy, greenhouse gases (GHGs) and financial/economic, which were used in the definition of municipal average values. It takes an average 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 for production and water supply in the country. The results demonstrate that the water supply systems accounted for, at least, 1.9% of total electricity consumption in Brazil in 2012, and the water loss wastes 27% of water and energy in the water supply systems from Brazil. The production and distribution of 1 m 3 of water in Brazilian cities represents the emission of 0.050 ± 0.004 kgCO2e, being 0.014 ± 0.001 kgCO2e.m −3 associated with the water loss volumes. Furthermore, the average Brazilian cities' expenditure with electricity for the water supply is US$ 0.14 ± US$ 0.01, which corresponds to 16.8% ± 0.7% of operating expenditures and 12.9% ± 0.5% of total expenditure of the WSSs. The NE Region is the one that presents the greatest potential for the application of hydraulic and energy efficiency measures in water supply systems (WSSs). - Highlights: • We analyze the electricity use in Brazilian water supply systems. • Five categories of indicators were analyzed statistically. • Brazilian water supply systems uses 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 to supply water. • At least 1.9% of Brazilian electricity consumption is used in water supply systems. • The Northeast Region of Brazil presents the higher energy/water saving potential

  6. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Semambu Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Hadi, Iqmal H.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the assessment by using Water Footprint (WF) approach was conducted to assess water consumption within the water supply treatment process (WSTP) services of Semambu Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Identification of the type of WF at each stage of WSTP was carried out and later the WF accounting for the period 2010 – 2016 was calculated. Several factors that might influence the accounting such as population, and land use. The increasing value of total WF per year was due to the increasing water demand from population and land use activities. However, the pattern of rainfall intensity from the monsoonal changes was not majorly affected the total amount of WF per year. As a conclusion, if the value of WF per year keeps increasing due to unregulated development in addition to the occurrences of climate changing, the intake river water will be insufficient and may lead to water scarcity. The findings in this study suggest actions to reduce the WF will likely have a great impact on freshwater resources availability and sustainability.

  7. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Danser, Philip Alexander; Amy, Gary L.; Pankratz, Tom M.

    2014-01-01

    decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling

  8. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  9. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  10. Can radiation chemistry supply a highly efficient AO(R)P process for organics removal from drinking and waste water? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, Marek; Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna; Capodaglio, Andrea G

    2017-09-01

    The increasing role of chemistry in industrial production and its direct and indirect impacts in everyday life create the need for continuous search and efficiency improvement of new methods for decomposition/removal of different classes of waterborne anthropogenic pollutants. This review paper addresses a highly promising class of water treatment solutions, aimed at tackling the pressing problem of emerging contaminants in natural and drinking waters and wastewater discharges. Radiation processing, a technology originating from radiation chemistry studies, has shown encouraging results in the treatment of (mainly) organic water pollution. Radiation ("high energy") processing is an additive-free technology using short-lived reactive species formed by the radiolysis of water, both oxidative and reducing, to carry out decomposition of organic pollutants. The paper illustrates the basic principles of radiolytic treatment of organic pollutants in water and wastewaters and specifically of one of its most practical implementations (electron beam processing). Application examples, highlighting the technology's strong points and operational conditions are described, and a discussion on the possible future of this technology follows.

  11. Impact of Hybrid Water Supply on the Centralised Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitzenfrei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional (technical concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination with their short-sighted planning and design. A combination of (existing centralised and decentralised infrastructure is expected to be more reliable and sustainable. However, the impact of increasing implementation of decentralised technologies on the local technical performance in sewer or water supply networks and the interaction with the urban form has rarely been addressed in the literature. In this work, an approach which couples the UrbanBEATS model for the planning of decentralised strategies together with a water supply modelling approach is developed and applied to a demonstration case. With this novel approach, critical but also favourable areas for such implementations can be identified. For example, low density areas, which have high potential for rainwater harvesting, can result in local water quality problems in the supply network when further reducing usually low pipe velocities in these areas. On the contrary, in high demand areas (e.g., high density urban forms there is less effect of rainwater harvesting due to the limited available space. In these high density areas, water efficiency measures result in the highest savings in water volume, but do not cause significant problems in the technical performance of the potable water supply network. For a more generalised and case-independent conclusion, further analyses are performed for semi-virtual benchmark networks to answer the question of an appropriate representation of the water distribution system in a computational model for such an analysis. Inappropriate hydraulic model assumptions and characteristics were identified for the stated problem, which have more

  12. LEAN HEALTHCARE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: MINIMIZING WASTE AND COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia M L Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the management models applied in the supply chain providing services in healthcare organizations, considering the lenses of lean. The aim of this is to develop a model of supply chain management focusing on the identification and minimization of waste, assisting in decision making and contributing to the quality of services and as a consequence the reduction of the costs involved in healthcare supply chain. The philosophies of continuous improvement and lean techniques have a role to play in helping healthcare to provide quality service and support to reduce costs in the current budget constraints. In the supply chain of hospitals the financial costs can be around 40% of its budget (MASOUMI et al. 2012; SOUZA et al., 2013. This article sheds light on the improvement in decision making and the effect of reducing costs in the healthcare supply chain. In this sense, the research intend to expand knowledge related to supply chain management in the area of ​​provision of healthcare services through the use of the philosophy of continuous improvement and lean principles, helping healthcare to provide quality service within their current budget constraints.

  13. INFORMATION FLOW IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT WITH AN EXAMPLE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Nowakowska-Grunt; Janusz Grabara

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents information flow process in management of supply chains. Authors notices information flows as a driving element of the global supply chain. Authors points also on the logistics aspects in supply chain of waste management company

  14. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... uses of shared information to create a sustainable fresh food supply chain. Findings –The performance of the perishable food chain can be improved by more efficient information sharing. The key to improved operations is how and for which purposes the shared data should be used. In addition, changes......Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data...

  15. Determination of dilution factors for discharge of aluminum-containing wastes by public water-supply treatment facilities into lakes and reservoirs in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Massey, Andrew J.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2011-09-16

    Dilution of aluminum discharged to reservoirs in filter-backwash effluents at water-treatment facilities in Massachusetts was investigated by a field study and computer simulation. Determination of dilution is needed so that permits for discharge ensure compliance with water-quality standards for aquatic life. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic standard for aluminum, 87 micrograms per liter (μg/L), rather than the acute standard, 750 μg/L, was used in this investigation because the time scales of chronic exposure (days) more nearly match rates of change in reservoir concentrations than do the time scales of acute exposure (hours).Whereas dilution factors are routinely computed for effluents discharged to streams solely on the basis of flow of the effluent and flow of the receiving stream, dilution determination for effluents discharged to reservoirs is more complex because (1), compared to streams, additional water is available for dilution in reservoirs during low flows as a result of reservoir flushing and storage during higher flows, and (2) aluminum removal in reservoirs occurs by aluminum sedimentation during the residence time of water in the reservoir. Possible resuspension of settled aluminum was not considered in this investigation. An additional concern for setting discharge standards is the substantial concentration of aluminum that can be naturally present in ambient surface waters, usually in association with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which can bind aluminum and keep it in solution.A method for dilution determination was developed using a mass-balance equation for aluminum and considering sources of aluminum from groundwater, surface water, and filter-backwash effluents and losses caused by sedimentation, water withdrawal, and spill discharge from the reservoir. The method was applied to 13 reservoirs. Data on aluminum and DOC concentrations in reservoirs and influent water were collected during the fall of 2009. Complete

  16. How to control water supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornby, D M

    1965-05-17

    Exploring for water can be as expensive as exploring for oil, a factor which is likely to become increasingly clear. Basic essentials of any water-supply study require an understanding and knowledge of the limiting conditions of quality, quantity, cost, and reliability. A logical 10-step program is outlined. The initial steps are as follows: (1) analyze the acutal water demand for flood requirements; (2) select the logical and apparent sources of supply; (3) collect and assess all availabe pertinent information; and (4) formulate a plan of analysis and attack for the study. The intermediate steps are as follows: (5) use this plan in making field and office investigations: (6) having determined the alternatives and preliminary costs, prepare a written assessment; and (7) using the brain-storming technique within the company or unit, utilize the assessment to devise a master action plan and budget for anticipated expenditures. The final steps are as follows: (8) complete other required investigations based upon the master plan and budget; (9) prepare detailed design, specifications and estimates; and (10) call tenders or negotiate the most favorable arrangements with respect to construction time and price.

  17. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  18. Maximising water supply system yield subject to multiple reliability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximising water supply system yield subject to multiple reliability constraints via simulation-optimisation. ... Water supply systems have to satisfy different demands that each require various levels of reliability ... and monthly operating rules that maximise the yield of a water supply system subject to ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a municipal or private water supply system. (b) Possible loss of values: Discharges can affect the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal...

  20. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  1. Waste water treatment today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The papers discuss waste water treatment in the legislation of the EC, the German state, the Laender and communities, as well as water protection by preventing waste production and pollutant emissions. (EF) [de

  2. Spatial distribution of water supply reliability and critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers under an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Au, S.-K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process to characterize spatial distribution of water supply reliability among various consumers in a water system and proposes methods to identify critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers under an earthquake. Probabilistic performance of water supply is reflected by the probability of satisfying consumers' water demand, Damage Consequence Index (DCI) and Upgrade Benefit Index (UBI). The process is illustrated using a hypothetical water supply system, where direct Monte Carlo simulation is used for estimating the performance indices. The reliability of water supply to consumers varies spatially, depending on their respective locations in the system and system configuration. The UBI is adopted as a primary index in the identification of critical links for crucial water consumers. A pipe with a relatively large damage probability is likely to have a relatively large UBI, and hence, to be a critical link. The concept of efficient frontier is employed to identify critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers. It is found that a group of links that have the largest UBI individually do not necessarily have the largest group UBI, or be the group of critical links

  3. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  4. Radon-removal techniques for small community public water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Malley, J.P.; Clement, J.A.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.

    1990-08-01

    The report presents the results of an evaluation, performed by the University of New Hampshire--Environmental Research Group (ERG), of radon removal in small community water supplies using full-scale granular activated carbon adsorption, diffused bubble aeration and packed tower aeration. Various low technology alternatives, such as loss in a distribution system and addition of coarse bubble aeration to a pilot-scale atmospheric storage tank were also evaluated. The report discusses each of the treatment alternatives with respect to their radon removal efficiency, potential problems (i.e., waste disposal, radiation exposure and intermedia pollution), and economics in small community applications. In addition, several sampling methods, storage times, scintillation cocktails and extraction procedures currently used in the liquid scintillation technique for analysis of radon in water were compared

  5. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  6. Drinking Water Supply without Use of a Disinfectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnochova, Marketa; Tuhovcak, Ladislav; Rucka, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The paper focuses on the issue of drinking water supply without use of any disinfectants. Before the public water supply network operator begins to consider switching to operation without use of chemical disinfection, initial assessment should be made, whether or not the water supply system in question is suitable for this type of operation. The assessment is performed by applying the decision algorithm. The initial assessment is followed by another decision algorithm which serves for managing and controlling the process of switching to drinking water supply without use of a disinfectant. The paper also summarizes previous experience and knowledge of this way operated public water supply systems in the Czech Republic.

  7. Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

  8. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically controlled pump shall be provided to supply the sprinkling system and shall be used for no other purpose. The...

  9. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  10. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    American Water Works Association 67:331-35. This article describes the activities of the COMASP (water authority for Sao Paulo , Brazil ) during a...the Water Supply Act of 1958, as amiended. Flood Control Act of 1944. The Secretary of the Army was authorized to sell surplus impounded water in...each category. The issues discussed are: climate and water supply, floods and droughts, groundwater, water conservation in irrigation, water quality

  11. Sustainable Water Supplies in Uppsala, Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Bert

    2014-05-01

    This is a description of a transdisciplinary three-day project with upper secondary school students around ecosystem services and sustainability. Uppsala (200 000 inhabitants) gets its municipal water from wells in the esker that dominates the landscape in and around the town. This esker was formed by glacial melt water around 11 000 BP, at the end of the latest glaciation and was lifted above sea level by post-glacial land rise from 6000 BP. To keep up the water table in the esker, water from river Fyris is pumped up and infiltrated in the esker. The river is also the recipient of wastewater downstream of the town, and the river runs out into Lake Mälaren that in its turn spills out into the Baltic Sea through Stockholm. The esker and river can thus be a central topic to work around, in Biology and Geography in upper secondary school, concerning recent and future water supplies, quaternary geology, limnology and landscape history. The fieldwork is carried out during three days in a period of three subsequent weeks. 1. One day is used to examine the water quality in the river above the town, organisms, pH, levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, conductivity and turbidity. Then the direction of the water is followed, first up to the infiltration dams on the esker, and then along the esker to the wells in the town. The formation of the esker and other traces in the landscape from the latest glaciation is also studied, as well as the historical use of the esker as a road and as a source of gravel and sand. The tap water that comes from the wells is finally tested in school in the same way as in the river. 2. The second day is used to follow the wastewater from households to the sewage plant, where the staff presents the plant. The water quality is tested in the same way as above in the outlet from the plant to the river. 3. The third day consists of a limnological excursion on the lake outside the mouth of the river where plankton and other organisms are studied, as

  12. Urban community perception towards intermittent water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M W; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S

    2002-04-01

    While evaluating intermittent and continuous water supply systems, consumers opinion survey was undertaken for critical appraisal of both modes of operation. With the help of a pre-designed set of questions relating to various aspects of water supply and the opinion of consumers regarding degree of service, a house to house survey was conducted in the study area of Ghaziabad and Jaipur. The consumer opinion survey clearly indicated a satisfactory degree of service wherever adequate quantity of water was made available irrespective of the mode of water supply. Number of complaints regarding quality of water supplied, timings of supply, low pressures and breakdowns in supply were reported during intermittent water supply. Every family stored water for drinking and other uses. Most of the families discard drinking water once the fresh water supply is resumed next day. Discarded drinking water is usually used in kitchen for washing and gardening. Storage for other purposes depends on economic status and availability of other sources like open dug well in the house. While most of the respondents had no complaints on water tariff, all of them were in favour of continuous water supply.

  13. Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus Houses ... on drinking water source, rate of illness, type and usage of sanitation facilities. ... wells, unprotected dug wells; while others during the wet season harvest rain water.

  14. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to...

  16. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (5) Loss of water supply is not a basis for assistance under this authority. (6) Water will not be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency water supplies due to... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61 Emergency...

  17. Waste Biomass Based Energy Supply Chain Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Güneş Yıldız

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels, alleviating environmental impacts and ensuring sustainable economic growth are among the most promising aspects of utilizing renewable energy resources. Biomass is a major renewable energy resource that has the potential for creating sustainable energy systems that are critical in terms of social welfare. Utilization of biomass for bioenergy production is an efficient alternative for meeting rising energy demands, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and thus alleviating climate change. A supply chain for such an energy source is crucial for assisting deliverance of a competitive end product to end-user markets. Considering the existing constraints, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model for waste biomass based supply chain was proposed in this study for economic performance optimization. Performance of the proposed modelling approach was demonstrated with a real life application study realized in İstanbul. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were conducted which would serve as a foresight for efficient management of the supply chain as a whole

  18. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  19. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, D.; Moilleron, R.; Lorgeoux, C.; El Samarani, A.; Chebbo, Gh.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  20. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  1. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  2. Specific features of auxiliary water supply at underground NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pergamenshchik, B.K.; Pavlov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of auxiliary water supply systems for underground NPPs related to peculiarities of NPP basis equipment arrangement, are considered. Circulation water supply scheme, in which water cooling storage basin (cooling towers) with operational area corresponding to NPP power is on the surface and has traditional design, is proposed. Sufficiently high efficiency of the arrangement proposed is proved

  3. Global Reverse Supply Chain Redesign for Household Plastic Waste under the Emission Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Chabaane, A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing global resource scarcity, waste becomes a resource that can be managed globally. A reverse supply chain network for waste recycling needs to process all the waste with minimum costs and environmental impact. As re-processing of waste is one of the major sources of pollution in the

  4. Radon in private water supplies in SW England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, C.S.; Banks, D.

    1995-01-01

    It has been known since at least the early 1960s that high levels of radon gas can be found dissolved in some water supplies in South West England and, as a result of this, degassing plant was installed in some mains water supplies at this time in order to remove the radon from the water. More recently the result of a survey of just over 500 drinking water supplies throughout the UK has been published. This concluded that the radon level in UK water supplies in general do not constitute a health hazard. In this note we present results from 22 private water supplies in South West England and conclude that for certain individuals levels of radon in water may well present a radiological hazard which is not negligible and that this problem needs to be investigated more fully. (author)

  5. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is

  6. Water stress, water salience, and the implications for water supply planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Effectively addressing the water supply challenges posed by urbanization and climate change requires a holistic understanding of the water supply system, including the impact of human behavior on system dynamics. Decision makers have limits to available information and information processing capacity, and their attention is not equally distributed among risks. The salience of a given risk is higher when increased attention is directed to it and though perceived risk may increase, real risk does not change. Relevant to water supply planning is how and when water stress results in an increased salience of water risks. This work takes a socio-hydrological approach to develop a water supply planning model that includes water consumption as an endogenous variable, in the context of Las Vegas, NV. To understand the benefits and limitations of this approach, this model is compared to a traditional planning model that uses water consumption scenarios. Both models are applied to project system reliability and water stress under four streamflow and demographic scenarios, and to assess supply side responses to changing conditions. The endogenous demand model enables the identification of feedback between both supply and demand management decisions on future water consumption and system performance. This model, while specific to the Las Vegas case, demonstrates a prototypical modeling framework capable of examining water-supply demand interactions by incorporating water stress driven conservation.

  7. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. The...

  8. Condensing and water supplying systems in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce heat loss and eliminate accumulation of drain in water supplying and heating units in an atomic power plant by providing a direct contact type drain cooler between a gland-exhauster vapor condenser and a condensing and de-salting means, the drain from each water supplying and heating unit being collected in said cooler for heating the condensed water. Structure: Condensed water from a condenser is fed by a low pressure condensing pump through an air ejector and gland-exhauster vapor condenser to the direct-contact type drain cooler and is condensed in each water supply heater. Next, it is heated by drain fed through a drain level adjuster valve and an orifice and then forced by a medium pressure condenser pump into the condensing and de-salting means. It is then supplied by a high pressure condensing pump into the successive water supply heater. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Device for controlling water supply to nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To smoothly control automatic water supply for realizing stable operation of a nuclear reactor by providing a flow rate limiting signal selection circuit and a preferential circuit in a water supply control device for a nuclear reactor wherein the speed of a recirculation pump may be changed in two-steps. Structure: Opening angle signals for a water supply regulating valve are controlled by a nuclear reactor water level signal, a vapor flow rate signal and a supplied water flow rate signal through an adder and an adjuster in response to a predetermined water level setting signal. When the water in the reactor is maintained at a predetermined level, a selection circuit receives a water pump condition signal for selecting one of the signals from a supplied water rate limiting signal generator generating signals for indicating whether one or two water supply pumps are operated. A low value preferential circuit passes the lower of the values generated from the selection circuit and the adder. The selection circuit receives a recirculation pump condition signal and selects either one of the signals from the supplied water flow rate limiting signal generator operated at high speed or low speed. A high value preferential circuit passes the higher value

  10. Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on the Urban Poor in Dar es Salaam. ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Dar es Salaam is not perceived to be a panacea to the water problems facing the urban poor.

  11. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  12. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  13. Groundwater potential for water supply during droughts in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y.; Cha, E.; Moon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts have been receiving much attention in Korea because severe droughts occurred in recent years, causing significant social, economic and environmental damages in some regions. Residents in agricultural area, most of all, were most damaged by droughts with lack of available water supplies to meet crop water demands. In order to mitigate drought damages, we present a strategy to keep from agricultural droughts by using groundwater to meet water supply as a potential water resource in agricultural areas. In this study, we analyze drought severity and the groundwater potential to mitigate social and environmental damages caused by droughts in Korea. We evaluate drought severity by analyzing spatial and temporal meteorological and hydrological data such as rainfall, water supply and demand. For drought severity, we use effective drought index along with the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized runoff index(SRI). Water deficit during the drought period is also quantified to consider social and environmental impact of droughts. Then we assess the feasibility of using groundwater as a potential source for groundwater impact mitigation. Results show that the agricultural areas are more vulnerable to droughts and use of groundwater as an emergency water resource is feasible in some regions. For a case study, we select Jeong-Sun area located in Kangwon providence having well-developed Karst aquifers and surrounded by mountains. For Jeong-Sun area, we quantify groundwater potential use, design the method of water supply by using groundwater, and assess its economic benefit. Results show that water supply system with groundwater abstraction can be a good strategy when droughts are severe for an emergency water supply in Jeong-Sun area, and groundwater can also be used not only for a dry season water supply resource, but for everyday water supply system. This case study results can further be applicable to some regions with no sufficient water

  14. STATE OF WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE SUBCARPATHIAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIETRUCHA-URBANIK

    Full Text Available The characteristics of equipping the Subcarpathian province cities with water supply infrastructure was made on the basis of data collected from the Provincial Office, Statistical Office, reports submitted by water companies regarding the functioning of water supply infrastructure and literature data. The indicators characterizing water supply infrastructure were determined for the years 1995-2014. In the paper the indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems were presented. Also water consumption and changes in the length of the water supply network in the cities of the Subcarpathian Province were examined. The analysis shows that the water consumption for the years 1995-2014 decreased by almost 6 m3∙year-1 per capita. The reason for such situation was the increasing price of water and the ecological awareness of the inhabitants of the Subcarpathian region. In the last year of the analysis the water supply system in urban areas of the Subcarpathian province was used by 95% of the population and, for comparison, in rural areas by 77% of the population. In the paper also changes in prices for water in the Subcarpathian region were shown, on the basis of data from the water tariffs in individual water companies. The important element of urban development is the technical infrastructure which reduces the investment costs. The determined indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems show an upward trend in the development of technical infrastructure. Based on the operational data from the water companies the failure rates in selected water supply networks were determined.

  15. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  16. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  17. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  18. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...

  19. Development of datamining software for the city water supply company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlinskaya, O. G.; Boiko, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article considers issues of datamining software development for city water supply enterprises. Main stages of OLAP and datamining systems development are proposed. The system will allow water supply companies analyse accumulated data. Accordingly, improving the quality of data analysis would improve the manageability of the company and help to make the right managerial decisions by executives of various levels.

  20. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  1. Sharing the burden of water supply protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken

    2010-01-01

    A sufficient supply of freshwater is critical to human survivability and biodiversity. Much of the recent decline in freshwater biodiversity and overall freshwater ecosystem health is attributable to land use change.

  2. Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Balestieri, José Antônio Perrella

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

  3. Spectrographic analysis of waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Alduan, F.; Capdevila, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Influence of sodium and calcium, up to a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/1 Na and 300 mg/1 Ca, in the spectrographic determination of Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn and Pb in waste waters using graphite spark excitation has been studied. In order to eliminate this influence, each of the elements Ba, Cs, In, La, Li, Sr and Ti, as well as a mixture containing 5% Li-50% Ti, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. This mixture allows to obtain an accuracy better than 25%. Sodium and calcium enhance the line intensities of impurities, when using graphite or gold electrodes, but they produce an opposite effect if copper or silver electrodes are used. (Author) 1 refs

  4. Water Quality and Quantity in Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supplies in Hubli-Dharwad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpel, Emily Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In at least 45 low- and middle-income countries, piped water systems deliver water for limited durations. Few data are available of the impact of intermittent water supply (IWS) on the water quality and quantity delivered to households. This thesis examines the impact of intermittently supplied piped water on the quality and quantity of water delivered to residential taps in Hubli-Dharwad, India, when compared to continuous piped water supply. A framework for understanding the pathways throug...

  5. Waste water from dewatering of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringqvist, L.; Bergner, K.; Olsson, Tommy; Bystroem, P.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of waste water from mechanical dewatering of peat was tested on two species of stream invertebrates. We compared the effects of waste water from peat without any chemical treatment, and waste water from peat where one of the following treatments of the peat had preceded dewatering; a: acidification combined with addition of the cationic polymer Zetag 78 FS40, b: addition of aluminium in combination with the anionic polymer Magnafloc E10, c: polymerisation of the peat by acidification and addition of ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide. Waste water from Al/Magnafloc and from the polymerisation treatments had a higher content of suspended matter and a higher oxygen demand than those of other treatments. Total metal content of the water from all treatments was higher than in water from non-treated peat. Survival and growth of nymphs of the mayfly Heptagenia fuscogrisa and the stonefly Nemoura cinerea were compared in waste water from the different treatments. In all tests, the waste water was diluted to 5% (volume) with unchlorinated tapwater and pH was between 7.0-8.0 in all treatments during the experiment. The nymphs were fed with birch leaves that had been incubated in natural stream water for one month. Under these conditions, we did not find any significant effect of waste water on either survival or growth of these two species

  6. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joan F.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes water-use data collection and quantities of surface water and groundwater diverted for public supply in Kansas for the years 1990 through 2012. Data used in this fact sheet are from the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources and the Kansas Water Office. Water used for public supply represents about 10 percent of all reported water withdrawals in Kansas. Between 1990 and 2012, annual withdrawals for public supply ranged from a low of 121 billion gallons in 1993 to a high of 159 billion gallons in 2012. Differences in annual withdrawals were associated primarily with climatic fluctuations. Six suppliers distributed about one-half of the total water withdrawn for public supply, and nearly three-quarters of the surface water. Surface water represented between 52 and 61 percent of total annual withdrawals for public supply. The proportion of surface water obtained through contracts from Federal reservoirs increased from less than 5 percent in the 1990s to 8 percent in 2011 and 2012. More than 99 percent of the reported water withdrawn for public supply in Kansas in 2012 was metered, which was an increase from 92 percent in 1990. State population increased steadily from 2.5 million people in 1990 to 2.9 million in 2012. Recent estimates indicate that about 95 percent of the total population was served by public water supply; the remainder obtained water from other sources such as private wells. Average per capita water use as calculated for State conservation planning purposes varied by region of the State. The smallest regional average water use for the years 1990–2012 was 98 gallons per person per day in easternmost Kansas, and the largest regional average water use was 274 gallons per person per day in westernmost Kansas.

  7. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  8. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  9. Technological features of contamination and purification of drilling waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striletskiy, I V

    1981-01-01

    The most efficient solution to the problem of preventing contamination of the reservoirs with waste water is their reuse for water supply of the borehole. Requirements are presented which the purified waste water must meet. As a result of the conducted studies it has been established that in reservoirs, only coarsely dispersed mixture, weighting compounds and floating petroleum products are removed from the water. Finely dispersed suspension and colloid particles have a sedimentation stability and do not settle out under the influence of the gravity force. For drilling waste water there is a characteristic inconsistency in the degree of contamination both at the different boreholes and at one borehole with the passage of time. Physical-chemical characteristics of the waste waters are presented. The greatest degree of contamination of water is observed when such operations are performed as replacement of the drilling fluid, lifting of the drilling tool, cementing as well as the development of emergencies. Studies on the purification of drilling water were conducted on an experimental-industrial unit.

  10. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is needed by man for the sustenance of life and it is the second most important natural resource used by man after the air were breathe. Man survives longer without food than without water. The socio-economic development of man is determined partly by the availability of water. The supply of safe pipe-borne water in ...

  11. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  12. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  13. Urban sprawl and water supply in the Colombian coffee region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Juan Leonardo; Galeano Moreno, Julian; Canon Barriga, Julio

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the current situation of water supply systems in the context of urban sprawl in the Colombian coffee region. The authors suggest three factors to understand local and regional water supply systems: land use within areas of urban sprawl; land use in the ecosystems that sustain the water supply; and operation and technical efficiency of the utilities. Accordingly, the work provides an estimate of the degree of urbanization and the spatial extent of urban sprawl in the cities of Manizales, Pereira y Armenia. The ecological land use in Andean and sub Andean ecosystems that supply the aqueducts of these cities is characterized, as well as the operative and technical conditions of water supply providers involved in urban sprawl, highlighting their strengths and their increasing weaknesses.

  14. Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e...... and whole effluent toxicity have been developed. About 15 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies (or combinations) have been assessed. This paper will present the LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  15. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  16. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  17. Cost And Environmental Optimization Of Waste Supply Chains Using Clca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Prosman, Ernst Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Although circular supply chains are widely perceived as a huge leap towards a more environmentally friendly economy, supply chain literature lacks environmental supplier selection criteria (E-SSC) for circular supply chains. Taking into account the various characteristics of circular supply chains...

  18. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  19. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  20. Radon in private water supplies: the unknown risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, D.; Horan, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Radon gas, which is the main contributor to human radiation exposure, is easily dissolved in, and dissipated from, water. Problems with radon occur because, in addition to being ingested, it (a) becomes attached to particles which lodge in the lungs and (b) emits alpha radiation. Concentration has been found to increase inversely with the size of a water supply. Although of little problem in mains water, private water supplies in the UK have been found to contain more than ten times the recommended US levels. Despite this, very little monitoring is carried out for radon in private supplies. Local authorities, situated in areas where the geological conditions are such that high levels of radon would be expected, should carry out a suitable sampling and monitoring programme of their private water supplies. (Author)

  1. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuria, Faith W; Vogel, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  2. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  3. Water supply method to the fuel cell cooling water system; Nenryo denchi reikyakusuikei eno kyusui hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, S. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-17

    The conventional fuel cell has long cooling water piping ranging from the fuel cell exit to the steam separator; in addition, the supply water is cooler than the cooling water. When the amount of supply water increases, the temperature of the cooling water is lowered, and the pressure fluctuation in the steam separator becomes larger. This invention relates to the water supply method of opening the supply water valve and supplying water from the supply water system to the cooling water system in accordance with the signal of the level sensor of the steam separator, wherein opening and closing of the supply valve are repeated during water supply. According to the method the pressure drop in every water supply becomes negligibly small; therefore, the pressure fluctuation of the cooling water system can be made small. The interval of the supply water valve from opening to closing is preferably from 3 seconds to 2 minutes. The method is effective when equipment for recovering heat from the cooling water is installed in the downstream pipeline of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  4. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  5. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  6. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  7. Long term assurance of supply of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The answer of Switzerland and Great Britain to a number of questions concerning the long-term assurance of the supply of heavy water are presented. The original problems are seen in the wider context of raw materials supply and its assurance in general. Non-proliferation aspects are touched

  8. Natural radioactivity in private water supplies in Devon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, D.; Davis, J.; Rainey, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report details a study of the occurrence of natural radioactivity in private water Supplies in West Devon. Supplies sourced from wells, springs boreholes and a small number surface supplies were sampled. The findings of a laboratory simulation of the radon content in drinks such as tea, coffee and squash are also presented. Of supplies sampled in phase one of the work approximately 8% of tap water and 9% of samples directly from the supply contained radon at concentrations exceeding the draft European Union Commission Recommendation action level of 1000 Bq/I for individual and public water supplies. In a small number of supplies 238 U is present at levels exceeding 2 μg/I, the World Health Organisation (WHO) provisional guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The final aspect of the study looked at seasonal variation in the radon content of selected supplies. This showed considerable variability in radon concentration over the course of a week and between studies carried out several months apart. (author)

  9. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure of service ... drinking water quality parameters were within the World Health Organization ... Besides, disinfection of water at the household level can be an added advantage.

  10. Water supply and disposal in the City of Kiev following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzarik, N.

    1990-01-01

    Kiev is the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and is the USSR's third largest city, with a population of 2.7 million people. The city water supply is dependent on three sources; two surface ones, i.e. the rivers Dniepr and Desna, and one underground one. The average total water consumption of the city amounts to 1.5 x 10 6 m 3 /day. The Chernobyl Power Plant accident posed a threat to the normal operation of the Kiev water supply system. In the circumstances, it became necessary to adopt the most urgent measures aimed at ensuring a continuous delivery of potable water to the city under conditions of the potential radioactive contamination of water supply sources. Round-the-clock monitoring of the radioactivity of the water source has taken place, including the control of water quality at various treatment stages, the variation of radioactivity of different filter loading materials and the radioactivity of waste waters, sludge and silt. The main concern was the threat of contamination of the Kiev reservoir. However the concentration of radionuclides in the drinking water supply has not exceeded the permissible limits. Various requirements for the water supply in the face of radioactive contamination are mentioned such as several water supplies, one of which is preferably an underground source, flexible conditions of water treatment and continuous radiation monitoring of the water supply (UK)

  11. Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padowski, Julie C; Gorelick, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy. (letter)

  12. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. An International ... time spent for water collection, the rating of water supply, and problems associated ... The people were asked to indicate how long it would take them to get good quality water ...

  13. Application for Planning and Improvement of Public Water Supply in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The study applied the tool of GIS in the planning and improvement of water ... proffer an acceptable solution to the problems of water supply in the study area. Primary data generated ..... Tropical Hydrology and Water. Resources. Iloeje, N.P. ...

  14. Potable water supply in owerri metropolis: a challenge to mdgs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the analysis were related directly to the affected MDG targets to reveal that the Otamiri Water Scheme that supplies water to Owerri urban is not functioning effectively. Also, the water distribution facilities are inadequate, overused and worn-out. They generally wear a poor state as evidenced from blockages, ...

  15. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  16. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  17. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  18. Establishing an environmental profile of water supply in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available -losses in the supply system must receive attention, especially in the municipal-controlled part. Water quality impacts are also important, although through supporting processes, and specifically electricity generation. The boosting requirements attribute most...

  19. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  20. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukvar, Murat; Egilmez, Gokhan; Tatari, Omer

    2014-06-01

    Waste management in construction is critical for the sustainable treatment of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials, and recycling of these wastes has been considered as one of the best strategies in minimization of C&D debris. However, recycling of C&D materials may not always be a feasible strategy for every waste type and therefore recycling and other waste treatment strategies should be supported by robust decision-making models. With the aim of assessing the net carbon, energy, and water footprints of C&D recycling and other waste management alternatives, a comprehensive economic input-output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is developed by tracing all of the economy-wide supply-chain impacts of three waste management strategies: recycling, landfilling, and incineration. Analysis results showed that only the recycling of construction materials provided positive environmental footprint savings in terms of carbon, energy, and water footprints. Incineration is a better option as a secondary strategy after recycling for water and energy footprint categories, whereas landfilling is found to be as slightly better strategy when carbon footprint is considered as the main focus of comparison. In terms of construction materials' environmental footprint, nonferrous metals are found to have a significant environmental footprint reduction potential if recycled. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems’ operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Mora-Rodriguez, P. Amparo López-Jimenez, Helena M. Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuse...

  2. Energy-Cost Optimisation in Water-Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Mahmood; Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Households as well as community water-supply systems for utilisation of underground aquifers are massive consumers of energy. Prevailing energy crisis and focus of the government on demand-side energy policies (i.e., energy conservation) in Pakistan raises need of using energy efficient techniques in almost every aspect of life. This paper analyses performance of community relative to household water-supply system in connection with efficient energy utilisation. Results suggest that total ope...

  3. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  4. Restructuring the Water Supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nonis, M

    1999-01-01

    The CERN water network is the result of continuous extensions made to meet the different needs of the experiments and accelerators. Several studies concerning the current water consumption and the foreseen needs for the running of the new accelerators show a need to optimize the network and, where possible, reduce the consumption. Site construction works will begin in February 1999 and will continue until 2003; important modification works on the water network will only be possible during the shutdown for the dismantling of LEP. This paper will present the technical outlines and will report the status of the project. ST Division is involved in reorganizing the demineralized and primary cooling water circuits for the accelerators while Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) will be responsible for the works on pumping stations and on water networks.

  5. Dealing with uncertainty in modeling intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, A. M.; Rycroft, C.; Wilkening, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittency in urban water supply affects hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world, impacting water quality and infrastructure. Building on previous work to dynamically model the transient flows in water distribution networks undergoing frequent filling and emptying, we now consider the hydraulic implications of uncertain input data. Water distribution networks undergoing intermittent supply are often poorly mapped, and household metering frequently ranges from patchy to nonexistent. In the face of uncertain pipe material, pipe slope, network connectivity, and outflow, we investigate how uncertainty affects dynamical modeling results. We furthermore identify which parameters exert the greatest influence on uncertainty, helping to prioritize data collection.

  6. Humic Substances in waters for supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo Valero, Miller; Cruz Torres, Luis Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    The humic substances make part of the degradation products of the organic matter of the soil and they are incorporate to the superficial waters for the action of laundry that they carry out by the superficial waters. These substances have been recognized as precursors in the formation of the disinfections sub-products, with free chlorine in treatment of drinkable water plants. The disinfections sub-product and the compound organic halogens, they have been classified potentially in human as cancerigenic substances, and therefore the interest in knowing more about the precursors substances, mechanisms of formation of disinfections sub-products, national situation and methods to diminish their formation

  7. Waste water management in radiation medicine laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Miaofa

    1990-01-01

    A new building has been used since 1983 in the department of radiation medicine of Suzhou Medical College. Management, processing facilities, monitoring, discharge and treatment of 147 Pm contaminated waste water are reported

  8. Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...

  9. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  10. Modeling and Optimization for Management of Intermittent Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, A. M.; Wilkening, J.; Rycroft, C.

    2014-12-01

    In many urban areas, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. These consequences include degradation of distribution system components, compromised water quality, and inequitable water availability. The goal of this work is to model the important dynamics and identify operating conditions that mitigate certain negative effects of intermittent water supply. Specifically, we will look at controlling valve parameters occurring as boundary conditions in a network model of transient, transition flow through closed pipes. Gradient-based optimization will be used to find boundary values to minimize pressure gradients and ensure equitable water availability at system endpoints.

  11. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  12. Electrical power supply and controls for a remotely operated glass melter for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haideri, A.Q.

    1985-01-01

    An electrical power supply, controls and instruments used for a joule heated glass melter for nuclear waste are discussed. Remotely replaceable interconnection wiring assemblies for power, controls and instruments are also described

  13. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal...: Reclamation provides assistance for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply... the findings and conclusions of the appraisal investigations that identified the water supply problems...

  14. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  15. Intermittent Water Supplies: Challenges and Opportunities for Residential Water Users in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, David E.; Talozi, Samer; Lund, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Intermittent access to improved urban water supplies is a large and expanding global problem. This paper describes 16 supply enhancement and 23 demand management actions available to urban residential water users in Jordan to cope with intermittent supplies. We characterize actions by implementation, costs, and water quantities and qualities acquired or conserved. This effort systematically identifies potential options prior to detailed study and shows that water users have significant capaci...

  16. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.5 Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. Water supply outlook reports prepared by NRCS and its cooperators containing water supply forecasts and basic data are usually...

  17. Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-09-15

    Supplying piped water intermittently is a common practice throughout the world that increases the risk of microbial contamination through multiple mechanisms. Converting an intermittent supply to a continuous supply has the potential to improve the quality of water delivered to consumers. To understand the effects of this upgrade on water quality, we tested samples from reservoirs, consumer taps, and drinking water provided by households (e.g. from storage containers) from an intermittent and continuous supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India, over one year. Water samples were tested for total coliform, Escherichia coli, turbidity, free chlorine, and combined chlorine. While water quality was similar at service reservoirs supplying the continuous and intermittent sections of the network, indicator bacteria were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in samples from taps supplied intermittently compared to those supplied continuously (p supply, with 0.7% of tap samples positive compared to 31.7% of intermittent water supply tap samples positive for E. coli. In samples from both continuously and intermittently supplied taps, higher concentrations of total coliform were measured after rainfall events. While source water quality declined slightly during the rainy season, only tap water from intermittent supply had significantly more indicator bacteria throughout the rainy season compared to the dry season. Drinking water samples provided by households in both continuous and intermittent supplies had higher concentrations of indicator bacteria than samples collected directly from taps. Most households with continuous supply continued to store water for drinking, resulting in re-contamination, which may reduce the benefits to water quality of converting to continuous supply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  19. Bulawayo water supplies: Sustainable alternatives for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandla, Noel; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Sibanda, Peter

    Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe with a population of nearly one million people. It is located on the watershed of Umzingwane and Gwayi catchments. The former is part of the Limpopo basin, while the latter drains into the Zambezi basin. Bulawayo has a good potential of economic development but has been stymied by lack of sufficient water. The city currently relies on five surface sources in the Umzingwane catchment where it has to compete with evaporation. The well field from the Nyamandlovu aquifer in the Gwayi catchment, which was constructed as an emergency measure during the 1992 drought, is currently not operational. Alternative water supply sources are far and expensive. A multilinear regression model was developed to analyse and quantify the factors affecting water consumption. It was found that per capita water consumption is very low, indicating suppressed demand. Water rationing, tariffs, rainfall, population growth and gross domestic product are the main factors influencing water consumption in Bulawayo. Assuming that these factors will continue to be influential, future water consumption was projected for intensive, regular and slack water demand management. Future water consumption was then compared with the current water supply capacity in order to determine the date by which the next water supply source is required. With slack demand management, the Nyamandlovu well field should have been operational by 2003, while by the year 2007 an additional source of water is required. With intensive demand management and assuming low population growth, current capacities may suffice to satisfy the suppressed demand until the year 2015, by which time Nyamandlovu wells should be operational again. The additional water supply sources that are currently being considered for Bulawayo (namely the Zambezi water pipeline; Gwayi Shangani dam; Mtshabezi dam; Lower Tuli dam; and Glass block dam) were then compared with an alternative water source not yet

  20. Optimising nitrogen elimination performance in an urban waste water treatment plant by regulating the air supply.; Optimizacion del rendimiento de eliminacion de nitrogeno en una EDAR urbana mediante la regulacion de la aportacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filter, M.; Rodriguez-Roda, I.; Colprin, J.; Poch, M.

    2002-07-01

    This study sought to optimise the performance of the biological elimination of nitrogen in an urban waste water treatment plant that was not designed to eliminate nutrients. Previous studies had indicated that regulating the air flow could have a decisive effects in guaranteeing the existence of aerobic and anoxic areas in the biological reactor, which are necessary conditions for the nitrification/denitrification process to take place. The air flow was regulated manually in accordance with the monitoring of the dissolved oxygen content and the daily analyses of nitrogen in the effluent. The results show that during the seven months of the study, nitrogen elimination performance was high and nitrogen in the effluent was below the legal limit at all times. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  2. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  3. Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released a document that provides water conservation and efficiency best practices for evaluating water supply projects. The document can help water utilities and federal and state governments carry out assessments of the potential for future

  4. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the scope for promoting much increased groundwater use for irrigated agriculture, and how might the investment risks be reduced and sustainable outcomes ensured? • How can the demand to expand urban groundwater use, for both further supplementing municipal water-supply systems and for direct in situ water ...

  5. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  6. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is essential for sustenance of life and determines the overall socio- economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. Despite this, the hope of meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ...

  7. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of potable water to every nock and crannies of the state must be pursed vigorously. To achieve this task in Ekiti State, the problems militating against the supply of clean water need to be tackled effectively. For this reason, the rehabilitation of existing dams provision of funds, completion of the 132 KVA ...

  8. Fragmented landscapes of water supply in suburban Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright-Contreras, Lucia; March, Hug; Schramm, S.

    2017-01-01

    Facing the challenges of city planning in the frame of rapid urbanization in the Global South, this study addresses the relationship between the urban development of Hanoi, Vietnam, and water supply including users’ perception of water accessibility and satisfaction of coverage, quality, and cost.

  9. Public Perception of Potable Water Supply in Abeokuta South west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-structured interviewer administered questionnaire were distributed across the city through the stratified random sampling method using the network distribution map obtained from the Ogun State Water Corporation as guide. Sixty – eight per cent of the respondents attested that the quality of the water supplied was ...

  10. The Effects of Extended Water Supply Disruptions on the Operations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    or extended water supply disruptions on the operations of small and medium enterprises ... negatively affected. The results of this study give a better perspective ... water scarcity, which has a detrimental impact on livelihoods and business. 2The incidence of ...... to make contingency plans for their production. Planning for ...

  11. Developing the Water Supply System for Travel to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance D.; Flynn, Michael T.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    What water supply method should be used on a trip to Mars? Two alternate approaches are using fuel cell and stored water, as was done for short missions such as Apollo and the Space Shuttle, or recycling most of the water, as on long missions including the International Space Station (ISS). Stored water is inexpensive for brief missions but its launch mass and cost become very large for long missions. Recycling systems have much lower total mass and cost for long missions, but they have high development cost and are more expensive to operate than storage. A Mars transit mission would have an intermediate duration of about 450 days out and back. Since Mars transit is about ten times longer than a brief mission but probably less than one-tenth as long as ISS, it is not clear if stored or recycled water would be best. Recycling system design is complicated because water is used for different purposes, drinking, food preparation, washing, and flushing the urinal, and because wastewater has different forms, humidity condensate, dirty wash water, and urine and flush water. The uses have different requirements and the wastewater resources have different contaminants and processing requirements. The most cost-effective water supply system may recycle some wastewater sources and also provide safety reserve water from storage. Different water supply technologies are compared using mass, cost, reliability, and other factors.

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  13. UV disinfection in drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, O

    2000-01-01

    UV disinfection has become a practical and safely validatable disinfection procedure by specifying the requirements for testing and monitoring in DVGW standard W 294. A standardized biodosimetric testing procedure and monitoring with standardized UV sensors is introduced and successfully applied. On-line monitoring of irradiance can be counterchecked with handheld reference sensors and makes it possible that UV systems can be used for drinking water disinfection with the same level of confidence and safety as is conventional chemical disinfection.

  14. Beyond Waste Reduction: Creating Value with Information Systems in Closed-Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.R. Koppius (Otto); O. Ozdemir (Oznur); E.A. van der Laan (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe study the role of information systems in enabling closed-loop supply chains. Past research in green IS and closed-loop supply chains has shown that it can result in substantial cost savings and waste reduction. We complement this research by showing that the effects are more than

  15. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmore, G. [Hazelwood Power Corporation, VIC (Australia); Pacific Power (International) Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled `SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy`. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs.

  16. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, G.

    1995-01-01

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled 'SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy'. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs

  17. Efficient dynamic scarcity pricing in urban water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien J.; Escriva-Bou, Alvar

    2017-04-01

    Water pricing is a key instrument for water demand management. Despite the variety of existing strategies for urban water pricing, urban water rates are often far from reflecting the real value of the resource, which increases with water scarcity. Current water rates do not bring any incentive to reduce water use in water scarcity periods, since they do not send any signal to the users of water scarcity. In California, the recent drought has spurred the implementation of drought surcharges and penalties to reduce residential water use, although it is not a common practice yet. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive calls for the implementation of new pricing policies that assure the contribution of water users to the recovery of the cost of water services (financial instrument) while providing adequate incentives for an efficient use of water (economic instrument). Not only financial costs should be recovered but also environmental and resource (opportunity) costs. A dynamic pricing policy is efficient if the prices charged correspond to the marginal economic value of water, which increases with water scarcity and is determined by the value of water for all alternative uses in the basin. Therefore, in the absence of efficient water markets, measuring the opportunity costs of scarce water can only be achieved through an integrated basin-wide hydroeconomic simulation approach. The objective of this work is to design a dynamic water rate for urban water supply accounting for the seasonal marginal value of water in the basin, related to water scarcity. The dynamic pricing policy would send to the users a signal of the economic value of the resource when water is scarce, therefore promoting more efficient water use. The water rate is also designed to simultaneously meet the expected basic requirements for water tariffs: revenue sufficiency (cost recovery) and neutrality, equity and affordability, simplicity and efficiency. A dynamic increasing block rate (IBR

  18. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. S. Cullis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing

  19. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, James D. S.; Walker, Nicholas J.; Ahjum, Fadiel; Juan Rodriguez, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing additional water

  20. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  1. Pressure: the politechnics of water supply in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    In Mumbai, most all residents are delivered their daily supply of water for a few hours every day, on a water supply schedule. Subject to a more precarious supply than the city's upper-class residents, the city's settlers have to consistently demand that their water come on “time” and with “pressure.” Taking pressure seriously as both a social and natural force, in this article I focus on the ways in which settlers mobilize the pressures of politics, pumps, and pipes to get water. I show how these practices not only allow settlers to live in the city, but also produce what I call hydraulic citizenship—a form of belonging to the city made by effective political and technical connections to the city's infrastructure. Yet, not all settlers are able to get water from the city water department. The outcomes of settlers' efforts to access water depend on a complex matrix of socionatural relations that settlers make with city engineers and their hydraulic infrastructure. I show how these arrangements describe and produce the cultural politics of water in Mumbai. By focusing on the ways in which residents in a predominantly Muslim settlement draw water despite the state's neglect, I conclude by pointing to the indeterminacy of water, and the ways in which its seepage and leakage make different kinds of politics and publics possible in the city.

  2. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS: A MULTI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central Oklahoma aquifer, which supplies drinking water to numerous communities in central Oklahoma. Concentrations as high as 230 µg/L have been reported in some drinking water supply wells from this aquifer. The city of Norman, like most other affected cities, is actively seeking a cost-effective solution to the arsenic problem. Only six of the city’s 32 wells exceeded the old MCL of 50 µg/L. With implementation of the new MCL this year, 18 of the 32 wells exceed the allowable concentration of arsenic. Arsenic-bearing shaly sandstones appear to be the source of the arsenic. It may be possible to isolate these arsenic-bearing zones from water supply wells, enabling production of water that complies with drinking water standards. It is hypothesized that geologic mapping together with detailed hydrogeochemical investigations will yield correlations which predict high arsenic occurrence for the siting of new drinking water production wells. More data and methods to assess the specific distribution, speciation, and mode of transport of arsenic in aquifers are needed to improve our predictions for arsenic occurrence in water supply wells. Research is also needed to assess whether we can ret

  3. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  4. Introduction of water footprint assessment approach to enhance water supply management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Syazwan N.; Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Presently, Water Footprint (WF) Approach has been used to assess the sustainability of a product's chain globally but is lacking in the services sector. Thus, this paper aims to introduce WF assessment as a technical approach to determine the sustainability of water supply management for the typical water supply treatment process (WSTP) used in Malaysia. Water supply is one of the pertinent services and most of WF accounting begins with data obtained from the water supply treatment plant. Therefore, the amount of WF will be accounted for each process of WSTP in order to determine the water utilization for the whole process according to blue, green and grey WF. Hence, the exact amount of water used in the process can be measured by applying this accounting method to assess the sustainability of water supply management in Malaysia. Therefore, the WF approach in assessing sustainability of WSTP could be implemented.

  5. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  6. Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve...... the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system....

  7. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  8. A methodology for the design of photovoltaic water supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, O.C.; Fraidenraich, N.

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic pumping systems are used nowadays as a valuable alternative to supply water to communities living in remote rural areas. Owing to the seasonal variation and the stochastic behavior of solar radiation, at certain times the supply of water may not be able to meet demand. A study has been made of the relationship between water pumping capacity, reservoir size and water demand, for a given water deficit. As a result, curves of equal water deficit (iso-deficit lines) can be obtained for various combinations of PV pumping capacity and reservoir size. A methodology to generate those curves is described, using as its main tool the characteristic curve of the system, that is, the relationship between water flow and collected solar radiation. The characteristic curve represents the combined behavior of the water pumping system and the well. The influence of the minimum collected solar radiation level, necessary to start the system's operation (the critical radiation level I C ). is also analyzed. Results show that PV pumping systems with different characteristic curves, but with the same critical levels, yield the same set of iso-deficit lines. This drastically reduces the number of necessary solutions to those corresponding to a few values of I C . Iso-deficit lines, calculated for the locality of Recife (PE), Brazil, are used to illustrate the sizing procedure PV water supply systems. (author)

  9. Radiological assessment of private water supplies in Dolgellau, North Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; McReddie, R.; Holland, B.

    1993-01-01

    Water samples from 100 private water supplies in the Meirionnydd District Council area of Dolgellau, North Wales have been analysed for natural and artificial radionuclides and the elements Calcium and Strontium. In addition 20 of the 100 supplies were specifically sampled for the measurement of radon-222. Of the 100 supplies tested all total alpha and beta values were within the WHO guideline values. An assessment of the radiological significance of the analytical data has been carried out by calculating the committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical critical group which would arise from the consumption of water during a single year. The maximum adult annual committed effective dose equivalent for artificial and total radionuclides measured during this programme of monitoring was found to be 3.2 and 560 μSv, respectively. (author)

  10. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  11. Fluorine level in some city water supplies of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, A.K.M.F.; Abedin, M.J.; Rahman, M.M.; Mia, M. Y.; Tarafder, M.S.A.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Hossain, M.D.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear reaction based Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analytical method was employed for the quantitative measurement of fluorine in the city water supplies of the major cities of Bangladesh. 102 water samples collected from 14 city supplies were analyzed and these samples contain fluorine in the range of 0.03 to 1.10 mg/L with a mean of 0.33 ± 0.21 mg/L. It was also observed that except the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi, all other water samples analyzed contain a much lower amount of fluorine than the maximum permissible value for Bangladesh in drinking water, which is 1 mg/L. The mean concentration of fluorine in the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi are respectively 0.79±0.01, 0.71±0.13 and 0.92±0.18 mg/L. For the 55 samples of Dhaka city supply the mean fluorine concentration is 0.31±0.17 mg/L and that of 9 samples from Chittagong city supply is 0.19±0.10 mg/L, which is the lowest among the 14 city supply samples analyzed in this study

  12. Radon exposed workplaces in Bavarian public water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, T.; Huebel, K.; Schindlmeier, W.

    1998-01-01

    From April 1996 to July 1996 a radon-screening in 112 Bavarian water supplies was carried out to determine the radon concentration in workplaces. In some regions with granit or gneiss stones as underground a considerable radiation exposure to the employees in public water supplies can be expected. The median of the measured radon concentration in relevant workplaces is found to be 4000 Bq/m 3 in the areas with granite or gneiss. This is approximately the fourfold of the median measured in a reference area with sandstone as underground. In some workplaces radon concentrations of more than 100000 Bq/m 3 can be found. (orig.) [de

  13. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  14. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  15. Geographic information systems - tool for evaluation of the hydro-energy performance of water supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Christian Pimentel Almeida Santos; José Almir Rodrigues Pereira; Augusto da Gama Rego; Rogério da Silva Santos

    2017-01-01

    The most relevant challenges in the water supply system (WSS) are high water losses and the waste of electric energy. This paper aimed to assess the capacity of the Geographic Information System (GIS) in the analysis of the hydro-energy performance of WSSs. The Stage 1 comprises the selection of data and the respective hydro-energy indexes are defined; cartographic data are defined in Stage 2 and a geo-referenced database is constructed in Stage 3. In the stage 4, the data of the Central Wate...

  16. The effect of using waste water for tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.; Jan, M.T.; Farahatullah; Khan, N.U.; Arif, M.; Perveen, S; Alam, S.; Jan, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment near Palosi drain was conducted to study the effect of tube well (TW) and waste water (WW) with or without basal dose of NP and K on the yield and heavy metal uptake of tomato during 2008. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam, slightly alkaline, moderately calcareous with phyto toxically high concentration of Cu, Fe and Mn while Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were less than the levels considered toxic to the plants. The tomato biomass was significantly (p<0.05) affected by different treatments. Taller plants and higher biomass was produced in plots receiving WW with or without NP and K and TW water receiving basal dose of NP and K while lower biomass and shorter plants were produced in plots receiving only TW water indicating the nutritive value of WW application. The results of metal concentration in leaves and fruit showed that with exception of Cd, there were significant variation (p<0.05) in the plant uptake of metals when irrigated with different supply of irrigation water. The overall results showed that leaves accumulated higher concentration (with exception of Cu) of heavy metals studied compared to fruit. The concentration of Cr, Fe, Mn Pb and Zn in leaves was above the permissible limits when irrigated with waste water while waste water supplemented with fertilizers showed reduction in heavy metals uptake. The concentration of Fe and Pb was above the permissible limits in fruits indicating toxicity. It was also noted that plants receiving sole application of WW accumulated more heavy metals compared to WW plus half dose of NP and K while the TW irrigated plots accumulated less heavy metals indicating that their was no build up of heavy metals in the river bed soils because of its coarse texture. It can be concluded that tomato can be irrigated with effluents containing moderate supply of heavy metals on coarse textured soil. (author)

  17. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well

  18. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimei, E-mail: yimei.zhang1@gmail.com [Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guo He [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2 (Canada); He, Li [Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  19. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated Supply Network Maturity Model: Water Scarcity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yatskovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s supply chains (SCs are more than ever prone to disruptions caused by natural and man-made events with water scarcity identified as one of the highest impact events among these. Leading businesses, understanding that natural resource scarcity (NRS has become a critical supply chain risk factor, extensively incorporate sustainable water management programmes into their corporate social responsibility and environmental management agenda. The question of how industries can efficiently evaluate the progress of these water scarcity mitigation practices, however, remains open. In order to address this question, the present study proposes a conceptual maturity model. The model is rooted in strategies for water scarcity mitigation using a framework developed by Yatskovskaya and Srai and develops an extensive literature review of recent publications on maturity frameworks in the fields of sustainability and operations management. In order to test the proposed proposed, model an exploratory case study with a leading pharmaceutical company was conducted. The proposed maturity model presents an evaluation tool that allows systematic assessment and visualisation of organisational routines and practices relevant to sustainable manufacturing in the context of water scarcity. This model was designed to help illustrate mitigation capabilities evolution over time, where future state desired capabilities were considered through alternative supply network (SN configurations, network structure, process flow, product architecture, and supply partnerships.

  1. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  2. Guidelines for the disposal of dangerous and toxic wastes so as to minimize or prevent environmental and water pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rudd, RT

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is producing ever increasing quantities of dangerous and/or toxic wastes, which require safe and effective disposal if they are not to pose a threat to our water supplies or the environment in general....

  3. Process and system for treating waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  4. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  5. Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.; Cooper, P.C.; Vandenburg, A.J.; Musselman, H.D.; Lowe, H.N.; Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne; Army Facilities Engineering Support Agency, Fort Belvoir, Va.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations of the use of high level radiation in the treatment of waste water have failed to consider the effects of the hydrated electron and the potential of possible synergistic effects of combining chlorine, oxygen, and irradiation. An extensive testing program at the University Center for Pollution Research of Florida Institute of Technology over the past four years has shown that irradiation of waste water samples immersed in an aqueous environment provide bacterial kill and reduction in organic pollution far greater than that obtained from theoretical considerations of G values and earlier experiments where the waste samples were not immersed in an aqueous environment. These testing programs have investigated the synergistic effects of combining oxygen and irradiation. Each of these combined treatments resulted in an increased bacterial kill factor. Tests on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and fecal streptococcus bacteria indicate that the synergistic effects observed for fecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the interrelationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor due to the turbidity of the waste water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to significantly offset the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste water. (orig.) [de

  6. [Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Borrull, C; Palà, M; Caubet, I; Bach, P; Nuín, C; Espinet, L; Torres, J; Mirada, G

    2003-01-01

    The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of gastroenteritis outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of waterborne disease associated with drinking water from public supplies. A historical cohort study was carried out following notification of a gastroenteritis outbreak in Baqueira (Valle de Arán, Spain). We used systematic sampling to select 87 individuals staying at hotels and 67 staying in apartments in the target area. Information was gathered on four factors (consumption of water from the public water supply, sandwiches, water and food in the ski resorts) as well as on symptoms. We assessed residual chlorine in drinking water, analyzed samples of drinking water, and studied stool cultures from 4 patients. The risk associated with each water source and food type was assessed by means of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall attack rate was 51.0% (76/149). The main symptoms were diarrhea 87.5%, abdominal pain 80.0%, nausea 50.7%, vomiting 30.3%, and fever 27.0%. The only factor associated with a statistically significant risk of disease was consumption of drinking water (RR = 11.0; 95% CI, 1.6-74.7). No residual chlorine was detected in the drinking water, which was judged acceptable. A problem associated with the location of the chlorinator was observed and corrected. We also recommended an increase in chlorine levels, which was followed by a reduction in the number of cases. The results of stool cultures of the four patients were negative for enterobacteria. This study highlights the potential importance of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis transmitted through drinking water considered acceptable and suggests the need to improve microbiological research into these outbreaks (viruses and protozoa detection).

  7. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  8. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.6 Application for water supply forecast service. Requests for obtaining water supply forecasts or...

  9. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. This phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The ensuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design, maintenance and operational cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  10. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. THis phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The insuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  11. Nuclear waste water being cleaned in Paldinski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, A.

    1995-01-01

    The cleaning of nuclear waste water in the former military base of Paldiski, Estonia, has started with Finnish assistance. During the Soviet era, Paldiski served as a site for training nuclear submarine crews. Spent fuel has already been removed from the two nuclear reactors on the base. The volume of water to be cleaned totals some 450 cubic metres. The work is estimated to take till May 1995. The filtering technique used for cleaning has been developed in cooperation by IVO International and the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki. The project is one aspect of an extensive international cooperation programme for reducing environmental hazards arising from the base. The experience of the cleaning obtained so far has been positive. In the first water tank, filtering reduced the cesium activity of waste water from 1,500 becquerels to less than one becquerel. Two water tanks, however, have bottom sediment that probably cannot be treated during the present project. (orig.)

  12. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  13. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  14. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  15. Rehabilitation actions in water supply systems: effects on biofilm susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS MARTINEZ, EVA; Herrera Fernández, Antonio Manuel; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Joanna A.; Izquierdo Sebastián, Joaquín; Pérez García, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm development in water supply systems (WSSs) depends on infrastructure and operational factors, apart from water quality. We have developed a methodology that considers WSSs hydraulic (operation) and physical (design) characteristics to identify areas with different biofilm development trends within a WSS. To achieve this aim we have used meta-analysis and multi-agent system label propagation via discriminant analysis. As a result, we recognise areas with different susceptibility to bio...

  16. Radioactivity levels in well water supplies within the greater Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoff, L.M.; Lordi, D.T.; Lue-Hing, C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiological analysis of well water supplies within the geographical boundaries of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago was prompted by the relatively high total alpha levels encountered in wastewaters of a MSDGC water reclamation plant as compared to the wastewaters of the other waste treatment plants. Consequently, 87 wells constituting 42 water supplies were sampled and analyzed for total alpha and beta radioactivity. The wells were grouped according to depth. In general, both total alpha and total beta radioactivity concentrations were found to be a function of well depth. The relatively higher total alpha and beta activities in the wastewaters to one of the treatment plants was attributed to the higher levels found in the well water supply. Comparison with the USEPA's Drinking Water Regulations for Radionuclides (July 9, 1976) showed the maximum total alpha level of 15 pCi/liter was exceeded in 3 wells and 32 of the deep well waters had total alpha level greater than 5 pCi/liter. The total beta level of 50 pCi/liter was exceeded in 8 wells

  17. Assessing the costs of disposable and reusable supplies wasted during surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseigne, V; Leguelinel-Blache, G; Nguyen, T L; de Tayrac, R; Prudhomme, M; Kinowski, J M; Costa, P

    2018-05-01

    The management of disposable and reusable supplies might have an impact on the cost efficiency of the Operating Room (OR). This study aimed to evaluate the cost and reasons for wasted supplies in the OR during surgical procedures. We conducted an observational and prospective study in a French university hospital. We assessed the cost of wasted supplies in the OR (defined by opened unused devices), the reasons for the wastage, and the circulator retrievals. At the end, we assessed the perception of surgeons and nurses relative to the supply wastage. Fifty routine procedures and five non-scheduled procedures were observed in digestive (n = 20), urologic (n = 20) and gynecologic surgery (n = 15). The median cost [IQR] of open unused devices was €4.1 [0.5; 10.5] per procedure. Wasted supplies represented up to 20.1% of the total cost allocated to surgical supplies. Considering the 8000 surgical procedures performed in these three surgery departments, the potential annual cost savings were 100 000€. The most common reason of wastage was an anticipation of the surgeon's needs. The circulating nurse spent up to 26.3% of operative time outside of the OR, mainly attending to an additional demand from the surgeon (30%). Most of the survey respondents (68%) agreed that knowing supply prices would change their behavior. This study showed the OR is a major source of wasted hospital expenditure and an area wherein an intervention would have a significant impact. Reducing wasted supplies could improve the cost efficiency of the OR and also decrease its ecological impact. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring water supply systems for anomaly detection and response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Lapikas, T.; Tangena, B.H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Water supply systems are vulnerable to damage caused by unintended or intended human actions, or due to aging of the system. In order to minimize the damages and the inconvenience for the customers, a software tool was developed to detect anomalies at an early stage, and to support the responsible

  19. The church: asset and agent in achieving sustainable water supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... argues that the church as both asset and agent is most useful in conscientizing and transforming people to adopt a new mindset- a behavioral attitude required to halt the progression of environmental degradation in general and specifically improve urban water supply in Nigeria.

  20. Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply scheme for the Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, central Nigeria. Joseph Omada. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 131-135. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  1. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. The conventional production flow control and pressure control of the facility was replaced by the advanced control software called OPIR. To assess the differences between conventional and advanced

  2. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    Available water supply across the contiguous 48 states was estimated as precipitation minus evapotranspiration using data for the period 1953-1994. Precipitation estimates were taken from the Parameter- Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Evapotranspiration was estimated using two models, the Advection-Aridity model and the Zhang model. The...

  3. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  4. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  5. State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos A; Hora, Guido

    2017-12-01

    According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Supply-side approach to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) was signed into law on January 7, 1983. Its purpose was to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, to establish a program of research, development, and demonstration regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and for other purposes. Its goal is to have the first waste repository operational by 1998. It is believed by many that this goal cannot possibly be met. The Act is exceedingly complex with something in it for everybody. There are serious impediments to the program - not the least of which is legislation itself. The process will cost tens of billions of dollars and, even if it does succeed, will take many years to accomplish. This paper proposes a method for getting there in 7 years while saving billions of dollars. It is a summary of a more extensive research effort by the author while attending the Industrial College of the Armed Forces

  7. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,; Ketakee Dagade

    2014-01-01

    In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and contr...

  8. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  9. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  10. Calibration of Water Supply Systems Based on Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Faghfoor Maghrebi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leakage is one of the main problems in the water supply systems and due to the limitations in water supply and its costly process, reduction of leak in water distribution networks can be considered as one of the main goals of the water supply authorities. One of the leak detection techniques in water distribution system is the usage of the recorded node pressures at some locations to calibrate the whole system node pressures. Calibration process is accomplished by the optimization of a constrained objective function. Therefore, in addition to performing a hydraulic analysis of the network, application of an optimization technique is needed. In the current paper, a comparsion between the ant colony and genetic algorithm methodes, in calibration of the node pressures and leak detections was investigated. To examine the workability and the way of leak detection, analysis of the network with an assumed leak was carried out. The results showed that the effectiveness of the ant colony optimization in the detection of the position and magnitude of leak in a water network.

  11. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  12. Industrial Water Waste, Problems and the Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the long term development in Indonesia has changed agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This development can apparently harm our own people. This is due to the waste that is produced from factories. The waste from various factories seems to have different characteristics. This defference encourages us to be able to find out different of methods of managing waste so that cost can be reduced, especially in water treatment. In order that industrial development and environmental preservation can run together in balance, many institutions involved should be consider, especially in the industrial chain, the environment, and human resource, these three elements can be examined in terms of their tolerance to waste.

  13. Method of treating waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  14. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water... to assist areas designated as colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and/or...

  15. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Jovanović; Milana Popović

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor...

  16. Waste water discharges into natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, P.; Barsanti, P.; Mione, A.; Posarelli, M.

    1996-12-01

    The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

  17. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

      Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  18. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and be capable of destroying or isolating pathogens. A need exists for documentary evidence to support various claims about different storage periods for ensuring pathogen die-off and safe handling of biosolids (Peasy 2000). Handling of faecal material... in Water and Environmental Health, Task no. 324. [Online] http://www/lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/well-studies/full-reports-pdf/task0324.pdf WHO (2001). Water quality, guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water...

  20. Electrooxidation of organics in waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

  1. Optimal design of water supply networks for enhancing seismic reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Do Guen; Kang, Doosun; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to construct a reliability evaluation model of a water supply system taking seismic hazards and present techniques to enhance hydraulic reliability of the design into consideration. To maximize seismic reliability with limited budgets, an optimal design model is developed using an optimization technique called harmony search (HS). The model is applied to actual water supply systems to determine pipe diameters that can maximize seismic reliability. The reliabilities between the optimal design and existing designs were compared and analyzed. The optimal design would both enhance reliability by approximately 8.9% and have a construction cost of approximately 1.3% less than current pipe construction cost. In addition, the reinforcement of the durability of individual pipes without considering the system produced ineffective results in terms of both cost and reliability. Therefore, to increase the supply ability of the entire system, optimized pipe diameter combinations should be derived. Systems in which normal status hydraulic stability and abnormal status available demand could be maximally secured if configured through the optimal design. - Highlights: • We construct a seismic reliability evaluation model of water supply system. • We present technique to enhance hydraulic reliability in the aspect of design. • Harmony search algorithm is applied in optimal designs process. • The effects of the proposed optimal design are improved reliability about by 9%. • Optimized pipe diameter combinations should be derived indispensably.

  2. Importance of pressure reducing valves (PRVs) in water supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoreti, R. O. S.; Camargo, R. Z.; Canno, L. M.; Pires, M. S. G.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    Challenged with the high rate of leakage from water supply systems, these managers are committed to identify control mechanisms. In order to standardize and control the pressure Pressure Reducing Valves (VRP) are installed in the supply network, shown to be more effective and provide a faster return for the actual loss control measures. It is known that the control pressure is while controlling the occurrence of leakage. Usually the network is sectored in areas defined by pressure levels according to its topography, once inserted the VRP in the same system will limit the downstream pressure. This work aims to show the importance of VRP as loss reduction for tool.

  3. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book is written about design and management of waste water disposal like settling, floating, aeration and filtration. It explains in detail solo settling, flocculant settling, zone settling, multi-level settling, floating like PPI oil separator, structure of skimming tank and design of skimming tank, water treatment and aeration, aeration device, deaeration like deaeration device for disposal processing of sewage, filtration such as structure and design of Micro-floc filtration, In-line filtration and design of slow sand filter bed.

  4. Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Tarawneh, Tarek; Abdel-Khaleq, Rania; Lund, Jay R.

    2007-07-01

    We apply systems analysis to estimate household water use in an intermittent supply system considering numerous interdependent water user behaviors. Some 39 household actions include conservation; improving local storage or water quality; and accessing sources having variable costs, availabilities, reliabilities, and qualities. A stochastic optimization program with recourse decisions identifies the infrastructure investments and short-term coping actions a customer can adopt to cost-effectively respond to a probability distribution of piped water availability. Monte Carlo simulations show effects for a population of customers. Model calibration reproduces the distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration for conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, and finance conservation.

  5. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  6. Properties of waste stillage from shochu distillery and waste water occurred sosei paper production process

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 正仁; 平田, 登基男; 前野, 祐二; 三原, めぐみ; 松藤, 康司

    1999-01-01

    As an effective utilization of waste stillage, which will be banned from being dumped into sea from the year of 2001, authors have been studied and succeeded to make the sosei paper by using waste stillage form shochu distillery. This research is tried to consider the property of waste stillage from shochu distillery ( sweet potato waste stillage and barley waste stillage) and the weight and property of waste water in compressing samples added some amount of old newspaper to waste stillage. F...

  7. Integrated water and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses concepts and developments within water quantity, water quality, integrated environmental assessment and wastewater treatment. The historical and the global perspectives are used in the discussion of the role of engineers in today's society. Sustainabilty and ethics are taken...... into the analysis. There is a need for re-evaluation of the resource, society and environment scenarios with a view to the totality of the system and with proper analysis of the flow of water and matter through society. Among the tools are input-output analysis and cradle to grave analysis, in combination...... with compilation of identified sets of values with respect to sustainable use of resources and ultimate fate of the environment and quality of life. The role of the engineer is to make available to society as many technical options as possible - and to put these options into the proper perspective in relation...

  8. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  9. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9682-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted regulations analogous to... of Health--Office of Drinking Water, [[Page 33457

  10. Uncertainty Categorization, Modeling, and Management for Regional Water Supply Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K. M.; AlSaati, A.; Alhassan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from growing demands, variability in supply and a changing climate. Short-term variation in water availability and demand; long-term uncertainty in climate, groundwater storage, and sectoral competition for water; and varying stakeholder perspectives on the impacts of water shortages make it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they are the result of stochastic variation or epistemic uncertainty, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are deep uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. We develop a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, sensitivity analysis for deep uncertainty and Bayesian decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. We apply this framework to two contrasting case studies - drought preparedness in Melbourne, Australia and fossil groundwater depletion in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - to assess the impacts of different types of uncertainty on infrastructure decisions. Melbourne's water supply system relies on surface water, which is impacted by natural variation in rainfall, and a market-based system for managing water rights. Our results show that small, flexible investment increases can mitigate shortage risk considerably at reduced cost. Riyadh, by contrast, relies primarily on desalination for municipal use and fossil groundwater for agriculture, and a centralized planner makes allocation decisions. Poor regional groundwater measurement makes it difficult to know when groundwater pumping will become uneconomical, resulting in epistemic uncertainty. However, collecting more data can reduce the uncertainty, suggesting the need for different uncertainty modeling and management strategies in Riyadh than in Melbourne. We will categorize the two systems and propose appropriate

  11. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the cooperative snow survey and water supply forecast program, NRCS: (a) Establishes, maintains, and operates manual...

  12. Defining regulatory requirements for water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors offer their suggestions for improving the reliability of the standardization requirements for water supply facilities in Vietnam, as an analog of building regulations of Russia 31.13330.2012. In Russia and other advanced countries the reliability of the designed water supply systems is usual to assess quantitatively. Guidelines on the reliability assessment of water supply systems and facilities have been offered by many researchers, but these proposals are not officially approved. Some methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities are informally used in practice when describing their quality. These evaluation methods are simple and useful. However, the given estimations defy common sense and regulatory requirements used by all the organizations, ministries and departments, for example, of Russia, in the process of allowances for restoration and repair of water supply facilities. Inadequacy of the water supply facilities assessment is shown on the example of assessing the reliability of pipeline system. If we take MTBF of specific length of the pipeline as reliability index for a pipeline system, for example, 5 km, a pipeline of the similar gauge, material and working conditions with the length of 5 m, according to the estimation on the basis of non-official approach, must have a value of MTBF 1000 times greater than with the length of 5 km. This conclusion runs counter to common sense, for the reason that all the pipes in the area of 5 km are identical, have the same load and rate of wear (corrosion, fouling, deformation, etc.. It was theoretically and practically proved that products of the same type in the same operating conditions (excluding determined impact of a person, work as an entity, which MTBF is equal to the average lifetime. It is proposed to take the average service life as a reliability indicator of a pipeline. Durability, but not failsafety of the pipe guarantees pipeline functioning

  13. A Study of the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Coordination on Waste Glass Bottles Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste products can sharply save manufacturing cost and improve the economic efficiency and corporate-reputation. It also has a great effect on the environment and resources protection. In the management of the closed-loop supply chain, the recycling of waste products and decision-making on pricing often directly affect the supply and demand of products and the operation efficiency of supply chain. Therefore, first we take waste glass bottles as an example and establish a mathematical model to solve the profit of manufacturers and retailers solely. Then, we analyzed whole supply chain profit under a dual-channel recycling condition which is directly recycled by consumers or by retailers. Finally, we concluded that no matter what product’s price, quality, profit, or operational efficiency of supply chain is, the overall recycling is better than the single node recycling model. Based on the analysis, we developed a new model to coordinate the profit of manufacturers and retailers in the supply chain with revenue-sharing contract. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  14. Waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill in mine No. 754

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqun

    1997-01-01

    The author briefly introduces some measures to waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill of Uranium Mine No. 754. It is shown in practice that making rational use of waste water is advantageous to production, reducing qcost and lightening environment pollution

  15. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of inequality of supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of intermittent water supply in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guragai, B; Takizawa, S; Hashimoto, T; Oguma, K

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of unequal supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of the intermittent water supply (IWS) in the Kathmandu Valley (KV), Nepal we conducted a randomized household survey (n=369) and on-site water quality tests. Half of the households received piped water for 6 or fewer hours per week. To augment or cope with the inadequate supply, 28% of the households used highly contaminated and expensive tanker-delivered water. Half of the piped water samples (n=13) were contaminated with Escherichia coli. Free chlorine concentration in all piped water samples was below the national standards (0.1-0.2mg/L), but combined chlorine was detected at an average of 0.24mg/L, indicating ingression of contaminants in the network. Point-of-use devices could increase access to safe water in the KV from 42% to 80%. The use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients revealed inequality of piped water supply hours per week both between and within service areas in the KV, due mainly to a small percentage of households who receive longer supply hours. To cope with reduced supply hours, home owners pay more to get water from alternative sources, while tenants compromise their water consumption. Under IWS, expectations for improvements in piped water quality and supply regularity are higher than those for supply volume. Consumers' perceptions of the piped water services worsen with the reduction in supply hours, but perceptions of piped water tariff are independent of supply hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Threat to the New York City water supply - plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Krey, P.W.; Volchok, H.L.; Feldstein, J.; Calderon, G.

    1988-01-01

    The mayor of the City of New York received an anonymous letter on April 1st 1985 threatening to contaminate the water supply with plutonium unless all criminal charges against Mr Bernhard Goetz, the suspect in a dramatic subway shooting incident, were dismissed by April 11th 1985. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory, EML, was requested to analyse a composite, large volume (∼ 175 litres) drinking water sample collected on April 16th 1985. The concentration measured was 21 fCi/l which was a factor of 100 greater than previously observed results in the EML data base, and the mass isotopic content of the plutonium was very unusual. Additional samples were collected one to three months later at various distribution points in the water supply system. The plutonium concentrations were much lower and comparable to EML's earlier data. Mass isotopic analysis of these samples provided more reasonable compositions but with high uncertainties due to very low plutonium concentration. Due to the inability to confirm the elevated plutonium concentration value for the composite sample, it is impossible to conclude whether the threat to contaminate the New York City water supply was actually carried out or whether the sample was contaminated prior to receipt at EML. 5 refs.; 1 figure; 5 tabs

  18. Karst aquifer in Galichica and possibilities for water supply to Ohrid with ground -water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchovski, Vojo; Kekich, Aleksandar; Spasovski, Orce; Mirchovski, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    In this paper are presented some hydrogeological features of the karst aquifer in Mt Galichica, which contains important quantities of ground-water that can to used for the water supply of the town Ohrid. Based on the hydrogeological data are given three solutions that be can to used for water supply of Ohrid, the first one is to drill of deep wells, combination of deep and shallow wells, as well as construction of horizontal galleries.

  19. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  20. The model relationship of wastes for parameter design with green lean production of fresh water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastiadi Tamjidillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is about eliminating waste including the seven traditional, this writing suggested an observation on no value added of seven wastes influencing the process of fresh water production. The relationship value among waste was statistically verified to create an approach for continuous improvement action. Thus, the main goal of this research is to develop a methodology of relationship among wastes and eliminate them. In relationship among wastes, it could be known that the high value indicating how often it happened in the production process gave direct cause in the system of fresh water treatment. A recommendation to reduce the highest value of waste is by doing improvement on parameter setting to obtain an optimum mixing model between water supply, alum and stroke pump with Taguchi method. The interaction of relationship among these seven types of waste can be portrayed using fishbone diagram and a relationship model among wastes using PLS smart (partial least squares. The final relationship model with the highest value of waste was analyzed using off-line quality control to upgrade the quality of fresh water used as the basis to eliminate waste and find out the optimal parameter of mixing process in accordance with the health standard.

  1. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez H, V.

    1997-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  2. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang

    1997-01-01

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs

  3. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China)

    1997-12-31

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs.

  4. Geographic information systems - tool for evaluation of the hydro-energy performance of water supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Christian Pimentel Almeida Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The most relevant challenges in the water supply system (WSS are high water losses and the waste of electric energy. This paper aimed to assess the capacity of the Geographic Information System (GIS in the analysis of the hydro-energy performance of WSSs. The Stage 1 comprises the selection of data and the respective hydro-energy indexes are defined; cartographic data are defined in Stage 2 and a geo-referenced database is constructed in Stage 3. In the stage 4, the data of the Central Water Supply Zone administered by the Water Works Company of the state of Pará in Belém, Brazil were employed to assess its applicability, in which the sectors with the worst hydro-energy performance were identified, such as Sector 9, with the highest water loss rates (59.11% and electric energy consumption per m3 of water produced (1.57 kwh m-³. The results shows that geo-referential assessment of the hydro-energy performance of WSSs provided accurate information for decision-taking related to the rational use of water and electricity in the systems.

  5. Illness associated with contamination of drinking water supplies with phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S.N.; Straube, R.C.; Williams, A.L.; Bartlett, C.L.

    1985-06-15

    In January 1984 the River Dee in north Wales was contaminated with phenol, with subsequent contamination of the tap water received by about two million consumers. A retrospective postal survey of 594 households was undertaken to determine whether consumption of this contaminated water was associated with illness. Subjects in areas that received contaminated water reported significantly more gastrointestinal illness than those in a nearby unexposed area (32.6% v 8.7%, p less than 0.00001) as well as reporting a higher incidence of any symptoms (43.6% v 18.4%, p less than 0.00001). Symptoms were consistent with phenol poisoning and bore a strong temporal relation to the pollution of the supply, but they developed at concentrations of phenols previously considered to be safe by the water authorities concerned. Chlorophenols produced during the treatment of water may have aggravated the problem.

  6. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1996. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, S.G.; Purtymun, W.D.; Maes, M.N.; Longmire, P.A.

    1997-12-01

    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1996 totaled about 1,368.1 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from either the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1996. About 2.6 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used for lawn irrigation. The total water usage in 1996 was about 1,370.7 million gallons, or about 131 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was up about 12.0 million gallons in 1996 compared with the pumpage in 1995. This report fulfills requirements specified in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (Groundwater Protection Management Program), which requires the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to monitor and document groundwater conditions below Pajarito Plateau and to protect the regional aquifer from contamination associated with Laboratory operations. Furthermore, this report also fulfills special conditions by providing information on hydrologic characteristics of the regional aquifer, including operating conditions of the municipal water supply system

  7. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  8. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  9. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Waste waters have been generated as result of operations conducted at the Hanford Facility for over 40 years. These waste waters were previously discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. Examples of such waste waters include steam condensates and cooling waters that have not been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste and process condensates that may have been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste. Many measures have been taken to reduce the amount of contamination being discharged in these effluents. However, some of these waste waters still require additional treatment before release to the environment. Systems are being designed and built to treat these waste waters along with any future waste waters resulting from remediation activities on the Hanford Facility

  10. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  11. A Study on Rational Pricing System for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    are important for systematizing pricing mechanism and reasonable use of water resource. The study recommends the institutional structure for efficient water management/use include an integrated river basin management system and establishment of an independent agency for executive function (separation of policy making function and executive function). A corporatized organization for actual water supply function is also recommended (separation of regulation function and supply function). (author). 46 refs., 18 figs., 59 tabs.

  12. Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are

  13. Public - private interdependence: An effective tool in water supply services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Iosif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the impact of certain determinants on the choice of local authorities to use public - private interdependence for the provision of water supply services, based on the Spanish and Romanian local experiences. Being aware of their impact, the authorities could place a particular focus on the determinants that lead to local development. Several studies reveal that public – private interdependence is a powerful tool for building local development (Melo & do Carmo, 2008; Dessi & Floris, 2009 and states are interested in finding out ways to obtain it. The complex methodology of the paper was designed in accordance with the particularities of each country studied. Gathering the data for Romania implied conducting several interviews, and for Spain survey, exploratory analysis and semi-structured interviews were applied. The determinants’ influence was tested through logit or linear probability model. The analysis validates that population, density of population, indirect taxes, affiliation of the city representative to a certain political party is influencing the option of local public authorities. The paper brings recommendations on promoting public - private interdependence in water supply services. The paper is mainly valuable for the parallel that is made between Spain and Romania in water supply services and it brings progress in comparative country cases.

  14. The Financing of Water Supply and Sewerage Services in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florentina CUCOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply and sewerage services represent utilities that must be provided to all users, both the urban and the rural. The responsibility to ensure these services in terms of non-discrimination and affordability belongs to the local authorities, which in the spirit of decentralization have exclusive jurisdiction on their establishment, organization and operation. Regardless of the chosen management, the funding of water supply and sewerage services, is accomplished by means of the prices and tariffs paid by the users. Their quantum, specific to some social services, covers the costs without allowing the accumulation of consistent profit margins, which would ensure the development of the specific infrastructure from the operators' own funds. It is therefore necessary that funding for the creation and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems to be provided from other sources than the budgets of operators, such as: budgetary allocations of local public authorities, government or European funding programs. This paper is of interest because it captures just how the prices and tariffs for these services are composed, and the entire procedure for foundation, adjustment and modification that follows different rules from those of pricing in the market economy, and it provides a review of the types of programs through which the development of the specific technical-urban infrastructure and the significant increase in the number of users in the past 25 years.

  15. Water and Fisheries: The Sensitivity of Water Supply in the Tana River Basin to Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inima, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Wether climatic change would cause water supply in the dry areas of the earth to diminish or not is a major question. The main objective of this study was to determine wether the water supply in the Tana river Basin of Kenya would diminish in quality as a result of climate change. The Tana River Basin is the immense economic importance to Kenya and is the lifeline of Kenya's electricity supply, accounting for about 70% of the country's electricity supply. The basin houses about 30% of the country's population and 38% of the total irrigable land. A diminished water supply in this content would, therefore, hamper the economic development of the country.Kenya receives, on average, an annual rainfall of 600 mm, and hence classified as arid to semi-arid. This makes it vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change

  16. Process for cooling waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, P

    1976-12-16

    The process for avoiding thermal pollution of waters described rests on the principle of the heat conduction tube, by which heat is conducted from the liquid space into the atmosphere at a lower temperature above it. Such a tube, here called a cooling tube, consists in its simplest form of a heat conducting corrugated tube, made, for example, of copper or a copper alloy or of precious metals, which is sealed to be airtight at both ends, and after evacuation, is partially filled with a medium of low boiling point. The longer leg of the tube, which is bent at right angles, lies close below the surface of the water to be cooled and parallel to it; the shorter leg projects vertically into the atmosphere. The liquid inside the cooling tube fills the horizontal part of the tube to about halfway. A certain part of the liquid is always evaporated in this part. The vapor rising in the vertical part of the tube condenses on the internal wall cooled by the air outside, and gives off its heat to the atmosphere. The condensed medium flows back down the vertical internal wall into the initial position in a continuous cycle. A further development contains a smooth plastic inner tube in an outer corrugated tube, which is shorter than the outer tube; it ends at a distance from the caps sealing the outer tube at both ends. In this design the angle between the vertical and horizontal leg is less than 90/sup 0/. The shorter leg projects vertically from the water surface, below which the longer leg rises slightly from the knee of tube. The quantity of the liquid is gauged as a type of siphon, so that the space between the outer and inner tube at the knee of the tube remains closed by the liquid medium. The medium evaporated from the surface in the long leg of the tube therefore flows over the inner tube, which starts above the level of the medium. Thus evaporation and condensation paths are separated.

  17. The drinking water supply in the periphery of AMBA, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problem of drinking water supply in areas with little home network coverage in the main urban area of Argentina called Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. It is recover contributions of exploratory research which appealed to the case and analysis of primary and secondary sources. It focuses on the characterization of the emerging commercial circuits that emerge in the absence of networks, included by the presence of formal and informal firms that perform drilling and install equipment that allows individual exploitation of the aquifers by households that have no access to water networks. It also examines the meager state control regulation and supervision.

  18. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  19. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  20. Options for reducing food waste by ‘Quality Controlled Logistics’ using intelligent packaging along the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This article describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on Quality Controlled Logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate

  1. Forecasting operational demand for an urban water supply zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. L.; McMahon, T. A.; Walton, A.; Lewis, J.

    2002-03-01

    A time series forecasting model of hourly water consumption 24 h in advance for an urban zone within the Melbourne (Australia) water supply system is developed. The model comprises two modules—daily and hourly. The daily module is formulated as a set of equations representing the effects of three factors on water use namely seasonality, climatic correlation, and autocorrelation. The hourly module is developed to disaggregate the estimated daily consumption into hourly consumption. The models were calibrated using hourly and daily data for a 6 year period, and independently validated over an additional seven month period. Over this latter period, the hourly forecast model accounted for 66% of the variance in the peak hourly water consumption with a standard error of 162 l/p/d.

  2. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  3. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  4. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and propagation of a... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and... § 125.61. (b) Impact of discharge on public water supplies. (1) The applicant's modified discharge must...

  5. Assessing the risk posed by high-turbidity water to water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Liao, Chung-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the risk of insufficient water supply posed by high-turbidity water. Several phenomena can pose risks to the sufficiency of a water supply; this study concerns risks to water treatment plants from particular properties of rainfall and raw water turbidity. High-turbidity water can impede water treatment plant operations; rainfall properties can influence the degree of soil erosion. Thus, water turbidity relates to rainfall characteristics. Exceedance probabilities are presented for different rainfall intensities and turbidities of water. When the turbidity of raw water is higher than 5,000 NTU, it can cause operational problems for a water treatment plant. Calculations show that the turbidity of raw water at the Ban-Sin water treatment plant will be higher than 5,000 NTU if the rainfall intensity is larger than 165 mm/day. The exceedance probability of high turbidity (turbidity >5,000 NTU) in the Ban-Sin water treatment plant is larger than 10%. When any water treatment plant cannot work regularly, its ability to supply water to its customers is at risk.

  6. Managing urban water supplies in developing countries Climate change and water scarcity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavamoorthy, Kala; Gorantiwar, Sunil D.; Pathirana, Assela

    Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing water scarcity and it is possible that this problem may be further aggravated due to rapid changes in the hydro-environment at different scales, like those of climate and land-cover. Due to water scarcity and limitations to the development of new water resources, it is prudent to shift from the traditional 'supply based management' to a 'demand management' paradigm. Demand management focuses on measures that make better and more efficient use of limited supplies, often at a level significantly below standard service levels. This paper particularly focuses on the intermittent water supplies in the cities of developing countries. Intermittent water supplies need to be adopted due to water scarcity and if not planned properly, results in inequities in water deliveries to consumers and poor levels of service. It is therefore important to recognise these realities when designing and operating such networks. The standard tools available for design of water supply systems often assume a continuous, unlimited supply and the supplied water amount is limited only be the demand, making them unsuitable for designing intermittent supplies that are governed by severely limited water availability. This paper presents details of new guidelines developed for the design and control of intermittent water distribution systems in developing countries. These include a modified network analysis simulation coupled with an optimal design tool. The guidelines are driven by a modified set of design objectives to be met at least cost. These objectives are equity in supply and people driven levels of service (PDLS) expressed in terms of four design parameters namely, duration of the supply; timings of the supply; pressure at the outlet (or flow-rate at outlet); and others such as the type of connection required and the locations of connections (in particular for standpipes). All the four parameters are calculated using methods and

  7. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  8. Status of small water supplies in the Nordic countries: Characteristics, water quality and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Persson, Kenneth M; Andradottir, Hrund O; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M

    2017-11-01

    Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions. Data were gathered on number of water supplies, population served, compliance with regulations and waterborne disease outbreaks from various sources in the Nordic countries. The collected data showed that there are about 12500 regulated water supplies, 9400 of which serve fewer than 500 persons. The number of unregulated and poorly regulated supplies is unknown, but it can be roughly estimated that these serve 10% of the Nordic population on a permanent basis or 2.6 million people. However, this does not tell the whole story as many of the very small water supplies serve transient populations, summerhouse dwellers and tourist sites, with many more users. Non-compliance regarding microbes is much higher in the small supplies. The population weighted average fecal contamination incidence rate in the Nordic region is eleven times higher in the smaller supplies than in the large ones, 0.76% and 0.07%, respectively. Registered waterborne disease outbreaks were also more frequent in the small supplies than in the large ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Using underground mine Karst water to solve water supply problem in underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [Wanbei Mining Administration (China). Liuqiao No. 2 Mine

    1995-05-01

    There is a very rich karst water resource under the Liuqiao No. 2 underground mine. Under normal mining conditions the drainage is 546 m{sup 3}/h while the maximum drainage is up to 819 m{sup 3}/h. If water inrush occurred from a broken zone of a fault or a sinkhole of the karst, the flow could be up to 3269 m{sup 3}/h. The karst water is of good quality and high in pressure. The water head pressure at -400 m level is about 3.5 MPa. To save mine construction cost, it was decided that the water supply for coal production equipment, mining operation and mine fire control was to be changed from the surface to the underground by drilling a water well to tap the karst water resource. A water well with a depth of 63.3 m was drilled in the -400 m transportation roadway. The diameter of the well is 127 mm and it has a casing pipe with a diameter of 108 mm which is connected to the water supply pipeline. The pressure of the water supply is measured at 23.5 MPa and the water flow rate is 252 m{sup 3}/h. The establishment of the water supply system has achieved great cost saving for Liuqiao No. 2 Mine. 2 figs.

  10. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  11. Adoption of irrigation water policies to guarantee water supply: A choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcon, F.; Tapsuwan, S.; Brouwer, R.; de Miguel, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient and sustainable use of water is increasingly becoming an urgency in drought prone parts of the world. In particular, in water scarce regions such as the Mediterranean, water supply is expected to become more uncertain because of climate change. Consequently, pro-active policy

  12. Treatment of waste waters with peat moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupal, B; Lalancette, J M

    1976-01-01

    Waste waters containing heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cr/sup 6 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Ag, Pb, Sb or cyanide, phosphates and organic matters such as oil, detergents and dyes can be treated efficiently after a crude settling by contacting with peat moss. Chromium, as Cr/sup 6 +/, can be eliminated in one step from a starting solution of low turbidity to give effluent containing less than 10 ppb of Cr/sup 6 +/ and less than 40 ppb of Cr/sup 3 +/. The characteristics and performances of a contacting machine of 20,000 gal/day capacity for the treatment of industrial waste waters are reported.

  13. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book deals with waste water disposal, design and management, which includes biofilm process, double living things treatment and microscopic organism's immobilized processing. It gives descriptions of biofilm process like construction, definition and characteristic of construction of biofilm process, system construction of biofilm process, principle of biofilm process, application of biofilm process, the basic treatment of double living thing and characteristic of immobilized processing of microscopic organism.

  14. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  15. Climate change and water supply and demand in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawford, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    There is reason to be concerned that water resources on the Canadian Prairies could be at considerable risk due to climatic change. The Canadian Prairies frequently experience variations in the climate, which can reduce crop production by 25-50% and annual volumetric river flows by 70-90%. The potential impacts of climatic change on the Prairies are discussed. Consumptive water uses on the Prairies are dominated by irrigation and the water demands arising from thermal power generation. The overall effect of climatic change on water supplies will depend on the ways in which the various components of the hydrological cycle are affected. At the present time it is unsure whether complementary equations are more realistic in estimating evaporation than mass balance techniques. There is a need to obtain good baseline data which will allow the unequivocal resolution of the most accurate technique for estimating evaporation on the Prairies. Climate change could lead to a decrease in spring runoff, and would also lead to earlier snowmelt and peak flows. This could lead to a longer period of low flows during the summer and fall and a further drawdown of moisture reserves. Some appropriate strategies for adapting to climate change would be: encouraging water conservation; reductions in agricultural water use by developing/utilizing strains of plants with lower water demand; controlling new water developments; and enhancing on-farm retention. 10 refs

  16. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On site power generation protects water supply for Ajax, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Mohamed

    2011-01-15

    The Ajax water supply plant treats and distribute water for the town of Ajax and the nearby City of Pickering and the operations staff manages two other treatment plants supplying the City of Oshawa and the Town of Whitby, and a dozen pumping stations, reservoirs and elevated tanks. The plant requires around 2 MW of continuous power to supply its 150,000 customers. Although local utility power is reliable, standby generators are mandated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. When power goes out problems can result in the plant and system. To avoid these, the Ajax plant staff selected Cummins Power Generation who delivered one 350 kW and two 1500 kW generator sets with automatic transfer switches and paralleling switchgear. These digital systems parallel and synchronize the generator sets with each other and with the utility, which allows the plant to provide continuous service. The plant is designed for twice its current capacity and is ready to handle future requirements.

  18. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  19. Towards a More Sustainable Food Supply Chain: Opening up Invisible Waste in Food Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Derqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.

  20. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  1. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  2. Water supply infrastructure planning under multiple uncertainties: A differentiated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from increasing demands from population and economic growth in combination with uncertain water supply. Supply uncertainty arises from short-term climate variability and long-term climate change as well as uncertainty in groundwater availability. Social and economic uncertainties - such as sectoral competition for water, food and energy security, urbanization, and environmental protection - compound physical uncertainty. Further, the varying risk aversion of stakeholders and water managers makes it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments to reduce risk. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they can be updated over time by collecting additional information, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are "deep" uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. Based on this, we apply a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, scenario analysis for deep uncertainty, and multi-stage decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. In light of these uncertainties and the investment costs of large infrastructure, we propose the assessment of staged, modular infrastructure and information updating as a hedge against risk. We apply this framework to cases in Melbourne, Australia and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Melbourne is a surface water system facing uncertain population growth and variable rainfall and runoff. A severe drought from 1997 to 2009 prompted investment in a 150 MCM/y reverse osmosis desalination plan with a capital cost of 3.5 billion. Our analysis shows that flexible design in which a smaller portion of capacity is developed initially with the option to add modular capacity in the future can mitigate uncertainty and reduce the expected lifetime costs by up to 1 billion. In Riyadh, urban water use relies on fossil groundwater aquifers and

  3. Disposal of liquid radioactive waste - discharge of radioactive waste waters from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwieg, F.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given about legal prescriptions in the FRG concerning composition and amount of the liquid waste substances and waste water disposal by emitting into the sewerage, waste water decay systems and collecting and storage of patients excretions. The radiation exposure of the population due to drainage of radioactive waste water from hospitals lower by more than two orders than the mean exposure due to nuclear-medical use. (HP) [de

  4. The quality assessment to drinking water supplied to Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Hussain, F.; Ashraf, H.; Hussain, S.; Rana, N.N.; Anwar, K.; Sami, Z.; Dil, S.

    1997-01-01

    Drinking water supply system of Islamabad draws major quantities of water from sources such as Simli dam, Rawal dam and the underground aquifer through an integrated system of tube wells sunk in different parts of the city. For an extensive assessment of drinking water quality samples were collected at source from 80 CDA tube wells. Samples were also collected from 3 to 5 predetermined consumer points in sectors 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, G-9, G-10, F-9 and F-10. All these samples apart form coliform organisms, cationic and anionic species present, were analyzed for different parameters required to delineate the drinking water quality using the most reliable techniques like ICP-AES, AAS, HPLC, TIMS and Electro-chemistry. The tube well water samples, generally, contained higher amounts of the TDS and hence higher Ca++ and Mg++ concentration as compared with those of dam water samples. Further all these samples contained reasonable concentration of Sr, an element usually associated with calcite deposits. Samples were also checked for the total radioactivity and were found to be free of such contamination. The results have been discussed with a view to assess the quality of drinking water during the stipulated period. (author)

  5. WATER SUPPLY AND ITS RELATION TO DIARRHOEAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As per WHO estimates, 80% of all the diseases in developing countries including India are related to unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation. Water pollution is invariably high in community wells. As such, incidence of diarrhoeal diseases is more in the rural set up and can be partly attributed to this. About 40% of the population does not have access to safe drinking water. Objective: To establish a relationship between water supply and incidence of diarrhoeal diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sawli village, District Samudrapur (Maharashtra. The study group comprised of 75 under five children, selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected on a pre-designed questionnaire by interviewing the mothers and was analyzed using an appropriate statistical package. Results: Prevalence ofdiarrhoea was found out to be 71 %. only 8% ofthe children who were exclusively breast-fed had any episode of diarrhea. Incidence of diarrhea was high in cases that were drawing water from open wells i.e. 65.3%. Only 28.5% cases reported diarrhea and were drawing water from sanitaiy wells as against 80.32% who took water from insanitary welts. About 45.33% mothers had wrong beliefs about thecauses of diarrhea. ORSwas used in only 30.66% of the cases as a treatment modality. Conclusions: Diarrhoeal incidence was significantly high in children below 3 years of age, prevalence was least in exclusively breast fed

  6. Well Head Protection Areas For Public Non-Community Water Supply Wells In New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Well Head Protection Area for a Public Non-Community Water Supply Well (PNCWS) in New Jersey is a map area calculated around a Public Non-Community Water Supply...

  7. Effect of Rainfall Variability on Water Supply in Ikeduru L.G.A. of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    alternatives, which are that there is a strong relationship between rural water supply in ... Rainfall is a renewable resource, highly variable in space and time and ..... Due to the total dependence on the immediate environment for water supply,.

  8. Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, De Ilona E.; Rohm, Harald; Normann, Anne; Bossle, Marilia Bonzanini; Grønhøj, Alice; Oostindjer, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs

  9. A new concept for the water supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    1998-01-01

    The present state of the station Le Vengeron (the main pumping station supplying CERN with drinking water), and also to comply with the new Swiss standards impose a thorough consolidation and upgrade of this station which is shared with the Services Industriels de Genève (SIG). The total cost of the works (around 62 MCHF) would be shared proportionally to the nominal flow-rate demand which, at present, is of 2/3 for CERN and 1/3 for SIG. An alternative to the above is a complete review of CERN's water consumption, reducing our needs by half, thus allowing savings in both investment and operation. This reduction in investment cost would be diverted towards much needed consolidation works for the existing facilities within CERN. This paper also reviews the planning and possible ways for the execution of the works and the future responsibilities of operation of the water distribution systems (drinking and machine) inside CERN's sites.

  10. Dual-purpose light water reactor supplying heat for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waplington, G.; Fichtner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The technical as well as the economic aspects of using a large commercial light water reactor for the production of both electricity and potable water have been examined. For the basis of the study, the multistage flash distillation process was selected, in conjunction with a reactor rated at not less than 2100 MW (thermal). Combined use of a condensing and a back-pressure turbine (the latter matched to distillation plant steam requirements) represents a convenient method for supplying process heat. Overall costs can be fairly allocated to the two products using the ''power credit'' method. A sample economic evaluation indicates highly favorable water costs as compared with more conventional distillation schemes based on fossil fuel

  11. Water supply pipe dimensioning using hydraulic power dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemathy, J. R.; Rashmi, G.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Proper sizing of the pipe component of water distribution networks play an important role in the overall design of the any water supply system. Several approaches have been applied for the design of networks from an economical point of view. Traditional optimization techniques and population based stochastic algorithms are widely used to optimize the networks. But the use of these approaches is mostly found to be limited to the research level due to difficulties in understanding by the practicing engineers, design engineers and consulting firms. More over due to non-availability of commercial software related to the optimal design of water distribution system,it forces the practicing engineers to adopt either trial and error or experience-based design. This paper presents a simple approach based on power dissipation in each pipeline as a parameter to design the network economically, but not to the level of global minimum cost.

  12. Soft computing techniques toward modeling the water supplies of Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, L; Maris, F; Tachos, S

    2011-10-01

    This research effort aims in the application of soft computing techniques toward water resources management. More specifically, the target is the development of reliable soft computing models capable of estimating the water supply for the case of "Germasogeia" mountainous watersheds in Cyprus. Initially, ε-Regression Support Vector Machines (ε-RSVM) and fuzzy weighted ε-RSVMR models have been developed that accept five input parameters. At the same time, reliable artificial neural networks have been developed to perform the same job. The 5-fold cross validation approach has been employed in order to eliminate bad local behaviors and to produce a more representative training data set. Thus, the fuzzy weighted Support Vector Regression (SVR) combined with the fuzzy partition has been employed in an effort to enhance the quality of the results. Several rational and reliable models have been produced that can enhance the efficiency of water policy designers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  14. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  15. Global reverse supply chain design for solid waste recycling under uncertainties and carbon emission constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhitao; Elomri, Adel; Pokharel, Shaligram; Zhang, Qin; Ming, X G; Liu, Wenjie

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of concerns over environmental protection, resource conservation as well as the development of logistics operations and manufacturing technology has led several countries to implement formal collection and recycling systems of solid waste. Such recycling system has the benefits of reducing environmental pollution, boosting the economy by creating new jobs, and generating income from trading the recyclable materials. This leads to the formation of a global reverse supply chain (GRSC) of solid waste. In this paper, we investigate the design of such a GRSC with a special emphasis on three aspects; (1) uncertainty of waste collection levels, (2) associated carbon emissions, and (3) challenges posed by the supply chain's global aspect, particularly the maritime transportation costs and currency exchange rates. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to integrate the three above-mentioned important aspects in the design of a GRSC. We have used mixed integer-linear programming method along with robust optimization to develop the model which is validated using a sample case study of e-waste management. Our results show that using a robust model by taking the complex interactions characterizing global reverse supply chain networks into account, we can create a better GRSC. The effect of uncertainties and carbon constraints on decisions to reduce costs and emissions are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust optimization on sustainable biodiesel supply chain produced from waste cooking oil under price uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Yunjian

    2017-02-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO)-for-biodiesel conversion is regarded as the "waste-to-wealthy" industry. This paper addresses the design of a WCO-for-biodiesel supply chain at both strategic and tactical levels. The supply chain of this problem is studied, which is based on a typical mode of the waste collection (from restaurants' kitchen) and conversion in the cities. The supply chain comprises three stakeholders: WCO supplier, integrated bio-refinery and demand zone. Three key problems should be addressed for the optimal design of the supply chain: (1) the number, sizes and locations of bio-refinery; (2) the sites and amount of WCO collected; (3) the transportation plans of WCO and biodiesel. A robust mixed integer linear model with muti-objective (economic, environmental and social objectives) is proposed for these problems. Finally, a large-scale practical case study is adopted based on Suzhou, a city in the east of China, to verify the proposed models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma radiation treatment of waste waters from textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of gamma irradiation alone, and in combination with chemical treatment on color, odor, chemical oxyg-en demand (COD) and suspended solids in waste waters from textile industries in Ghana were studied to explore the potential of alternative and innovative processes for treatment of industrial waste waters. Waste ...

  18. The impact of uncontrolled waste disposal on surface water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main threat to the surface water quality in Addis Ababa is environmental pollution derived from domestic and industrial activities. Due to the inadequacy of controlled waste management strategies and waste treatment plants, people are forced to discharge wastes both on open surface and within water bodies.

  19. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza; Carlos Martins; Enrique Campbell; Joaquín Izquierdo

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic ...

  20. Water supply at Los Alamos: Current status of wells and future water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Stoker, A.K.

    1988-08-01

    The municipal and industrial use of groundwater at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Los Alamos County was about 1.5 billion gallons during 1986. From a total of 19 wells that range in age from 5 to 41 years, the water was pumped from 3 well fields. The life expectancy of a well in the area ranges from 30 to 50 years, dependent on the well construction and rate of corrosion of the casing and screen. Twelve of the wells are more than 30-years old and, of these, four cannot be used for production, three because of well damage and one because the quality of water is not suitable for use. Eight of the twelve oldest wells are likely to be unsuitable for use in the next 10 years because of well deterioration and failure. The remaining 7 wells include 2 that are likely to fail in the next 20 years. Five of the younger wells in the Pajarito well field are in good condition and should serve for another two or three decades. The program of maintenance and rehabilitation of pumps and wells has extended production capabilities for short periods of time. Pumps may be effectively repaired or replaced; however, rehabilitation of the well is only a short-term correction to increase the yield before it starts to decline again. The two main factors that prevent successful well rehabilitation are: (1) chemicals precipitated in the gravel pack and screen restrict or reduce the entrance of water to the well, which reduces the yield of the well, and (2) the screen and casing become corroded to a point of losing structural strength and subsequent failure allows the gravel pack and formation sand to enter the well. Both factors are due to long-term use and result in extensive damage to the pump and reduce the depth of the well, which in turn causes the yield to decline. Once such well damage occurs, rehabilitation is unlikely to be successful and the ultimate result is loss of the well. Two wells were lost in 1987 because of such damage. 29 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Auxiliary water supply device for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In the device of the present invention, a cooling condensation means is disposed to a steam discharge channel of a turbine for driving pumps to directly return condensates to the reactor, so that the temperature of the suppression pool water is not elevated. Namely, the cooling condensation means for discharged steams is disposed to the discharge channel of the turbine. The condensate channel from the cooling condensation means is connected to a sucking side of the turbine driving pump. With such a constitution, when the reactor is isolated from a main steam system, reactor scram is conducted. Although the reactor water level is lowered by the reactor scram, the lowering of the reactor water level is prevented by supplementing cooling water by the turbine driving pump using steams generated in the reactor as a power source. The discharged steams after driving the turbine are cooled and condensated by the cooling condensation means by way of the discharge channel and returned to the reactor again by way of the condensate channel. With such procedures, since the temperature of suppression pool water is not elevated, there is no need to operate other cooling systems. In addition, auxiliary water can be supplied for a long period of time. (I.S.)

  2. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-01-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction -1 and 172 μg.g -1 , respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  3. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact Statement for Missouri River Municipal... Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended, the U.S. Army Corps of... purpose of the study is to determine if changes to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply...

  4. Some features of an economical central heating water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the necessary savings of energy and fuel as well as reduction of pollutant emission in the field of central district heat supply. Results of studies on solving these problems are presented. To provide thermal power based on heating water essential features of the district heating system in the GDR are outlined and advantages, resources and limits of specific solutions quantified. Finally, selected systems are evaluated as to energy and cost expenses, and some conclusions are drawn for future concepts. (author)

  5. Nuclear applications for steam and hot water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    An increase in the heat energy needs underlined by the potential increase in fossil fuel prices, particularly in oil supplies, and by the necessity for an improvement of the environment worldwide, as signalized by the IAEA Member States, prompted the decision to start a programme leading to this report. This document is intended to help to identify the experience of Member States where nuclear power plants or specialized nuclear heat plants are employed or envisaged to be used for distribution of steam or hot water to industrial or residential consumers, covering low and medium temperature ranges. 25 refs, 33 figs, 15 tabs

  6. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  7. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies’ Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociepa-Kubicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK. The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI, as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  8. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies' Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka; Wilczak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK). The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI), as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  9. Features of internal water supply and water disposal of shopping centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline from an external system should be inlet in the part of the building where a large number of water folding devices will be concentrated. As a rule, for shopping centers with a lot of water consumers it is necessary to make not less than three inputs, each of them should be connected to different areas of an external ring water supply system in order to make the work of the system more reliable.The places for water folding fittings in shopping centers are the following. The water folding devices: mixers are placed in sanitary cabins of shopping centers. Usually, for for water saving in buildings with a big pass-through capacity per hour it is reasonable to use contactless mixers, which are turned on upon raising a hand with a help of motion sensor or light sensor. Another important argument in favor of such mixers is prevention of infections spread for the reason that the consumer doesn't touch the device, so, the risk of bacteria transmission via the device decreases. Such mixer supplies water with a demanded expense and temperature. As a rule, water for such mixers moves from the centralized internal water supply system of hot water, mixing up with cold water. If there is no centralized hot water supply system, it is possible to use hot water storage heaters in case of a small number of visitors or to reject mixers at all in favor of the cranes giving water of only one temperature (cold, which is also practiced.For the branch of economic and household the water receivers are used, which are present in sanitary cabins in most cases by toilet bowls, wash basins, urinals.

  10. Material streams in the fuel supply to and disposal of waste from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is characterized by specifically small, but complex material streams. The fresh fuel derived from natural uranium is fed into the cycle at the stage of fuel element fabrication, while at the end stage, waste from spent fuel element reprocessing, or non-reprocessible fuel elements, are taken out of the cycle and prepared for ultimate disposal. The alternative methods of waste management, reprocessing or direct ultimate disposal, are an issue of controversial debate with regard to their differences in terms of supply policy, economic and ecological aspects. (orig.) [de

  11. Processing method for cleaning water waste from cement kneader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kenzo; Fujita, Hisao; Nakajima, Tadashi.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of processing cleaning water wastes from a cement kneader in a case of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive wastes or deleterious materials such as heavy metals by means of cement solidification. Cleaning waste wastes from the kneader are sent to a cleaning water waste tank, in which gentle stirring is applied near the bottom and sludges are retained so as not to be coagulated. Sludges retained at the bottom of the cleaning water waste tank are sent after elapse of a predetermined time and then kneaded with cements. Thus, since the sludges in the cleaning water are solidified with cement, inhomogenous solidification products consisting only of cleaning sludges with low strength are not formed. The resultant solidification product is homogenous and the compression strength thereof reaches such a level as capable of satisfying marine disposal standards required for the solidification products of radioactive wastes. (I.N.)

  12. Regulatory Impacts on Sustainable Drinking Water Supply: A Comparative Study on Dutch Water Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalhuisen, J.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory changes have exerted deep impacts on public service provision. This paper aims to disentangle recent differences in the external production circumstances of Dutch regional water companies in order to identify the crucial regulatory factors influencing the supply of water to various users

  13. Regulatory Impacts on Sustainable Drinking Water Supply: A Comparative Study on Dutch Water Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalhuisen, J.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory changes have exerted deep impacts on public service provision. This paper aims to disentangle recent differences in the external production circumstances of Dutch regional water companies in order to identify the crucial regulatory factors influencing the supply of water to various users

  14. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 μg/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations 10 μg/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 μg/L.

  15. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  16. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  17. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  18. Working group report on water resources, supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations of a working group on water resources, supply and demand. The issues were grouped into the categories of detecting climatic change and water impacts, simulating potential impacts, and responding to potential impacts. The workshop groups achieved consensus on the following points: the physics of global warming and climatic change have been satifactorily proven; there appears to be some evidence of climatic change and a signal could soon be detected; policy decisions and strategic plans for climatic change and its potential impacts are needed immediately; and targets and priorities for decison making should be identified and addressed immediately. Three top-priority issues are the identification of indicators for the detection of climatic change impacts on hydrology, determining response to climate-related change, and evaluation of design criteria. Better information on regional climate and hydrology under conditions of global warming is needed before design criteria could be altered

  19. Trends in Rural Water Supply: Towards a Service Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2013-10-01

    The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water supply in developing countries: away from a de-facto focus on the provision of hardware for first-time access towards the proper use of installed hardware as the basis for universal access to rural water services. The outline of the main actions required to achieve this shift are becoming clearer. Chief amongst these are the professionalisation of community management and/or provision of direct support to community service providers; adoption of a wider range of service delivery models than community management alone; and addressing the sustainable financing of all costs with a particular focus on financing capital maintenance (asset management and direct support costs. This introductory paper provides an overview of these issues and a guide to the other articles, which demonstrate these points.

  20. Approximate dynamic fault tree calculations for modelling water supply risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhe, Andreas; Norberg, Tommy; Rosén, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Traditional fault tree analysis is not always sufficient when analysing complex systems. To overcome the limitations dynamic fault tree (DFT) analysis is suggested in the literature as well as different approaches for how to solve DFTs. For added value in fault tree analysis, approximate DFT calculations based on a Markovian approach are presented and evaluated here. The approximate DFT calculations are performed using standard Monte Carlo simulations and do not require simulations of the full Markov models, which simplifies model building and in particular calculations. It is shown how to extend the calculations of the traditional OR- and AND-gates, so that information is available on the failure probability, the failure rate and the mean downtime at all levels in the fault tree. Two additional logic gates are presented that make it possible to model a system's ability to compensate for failures. This work was initiated to enable correct analyses of water supply risks. Drinking water systems are typically complex with an inherent ability to compensate for failures that is not easily modelled using traditional logic gates. The approximate DFT calculations are compared to results from simulations of the corresponding Markov models for three water supply examples. For the traditional OR- and AND-gates, and one gate modelling compensation, the errors in the results are small. For the other gate modelling compensation, the error increases with the number of compensating components. The errors are, however, in most cases acceptable with respect to uncertainties in input data. The approximate DFT calculations improve the capabilities of fault tree analysis of drinking water systems since they provide additional and important information and are simple and practically applicable.

  1. Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB) [de

  2. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  3. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  4. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  5. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  7. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  9. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  10. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  11. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Application of BIM Technology in Building Water Supply and Drainage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Junde

    2017-12-01

    Through the application of BIM technology, the idea of building water supply and drainage designers can be related to the model, the various influencing factors to affect water supply and drainage design can be considered more comprehensively. BIM(Building information model) technology assist in improving the design process of building water supply and drainage, promoting the building water supply and drainage planning, enriching the building water supply and drainage design method, improving the water supply and drainage system design level and building quality. Combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the advantages of BIM technology in building water supply and drainage design. Therefore, application prospects of BIM technology are very worthy of promotion.

  13. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  14. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Li, Lianshui; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Jianmin; Qiu, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  15. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  16. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Holistic ICT Solution to Improve Matching between Supply and Demand over the Water Supply Distribution Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anzaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While many water management tools exist, these systems are not usually interconnected and therefore cannot communicate between one another, preventing Integrated Water Resources Management to be fully achieved. This paper presents the solution proposed by WatERP project* where a novel solution enables better matching between water supply and demand from holistic perspective. Subsystems that control the production, management and consumption of water will be interconnected through both information architecture and intelligent infrastructure. The main outcome will consist of, a web-based Open Management Platform integrating near real-time knowledge on water supplies and demand, from sources to users, across geographic and organizational scales and supported by a knowledge base where information will be structured in water management ontology to ensure interoperability and maximize usability. WatERP will thus provide a major contribution to: 1 Improve coordination among actors, 2 Foster behavioural change, 3 Reduce water and energy consumption, 4 Optimize water accountability.

  18. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  19. IMPROVING CYANOBACTERIA AND CYANOTOXIN MONITORING IN SURFACE WATERS FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.

  20. Food waste and the food-energy-water nexus: A review of food waste management alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Kelly M; Reinhart, Debra; Hawkins, Christopher; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Wright, James

    2018-04-01

    Throughout the world, much food produced is wasted. The resource impact of producing wasted food is substantial; however, little is known about the energy and water consumed in managing food waste after it has been disposed. Herein, we characterize food waste within the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus and parse the differential FEW effects of producing uneaten food and managing food loss and waste. We find that various food waste management options, such as waste prevention, landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, present variable pathways for FEW impacts and opportunities. Furthermore, comprehensive sustainable management of food waste will involve varied mechanisms and actors at multiple levels of governance and at the level of individual consumers. To address the complex food waste problem, we therefore propose a "food-waste-systems" approach to optimize resources within the FEW nexus. Such a framework may be applied to devise strategies that, for instance, minimize the amount of edible food that is wasted, foster efficient use of energy and water in the food production process, and simultaneously reduce pollution externalities and create opportunities from recycled energy and nutrients. Characterization of FEW nexus impacts of wasted food, including descriptions of dynamic feedback behaviors, presents a significant research gap and a priority for future work. Large-scale decision making requires more complete understanding of food waste and its management within the FEW nexus, particularly regarding post-disposal impacts related to water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Bath, A.

    2011-01-01

    to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO2-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.......3 ± 0.2 per delivered m3 for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water...... includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition...

  2. A case study on the status of water supply for domestic purposes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water supply is a daily necessity and key factor in human health and well being. Without water, life cannot be sustained and lack of access to adequate water supplies leads to wide spread of diseases with children bearing the greatest health burden associated with poor water quality and sanitation. The WHO ...

  3. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9247-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition of public water system, and has adopted regulations...

  4. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  5. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9834-9] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Oregon has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water...

  6. UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  7. UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  8. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: pmedrano@isciii.es [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  9. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade.Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants.Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  10. Natural Radioactivity in Public Water supplies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sostoa Grodo-Pacheco, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper present the values of the Ra-226 concentration in public water supplies from different provinces of Spain and the values of anual intake. The Ra-226 concentration is in the range of (22.31 ± 3.44) 10 5 Bq/I - (8.55 ± 0.44) 10''2 Bq/l. The annual intake is in the range of (17.80±2.75) 10''2 Bq/l- (68 ± 3.5) Bq/I. As a conclusion no health risk due to intake is expected. Also is discussed in the paper a method for determination of Ra-226 concentration. (Author) 11 ref

  11. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  12. The Effects of Abattoir Waste on Water Quality in Gwagwalada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir site in Gwagwalada. The work was premised on the fact that untreated wastes from the abattoir are discharged directly into open drainage which flows into a nearby stream. Leachates from dumped and decomposed wastes have also ...

  13. More efficient optimization of long-term water supply portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Brian R.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    The use of temporary transfers, such as options and leases, has grown as utilities attempt to meet increases in demand while reducing dependence on the expansion of costly infrastructure capacity (e.g., reservoirs). Earlier work has been done to construct optimal portfolios comprising firm capacity and transfers, using decision rules that determine the timing and volume of transfers. However, such work has only focused on the short-term (e.g., 1-year scenarios), which limits the utility of these planning efforts. Developing multiyear portfolios can lead to the exploration of a wider range of alternatives but also increases the computational burden. This work utilizes a coupled hydrologic-economic model to simulate the long-term performance of a city's water supply portfolio. This stochastic model is linked with an optimization search algorithm that is designed to handle the high-frequency, low-amplitude noise inherent in many simulations, particularly those involving expected values. This noise is detrimental to the accuracy and precision of the optimized solution and has traditionally been controlled by investing greater computational effort in the simulation. However, the increased computational effort can be substantial. This work describes the integration of a variance reduction technique (control variate method) within the simulation/optimization as a means of more efficiently identifying minimum cost portfolios. Random variation in model output (i.e., noise) is moderated using knowledge of random variations in stochastic input variables (e.g., reservoir inflows, demand), thereby reducing the computing time by 50% or more. Using these efficiency gains, water supply portfolios are evaluated over a 10-year period in order to assess their ability to reduce costs and adapt to demand growth, while still meeting reliability goals. As a part of the evaluation, several multiyear option contract structures are explored and compared.

  14. Restricting patients' medication supply to one month: saving or wasting money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Olinick, Joshua; Sleath, Betsy; Leinwand, Sharman; Byrns, Patricia J; Carey, Tim

    2004-07-01

    A state Medicaid program's pharmacy expenditures associated with dispensing one- and three-month supplies of drugs were examined. We simulated the effect of a policy change from a maximum of a 100-day supply of prescription medication to one where only a 34-day supply was allowed. All North Carolina prescription claims from Medicaid enrollees who filled a prescription for at least one of six medication categories during fiscal years 1999 and 2000 were included. The six categories were angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, antiulcers, antipsychotics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, and sulfonylureas. The dollar value of the medication wasted, the amount of medication wastage diverted after a change to a shorter prescription length, and the total costs incurred by the increases in prescription refills were calculated. For each therapeutic category, 255,000-783,000 prescription drug claims were analyzed. No valid drug claims were excluded for any reason. Although 5-14% of total drug wastage, attributed to switches of drug therapy, could be saved by dispensing a 34-day supply, this saving could not make up for a larger increase in dispensing costs, as consumers would fill prescriptions more often. In addition, reducing the amount of drug dispensed each time may be costly to consumers through increased transportation and other expenses. Simulated calculation showed that the cost of drug therapy to North Carolina's Medicaid program would probably increase if 34-day rather than 100-day supplies of medications are dispensed to patients.

  15. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  16. The Water Supply of El Morro National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samuel Wilson; Baldwin, Helene Louise

    1964-01-01

    In the land of enchantment, between Gallup and Grants, N. Mex., near the Zuni Mountains, a huge sandstone bluff rises abruptly 200 feet above the plain. The Spaniards called it 'El Morro,' which means 'the headland' or 'bluff.' Around it are other mesas and canyons and stands of pinon and ponderosa pine. Other great rocks are nearby, but none are as popular as El Morro, and none have been as important to the traveler. For at El Morro there is water. In that country, water is scarce and precious. In the old days, travelers from Santa Fe would tell each other about the pool of clear, refreshing water at the base of the huge rock. This is the story of the great bluff, its water supply, and the rocks around it. In the late summer of 1849, an American lieutenant of the Topographical Engineers, James H. Simpson, accompanied infantry and artillery troops on a reconnaissance march from Santa Fe into the Navajo Country. On September 18, at the urging of one Mr. Lewis, an Indian trader, Lieutenant Simpson left the main party in order to see 'half an acre of inscriptions' upon a huge rock (fig. 1) . Although somewhat dubious, the Lieutenant had allowed himself to be persuaded by Lewis that the trip was worthwhile. Taking with him an artist named R. H. Kern, another man by the name of Bird, and Mr. Lewis as guide, he set off through miles of desert country, filled with huge red and white sandstone rocks, 'some of them looking like steamboats, and others presenting very much the appearance of facades of heavy Egyptian architecture'.

  17. Caffeine and pharmaceuticals as indicators of waste water contamination in wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Zaugg, S.D.; Thomas, J.M.; Howcroft, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of caffeine or human pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations can provide a clear, unambiguous indication that domestic waste water is a source of some of the nitrate. Water from domestic, public supply, and monitoring wells in three communities near Reno, Nevada, was sampled to test if caffeine or pharmaceuticals are common, persistent, and mobile enough in the environment that they can be detected in nitrate-contaminated ground water and, thus, can be useful indicators of recharge from domestic waste water. Results of this study indicate that these compounds can be used as indicators of recharge from domestic waste water, although their usefulness is limited because caffeine is apparently nonconservative and the presence of prescription pharmaceuticals is unpredictable. The absence of caffeine or pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations does not demonstrate that the aquifer is free of waste water contamination. Caffeine was detected in ground water samples at concentrations up to 0.23 ??g/L. The human pharmaceuticals chlorpropamide, phensuximide, and carbamazepine also were detected in some samples.

  18. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant waste heat as an energy source for horticulture facilities. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a sufficient amount of energy potential for the use of waste heat to supply energy to the assumed area. In Dangjin, an horticultural area of 500 ha could be constructed by utilizing 20% of the energy reserves. In Hadong, a horticulture facility can be set up to be 260 ha with 7.4% of the energy reserves. In Youngdong, an assumed area of 65 ha could be built utilizing about 19% of the energy reserves. Furthermore, the payback period was calculated in order to evaluate the economic feasibility compared with a conventional system. The initial investment costs can be recovered by the approximately 83% reduction in the annual operating costs.

  19. HEAT LOSS FROM HOT WATER SUPPLY LINE IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    近藤, 修平; 鉾井, 修一

    2011-01-01

    In order to the evaluate heat loss from hot water supply lines in a residential building, hot water demand in a house in Chiba prefecture was measured and analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1. The heat loss of the hot water supply line was about 132kJ for the shower and 110kJ for the bathtub in winter. Since the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the hot water supply line is small, the measured heat loss from the hot water supply line sometimes becomes negative...

  20. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, January-May 1979. Water-resources investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, B.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Most public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. This conclusion is based on a water quality reconnaissance of 131 raw and treated public supplies throughout the State during the period January through May 1979. In a few public supplies, primary drinking water regulation maximum contaminant levels were exceeded for mercury, turbidity, and gross alpha particle activity. Secondary drinking water regulations were also occasionally exceeded in some public supplies for such parameters as chloride, pH, color, dissolved solids, iron, and manganese

  1. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This permit application has been prepared to obtain a research, development, and demonstration permit to perform pilot-scale treatability testing on the 242-A Evaporator process condensate waste water effluent stream. It provides the management framework, and controls all the testing conducted in the waste water pilot plant using dangerous waste. It also provides a waste acceptance envelope (upper limits for selected constituents) and details the safety and environmental protection requirements for waste water pilot plant testing. This permit application describes the overall approach to testing and the various components or requirements that are common to all tests. This permit application has been prepared at a sufficient level of detail to establish permit conditions for all waste water pilot plant tests to be conducted

  2. Fermentation of household wastes and industrial waste water; Vergaerung von haeuslichen Abfaellen und Industrieabwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie ' arbi' , Maschwanden (Switzerland); Engeli, H [Probag AG, Dietikon (Switzerland); Glauser, M [Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Hofer, H [HTH-Verfahrenstechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland); Membrez, Y [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Meylan, J -H [Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel, J -P [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Genie biologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-07-01

    This comprehensive brochure reviews various technologies for the environment-friendly treatment of organic wastes and residues. The principles of anaerobic digestion are discussed. Authorities, planners and engineers concerned with waste treatment are provided with an overview of current technology in the organic wastes area. The brochure emphasises the importance of fermentation processes in waste treatment, discusses the legal pre-requisites for biogas production, lists the biological and process-oriented fundamentals of fermentation and examines the energy potential of biogenic wastes and waste water. Further, details are given on the treatment of both industrial waste water and solid organic wastes and, finally, the economics of fermentation is examined. Useful data is presented in table form and the various processes described are illustrated by schematics and flow diagrams. An appendix lists suggestions for further reading on the subject.

  3. A multi-criteria decision making approach to balance water supply-demand strategies in water supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géssica Maria Cambrainha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paper aims this paper proposes a model to aid a group of decision makers to establish a portfolio of feasible actions (alternatives that are able to balance water supply-demand strategies. Originality Long periods of water shortages cause problems in semi-arid region of northeast Brazil, which affects different sectors such as food, public health, among others. This problem situation is intensified by population growth. Therefore, this type of decision making is complex, and it needs to be solving by a structured model. Research method The model is based on a problem structuring method (PSM and a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. Main findings Due to society and government influences, the proposed model showed appropriate to conduct a robust and well-structured decision making. Implications for theory and practice The main contributions were the study in regions suffering from drought and water scarcity, as well as the combination of PSM and MCDM methods to aid in this problem.

  4. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  5. A method for the treatment of waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.E.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the cooling of waste waters. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of introducing waste waters into a tank in communication with a basin through gate-controlled orifices, successively opening and closing the gates so as to intermitently release an adjustable amount of water stored in the tank in order to generate waves promoting the airing of waste waters and their cooling, then expelling waters downstream of the basin. The invention relates to thermal and nuclear power stations [fr

  6. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  7. Coastal circulation off Bombay in relation to waste water disposal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.

    Flow patterns in the coastal waters of Bombay were studied using recording current meters, direct reading current meters, floats and dye in relation to the proposed waste water disposal project of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay from...

  8. [Toxicologic evaluation of purified municipal and industrial waste water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Tolstopiatova, G V; Byshovets, T F; Andrienko, L G; Martyshchenko, N V; Nadvornaia, Zh N; Poviĭchuk, E R; Teteneva, I A

    1993-07-01

    Analysis of waters sewage in Kiev and of waste water of a textile and se wing enterprise in Chernigov has shown that treatment by biological method and with activated carbon was fairely efficient in toxicity reduction.

  9. PROFILE OF PLASTIC WATER BOTTLES WASTES PROCESSING BUSINESS UNIT FOR WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herijanto P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Used plastic water bottles waste pickers can be categorized as one of the informal sector’s component. They work for themselves by picking up used water bottles and selling them to the waste collectors. The problem to be solved in this research is How the Most Appropriate Used Plastic Water Bottles Business Model for Waste Pickers Is that enables them to be categorized as formal sector. From the result of the interview with 120 waste pickers, 96 results were qualified to be analyzed. The interview was located in several waste collectors, which were visited by waste pickers at certain hours. The data were analyzed descriptively based on six business aspects. Specifically for production facilities, Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE analysis were performed. The results of the analysis indicate that the business is practicable for waste pickers and has the potential to enable them run a formal business sector.

  10. Determination of aluminium and physicochemical parameters in the palm oil estates water supply at Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M R; Mazrura, S; Zurahanim Fasha, A; Ahmad Rohi, G

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  11. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  12. Study on Utilization of an Artesian Well as a Source of Water Supply at Raw Water Backup System (GBA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa Pujiarta; Yuyut Suraniyanto; Amril; Setyo Budi Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Raw water supply system (GBA01) is a unit of ponds used as a provider of raw water for secondary cooling system and free mineral water production systems. Source of raw water pond has been supplied from PAM Puspiptek with water conductivity between 126-310 μS / cm and a pH of 6 to 8, and this condition is maintained because there is no other source that is used to supply water to the reactor cooling water supply. This conductivity is always unstable, if during the dry season the conductivity is low trend, but in the rainy season the conductivity will be increase because the water contains a lot of mud. And one more problem that is important is if the PAM Puspiptek failed to supply fresh water to the reactor. So to handling and anticipate these things, necessary to optimize the deep well former Interatom legacy as a backup water supply for raw water supply system of the reactor. With a conductivity of 136 μS / cm, pH 7,4 and total hardness 37 ppm, the water from deep wells can be used as a backup supply of secondary raw water cooling system. (author)

  13. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from

  14. Wastes and waste management in the uranium fuel cycle for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1975-08-01

    The manufacturing processes in the uranium fuel cycle for light water reactors have been described with particular reference to the chemical and radiological wastes produced and the waste management procedures employed. The problems and possible solutions of ultimate disposal of high activity fission products and transuranium elements from reprocessing of irradiated fuel have been reviewed. Quantities of wastes arising in each stage of the fuel cycle have been summarised. Wastes arising from reactor operation have been described briefly. (author)

  15. Waste Not Want Not: Water Reuse and Recycling in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texas Water Development Board has provided more than $300 million to over 28 projects using its CWSRF to fund a diversification of water reclamation, reuse and supply development solutions to augment community resiliency in the face of drought events.

  16. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  17. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  18. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  19. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  20. Methods for waste waters treatment in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Zhezhova, Silvana; Risteski, Sanja; Golomeova, Saska

    2014-01-01

    The processes of production of textiles or wet treatments and finishing processes of textile materials are huge consumers of water with high quality. As a result of these various processes, considerable amounts of polluted water are released. This paper puts emphasis on the problem of environmental protection against waste waters generated by textile industry. The methods of pretreatment or purification of waste waters in the textile industry can be: Primary (screening, sedimentation, homo...

  1. POSSIBILITIES FOR WASTE WATER UTITLIZATION FROM CANNING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste waters from the different processing sectors (branch, activities of the canning factories was investigated. It was established that the greatest organic pollution is a result of the production of frozen half-fried potatoes. The possibilities of reducing of the organic pollution by cultivating fungi of the genus Aspergillus and Trichoderma in the waste waters was studied.

  2. Radioactive waste management practices with KWU-boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.

    1976-01-01

    A Kraftwerk Union boiling water reactor is used to demonstrate the reactor auxiliary systems which are applied to minimize the radioactive discharge. Based on the most important design criteria the philosophy and function of the various systems for handling the off-gas, ventilation air, waste water and concentrated waste are described. (orig.) [de

  3. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  4. Methods for assessing the sustainability of integrated municipal waste management and energy supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luoranen, M.

    2009-07-01

    The general striving to bring down the number of municipal landfills and to increase the reuse and recycling of waste-derived materials across the EU supports the debates concerning the feasibility and rationality of waste management systems. Substantial decrease in the volume and mass of landfill-disposed waste flows can be achieved by directing suitable waste fractions to energy recovery. Global fossil energy supplies are becoming more and more valuable and expensive energy sources for the mankind, and efforts to save fossil fuels have been made. Waste-derived fuels offer one potential partial solution to two different problems. First, waste that cannot be feasibly re-used or recycled is utilized in the energy conversion process according to EU's Waste Hierarchy. Second, fossil fuels can be saved for other purposes than energy, mainly as transport fuels. This thesis presents the principles of assessing the most sustainable system solution for an integrated municipal waste management and energy system. The assessment process includes: Formation of a SISMan (Simple Integrated System Management) model of an integrated system including mass, energy and financial flows, and formation of a MEFLO (Mass, Energy, Financial, Legislational, Other decisionsupport data) decision matrix according to the selected decision criteria, including essential and optional decision criteria. The methods are described and theoretical examples of the utilization of the methods are presented in the thesis. The assessment process involves the selection of different system alternatives (process alternatives for treatment of different waste fractions) and comparison between the alternatives. The first of the two novelty values of the utilization of the presented methods is the perspective selected for the formation of the SISMan model. Normally waste management and energy systems are operated separately according to the targets and principles set for each system. In the thesis the waste

  5. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic capacity concept, which uses soft computing tools of graph theory and cluster analysis, is developed to define sectors, also called district metered areas (DMAs, to produce an equitable water supply. Moreover, this approach helps determine the supply time for each sector, which depends on each sector’s hydraulic characteristics. This process also includes the opinions of water company experts, the individuals who are best acquainted with the intricacies of the network.

  6. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of 50 rural communities were sampled using table of random numbers. Community heads or their spokesmen/women in the sampled areas were target respondents and data on major sources of water supply, distance to the nearest major source of water supply and the number of water boreholes in the communities were ...

  7. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  8. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9259-6] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and...

  9. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9444-8] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that these revisions are no less stringent than the corresponding...

  10. Implications of Upstream Flow Availability for Watershed Surface Water Supply Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the availability of upstream flow (AUF) affects downstream water supply, its significance has not been rigorously categorized and quantified at fine resolutions. This study aims to fill this gap by providing a nationwide inventory of AUF and local water resource, and assessing their roles in securing water supply across the 2,099 8-...

  11. Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60 Co and 137 Cs isotopes and the 90 Sr- 90 Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

  12. Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Selambakknu, Sarala; Jamaliah Shariff; Ting, Teo Ming; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

  13. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna; Eremeev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot ...

  15. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  16. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  17. The reuse of scrap and decontamination waste water from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Xie Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Huge amount of radioactive scrap with low activity will be generated from reactor decommissioning; the decontamination is concentrated in the surface layer of the scrap. The decontaminated substance can be removed by high pressure water jet to appear the base metal and to reuse the metal. Big amount of radioactive waste water will be generated by this decontamination technology; the radioactive of the waste water is mainly caused by the solid particle from decontamination. To remove the solid particle as clean as possible, the waste water can be reused. Different possible technology to remove the solid particle from the water had been investigated, such as the gravity deposit separation, the filtration and the centrifugal separation etc. The centrifugal separation technology is selected; it includes the hydraulic vortex, the centrifugal filtration and the centrifugal deposit. After the cost benefit analysis at last the centrifugal deposit used butterfly type separator is selected. To reuse the waste water the fresh water consumption and the cost for waste water treatment can be reduced. To reuse the radioactive scrap and the waste water from decommissioning will minimize the radioactive waste. (authors)

  18. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  19. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not...

  20. Optimum design of water supply purifying station in living section of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zhang Yu

    2012-01-01

    A design of water supply purifying station in living section of a uranium mine was optimized, and appropriate technique and equipment were chosen based on the raw water quality characteristic, water consumption and change, landform of construction field, etc. After the engineering finished, the circulation is steady-going, the quality of treated water fulfills water standards for drinking water quality. (authors)

  1. Using an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic Model to Develop Minimum Cost Water Supply Portfolios and Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.; Ramsey, J.

    2004-12-01

    Water scarcity has become a reality in many areas as a result of population growth, fewer available sources, and reduced tolerance for the environmental impacts of developing the new supplies that do exist. As a result, successfully managing future water supply risk will become more dependent on coordinating the use of existing resources. Toward that end, flexible supply strategies that can rapidly respond to hydrologic variability will provide communities with increasing economic advantages, particularly if the frequency of more extreme events (e.g., drought) increases due to global climate change. Markets for established commodities (e.g., oil, gas) often provide a framework for efficiently responding to changes in supply and demand. Water markets, however, have remained relatively crude, with most transactions involving permanent transfers and long regulatory processes. Recently, interest in the use of flexible short-term transfers (e.g., leases, options) has begun to motivate consideration of more sophisticated strategies for managing supply risk, strategies similar to those used in more mature markets. In this case, communities can benefit from some of the advantages that water enjoys over other commodities, in particular, the ability to accurately characterize the stochastic nature of supply and demand through hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic-economic models are developed for two different water scarce regions supporting active water markets: Edward Aquifer and Lower Rio Grande Valley. These models are used to construct portfolios of water supply transfers (e.g., permanent transfers, options, and spot leases) that minimize the cost of meeting a probabilistic reliability constraint. Real and simulated spot price distributions allow each type of transfer to be priced in a manner consistent with financial theory (e.g., Black-Scholes). Market simulations are integrated with hydrologic models such that variability in supply and demand are linked with price behavior

  2. Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yousheng

    2010-01-01

    Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

  3. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  4. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  5. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  6. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, A J; Newell, Joshua P; Cousins, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water–energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal

  7. The Effects of Intermittent Drinking Water Supply in Arraiján, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Over three hundred million people throughout the world receive supply from piped drinking water distribution networks that operate intermittently. This dissertation evaluates the effects of intermittent supply on water quality, pipe damage and service reliability in four study zones (one continuous and three intermittent) in a peri-urban drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Normal water quality in all zones was good, with 97% of routine water quality grab samples from the ...

  8. The water-energy nexus at water supply and its implications on the integrated water and energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, Masoumeh; Westphal, Kirk; Mo, Weiwei

    2018-09-15

    Water and energy are highly interdependent in the modern world, and hence, it is important to understand their constantly changing and nonlinear interconnections to inform the integrated management of water and energy. In this study, a hydrologic model, a water systems model, and an energy model were developed and integrated into a system dynamics modeling framework. This framework was then applied to a water supply system in the northeast US to capture its water-energy interactions under a set of future population, climate, and system operation scenarios. A hydrologic model was first used to simulate the system's hydrologic inflows and outflows under temperature and precipitation changes on a weekly-basis. A water systems model that combines the hydrologic model and management rules (e.g., water release and transfer) was then developed to dynamically simulate the system's water storage and water head. Outputs from the water systems model were used in the energy model to estimate hydropower generation. It was found that critical water-energy synergies and tradeoffs exist, and there is a possibility for integrated water and energy management to achieve better outcomes. This analysis also shows the importance of a holistic understanding of the systems as a whole, which would allow utility managers to make proactive long-term management decisions. The modeling framework is generalizable to other water supply systems with hydropower generation capacities to inform the integrated management of water and energy resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Passive system with steam-water injector for emergency supply of NPP steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'chenko, A.G.; Strakhov, A.N.; Magnitskij, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The calculation results of reliability indicators of emergency power supply system and emergency feed-water supply system of serial WWER-1000 unit are presented. To ensure safe water supply to steam generators during station blackout it was suggested using additional passive emergency feed-water system with a steam-water injector working on steam generators dump steam. Calculated analysis of steam-water injector operating capacity was conducted at variable parameters of steam at the entrance to injector, corresponding to various moments of time from the beginning of steam-and-water damping [ru

  10. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, Berit; Jørgensen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nordhavn, a former industrial harbour area is under development into an integrated part of Copenhagen City. All infrastructures will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. Our project assesses the potential for establishing a secondary water supply to relieve...... the pressure on the primary and conventional groundwater based drinking water supply. Four alternative water resources for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3...... assessment method for use in alternative water supplies and an evaluation of the four suggested concepts for alternative water supply in Copenhagen....

  11. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, B.; Jørgensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields....... A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondarywater supply in the area...... as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondarywater supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated...

  12. Heat exchanger with dirt separator for the use of the heat energy of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-13

    Well-known heat exchanger systems consist of separate heat exchangers and dirt separators. In the case here in question both devices form a unit. A finned tube heat exchanger is positioned in the center of the dirt separator and is given extra protection through deflection sheets. A safety overflow is supplied so that no residue can appear in the waste water line when decanting.

  13. Irrigation, risk aversion, and water right priority under water supply uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Xu, Wenchao; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority—as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability—on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to 141.4 acre-1 or 55,800 per farm between the two groups. The optimal irrigated acreage, expected net revenue, and shadow value of a water right's priority are subject to substantial changes under a changing climate in the future, where temporal variation in water supply risks significantly affects the profitability of agricultural land use under the priority-based water sharing mechanism.

  14. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  15. Surface wastewater in Samara and their impact on water basins as water supply sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Shuvalov, Mikhail; Gridneva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives an overview of surface wastewater outlets in Samara through the rainwater sewer system into the Saratov water reservoir and the Samara river. The rainwater sewer system in Samara is designed and executed according to a separate scheme, except for the old part of the city, where surface run-off is dumped into the sewer system through siphoned drain. The rainwater system disposes of surface, drainage, industrial clean-contamined waters, emergency and technology discharges from the city’s heat supply and water supply systems. The effluent discharge is carried out by means of separate wastewater outlets into ravines or directly into the Samara river and the Saratov water reservoir without cleaning. The effluent discharge is carried out through the rainwater sewer system with 17 wastewater outlets into the Saratov water reservoir. In the Samara river, surface runoff drainage and clean-contamined water of industrial enterprises is carried out through 14 wastewater outlets. This study emphasizes the demand to arrange effluent discharge and construction of sewage treatment plants to prevent contamination of water objects by surface run-off from residential areas and industrial territories.

  16. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  17. Edible energy: balancing inputs and waste in food supply chain and biofuels from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Gianluca; Brambilla, Riccardo; Pileci, Rosaria; Romano, Riccardo; Rosa, Francesca; Spinicci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Energy is life. Without it there is no water, there is no nutrition. Man's ability to live, grow, produce wealth is closely linked to the energy availability and use. Fire has been the first energy conversion technology; since that moment, the link between energy and progress has been indissoluble. Nowadays, a much greater energy input into the food supply chain has made a much higher food production possible. This might have an impact on the water availability. Algae are a promising solution for the energy-food-water nexus.

  18. A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.; Munger, D.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

  19. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  20. Potential of Nanotechnology based water treatment solutions for the improvement of drinking water supplies in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joydeep; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades explosive population growth in the world has led to water scarcity across the globe putting additional pressure already scarce ground water resources and is pushing scientists and researchers to come up with new alternatives to monitor and treat water for use by mankind and for food security. Nearly 4 billion people around the world are known to lack access to clean water supply. Systematic water quality data is important for the assessment of health risks as well as for developing appropriate and affordable technologies for waste and drinking water treatments, and long-term decision making policy against water quality management. Traditional water treatment technologies are generally chemical-intensive processes requiring extremely large infrastructural support thus limiting their effective applications in developing nations which creates an artificial barrier to the application of technological solutions for the provision of clean water. Nanotechnology-based systems are in retrospect, smaller, energy and resource efficient. Economic impact assessment of the implementation of nanotechnology in water treatment and studies on cost-effectiveness and environmental and social impacts is of key importance prior to its wide spread acceptance. Government agencies and inter-governmental bodies driving research and development activities need to measure the effective potential of nanotechnology as a solution to global water challenges in order to effectively engage in fiscal, economic and social issues at national and international levels for different types of source waters with new national and international initiatives on nanotechnology and water need to be launched. Environmental pollution and industrialization in global scale is further leading to pollution of available water sources and thus hygienically friendly purification technologies are the need of the hour. Thus cost-effective treatment of pollutants for the transformation of hazardous

  1. Deactivation of waste waters in the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priban, V.

    1978-01-01

    Deactivation techniques are described used for the treatment of waste waters from uranium mines and uranium chemical treatment plants. With treatment plant waters this is done either by precipitation of radium with barium sulfate or using multistage evaporating units. Mine waste waters are deactivated by sorption on ion exchangers; strongly basic anion exchangers, mostly Wofatit SBW, Varion AP or Ostion AU are used for uranium, while the strongly acidic Ostion KS is used for radium. (Z.M.)

  2. An Assessment of Factors Having Impact on Water Quality in Water Supply Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auksė Amosenkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected from Vilnius drinking water distribution system fed by treated and different groundwater. Parameters related to bacterial growth have been measured considering these samples: temperature, concentration of free residual chlorine, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites. Results showed that treated groundwater was less susceptible to favour bacterial growth in the pipelines. The obtained results also showed that the potential growth induced by the distribution of treated water could be reduced if: ammonium levels were below 0.5 mg/l at the outlet of the water treatment plant; biological ammonium removal treatment implementation should reduce the levels of the nitrates and nitrites of the treated supplied water. Article in Lithuanian

  3. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  4. Evaluation of Ensemble Water Supply and Demands Forecasts for Water Management in the Klamath River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; McGuire, M.; Wood, A.; Leady, Z.; Tansey, M. K.; Nelson, K.; Dahm, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Klamath River Basin in south central Oregon and north central California is home to the Klamath Irrigation Project, which is operated by the Bureau of Reclamation and provides water to around 200,000 acres of agricultural lands. The project is managed in consideration of not only water deliveries to irrigators, but also wildlife refuge water demands, biological opinion requirements for Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed fish, and Tribal Trust responsibilities. Climate change has the potential to impact water management in terms of volume and timing of water and the ability to meet multiple objectives. Current operations use a spreadsheet-based decision support tool, with water supply forecasts from the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). This tool is currently limited in its ability to incorporate in ensemble forecasts, which offer the potential for improved operations by quantifying forecast uncertainty. To address these limitations, this study has worked to develop a RiverWare based water resource systems model, flexible enough to use across multiple decision time-scales, from short-term operations out to long-range planning. Systems model development has been accompanied by operational system development to handle data management and multiple modeling components. Using a set of ensemble hindcasts, this study seeks to answer several questions: A) Do a new set of ensemble streamflow forecasts have additional skill beyond what?, and allow for improved decision making under changing conditions? B) Do net irrigation water requirement forecasts developed in this project to quantify agricultural demands and reservoir evaporation forecasts provide additional benefits to decision making beyond water supply forecasts? C) What benefit do ensemble forecasts have in the context of water management decisions?

  5. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment. Change Notice 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    Coagulation Filtration Total Dissolved Solids Water Quality Conductivity Potable water Turbidity Water Treatment/Purification Disinfection ...microorganisms (pathogenic) found in the raw water . The preferred Army field method of water disinfection is chlorination. Filtration Filtration...senses. It looks, tastes, and smells good and is neither too hot nor too cold. Potable water Water that is safe for drinking . Reverse osmosis

  6. Evaluation of the apparent losses caused by water meter under-registration in intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criminisi, A; Fontanazza, C M; Freni, G; Loggia, G La

    2009-01-01

    Apparent losses are usually caused by water theft, billing errors, or revenue meter under-registration. While the first two causes are directly related to water utility management and may be reduced by improving company procedures, water meter inaccuracies are considered to be the most significant and hardest to quantify. Water meter errors are amplified in networks subjected to water scarcity, where users adopt private storage tanks to cope with the intermittent water supply. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of two variables influencing the apparent losses: water meter age and the private storage tank effect on meter performance. The study was carried out in Palermo (Italy). The impact of water meter ageing was evaluated in laboratory by testing 180 revenue meters, ranging from 0 to 45 years in age. The effects of the private water tanks were determined via field monitoring of real users and a mathematical model. This study demonstrates that the impact on apparent losses from the meter starting flow rapidly increases with meter age. Private water tanks, usually fed by a float valve, overstate meter under-registration, producing additional apparent losses between 15% and 40% for the users analysed in this study.

  7. Change in the southern U.S. water demand and supply over the next forty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. McNulty; Ge Sun; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers

    2008-01-01

    Water shortages are often considered a problem in the western United States, where water supply is limited compared to the eastern half of the country. However, periodic water shortages are also common in the southeastern United States due to high water demand and periodic drought. Southeastern U.S. municipalities spend billions of dollars to develop water storage...

  8. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The modern condition of drinking water supply of rural Kazakstan settlements: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espolov, T.I.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author made conclusion that prospect of steady water supply of population and farms of the Republic and also prevention of desertification and crisis situations to a great extent determined by rational use of water resources

  10. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivasidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  12. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...... to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...

  13. Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, H

    1985-06-01

    Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

  14. Inventory decision in a closed-loop supply chain with inspection, sorting, and waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwicahyani, A. R.; Jauhari, W. A.; Kurdhi, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    The study of returned item inventory management in a closed-loop supply chain system has become an important issue in recent years. So far, investigations about inventory decision making in a closed-loop supply chain system have been confined to traditional forward and reverse oriented material flow supply chain. In this study, we propose an integrated inventory model consisting a supplier, a manufacturer, and a retailer where the manufacturer inspects all of the returned items collected from the customers and classifies them as recoverable or waste. Returned items that recovered through the remanufacturing process and the newly manufactured products are then used to meet the demand of the retailer. However, some recovered items which are not comparable to the ones in quality, classified as refurbished items, are sold to a secondary market at a reduced price. This study also suggests that the flow of returned items is controlled by a decision variable, namely an acceptance quality level of recoverable item in the system. We apply multiple remanufacturing cycle and multiple production cycle policy to the proposed model and give the corresponding iterative procedure to determine the optimal solutions. Further, numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  15. Analysis of Drinking Water Supply System Encompassing The Catchment, The Reservoir and The Treatment Facility (A Case Study of Osman Sagar Drinking Water Supply System, Hyderabad, India)

    OpenAIRE

    Balijepalli, Valli Priya

    2009-01-01

    Unregulated urban growth and unscientific approach towards source protection led to the degradation and loss of fresh water lakes in Hyderabad. Osman Sagar is one of the few lakes that still retains its fresh water status. In recent times it witnessed drastic fluctuations in its inflows resulting in reduced drinking water supply. The study emphasizes the need to improve the overall water management based on the integration of scientific assessment and appropriate management strategies.

  16. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  17. Public health risk status of the water supply frame work at Kwame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to assess the public health risk status of the potable water supply framework at the Kwame Nkurumah Postgraduate Residence (PG) Hall, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, (UNN), Enugu State, Nigeria, and environs. Four potable water supply frame-works at the PG Hall, UNN, and exposed stagnant ...

  18. Discussion on Construction Technology of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Pipeline of Municipal Water Supply and Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    Prestressed reinforced concrete pipe has the advantages of good bending resistance, good anti-corrosion, anti-seepage, low price and so on. It is very common in municipal water supply and drainage engineering. This paper mainly explore the analyze the construction technology of the prestressed reinforced concrete pipe in municipal water supply and drainage engineering.

  19. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mauritania : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The situation within the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Mauritania is somewhat contradictory: in spite of the weakness of the institutions in charge of the sector and the lack of financing for sanitation and, more recently, for the rural water supply (RWS) subsector, significant improvements have been made in the access rates since 1990. The institutional reform of the RWS sub...

  20. Water Supply. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-9-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on water supply is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist the firefighter in the proper use of water supplies and the understanding of the…