WorldWideScience

Sample records for water storage

  1. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  2. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  3. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  4. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  5. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...

  6. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  7. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  8. Region 9 Water Storage (SDWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  9. Methane storage in dry water gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Bray, Christopher L; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2008-09-03

    Dry water stores 175 v(STP)/v methane at 2.7 MPa and 273.2 K in a hydrate form which is close to the Department of Energy volumetric target for methane storage. Dry water is a silica-stabilized free-flowing powder (95% wt water), and fast methane uptakes were observed (90% saturation uptake in 160 min with no mixing) as a result of the relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of this material.

  10. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blázquez, N.; Alegre, J.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryTo predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of a given vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions on nine Mediterranean shrubs of varying anatomic and morphological features to determine water storage capacity, stemflow and the funneling ratio. After assessing correlations between these hydrological variables and the biometric characteristics of the shrubs, we compared two methods of determining storage capacity: rainfall simulation and immersion. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35-3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8-26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30-260). Per unit biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.66 ml g -1 and ranged from 0.23 ml g -1 for Cistus ladanifer to 2.26 ml g -1 for Lavandula latifolia. Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses to the atmosphere when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. When considered the whole shrubs in absolute terms (ml per plant), water storage capacity and stemflow were correlated to biomass and the dendrometric characteristics of the shrubs, yet in relative terms (expressed per surface area unit or as %), anatomic features such as pubescence, branch rigidity or leaf insertion angle emerged as determining factors. The use of a simple procedure to assess storage capacity was inefficient. The immersion method underestimated storage capacity to a different extent for each species. Some shrubs returned high stemflow values typical of their adaptation to the semiarid climate. In contrast, other shrubs seem to have structures that promote stemflow yet have developed other drought-adaptation mechanisms. In this report, we discuss the

  11. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  12. Atmospheric drivers of storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined the microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation was the main driver of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed, mainly driven by vapour pressure deficit (VPD. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was disproportionally higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought.

    A third important factor was the tree water deficit. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water deficit.

  13. Global terrestrial water storage capacity and flood potential using GRACE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reager, J. T; Famiglietti, J. S

    2009-01-01

    .... Over the GRACE record length, instances of repeated maxima in water storage anomaly that fall short of variable maxima in cumulative precipitation suggest an effective storage capacity for a given...

  14. Estimation of GRACE water storage components by temporal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robert; Guan, Huade; Batelaan, Okke

    2017-09-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has been in operation since 2002. Water storage estimates are calculated from gravity anomalies detected by the operating satellites and although not the true resolution, can be presented as 100 km × 100 km data cells if appropriate scaling functions are applied. Estimating total water storage has shown to be highly useful in detecting hydrological variations and trends. However, a limitation is that GRACE does not provide information as to where the water is stored in the vertical profile. We aim to partition the total water storage from GRACE into water storage components. We use a wavelet filter to decompose the GRACE data and partition it into various water storage components including soil water and groundwater. Storage components from the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) model are used as a reference for the decompositions of total storage data across Australia. Results show a clear improvement in using decomposed GRACE data instead of raw GRACE data when compared against total water storage outputs from the AWRA model. The method has potential to improve GRACE applications including a means to test various large scale hydrological models as well as helping to analyse floods, droughts and other hydrological conditions.

  15. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  16. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  17. Groundwater Storage vs. Surface Water Storage - Why Sustainability Requires a Different Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.; Davids, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Storing water in times of excess for use in times of shortage is an essential water-management tool, especially in climates typified by precipitation in one season and demand in another. The three primary water storage mechanisms in the Western US, and much of the world in fact, are: seasonal snow pack, surface water reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers. In California, nearly every major river has one or more large dam and reservoir and current focus has shifted toward off-stream storage. In addition to California's surface reservoirs, groundwater aquifers provide huge volumes of water storage that are heavily utilized during times of drought. With California's new Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) substantial attention is presently focused on developing strategies for using groundwater storage more effectively in conjunction with surface-storage reservoirs. However, compared to surface water storage, we need to think differently and develop new frameworks if we want to manage groundwater storage sustainably. Despite its immense capacity, groundwater storage is harder to manage because there are physical constraints to how fast water can be put into and withdrawn from aquifers, its boundaries are not as well defined as those of a surface reservoir, and it is part of a dynamic, porous media flow system where the Theis concepts of capture govern. Therefore, groundwater does not behave as a level pool like surface water reservoirs, which has several implications for effective management: 1) extraction/injection locations can have substantial impacts on the system, 2) interactions with the surface water systems can be nonlinear and complex and 3) hydraulic effects can continue long after pumping/injection has stopped. These nonlinear spatial and temporal responses, coupled with long time scales, makes management of groundwater storage much different than surface water storage. Furthermore, failure to fully understand these issues can lead to mismanagement

  18. Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  19. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  20. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2005-01-01

    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  1. Hydrologic Applications of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Li, Bailing; Bolten, John; Hourborg, Rasmus; Velicogna, Isabella; Famiglietti, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Gravimetry-based terrestrial water storage time series have great potential value for hydrological research and applications, because no other observing system can provide global maps of the integrated quantity of water stored on and below the land surface. However, these data are challenging to use because their spatial and temporal resolutions are low relative to other hydrological observations and because total terrestrial water storage is a measurement unfamiliar to hydrologists. In this presentation we will review techniques for temporal, horizontal, and vertical disaggregation of GRACE terrestrial water storage anomalies, including data assimilation and integration within a land surface model. We will then discuss initial results from three efforts to use the methods for water resources applications. These include drought monitoring across North America, water cycle assessment over the Middle East North African region, and groundwater depletion estimates for northern India.

  2. Attenuating water hammer pressure by means of gas storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The basic equations for computing the volume of gas storage tank were derived from the principles of attenuating water hammer pressure. Verifications using experiments indicate that the proposed equation can provide a fare precision in the predictions. By using the model of solid-liquid two-phase flow, the gas storage tank, pressure-relief valves and slow-closure reverse-control valves were compared with practical engineering problems, and the functions of gas storage tank in attenuating water hammer pressure were further investigated.

  3. Water in volcanoes: evolution, storage and rapid release during landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, Audray; Roberti, Gioachino; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes can store and drain water that is used as a valuable resource by populations living on their slopes. The water drainage and storage pattern depend on the volcano lithologies and structure, as well as the geological and hydrometric settings. The drainage and storage pattern will change according to the hydrometric conditions, the vegetation cover, the eruptive activity and the long- and short-term volcano deformation. Inspired by our field observations and based on geology and structure of volcanic edifices, on hydrogeological studies, and modelling of water flow in opening fractures, we develop a model of water storage and drainage linked with volcano evolution. This paper offers a first-order general model of water evolution in volcanoes.

  4. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  5. Insulation materials for advanced water storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different insulation materials that may be of interest for insulation of solar storage tanks. In order to understand the special characteristics of the different insulation materials the heat transfer mechanisms involved are shortly described. In the following...... sections different insulation materials are described with respect to material characteristics and some comments on the easiness of application for tank insulation. The material properties listed in this paper are typical values, which gives an idea of the possibilities but in case of a specific design...

  6. Insulation materials for advanced water storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different insulation materials that may be of interest for insulation of solar storage tanks. In order to understand the special characteristics of the different insulation materials the heat transfer mechanisms involved are shortly described. In the following...... sections different insulation materials are described with respect to material characteristics and some comments on the easiness of application for tank insulation. The material properties listed in this paper are typical values, which gives an idea of the possibilities but in case of a specific design...

  7. DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC SIZES FOR RC CYLINDRICAL WATER STORAGE TANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş KOZLUCA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Water storage tanks are built in different shapes and sizes according to needs. Designs of water storage tanks with low costs are quite important for the national economy. Cylindrical and sphere tanks are the most economic types of tanks in terms of material cost. In this study several cylindrical tank designs are made. Then most economic tank radius – tank height ratio is searched by simply changing thickness, height and the radius of the tank considered. Storage capacity of these cylindrical tanks are all the same. All these reinforced tanks have cylindrical reinforced concrete walls fixed at the bottom and free top edge without roof. It is thought that tanks constructed with this optimal ratio will be beneficial.

  8. New datasets to estimate terrestrial water storage change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troch, P.A.; Durcik, M.; Seneviratne, S.; Hirschi, M.; Teuling, A.J.; Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Hasan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The total amount of water stored in a river basin affects streamflow at various timescales and defines the river basin's response to atmospheric forcing. For example, spring runoff in mountainous midlatitude catchments depends on winter snowpack, and groundwater storage sustains flow during dry peri

  9. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  10. Residential thermal storage by water encapsulation in stud wall cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.H.; Harris, G.P.; Kiley, M.N.; Cengel, Y.A. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Thermal storage in wall cavities of standard stick frame housing was investigated. Possible applications relate to electric utility time of use charging, or solar hot air charging. Various thermal storage methods were surveyed, and water stored in the stud cavities was selected. Air was used to charge the encapsulated water. Exterior and interior walls were investigated. Experimental tests were run on full size wall cavities, for both heating and cooling runs. Experimental results were compared and validated with a mathematical model predicting the system performance. Results show that the rate of heat lost by the system while charging is greater than while discharging. The exterior walls performed best in terms of speed of charging, and the maximum charge held. The best charging efficiency was achieved for the lowest air flow rate while charging. Universal curves that describe the basic system responses were developed.

  11. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night.

    Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content

  12. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  13. Sap flow index as an indicator of water storage use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Symmetrical temperature difference also known as the sap flow index (SFI forms the basis of the Heat Field Deformation sap flow measurement and is simultaneously collected whilst measuring the sap flow. SFI can also be measured by any sap flow method applying internal continuous heating through the additional installation of an axial differential thermocouple equidistantly around a heater. In earlier research on apple trees SFI was found to be an informative parameter for tree physiological studies, namely for assessing the contribution of stem water storage to daily transpiration. The studies presented in this work are based on the comparative monitoring of SFI and diameter in stems of different species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea omorika, Pinus sylvestris and tree sizes. The ability of SFI to follow the patterns of daily stem water storage use was empirically confirmed by our data. Additionally, as the HFD multipointsensors can measure sap flow at several stem sapwood depths, their use allowed to analyze the use of stored water in different xylem layers through SFI records. Radial and circumferential monitoring of SFI on large cork oak trees provided insight into the relative magnitude and timing of the contribution of water stored in different sapwood layers or stem sectors to transpiration.

  14. Storage and recycling of water in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfan-Casanova, N.

    2015-12-01

    Most natural samples originating from the mantle contain traces of water. It can be observed that water content varies laterally as a function of the geodynamic context, but also with depth in cratons. Basalts from mid-ocean ridges, which sample the convecting upper mantle, contain generally below 0.6 wt% H2O leading to 50-330 parts per million by weight in the source. Oceanic Islands Basalts are more hydrated with contents ranging from 0.6 to 1.1 wt%, leading to 350-1100 ppm wt H2O in the source. Arc basalts are even more hydrated with water contents ranging from 0.2 to 5-6 wt% H2O testifying of the recycling of water by subduction. Kimberlite magmas are also the proof that local saturation in volatiles is possible. Among xenoliths, the samples from cratons are very interesting because they may provide a depth profile of water. However, the variation of water content in olivine with depth differs from craton to craton, and is the result of a complex geological history. Also, olivine inclusions in diamond and olivine from peridotite xenoliths do not give the same message regarding to water activity. The water storage capacity of the mantle is defined as the maximum water or hydroxyl that can be incorporated in its constitutive minerals before a free fluid phase appears. It can be determined experimentally and confronted to geophysical observations, such as low seismic velocities, and electrical conductivity. In this talk we will review our current knowledge of water incorporation in NAMs as determined experimentally and compare it with available observations. New data concerning clinopyroxenes will be shown. The aim being to understand the deep water cycle.

  15. A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, AC; Reager, JT; Famiglietti, JS; M. Rodell

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantitative approach for measuring hydrological drought occurrence and severity based on terrestrial water storage observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. GRACE measurements are applied by calculating the magnitude of the deviation of regional, monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies from the time series' monthly climatology, where negative deviations represent storage deficits. Monthly deficits explicitly quantify the volu...

  16. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... determine if changes to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply may be warranted, and what... allocation of storage has been made for M&I. The Water Supply Act of 1958 provides the Assistant Secretary of... to St. Louis, MO. In contemplating an allocation of storage to M&I to meet needs in the basin,...

  17. Fractal behavior of soil water storage at multiple depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenjun; Lin, Mi; Biswas, Asim; Si, Bing C.; Chau, Henry W.; Cresswell, Hamish P.

    2016-08-01

    Spatiotemporal behavior of soil water is essential to understand the science of hydrodynamics. Data intensive measurement of surface soil water using remote sensing has established that the spatial variability of soil water can be described using the principle of self-similarity (scaling properties) or fractal theory. This information can be used in determining land management practices provided the surface scaling properties are kept at deep layers. The current study examined the scaling properties of sub-surface soil water and their relationship to surface soil water, thereby serving as supporting information for plant root and vadose zone models. Soil water storage (SWS) down to 1.4 m depth at seven equal intervals was measured along a transect of 576 m for 5 years in Saskatchewan. The surface SWS showed multifractal nature only during the wet period (from snowmelt until mid- to late June) indicating the need for multiple scaling indices in transferring soil water variability information over multiple scales. However, with increasing depth, the SWS became monofractal in nature indicating the need for a single scaling index to upscale/downscale soil water variability information. In contrast, all soil layers during the dry period (from late June to the end of the growing season in early November) were monofractal in nature, probably resulting from the high evapotranspirative demand of the growing vegetation that surpassed other effects. This strong similarity between the scaling properties at the surface layer and deep layers provides the possibility of inferring about the whole profile soil water dynamics using the scaling properties of the easy-to-measure surface SWS data.

  18. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly

  19. Effect of hot-water consumption on temperature distribution in a horizontal solar water storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwa, N.H.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Solar Energy; Mobarak, A.M.; El-Sallak, M.S. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    This experimental investigation assesses the behaviour of a solar water heater provided with a liquid heat exchanger in a horizontal storage tank. The factors that affect the stratification inside the storage tank are considered. The performance of the system is studied in the light of the daily consumption of hot water of an Egyptian family. The results obtained show that in the places where it is necessary to use a horizontal tank it must be supplied with an auxiliary electric heater to meet the required load at the required temperature, especially in winter. (author)

  20. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-02

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  1. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  2. Following the water: a controlled study of drinking water storage in northern coastal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2008-11-01

    To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important.

  3. Water Storage Instead of Energy Storage for Desalination Powered by Renewable Energy—King Island Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Tafech

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we scrutinized the energy storage options used in mitigation of the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for desalination process. In off-grid islands and remote areas, renewable energy is often combined with appropriate energy storage technologies (ESTs to provide a consistent and reliable electric power source. We demonstrated that in developing a renewable energy scheme for desalination purposes, product (water storage is a more reliable and techno-economic solution. For a King Island (Southeast Australia case-study, electric power production from renewable energy sources was sized under transient conditions to meet the dynamic demand of freshwater throughout the year. Among four proposed scenarios, we found the most economic option by sizing a 13 MW solar photovoltaic (PV field to instantly run a proportional RO desalination plant and generate immediate freshwater in diurnal times without the need for energy storage. The excess generated water was stored in 4 × 50 ML (mega liter storage tanks to meet the load in those solar deficit times. It was also demonstrated that integrating well-sized solar PV with wind power production shows more consistent energy/water profiles that harmonize the transient nature of energy sources with the water consumption dynamics, but that would have trivial economic penalties caused by larger desalination and water storage capacities.

  4. Informing Hydrological Drought Response in Headwater Catchments Using Water Storage Estimated From GRACE: Storage-Flow Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, R.; Tyler, S. W.; Harpold, A. A.; Volk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the relationship between subsurface water storage and streamflow is challenging due to heterogeneity of surface-groundwater interactions in space and time. Hence, point measurements of storage from wells are insufficient to characterize the storage across a catchment, especially in mountainous environments with complex geology. Here, we present a novel approach to quantify the storage-flow relationship for catchments in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. For 23 gages in the Hydro-Climatic Data Network, the 7-day average annual minimum flow (drought flow) was computed for years 2003 to 2015. We then aggregated, for each gage, the associated storage time-series dataset from 1o gridded measurements of monthly Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Despite the significant mismatch between the spatial scales and temporal resolution, we found a strong empirical correlation between TWS and drought flow. From these relationships, we examined how physical characteristics of each catchment (such as size and geology) impact the observed nonlinear relationship between TWS and drought flow. Furthermore, we show how physical characteristics, such as geology/storage capacity, of catchments affect the sensitivity of decreasing flows to multi-year droughts. This research has the potential to help better quantify the streamflow-storage relationship in small mountainous catchments, as well as, classify catchments that may be more vulnerable to decreasing flows with multi-year droughts.

  5. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  6. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Longuevergne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser and Tigri–Euphrates (TE basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007–2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage – and more generally water distribution – is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial

  7. Variability of continental water storage and its relationship to extreme hydrological events in the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emília Diniz Silva Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the variability of total continental water storage derived from estimates of balance water using satellite data in association with hydro-meteorological data. The occurrence of extreme hydrological events such as drought and flood in the Amazon basin was related to the variability of total storage of continental water. Both estimation methods (PER- Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Runoff and GRACE show a strong decrease in water storage during the 2005 drought and a strong recovery during the 2009 flood. The results show that there is strong relationship between the occurrences of extreme hydrological events and water storage in the Amazon. Local and deep measurements of continental water storage can provide more precise indications of the dynamics of the hydrological system and its response to climate variability.

  8. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    A number of heat storage modules for seasonal heat storages based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture have been tested by means of experiments in a heat storage test facility. The modules had different volumes and designs. Further, different methods were used to transfer heat....... • The reliability of the supercooling was elucidated for the heat storage modules for different operation conditions. • The reliability of a cooling method used to start solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was elucidated. The method is making use of boiling CO2 in a small tank in good...... to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined...

  9. Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Kelsey Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) operations ultimately require injecting and storing CO2 into deep saline aquifers. Reservoir pressure typically rises as CO2 is injected increasing the cost and risk of CCUS and decreasing viable storage within the formation. Active management of the reservoir pressure through the extraction of brine can reduce the pressurization while providing a number of benefits including increased storage capacity for CO2, reduced risks linked to reservoir overpressure, and CO2 plume management. Through enhanced water recovery (EWR), brine within the saline aquifer can be extracted and treated through desalination technologies which could be used to offset the water requirements for thermoelectric power plants or local water needs such as agriculture, or produce a marketable such as lithium through mineral extraction. This paper discusses modeled scenarios of CO2 injection into the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) formation in Wyoming with EWR. The Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), was used to model CO2 injection with brine extraction and the corresponding pressure tradeoffs. Scenarios were compared in order to analyze how pressure management through the quantity and location of brine extraction wells can increase CO2 storage capacity and brine extraction while reducing risks associated with over pressurization. Future research will couple a cost-benefit analysis to these simulations in order to determine if the benefit of subsurface pressure management and increase CO2 storage capacity can outweigh multiple extraction wells with increased cost of installation and maintenance as well as treatment and/or disposal of the extracted brine.

  10. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh.

  11. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  12. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongkui Li; Baoqi Lu; Jing Zou; Bin Xu; Zhizeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years’ experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters) underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of“filling joints with water”is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles for design and

  13. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  14. Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of five homosporeous species of ferns and compared with properties of pollen, seeds, and fern leaf tissue. Isotherms were constructed at 5, 25, and 45 degrees C and analysed using different physicochemical models in order to quantify chemical affinity and heat (enthalpy) of sorption of water in fern spores. Fern spores hydrate slowly but dry rapidly at ambient relative humidity. Low Brunauer-Emmet-Teller monolayer values, few water-binding sites according to the D'Arcy-Watt model, and limited solute-solvent compatibility according to the Flory-Huggins model suggest that fern spores have low affinity for water. Despite the low water affinity, fern spores demonstrate relatively high values of sorption enthalpy (DeltaH(sorp)). Parameters associated with binding sites and DeltaH(sorp) decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting temperature- and hydration-dependent changes in volume of spore macromolecules. Collectively, these data may relate to the degree to which cellular structures within fern spores are stabilized during drying and cooling. Water sorption properties within fern spores suggest that storage at subfreezing temperatures will give longevities comparable with those achieved with seeds. However, the window of optimum water contents for fern spores is very narrow and much lower than that measured in seeds, making precise manipulation of water content imperative for achieving maximum longevity.

  15. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  16. Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shelley A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo; Woodruff, David; Jones, Timothy; Restom, Teresa; Mejia, Monica; Clearwater, Michael; Campanello, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single individual of Anacardium excelsum, Ficus insipida, Schefflera morototoni, and Cordia alliodora during two consecutive dry seasons. Vessel lumen diameter and vessel density did not exhibit a consistent trend axially from the base of the stem to the base of the crown. However, lumen diameter decreased sharply from the base of the crown to the terminal branches. The ratio of vessel lumen area to sapwood cross-sectional area was consistently higher at the base of the crown than at the base of the trunk in A. excelsum, F. insipida and C. alliodora, but no axial trend was apparent in S. morototoni. Radial profiles of the preceding wood anatomical characteristics varied according to species and the height at which the wood samples were obtained. Radial profiles of sap flux density measured with thermal dissipation sensors of variable length near the base of the crown were highly correlated with radial profiles of specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) calculated from xylem anatomical characteristics. The relationship between sap flux density and k(s) was species-independent. Deuterium oxide (D(2)O) injected into the base of the trunk of the four study trees was detected in the water transpired from the upper crown after only 1 day in the 26-m-tall C. alliodora tree, 2 days in the 28-m-tall F. insipida tree, 3 days in the 38-m-tall A. excelsum tree, and 5 days in the 22-m-tall S. morototoni tree. Radial transport of injected D(2)O was detected in A. excelsum, F. insipida and S. morototoni, but not C. alliodora. The rate of axial D(2)O transport, a surrogate for maximum sap velocity, was positively correlated

  17. The Contribution of Reservoirs to Global Land Surface Water Storage Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tian; Nijssen, Bart; Gao, Huilin; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2016-12-21

    Man-made reservoirs play a key role in the terrestrial water system. They alter water fluxes at the land surface and impact surface water storage through water management regulations for diverse purposes such as irrigation, municipal water supply, hydropower generation, and flood control. Although most developed countries have established sophisticated observing systems for many variables in the land surface water cycle, long-term and consistent records of reservoir storage are much more limited and not always shared. Furthermore, most land surface hydrological models do not represent the effects of water management activities. Here, the contribution of reservoirs to seasonal water storage variations is investigated using a large-scale water management model to simulate the effects of reservoir management at basin and continental scales. The model was run from 1948 to 2010 at a spatial resolution of 0.258 latitude–longitude. A total of 166 of the largest reservoirs in the world with a total capacity of about 3900 km3 (nearly 60%of the globally integrated reservoir capacity) were simulated. The global reservoir storage time series reflects the massive expansion of global reservoir capacity; over 30 000 reservoirs have been constructed during the past half century, with a mean absolute interannual storage variation of 89 km3. The results indicate that the average reservoir-induced seasonal storage variation is nearly 700 km3 or about 10%of the global reservoir storage. For some river basins, such as the Yellow River, seasonal reservoir storage variations can be as large as 72%of combined snow water equivalent and soil moisture storage.

  18. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, M E

    2000-01-01

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

  19. The effect of plant water storage on water fluxes within the coupled soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ward, Eric J; Duman, Tomer; Manoli, Gabriele; Parolari, Anthony J; Katul, Gabriel G

    2017-02-01

    In addition to buffering plants from water stress during severe droughts, plant water storage (PWS) alters many features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of water movement in the soil-plant system. How PWS impacts water dynamics and drought resilience is explored using a multi-layer porous media model. The model numerically resolves soil-plant hydrodynamics by coupling them to leaf-level gas exchange and soil-root interfacial layers. Novel features of the model are the considerations of a coordinated relationship between stomatal aperture variation and whole-system hydraulics and of the effects of PWS and nocturnal transpiration (Fe,night) on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in the soil. The model results suggest that daytime PWS usage and Fe,night generate a residual water potential gradient (Δψp,night) along the plant vascular system overnight. This Δψp,night represents a non-negligible competing sink strength that diminishes the significance of HR. Considering the co-occurrence of PWS usage and HR during a single extended dry-down, a wide range of plant attributes and environmental/soil conditions selected to enhance or suppress plant drought resilience is discussed. When compared with HR, model calculations suggest that increased root water influx into plant conducting-tissues overnight maintains a more favorable water status at the leaf, thereby delaying the onset of drought stress.

  20. Assessing soil water storage distribution under sprinkler irrigation by coupling 3D simulations and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Uday; Shabeeb, Ahmed; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This work analyzed the variability of sprinkler irrigation application over a bare soil, both in terms of water application efficiency and uniformity, by integrating and comparing the information on the irrigation depth data (ID), as measured by catch cans, soil water storage in the upper root zone, as measured by TDR probes, and a 3D simulations of water flow in soils. Three irrigation tests were performed at three different pressures (2, 3 and 4 bar). A lateral water redistribution was observed and simulated after each irrigation event by comparing spatial distributions of site-specific water application efficiency (AEs), as well as ratios of site-specific actual water storage increase (SWEs) and irrigation depth (IDs) to the water content before irrigation. Because of soil water redistribution processes, distribution uniformity based on soil storages was systematically higher than the catch can uniformity. The obvious consequence of lateral water redistribution processes was that the soil smoothing action on non-uniformity observed at the surface increased both with depth and over time. At a given depth the uniformity of soil water storages always attained the same value, whatever the pressure considered and the catch can-based uniformity coefficient. It was concluded that, for the case of random distribution of ID, the uniformity of water storages is driven by the soil behavior rather than by the irrigation system.

  1. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko...

  2. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Yardim, M. Hakan [Department of Farm Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  3. Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jarvie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage, contamination, interference and analytical errors. Key issues identified include: The need to tailor analytical reagents and concentrations to take into account the characteristics of the sample matrix. The effects of matrix interference on the colorimetric analysis. The influence of variable rates of phospho-molybdenum blue colour formation. The differing responses of river waters to physical and chemical conditions of storage. The higher sensitivities of samples with low P concentrations to storage and analytical errors. Given high variability of river water characteristics in space and time, no single standardised methodology for sampling, storage and analysis of P in rivers can be offered. ‘Good Practice’ guidelines are suggested, which recommend that protocols for sampling, storage and analysis of river water for P is based on thorough site-specific method testing and assessment of P stability on storage. For wider sampling programmes at the regional/national scale where intensive site-specific method and stability testing are not feasible, ‘Precautionary Practice’ guidelines are suggested. The study highlights key areas requiring further investigation for improving methodological rigour. Keywords: phosphorus, orthophosphate, soluble reactive, particulate, colorimetry, stability, sensitivity, analytical error, storage, sampling, filtration, preservative, fractionation, digestion

  4. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  5. Soil-Water Storage Predictions for Cultivated Crops on the Záhorská Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarabicová, Miroslava; Minarič, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of climate change on the soil-water regime of the Záhorská lowlands. The consequences of climate change on soil-water storage were analyzed for two crops: spring barley and maize. We analyzed the consequences of climate change on soil-water storage for two crops: spring barley and maize. The soil-water storage was simulated with the GLOBAL mathematical model. The data entered into the model as upper boundary conditions were established by the SRES A2 and SRES B1 climate scenarios and the KNMI regional climate model for the years from 2071 to 2100 (in the text called the time horizon 2085 which is in the middle this period). For the reference period the data from the years 1961-1990 was used. The results of this paper predict soil-water storage until the end of this century for the crops evaluated, as well as a comparison of the soil-water storage predictions with the course of the soil-water storage during the reference period.

  6. modelling for optimal number of line storage reservoirs in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the reservoir system location be integrated into the ... systems experience (figure 1), storage facilities within the system .... Therefore, a computer programme for designing cost effective water distribution net works called Economic Number of.

  7. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS. These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than terrestrial soil moisture observations by GRACE observations and GLDAS model output.

  8. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites...... measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS). These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal...... has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than...

  9. GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage depletion associated with the 2003 European heat wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Seneviratne, S.I.; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    datasets agree well with the GRACE measurements despite the disparity of the employed information; the difference between datasets tends to be within GRACE margin of error. The April-to-August terrestrial water storage depletion is found to be significantly larger in 2003 than in 2002 from both models......The GRACE twin satellites reveal large inter-annual terrestrial water-storage variations between 2002 and 2003 for central Europe. GRACE observes a negative trend in regional water storage from 2002 to 2003 peaking at -7.8 cm in central Europe with an accuracy of 1 cm. The 2003 excess terrestrial...... water storage depletion observed from GRACE can be related to the record-breaking heat wave that occurred in central Europe in 2003. We validate the measurements from GRACE using two independent hydrological estimates and direct gravity observations from superconducting gravimeters in Europe. All...

  10. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  11. Effects of climate variability on water storage in the Colorado river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Troch, P.A.A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.; Durcik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the long-term (interannual–decadal) variability of water availability in river basins is paramount for water resources management. Here, the authors analyze time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation, and discharge spanning 74 yr in the Colora

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  13. Transient electromagnetic detection method in water-sealed underground storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the water sensitivity of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM, this study assesses the effectiveness of the water curtain system for underground LPG storage caverns during the excavation period. It also detects fracture water flow during the excavation process in light of the practice of two pilot large underground LPG storage caverns in China. Comparative maps of apparent resistivity derived from TEM measurements before and after water-filling during the excavation process have been discussed to improve the quality of the water curtain system. This is the first case to apply TEM to detect the quality of the water curtain system during the construction of underground LPG storage cavern projects, and it is found to be practical, more visualized and worth popularizing.

  14. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Beglou, Amirreza; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (µTS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For µTS test, 20 dumbbell shaped specimens were also prepared for each adhesive in two subgroups of 1 day and 28 days water storage. MC was significantly lower for SCU and ABU than SB2 (P water; both universal adhesives showed less water sorption and higher values of µTS than the control group. Key words:Absorption, dental adhesives, dentin-bonding agents, solubility, tensile strength.

  15. A Multi-Satellite Approach for Water Storage Monitoring in an Arid Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit T. Ghebreyesus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use satellite imagery to monitor the water budget of Al Ain region in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Inflows and outflows were estimated and the trend of water storage variation in the study area was examined from 2005 to 2014. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the simplified Penman-Monteith equation. Landsat images were used to determine the extent of agricultural and green areas. Time series of gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE observations over the study area were used to assess the inferred water storage variation from satellite data. The change of storage inferred from the Water Budget Equation showed a decreasing trend at an average rate of 2.57 Mm3 annually. Moreover, GRACE readings showed a decreasing trend at a rate of 0.35 cm of water depth annually. Mann-Kendal, a non-parametric trend test, proved the presence of significant negative trends in both time series at a 5% significance level. A two-month lag resulted in a better agreement (R2 = 0.55 between the change in water storage and GRACE anomalies within the study area. These results suggest that water storage in the study area is being depleted significantly. Moreover, the potential of remote sensing in water resource management, especially in remote and arid areas, was demonstrated.

  16. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  17. Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zaag, P.; Gupta, J.

    In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid a

  18. Decline in recycled water quality during short-term storage in open ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jennifer; Warnken, Jan; Teasdale, Peter R; Arthur, J Michael

    2009-12-01

    Changes were assessed in urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent quality during short-term storage in open surface ponds. Water quality was monitored over five years at the inlets and outlets of open storage ponds located at three biological nutrient removal plants. Pond influent temperature, rainfall and sewage inflow were not found to be major factors. However, there was a trend for water temperature to be correlated negatively with nitrogenous nutrient and positively with faecal coliform values. The observed increases in faecal coliforms, nutrients and chemical oxygen demand were most likely caused through avian faecal contamination. These increases challenge the notion that pond storage has a positive or negligible effect on effluent quality. The observed one to two orders of magnitude increase in faecal coliforms may affect reuse scheme viability by limiting the range of uses under Australian water recycling guidelines. Potential improvements to short-term recycled water storage management at WWTPs could include the integration of monitoring requirements in WWTP discharge licences and recycling guidelines and the monitoring of all water quality parameters, including microbiological ones, at the point of entry into the recycled water distribution system, after WWTP storage, rather than directly post-disinfection.

  19. Transport Characteristics of Soil Salinity in Saline-alkali Land under Water Storage and Drainage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; LI; Jichang; HAN

    2015-01-01

    To test the variation and transport of soil salinity in saline- alkali land under water storage and drainage treatments,an experimental model was established in Fuping,Shaanxi Province,2009. The variation of soil salinity during 0- 160 cm soil depth under the two treatments was determined and analyzed. Results showed that the average soil water content under water storage treatment was 4. 47% higher than that under drainage treatment,which means that the water storage treatment could help to improve soil moisture to satisfy the crop’s growth needs. The profile distribution of soil soluble solids( TDS),anion( Cl-,HCO3-,SO2-4) and cation( Ca2 +,Na+,K+) content and the variation of soil p H were also measured and analyzed. PCA( Principal Component Analysis) was used to explore the relationship between the soil salinity and its ions,which showed that the water storage treatment could significantly decrease the surface salinity of soil and accelerate the desalination of topsoils,and finally,the soil quality was improved significantly,demonstrating that the water storage treatment has a remarkable effect on soil salinity management.

  20. The mechanistic basis for storage-dependent age distributions of water discharged from an experimental hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Luke A.; Kim, Minseok; Cardoso, Charlene; Lora, Marco; Meira Neto, Antonio A.; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Troch, Peter A.; Harman, Ciaran J.

    2017-04-01

    Distributions of water transit times (TTDs), and related storage-selection (SAS) distributions, are spatially integrated metrics of hydrological transport within landscapes. Recent works confirm that the form of TTDs and SAS distributions should be considered time variant—possibly depending, in predictable ways, on the dynamic storage of water within the landscape. We report on a 28 day periodic-steady-state-tracer experiment performed on a model hillslope contained within a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter. Using experimental data, we calibrate physically based, spatially distributed flow and transport models, and use the calibrated models to generate time-variable SAS distributions, which are subsequently compared to those directly observed from the actual experiment. The objective is to use the spatially distributed estimates of storage and flux from the model to characterize how temporal variation in water storage influences temporal variation in flow path configurations, and resulting SAS distributions. The simulated SAS distributions mimicked well the shape of observed distributions, once the model domain reflected the spatial heterogeneity of the lysimeter soil. The spatially distributed flux vectors illustrate how the magnitude and directionality of water flux changes as the water table surface rises and falls, yielding greater contributions of younger water when the water table surface rises nearer to the soil surface. The illustrated mechanism is compliant with conclusions drawn from other recent studies and supports the notion of an inverse-storage effect, whereby the probability of younger water exiting the system increases with storage. This mechanism may be prevalent in hillslopes and headwater catchments where discharge dynamics are controlled by vertical fluctuations in the water table surface of an unconfined aquifer.

  1. Lake and wetland ecosystem services measuring water storage and local climate regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P.; Jiang, Bo; Bohn, Theodore J.; Lee, Kai N.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Ma, Dongchun; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-04-01

    Developing interdisciplinary methods to measure ecosystem services is a scientific priority, however, progress remains slow in part because we lack ecological production functions (EPFs) to quantitatively link ecohydrological processes to human benefits. In this study, we tested a new approach, combining a process-based model with regression models, to create EPFs to evaluate water storage and local climate regulation from a green infrastructure project on the Yongding River in Beijing, China. Seven artificial lakes and wetlands were established to improve local water storage and human comfort; evapotranspiration (ET) regulates both services. Managers want to minimize the trade-off between water losses and cooling to sustain water supplies while lowering the heat index (HI) to improve human comfort. We selected human benefit indicators using water storage targets and Beijing's HI, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model to determine the change in ET from the new ecosystems. We created EPFs to quantify the ecosystem services as marginal values [Δfinal ecosystem service/Δecohydrological process]: (1) Δwater loss (lake evaporation/volume)/Δdepth and (2) Δsummer HI/ΔET. We estimate the new ecosystems increased local ET by 0.7 mm/d (20.3 W/m2) on the Yongding River. However, ET rates are causing water storage shortfalls while producing no improvements in human comfort. The shallow lakes/wetlands are vulnerable to drying when inflow rates fluctuate, low depths lead to higher evaporative losses, causing water storage shortfalls with minimal cooling effects. We recommend managers make the lakes deeper to increase water storage, and plant shade trees to improve human comfort in the parks.

  2. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  3. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3 t

  4. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. Results: Water migration in cellular solid foods invo

  5. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods invo

  6. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and... Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric... aging management programs (AMPs), aging management review (AMR) items, and definitions in NUREG-...

  7. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d.

  8. Water storage reservoirs and their role in the development, utilization and protection of catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons why water storage reservoirs are necessary in accordance with the sustainable development strategy are described in the paper. The main positive and negative impacts of reservoirs on the environment are analyzed. The most important are: the improvement of hydrological regimes (decreasing maximal and increasing minimal flows, the creation of optimal water management, utilization and protection of water, and the creation of better conditions for river and coastal ecosystems. Negative impacts and measures for its mitigation or elimination are also analyzed. The conclusion is that water storage reservoirs can be harmoniously incorporated into the environment. Serbia has a limited number of locations suitable for the construction of reservoirs, therefore it is necessary to retain these areas for storage in regional development plans and other legal acts.

  9. Climate model biases in seasonally of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, S.C.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low-latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model-specific errors in amplitude of the low-latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Storability Investigations of Water Long-Term Storage Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    previously for the other tankage and then descaled in a pickling solution of 33.2% HN03 , 1.6% HF, and 65.2% water at 140°F for 3 minutes. The titanium ...eras. 3ld. II necoe-ary and Identify by bf-tr number) Hig Purity Water, Stainless Steels, Inconel, Titanium , Particulate-Formation in Water, Effect of...aged) stainless steel, Inconel 718 (aged), 6A1-4V titanium (STA). Two types of water are used in ODno 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE ~UCASFE

  11. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  12. Water harvest- and storage- location assessment model using GIS and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weerasinghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a globally applicable method to determine the local suitability to implement water supply management strategies within the context of a river catchment. We apply this method, and develop a spatial analysis model named Geographic Water Management Potential (GWAMP. We retrieve input data from global data repositories and rescale these data to 1km spatial resolution to obtain a set of manageable input data. Potential runoff is calculated as an intermediate input using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN equation. Multi Criteria Evaluation techniques are used to determine the suitability levels and relative importance of input parameters for water supply management. Accordingly, the model identifies, potential water harvesting- and storage sites for on-farm water storage, regional dams, and soil moisture conservation.

    We apply the model to two case-study locations, the Sao-Francisco and Nile catchments, which differ in their geographic and climatic conditions. The model results are validated against existing data on hydrologic networks, reservoir capacities and runoff. On average, GWAMP predictions of sites with high rain water storage suitability correlate well (83% with the locations of existing regional dams and farm tanks. According to the results from testing and validation of the GWAMP we point out that the GWAMP can be used identify potential sites for rain water harvesting and storage technologies in a given catchment.

  13. Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Donna

    2010-08-01

    Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

  14. Investigation on Floating Lid Construction, pit Water Storage, Ottrupgaard, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    are damaged due to this penetration. Anyway the heat resistance of the insulation material decreases with increased presence of water leading to larger heat losses through the lid, which is undesirable. More work has to be done on such subjects to understand the effects of hot water on insulation materials...... metallic covers. The elements are joint in situ by special steel profiles. A two-step sealing with silicone mass and bitumen-tape is applied to tighten the construction.To ensure a proper lid design, two test lids of 1.5x1.5 metres were tested at the Department of Buildings and Energy under ambient...... conditions floating on hot water. The test lids were examined for tightness by a number of means. The results showed critical construction errors of the first lid design. A redesigned lid showed acceptable results, but also some water penetration into the lid insulation. The entered water gathers...

  15. Water storage variability in a vineyard soil in the southern highlands of Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the subtropical regions of southern Brazil, rainfall distribution is uneven, which results in temporal variability of soil water storage. For grapes, water is generally available in excess and water deficiency occurs only occasionally. Furthermore, on the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina, there are differences in soil properties, which results in high spatial variability. These two factors affect the composition of wine grapes. Spatio-temporal analyses are therefore useful in the selection of cultural practices as well as of adequate soils for vineyards. In this way, well-suited areas can produce grapes with a more appropriate composition for the production of quality wines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of water storage in a Cambisol during the growth cycle of a Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard and its relation to selected soil properties. The experimental area consisted of a commercial 8-year-old vineyard in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A sampling grid with five rows and seven points per row, spaced 12 m apart, was outlined on an area of 3,456 m². Soil samples were collected with an auger at these points, 0.30 m away from the grapevines, in the 0.00-0.30 m layer, to determine gravimetric soil moisture. Measurements were taken once a week from December 2008 to April 2009, and every two weeks from December 2009 to March 2010. In December 2008, undisturbed soil samples were collected to determine bulk density, macro- and microporosity, and disturbed samples were used to quantify particle size distribution and organic carbon content. Results were subjected to descriptive analysis and semivariogram analysis, calculating the mean relative difference and the Pearson correlation. The average water storage in a Cambisol under grapevine on ridges had variable spatial dependence, i.e., the lower the average water storage, the higher the range of spatial dependence. Water storage had a stable spatial

  16. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2017-06-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes and change in recoverable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (about 1950) to 2015 and from 2013 to 2015.The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in recoverable water in storage; and total recoverable water in storage used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of 500 meters by 500 meters, which is an area of about 62 acres. Raster datasets of water-level changes are provided for other uses.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 84 feet to a decline of 234 feet. Water-level changes from 2013 to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 24 feet to a decline of 33 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.8 feet from predevelopment to 2015 and a decline of 0.6 feet from 2013 to 2015. Total recoverable water in storage in the aquifer in 2015 was about 2.91 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 273.2 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 10.7 million acre-feet from 2013 to 2015.

  17. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Krolová M.; Čížková H.; Hejzlar J.; Poláková S.

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic). Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region be...

  18. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Besharat; Maria Teresa Viseu; Helena M. Ramos

    2017-01-01

    An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP), confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV), has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH) events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water ...

  19. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Krolová M.; Čížková H.; Hejzlar J.; Poláková S.

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic). Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region be...

  20. Long-Term Storage of Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria in Sterile Distilled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola S. Iacobellis; DeVay, James E.

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to determine the effectiveness of the preservation of plant-pathogenic bacteria in sterile distilled water. After 20 or 24 years of storage in distilled water, a very high percentage (90 to 92%) of the isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. were still alive. Moreover, 12 of 13 viable (after 24 years) isolates of P. syringae subsp. syringae maintained their ability to produce syringomycin and were pathogenic to bean seedlings. The water-stored cells of t...

  1. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two...

  2. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger; Binning, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water...... production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters are determined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical...... polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing...

  3. Optimal extraction of small-scale surface water storage in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendrarajah, S.; Warr, P. G.; Jakeman, A. J.

    1992-05-01

    This paper analyzes the optimization of water storage of small-scale dams (tanks) found in the semiarid regions of Asia. The focus is on monsoonal water storage in small tank systems in Sri Lanka, and in particular on optimal extraction for supplementary irrigation under double cropping, also allowing for nonirrigation uses of storage. The problem of intraseasonal allocation of storage for irrigation is solved by deterministic dynamic programming (DP) using simulated crop response functions. An approach to solving the optimal interseasonal allocation problem is demonstrated by operating in sequence the DP models for the two seasons. An important feature is the generation and use of seasonal water response functions with respect to each cropping season ensuring optimality in both crop area and intraseasonal distribution of irrigation. The determination of the scarcity value of water in this framework is also illustrated. Our results show that in most years both the optimal conservation of storage from the wet season and the optimal area of irrigation in the dry season are much higher than the current practice.

  4. Storage of natural water samples and preservation techniques for pharmaceutical quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mompelat, S; Jaffrezic, A; Jardé, E; Le Bot, B

    2013-05-15

    In order to perform a human and ecological risk assessment of pharmaceutical products (PPs) in natural waters, it is necessary to accurately quantify a broad variety of PPs at low concentrations. Although numerous currently implemented analytical methodologies, less is known about the preservation of PPs in natural water samples within the period before analysis (holding time, storage conditions). This paper is the first literature review about the stability of PPs in natural waters (surface and groundwaters) during sample storage. The current work focuses on a comparison of the performances of the available preservation techniques (filtration, container materials, storage temperature, preservative agents, etc.) for PPs in samples. All 58 reviewed PPs may be successfully stabilized during 7 days in surface waters by at least one appropriate methodology regarding temperature, acidic and non-acidic preservatives. When temperature is not a sufficient preservation parameter for some PPs (hormones and fluoxetine) its combination with the addition of chemical agents into the samples may prolong the integrity of the PPs during storage in surface water. There is a strong need to use standard protocols to assess and compare the stability of PPs in environmental water matrices during storage as well as during analytical preparation or analysis (European criteria 2002/657/EC). Since the stability of PPs during sample storage is a critical parameter that could call into question the quality of the data provided for the concentrations, the design of stability studies should rigorously take into account all critical parameters that could impact the concentrations of the PPs with time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A 1985-2015 data-driven global reconstruction of GRACE total water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Isabelle Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    After thirteen years of measurements, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has enabled for an unprecedented view on total water storage (TWS) variability. However, the relatively short record length, irregular time steps and multiple data gaps since 2011 still represent important limitations to a wider use of this dataset within the hydrological and climatological community especially for applications such as model evaluation or assimilation of GRACE in land surface models. To address this issue, we make use of the available GRACE record (2002-2015) to infer local statistical relationships between detrended monthly TWS anomalies and the main controlling atmospheric drivers (e.g. daily precipitation and temperature) at 1 degree resolution (Humphrey et al., in revision). Long-term and homogeneous monthly time series of detrended anomalies in total water storage are then reconstructed for the period 1985-2015. The quality of this reconstruction is evaluated in two different ways. First we perform a cross-validation experiment to assess the performance and robustness of the statistical model. Second we compare with independent basin-scale estimates of TWS anomalies derived by means of combined atmospheric and terrestrial water-balance using atmospheric water vapor flux convergence and change in atmospheric water vapor content (Mueller et al. 2011). The reconstructed time series are shown to provide robust data-driven estimates of global variations in water storage over large regions of the world. Example applications are provided for illustration, including an analysis of some selected major drought events which occurred before the GRACE era. References Humphrey V, Gudmundsson L, Seneviratne SI (in revision) Assessing global water storage variability from GRACE: trends, seasonal cycle, sub-seasonal anomalies and extremes. Surv Geophys Mueller B, Hirschi M, Seneviratne SI (2011) New diagnostic estimates of variations in terrestrial water storage

  6. A subsurface runoff parameterization with water storage and recharge based on the Boussinesq-Storage Equation for a Land Surface Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Xiangjun; XIE; Zhenghui; ZHANG; Shenglei

    2006-01-01

    Subsurface runoff in a land surface model is usually parameterized as a single-valued function of total storage in a basin aquifer reservoir. This kind of parameterization is often single-valued function of storage-discharge under a steady or "quasi-steady" state, which cannot represent the influence of aquifer recharge on subsurface runoff generation. In this paper, a new subsurface runoff parameterization with water storage and recharge based on the Boussinesq-storage equation is developed. This model is validated by a subsurface flow separation algorithm for an example river basin, which shows that the new model can simulate the subsurface flow reasonably.

  7. Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might

  8. Development of a thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, A.J.T.M.; Oosterhaven, R.; Ouden, C. den

    1979-01-01

    A thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials has been studied as a component of a solar space heating system. The aim of this project is to decrease the storage volume in comparison with a rock-bed storage system by increasing the stored energy density.

  9. Karstic water storage response to the recent droughts in Southwest China estimated from satellite gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chaolong; Luo, Zhicai

    2015-12-01

    The water resources crisis is intensifying in Southwest China (SWC), which includes the world's largest continuous coverage of karst landforms, due to recent severe drought events. However, because of the special properties of karstic water system, such as strong heterogeneity, monitoring the variation of karstic water resources at large scales remains still difficult. Satellite gravimetry has emerged as an effective tool for investigating the global and regional water cycles. In this study, we used GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data from January 2003 to January 2013 to investigate karstic water storage variability over the karst region of SWC. We assessed the impacts of the recent severe droughts on karst water resources, including two heavy droughts in September 2010 to May 2010 and August 2011 to January 2012. Results show a slightly water increase tend during the studied period, but these two severe droughts have resulted in significant water depletion in the studied karst region. The latter drought during 2011 and 2012 caused more water deficits than that of the drought in 2010. Strong correlation between the variations of GRACE-based total water storage and precipitation suggests that climate change is the main driving force for the significant water absent over the studied karst region. As the world's largest continuous coverage karst aquifer, the karst region of SWC offers an example of GRACE applications to a karst system incisively and will benefit for water management from a long-term perspective in karst systems throughout the world.

  10. Improving methane storage on wet activated carbons at various amounts of water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD JABER DARABI MAHBOUB; ALI AHMADPOUR; HAMED RASHIDI

    2012-01-01

    Different mesoporous activated carbons were prepared by both chemical and physical activation processes and were examined for methane uptake in the presence of water.Methane isotherms were obtained at wet condition by wetting samples with water at mass ratio of water/carbon (R) close to 1.0.To compare,the amount of methane storage were also measured at dry situation.The maximum amount of methane stored was attained as 237 WV at R=1.0 by hydrate formation at the methane critical pressure.In the next step,mass ratios of water/carbon were changed to investigate various amount of water for methane storage enhancement.Two other values of mass ratio of water/carbon ( R =0.8 and 1.4 ) were selected and methane isotherms were obtained at the same conditions.Maximum values of 210 and 248 V/V were reached for methane storage,respectively.It was also observed that,in the pressure range lower than hydrate pressure,by increasing water ratio the hydrate formation pressure was decreased and methane uptake was much less than that of dry condition due to pore filling by water.

  11. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

  12. Two strategies by epiphytic orchids for maintaining water balance: thick cuticles in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Sun, Mei; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are an important component of tropical and subtropical flora, and serve vital ecological functions in forest hydrology and nutrient fluxes. However, they often encounter water deficits because there is no direct contact between their roots and the soil. The strategies employed by epiphytes for maintaining water balance in relatively water-limited habitats are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the anatomical traits, water loss rates, and physiology of leaves and pseudobulbs of four Dendrobium species with different pseudobulb morphologies to understand the roles of leaf and pseudobulb in maintaining water balance of epiphytic orchids. Our results showed that two species (D. chrysotoxum and D. officinale), with lower rates of water loss, have thicker leaves and upper cuticles, but lower epidermal thickness and leaf dry mass per area. In contrast, the other two species (D. chrysanthum and D. crystallinum) with thinner cuticles and higher rates of water loss, have less tissue density and greater saturated water contents in their pseudobulbs. Therefore, our results indicate that these latter two species may resist drought by storing water in the pseudobulbs to compensate for their thin cuticles and rapid water loss through the leaves. Under the same laboratory conditions, excised pseudobulbs with attached leaves had lower rates of water loss when compared with samples comprising only excised leaves. This implies that epiphytic orchids utilize two different strategies for sustaining water balance: thick cuticles to conserve water in leaves and water storage in pseudobulbs. Our results also show that Dendrobium species with thin cuticles tend to have pseudobulbs with high water storage capacity that compensates for their faster rates of water loss. These outcomes contribute to our understanding of the adaptive water-use strategies in Dendrobium species, which is beneficial for the conservation and cultivation of epiphytic orchids.

  13. Evaluation of Water Storage Change of Inland Cryosphere in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission provides measurements of Earth’s static and time-variable gravity fields with monthly resolution. In this study, changes of water storage in northwestern China were determined by GRACE monthly gravity field data obtained from 2003 to 2010. Comparisons of water storage change (WSC simulated by a four-dimensional assimilation model (Noah and observed by GRACE revealed similar patterns of change and a correlation coefficient of 0.71 (P<0.05. Trend analysis indicated significant changes in the spatiotemporal variation of WSC in northwestern China during the 8-year study period, which were stronger in the east than in the west and more pronounced in the south than in the north. The most pronounced increase in water storage occurred in Gansu and Qinghai provinces, but, overall, water storage increased by 0.61 mm/a over northwestern China during the study period. Clear seasonal variations of WSC and precipitation were found, because glacial meltwater and precipitation are the main sources of water in the hydrosphere; meanwhile, the distributions of glaciers and permafrost also affect the spatial distribution of WSC.

  14. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  15. Sample container and storage for paclobutrazol monitoring in irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclobutrazol is a plant growth retardant commonly used on greenhouse crops. Residues from paclobutrazol applications can accumulate in recirculated irrigation water. Given that paclobutrazol has a long half-life and potential biological activity in parts per billion concentrations, it would be de...

  16. Nutrient storage rates in a national marsh receiving waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Nyman

    2000-01-01

    Artificial wetlands are commonly used to improve water quality in rivers and the coastal zone. In most wetlands associated with rivers, denitrification is probably the primary process that reduces nutrient loading. Where rivers meet oceans, however, significant amounts of nutrients might be permanently buried in wetlands because of global sea-level rise and regional...

  17. A national perspective on paleoclimate streamflow and water storage infrastructure in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Sun, Xun; Cook, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale water storage infrastructure in the Conterminous United States (CONUS) provides a means of regulating the temporal variability in water supply with storage capacities ranging from seasonal storage in the wetter east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. Regional differences in water availability across the CONUS provides opportunities for optimizing water dependent economic activities, such as food and energy production, through storage and transportation. However, the ability to sufficiently regulate water supplies into the future is compromised by inadequate monitoring of non-federally-owned dams that make up around 97% of all dams. Furthermore, many of these dams are reaching or have exceeded their economic design life. Understanding the role of dams in the current and future landscape of water requirements in the CONUS is needed to prioritize dam safety remediation or identify where redundant dams may be removed. A national water assessment and planning process is needed for addressing water requirements, accounting for regional differences in water supply and demand, and the role of dams in such a landscape. Most dams in the CONUS were designed without knowledge of devastating floods and prolonged droughts detected in multi-centennial paleoclimate records, consideration of projected climate change, nor consideration of optimal operation across large-scale regions. As a step towards informing water supply across the CONUS we present a paleoclimate reconstruction of annual streamflow across the CONUS over the past 555 years using a spatially and temporally complete paleoclimate record of summer drought across the CONUS targeting a set of US Geological Survey streamflow sites. The spatial and temporal structures of national streamflow variability are analyzed using hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and wavelet analyses. The reconstructions show signals of contemporary droughts such as the Dust Bowl (1930s

  18. Waste storage in the vadose zone affected by water vapor condensation and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J.W.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1990-08-01

    One of the major concerns associated with waste storage in the vadose zone is that toxic materials may somehow be leached and transported by advecting water down to the water table and reach the accessible environment through either a well or discharge to a river. Consequently, care is taken to provide barriers over and around the storage sites to reduce contact between infiltrating water and the buried waste form. In some cases, it is important to consider the intrusion of water vapor as well as water in the liquid phase. Water vapor diffuses through porous material along vapor pressure gradients. A slightly low temperature, or the presence of water-soluble components in the waste, favors water condensation resulting in leaching of the waste form and advection of water-soluble components to the water table. A simple analysis is presented that allows one to estimate the rate of vapor condensation as a function of waste composition and backfill materials. An example using a waste form surrounded by concrete and gravel layers is presented. The use of thermal gradients to offset condensation effects of water-soluble components in the waste form is discussed. Thermal gradients may be controlled by design factors that alter the atmospheric energy exchange across the soil surface or that interrupt the geothermal heat field. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  20. Methyl modified MOF-5: a water stable hydrogen storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Grzech, Anna; Mulder, Fokko M; Dingemans, Theo J

    2011-05-14

    Water stable methyl modified MOF-5s have been synthesized via a solvothermal route. Methyl- and 2,5-dimethyl-modified MOF-5s show the same topology and hydrogen uptake capability as that of MOF-5. The H(2) uptake capacity of MOF-5, however, drops rapidly when exposed to the ambient air, whereas the H(2) uptake capacities of the methyl modified MOF-5s remain stable for 4 days. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  1. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  2. Monitoring water storage variations with a superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas; Mikolaj, Michal; Reich, Marvin; Schröder, Stephan; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Water storage dynamics are notoriously difficult to monitor in a comprehensive way beyond the point scale. Superconducting gravimeters (SG) measure temporal variations of the Earth's acceleration of gravity with very high precision and temporal resolution. They have been shown to be sensitive to mass variations induced by hydrological processes in their surroundings, typically within a radius of few 100 meters around the instrument. Thus, in turn, SGs are unique instruments for monitoring water storage variations in the landscape in an integrative way, accounting for soil moisture, vadose zone and groundwater storage, snow, and surface water bodies if existent. Nevertheless, hydrological applications of SGs so far have usually been hindered by the instruments being located in observatory buildings. This infrastructure disturbs the local hydrology and causes many uncertainties due to the often poorly known geometry of the construction, non-natural flow paths of water, and unknown water storage variations below and/or on top of the infrastructure. By deploying the SG in a small enclosure, these disturbances and unknowns are minimized. We report on the first experiences with exposing a SG of the latest generation (iGrav) in a small housing of less than 1 m2 footprint to temperate hydro-meteorological conditions. The system has been set up on a grassland site at the Geodetic Observatory in Wettzell, Bavarian Forest, Germany, in early 2015. We present the technical layout and challenges in running the gravimeter system. Additionally, we report on the quality of data acquired so far and present comparisons to in-situ soil moisture monitoring with TDR and TOMST sensors, a lysimeter, and groundwater observations, and two SGs located in nearby observatory buildings. We discuss the value of SG observations for estimating water storage variations, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge beyond the point scale.

  3. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  4. Energetic Performances Study of an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Helal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although that the interest attributed to the solar energy remains relatively limited, we attend today to the conception of several installations using the sun as energy source among which we quote the solar water heater. Approach: A study of energetic performances was taken on an integrated collector/storage solar water heater made in the National School of Engineers of Gabes. This water heater is equipped with a concentration system containing a reflector composed of three parabolic branches favorating a better absorption of solar radiance. Results: The comparison between this system and two other systems of solar water heater, composed of a storage ball with asymmetrical CPC and symmetrical CPC, showed important energetic performances despite the simplicity and the little cost of the collector. Conclusion: Several improvements are necessary to increase the direct flow whilst decrease the thermal losses and therefore make the system simpler to be installed on the building roof.

  5. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section 1250.83 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities...

  6. Evaluation of electrical tomography to estimate soil water storage capacity in forested Karstic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingge; Chanzy, André

    2010-05-01

    Given that the large physical heterogeneous in forested karstic areas, water storage capacity estimation is always a difficulty. This study aims to evaluate the electrical resistivity tomography for the water storage capacity estimation in forested karstic areas. The electric tomography was implemented to estimate the stone volumic content and the bedrock depth determination. These caracteristics are combined to the water storage capacity of the fine earth made by the pressure chamber method. To estimate stone content we assumed that soil is a biphasic media with stones embedded in the fine earth media. We computed the effective resistivity with the Bussian (1983) law, which was evaluated against numerical results. It has been shown that the major factors were the electric resistivity of each phase, whereas the size of the stone had a lower impact. Based on independent measurements, we found an accuracy of about 20%. The bedrock apparition can be detected by establishing a threshold. This threshold is much lower than the resitivity made on rock sample due to cracks filled by conductive media. An estimation of the water storage capacity was then made by combining fine earth hydraulic characteristics, estimation of stone content and bedrock depth. An error assessment has shown that the spatial variability is larger than the estimation error. Bussian, A.E., 1983. Electrical conductance in a Porous-medium, Geophysics, 48(9): 1258-1268.

  7. Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; Van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T.S.; Rivera, A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with t

  8. Impact of water abstraction on storage and breakdown of coarse organic matter in mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroita, Maite; Aristi, Ibon; Díez, Joserra; Martinez, Miren; Oyarzun, Gorka; Elosegi, Arturo

    2015-01-15

    Water abstraction is a prevalent impact in streams and rivers, which is likely to increase in the near future. Because abstraction reduces discharge, the dimensions of the wetted channel and water depth and velocity, it can have strong influence on stream ecosystem functioning. Although the impacts of large dams on stream and river ecosystems are pretty well known, the effects of diversion schemes associated with low dams are still poorly understood. Furthermore, the remote location of many diversion schemes and the lack of collaboration by power companies often make it difficult to know the volume of water diverted and its environmental consequences. To assess the impact of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of coarse particulate organic matter in streams we compared reaches upstream and downstream from five low dams that divert water to hydropower plants in mountain streams in N Spain. We measured the storage of organic matter and the breakdown of alder leaves in winter and spring, and calculated the results at the patch (i.e., per square meter of bed) and at the reach scale (i.e., per lineal meter of channel). Water diversion significantly reduced discharge, and the width and depth of the wetted channel, but did not affect water quality. Diversion significantly reduced the storage and breakdown of organic matter in winter but not in spring. The number of shredders colonizing litter bags was also significantly reduced. The results point to an important effect of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of organic matter in streams at least in some periods, which could affect downstream reaches, global carbon fluxes, and associated ecosystem services.

  9. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  10. GPS as an independent measurement to estimate terrestrial water storage variations in Washington and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuning; Argus, Donald F.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) measures elastic ground loading deformation in response to hydrological mass variations on or near Earth's surface. We present a time series of change in terrestrial water storage as a function of position in Washington and Oregon estimated using GPS measurements of vertical displacement of Earth's surface. The distribution of water variation inferred from GPS is highly correlated with physiographic provinces: the seasonal water is mostly located in the mountain areas, such as the Cascade Range and Olympic Mountains, and is much smaller in the basin and valley areas of the Columbia Basin and Harney Basin. GPS is proven to be an independent measurement to distinguish between hydrological models. The drought period of 2008-2010 (maximum in 2010) and the recovery period of 2011-2012 in the Cascade Range are well recovered with GPS-determined time-variable monthly water mass series. The GPS-inferred water storage variation in the Cascade Range is consistent with that derived from JPL's GRACE monthly mass grid solutions. The percentage of RMS reduction is ~62% when we subtract GRACE water series from GPS-derived results. GPS-determined water storage variations can fill gaps in the current GRACE mission, also in the transition period from the current GRACE to the future GRACE Follow-on missions. We demonstrate that the GPS-inferred water storage variations can determine and verify local scaling factors for GRACE measurements; in the Cascade Range, the RMS reduction between GRACE series scaled by GPS and scaled by the hydrological model-based GRACE Tellus gain factors is up to 90.5%.

  11. Effect of water storage on the bonding effectiveness of 6 adhesives to Class I cavity dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Shirai, Kenichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Lambrechts, Paul; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Shintani, Hideaki; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive-dentin interfaces degrade with time. This study determined the effect water storage may have on the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to occlusal Class I cavity-bottom dentin. Six adhesives, all representing contemporary classes of adhesives, were applied: a 3-step (OptiBond FL, Kerr) and 2-step (Scotchbond 1*, 3M ESPE) etch-and-rinse adhesive, a 2-step (Clearfil SE, Kuraray) and 1-step (Adper prompt, 3M ESPE) self-etch adhesive and a 2-step (FujiBond LC, GC) and 1-step (Reactmer, Shofu) resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by microtensile bond strength testing (MTBS) and electron microscopy (Feg-SEM and TEM). The MTBS was determined after 1 day and 1 year water storage of the entire restored cavity (indirect exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water) and prepared microTBS-beams (direct exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water). The hypotheses tested were: (1) resin-dentin bonds formed at the bottom of Class I cavities resist 1-year water storage and (2) an adjacent composite-enamel bond protects the composite-dentin bond against degradation. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis statistically analyzed the microTBSs. The first hypothesis was rejected, as only the microTBS of OptiBond FL and Clearfil SE did not significantly decrease after 1-year direct and/or indirect water storage. The second hypothesis was corroborated, as the bonding effectiveness of most simplified adhesives (Scotchbond 1, Adper Prompt, FujiBond LC and Reactmer) approached 0 (because of the frequent pre-testing failures) after 1-year direct water exposure. The second hypothesis concluded that the 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive must still be regarded the "gold standard." Though microTBS decreased significantly, Clearfil SE, as a 2-step self-etch adhesive, was the only simplified adhesive to perform reliably after 1-year direct water exposure.

  12. Groundwater, Soil Moisture, Snow Water Equivalent, and River Water in the Seasonal Variation of Total Terrestrial Water Storage in Major River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Yoshimura, K.; Kim, H.; Shen, Y.; Thanh, N. D.; Seto, S.; Kanae, S.

    2006-12-01

    Both the combined atmospheric-river basin water balance and the remote sensing by GRACE can estimate the variation of the total terrestrial water storage which consist the changes in ground water, soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and water in rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. What are the major components in the change of the total terrestrial water storage? One hand, the seasonal variation of the total water storage in major continental-scale river basins are estimated by the atmospheric-river basin water balance (AWB) method The global distribution of water vapor flux convergence was estimated using the ECMWF global analysis data for the period from 1986 through 1995. The 10 year mean value of the atmospheric water vapor convergence was adjusted to match with the climatological mean value of river runoff for 1961-1990. Then the seasonal changes of the total terrestrial water storage were estimated by AWB method combining the atmospheric water vapor convergence for major river basins and the runoff from the area. On the other hand, the components in the change of the total terrestrial water storage were investigated using the multi-model products forced by observed surface meteorology. Under the Global Land/Atmosphere Study (GLASS), the Phase 2 of the Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP-2) produced the first global (excluding Antarctica) 1x1 degree Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) of land-surface variables and fluxes for the 10-year period of 1986 1995 at the daily time scale. Thirteen land-surface models (LSMs) were driven by the best possible forcing data of the atmospheric conditions, such as precipitation, downward radiation, wind speed, air humidity and air temperature with temporal resolution of 3-hourly or higher. Water balance in major continental scale river basins were post-processed and the seasonal changes in ground water, soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and the water in river channel were analyzed using the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) and a

  13. Downhole water flow controller for aquifer storage recovery wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, R.D.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a downhole flow control device for continuous automatic control of water flowing into or out of wells, aquifers and the like through pipe columns. The upper end of the first tubular member is mounted to the pipe column so as to be in fluid communication therewith. The lower end of the first tubular member is substantially closed. A second tubular member is mounted concentrically within and proximate to the first tubular member and has an open upper end and side walls and a substantially closed lower end. First openings are spaced in vertical relationship to the second openings. Third openings are through the second tubular member. The second tubular member is vertically movable with respect to the first tubular member so as to selectively align the third openings with either of the first and second openings. Biasing means are located between the lower ends of the first and second tubular members for normally urging the second tubular member vertically upward with respect to the first tubular member. The biasing means are yieldable upon the introduction of water into the pump column to permit the second tubular member to be vertically displaced relative to the first tubular member to thereby close the third openings with respect to the first or second openings. The third openings align with one of the first and second openings dependent upon the direction of fluid flow within the pipe column.

  14. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (µTS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. Material and Methods 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For µTS test, 20 dumbbell shaped specimens were also prepared for each adhesive in two subgroups of 1 day and 28 days water storage. Results MC was significantly lower for SCU and ABU than SB2 (P adhesives, the MC was significantly lower at 28 days compared to that at 1 day (P adhesives (P adhesives were both material and time dependent when stored in water; both universal adhesives showed less water sorption and higher values of µTS than the control group. Key words:Absorption, dental adhesives, dentin-bonding agents, solubility, tensile strength. PMID:28149468

  15. Heat transfer enhancement in water when used as PCM in thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, L.F. [Universitat de Lleida (Spain). Escola Universitaria Politecnica; Mehling, H.; Hiebler, S.; Ziegler, F. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Garching (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Efficient and reliable storage systems for thermal energy are an important requirement in many applications where heat demand and supply or availability do not coincide. Heat and cold stores can basically be divided in two groups. In sensible heat stores the temperature of the storage material is increased significantly. Latent heat stores, on the contrary, use a storage material that undergoes a phase change (PCM) and a small temperature rise is sufficient to store heat or cold. The major advantages of the phase change stores are their large heat storage capacity and their isothermal behavior during the charging and discharging process. However, while unloading a latent heat storage, the solid-liquid interface moves away from the heat transfer surface and the heat flux decreases due to the increasing thermal resistance of the growing layer of the molten/solidified medium. This effect can be reduced using techniques to increase heat transfer. In this paper, three methods to enhance the heat transfer in a cold storage working with water/ice as PCM are compared: addition of stainless steel pieces, copper pieces (both have been proposed before) and a new PCM-graphite composite material. The PCM-graphite composite material showed an increase in heat flux bigger than with any of the other techniques. (Author)

  16. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  17. Diagnosing Land Water Storage Variations in Major Indian River Basins using GRACE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Aarti; Syed, Tajdarul H.

    2015-10-01

    Scarcity of freshwater is one of the most critical resource issue the world is facing today. Due to its finite nature, renewable freshwater reserves are under relentless pressure due to population growth, economic development and rapid industrialization. Assessment of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS), as an unified measure of freshwater reserve, is vital to understand hydrologic and climatic processes controlling its availability. In this study, TWS variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are analyzed in conjuction with multi-platform hydrologic observations for the period of 2003-2012. Here, the primary objective is to quantify and attribute the observed short-term variability of TWS and groundwater storage in the largest river basins of India (Ganga, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi). Alongside commendable agreement between TWS variations obtained from GRACE and water balance computation, results highlight some of the important deficiencies between the two. While monthly changes in TWS are highly correlated with precipitation, monthly TWS anomalies reveal a 1-2 month lag in their concurrence. Analysis of groundwater storage estimates demonstrate significant decline in the Ganga basin (- 1.28 ± 0.20 mm/month) but practically no change in the Mahanadi basin. On the contrary, groundwater storage in Godavari and Krishna basins reveal notable increase at the rate of 0.74 ± 0.21 mm/month and 0.97 ± 0.21 mm/month respectively. Subsequently, in order to assess the influence of quasi-periodic, planetary scale, variations in the Earth's climate system, groundwater storage anomalies are evaluated with reference to ENSO variability. Results manifest that in all the basins, with the exception of Ganga, groundwater storage is dominantly influenced by ENSO, with large decrease (increase) during El Niño (La Niña) events. In the Ganga basin, groundwater storage variations refer to possible amalgamation of human intervention and natural climate

  18. An assessment of aquifer storage recovery using ground water flow models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Christopher S; Anderson, Mary P

    2006-01-01

    Owing to increased demands on ground water accompanied by increased drawdowns, technologies that use recharge options, such as aquifer storage recovery (ASR), are being used to optimize available water resources and reduce adverse effects of pumping. In this paper, three representative ground water flow models were created to assess the impact of hydrogeologic and operational parameters/factors on recovery efficiency of ASR systems. Flow/particle tracking and solute transport models were used to track the movement of water during injection, storage, and recovery. Results from particle tracking models consistently produced higher recovery efficiency than the solute transport models for the parameters/properties examined because the particle tracking models neglected mixing of the injected and ambient water. Mixing between injected and ambient water affected recovery efficiency. Results from this study demonstrate the interactions between hydrogeologic and operational parameters on predictions of recovery efficiency. These interactions are best simulated using coupled numerical ground water flow and transport models that include the effects of mixing of injected water and ambient ground water.

  19. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  20. Using Deuterium to trace movement and storage of water in Eucalypt trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Wyczesany, Tomasz; Eamus, Derek; Pfautsch, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of trees to release water from storage compartments into the transpiration stream can mitigate damage to hydraulic functioning. However, the location and magnitude of these 'mobile' water sources still remains a topic of research. We conducted an experiment on two tree species that naturally grow in regions of high (Eucalyptus tereticornis) and low (E. sideroxylon) rates of annual precipitation. Deuterium enriched water (1350 ‰ label strength) was introduced into the transpiration stream of three trees per species for four consecutive days. Then the trees were felled and samples of all woody tissues were collected from different heights and positions of the stem. Water was extracted from all samples and the isotopic composition measured. Our results indicate that vertical water transport was more efficient in E. tereticornis while radial water transport was more pronounced in E. sideroxylon. The latter has a larger relative stem water storage capacity than E. tereticornis. This is probably related to differences in the hydraulic architecture across the two species, with a larger resistance of the xylem to cavitation in E. sideroxylon due to smaller vessel diameters, resulting in the trade-off of slower growth and lower tree height. Generally water in the phloem is a larger source for capacitance than water in the heartwood. Further integrative data analyses will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that allow trees to survive and adapt to drought.

  1. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0–5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  2. Functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes as template for water storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanjib; Taraphder, Srabani

    2016-11-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes, endohedrally functionalized with a protonated/unprotonated carboxylic acid group, are examined as potential templates for water storage using classical molecular dynamics simulation studies. Following a spontaneous entry of water molecules into the core of model functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs), a large fraction of water molecules are found to be trapped inside FCNTs of lengths 50 and 100 Å. Only water molecules near the two open ends of the nanotube are exchanged with the bulk solvent. The residence times of water molecules inside FCNTs are investigated by varying the length of the tube, the length of suspended functional group and the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group. Favorable energetic interactions between the functional group and water, assisted by a substantial gain in rotational entropy, are found to compensate for the entropy loss resulting from restricted translational diffusion of trapped water molecules.

  3. Effects of field storage method on E. coli concentrations measured in storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, Daren; Wagner, Kevin; Martin, Emily; Smith, Doug; Wanjugi, Pauline; Gentry, Terry; Gregory, Lucas; Hendon, Tina

    2016-03-01

    Storm water runoff is increasingly assessed for fecal indicator organisms (e.g., Escherichia coli, E. coli) and its impact on contact recreation. Concurrently, use of autosamplers along with logistic, economic, technical, and personnel barriers is challenging conventional protocols for sample holding times and storage conditions in the field. A common holding time limit for E. coli is 8 h with a 10 °C storage temperature, but several research studies support longer hold time thresholds. The use of autosamplers to collect E. coli water samples has received little field research attention; thus, this study was implemented to compare refrigerated and unrefrigerated autosamplers and evaluate potential E. coli concentration differences due to field storage temperature (storms with holding times ≤24 h) and due to field storage time and temperature (storms >24 h). Data from 85 runoff events on four diverse watersheds showed that field storage times and temperatures had minor effects on mean and median E. coli concentrations. Graphs and error values did, however, indicate a weak tendency for higher concentrations in the refrigerated samplers, but it is unknown to what extent differing die-off and/or regrowth rates, heterogeneity in concentrations within samples, and laboratory analysis uncertainty contributed to the results. The minimal differences in measured E. coli concentrations cast doubt on the need for utilizing the rigid conventional protocols for field holding time and storage temperature. This is not to say that proper quality assurance and quality control is not important but to emphasize the need to consider the balance between data quality and practical constraints related to logistics, funding, travel time, and autosampler use in storm water studies.

  4. On the analysis of well test data influenced by wellbore storage skin and bottom water drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.C.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses procedures to analyze pressure data in partially penetrating wells influenced by storage and skin effects. The effect of a gas cap or a bottom-water aquifer is also documented. Type curves are presented to analyze data influenced by storage, skin, partial penetration, and the influence of a constant pressure boundary. The main advantage of this work is that anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical permeability) and penetration ratio are incorporated in a simple way. Procedures to minimize the problems of obtaining a unique type curve matching are also discussed. 16 refs.

  5. Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

  6. Experimental analysis of distinct design of a batch solar water heater with integrated collector storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Jaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new design of batch solar water heater has been studied. In this system, the collector and storage were installed in one unit. Unlike the conventional design consisting of small diameter water tubes, it has a single large diameter drum which serves the dual purpose of absorber tube and storage tank. In principle it is a compound parabolic collector. The drum is sized to have a storage capacity of 100 liter to serve a family of four persons. The tests were carried out with a single glass cover and two glass covers. The tests were repeated for several days. Performance analysis of the collector has revealed that it has maximum mean daily efficiency with two glass covers as high as 37.2%. The maximum water temperature in the storage tank of 60°C has been achieved for a clear day operation at an average solar beam radiation level of 680 W/m2 and ambient temperature of 32°C. To judge the operating characteristics and to synchronize utility pattern of the collector, the different parameters such as efficiency, mean plate temperature and mass flow rate has been investigated.

  7. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits.

  8. Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Kelsey Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-03

    These are the slides from a presentation at the Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Forum. The following topics are discussed: motivation, Saline Aquifer Storage, Subsurface Flow, Baseline No Brine Production, Ongoing Work, and the accompanying data visualizations.

  9. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  10. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  11. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  12. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  13. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  14. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  15. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  16. Switchgrass storage effects on the recovery of carbohydrates after liquid hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Julie Carrier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grasses that would be used for bioenergy and bioproducts production will need to be stored for various periods of time to ensure a continual feedstock supply to a bioprocessing facility. The effects of storage practices on grass composition and the response of grasses to subsequent bioprocesses such as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis needs to be understood to develop the most efficient storage protocols. This study examined the effect of outdoor storage of round switchgrass bales on composition before and after liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW and enzymatic hydrolysis. This study also examined the effect of washing LHW pretreated biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. It was determined that switchgrass composition after baling was stable. As expected, glucan and lignin contents increased after LHW due to decreases in xylan and galactan. Washing biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis reduced saccharification, especially in samples from the interior of the bale, by at least 5%.

  17. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  18. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  19. Survival of Arcobacter butzleri during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Finazzi, Guido; Marchetti, Giacomo; Zambrini, Angelo V; Rosmini, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) is a fresh stretched cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri during WBMC production and storage under different temperature conditions (5, 10, and 20 °C). Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with one reference strain and two isolates of A. butzleri, and the count was monitored during WBMC production and storage. The bacterial count of A. butzleri decreased during curd ripening (from 7.83 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 4.14 log CFU/g in about 4 h) and a further decrease (>4 log CFU/g) was observed at the end of curd stretching. During storage testing, A. butzleri was never detected by direct plating, whereas it was recovered from 12 of the total 162 WBMC until the end of storage testing by enrichment. The results revealed that A. butzleri is able to survive during WBMC production and storage at different temperature conditions. Consequently, traditional WBMC produced from raw milk could represent a potential source of Arcobacter infection for humans.

  20. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  1. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  2. The benefits of gravimeter observations for modelling water storage changes at the field scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Creutzfeldt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Water storage is the fundamental state variable of hydrological systems. However, comprehensive data on total water storage changes (WSC are practically inaccessible by hydrological measurement techniques at the field or catchment scale, and hydrological models are highly uncertain in representing the storage term due to the lack of adequate validation or calibration data. In this study, we assess the benefit of temporal gravimeter measurements for modelling WSC at the field scale. A simple conceptual hydrological model is calibrated and evaluated against records of a superconducting gravimeter, soil moisture and groundwater time series. The model is validated against independently estimated WSC data. Using gravimeter data as a calibration constraint improves the model results substantially in terms of predictive capability and variation of the behavioural model runs. Thanks to their capacity to integrate over different storage components and a larger area, gravimeters provide generalised information on total WSC that is useful to constrain the overall status of the hydrological system in a model. The general problem of specifying the internal model structure or individual parameter sets can, however, not be solved with gravimeters alone.

  3. Integration of Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery and HACCP for Ensuring Drinking Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. I.; Ji, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of ASTR (Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery) and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is being attempted to ensure drinking water quality in a delta area. ASTR is a water supply system in which surface water is injected into a well for storage and recovered from a different well. During the process natural water treatment is achieved in the aquifer. ASTR has advantages over surface reservoirs in that the water is protected from external contaminants and free from water loss by evaporation. HACCP, originated from the food industry, can efficiently manage hazards and reduce risks when it is introduced to the drinking water production. The study area is the located in the Nakdong River Delta, South Korea. Water quality of this region has been deteriorated due to the increased pollution loads from the upstream cities and industrial complexes. ASTR equipped with HACCP system is suggested as a means to heighten the public trust in drinking water. After the drinking water supply system using ASTR was decomposed into ten processes, principles of HACCP were applied. Hazardous event analysis was conducted for 114 hazardous events and nine major hazardous events were identified based on the likelihood and the severity assessment. Potential risk of chemical hazards, as a function of amounts, travel distance and toxicity, was evaluated and the result shows the relative threat a city poses to the drinking water supply facility. Next, critical control points were determined using decision tree analysis. Critical limits, maximum and/or minimum values to which biological, chemical or physical parameters must be controlled, were established. Other procedures such as monitoring, corrective actions and will be presented.

  4. Critical Zone Soil Properties effects on Soil Water Storage and Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, P. R.; McNamara, J. P.; Seyfried, M. S.; Marks, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H.; Williams, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Soil properties control a wide range of hydrologic processes including recharge to regional aquifers. Soil water must pass through the critical zone to contribute to ground water recharge. Deep percolation (DP) from catchments is considered to be an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. DP is also an important term in water mass balance studies, which attempt to estimate hydrologic states and fluxes in watersheds with fractured or transmissive bedrock. Few studies estimate the magnitude of this water balance term and it is often considered negligible. The objective of this study is to estimate the timing and magnitude of DP in the 0.015 km2 Tree Line experimental catchment (TL) from the 2011 water year. The catchment, which is located within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, Boise, ID, contains thin sandy soil over fractured granitic bedrock. We introduce modeling methods that focus on achieving a high degree of agreement between measured and modeled catchment storage. A distributed physically-based snow energy balance model is loosely coupled to a capacitance-based soil moisture model to estimate soil storage. Measured and calculated soil model parameters, including field capacity, saturated soil moisture content, and plant extraction limits, control the flux of water through the critical zone. Variability in soil storage and soil water fluxes through the critical zone is driven by soil properties. Parameters describing a leaf area index time series are calibrated to minimize the difference between measured and modeled soil dry down in the spring. DP is estimated to be 126 mm from Dec. 13, 2010 to June 30, 2011, which is 18% of the precipitation measured during that time. Rain-on-snow events are estimated to contribute 79 mm, which is 11% of precipitation or 63% of the calculated DP.

  5. Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. A transition to more sustainable water consumption patterns will likely require Jordan’s water authorities to rely more strongly on water demand management in the future. We conduct a case study of the effects of pricing policies, using an agent-based model of household water consumption in Jordan’s capital Amman, in order to analyze the distribution of burdens imposed by demand-side policies across society. Amman’s households face highly intermittent piped water supply, leading them to supplement it with water from storage tanks and informal private tanker operators. Using a detailed data set of the distribution of supply durations across Amman, our model can derive the demand for additional tanker water. We find that integrating these different supply sources into our model causes demand-side policies to have strongly heterogeneous effects across districts and income groups. This highlights the importance of a disaggregated perspective on water policy impacts in order to identify and potentially mitigate excessive burdens.

  6. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  7. Calculation of the temporal gravity variation from spatially variable water storage change in soils and aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leiriao, Silvia; He, Xin; Christiansen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Total water storage change in the subsurface is a key component of the global, regional and local water balances. It is partly responsible for temporal variations of the earth's gravity field in the micro-Gal (1 mu Gal = 10(-8) m s(-2)) range. Measurements of temporal gravity variations can thus...... an accurate 3D gravity effect. The method is implemented in MATLAB and can be used jointly with any hydrological simulation tool. The method is composed of three components: the prism formula, the MacMillan formula and the point-mass approximation. With increasing normalized distance between the storage prism...... and the measurement location the algorithm switches first from the prism equation to the MacMillan formula and finally to the simple point-mass approximation. The method was used to calculate the gravity signal produced by an aquifer pump test. Results are in excellent agreement with the direct numerical integration...

  8. Laboratory Test of a Cylindrical Heat Storage Module with Water and Sodium Acetate Trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Johansen, Jakob Berg;

    2016-01-01

    Cylindrical heat storage modules with internal heat exchangers have been tested in a laboratory. The modules were filled with water and sodium acetate trihydrate with additives. The testing focused on the heat content of the storage material and the heat exchange capacity rate during charge...... of the module. For the tests with the phase change materials, the focus was furthermore on the stability of supercooling and cycling stability. Testing the module with sodium acetate trihydrate and 6.4% extra water showed that phase separation increased and the heat released after solidification of supercooled...... phase change material was reduced over 17 test cycles. The heat released after solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate with thickening agent and graphite was stable over the test cycles. Stable supercooling was obtained in 7 out of 17 test cycles with the module with sodium acetate...

  9. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  10. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, D

    2007-10-30

    The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

  11. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  12. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Food as a limiting factor for Aedes aegypti in water-storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Barrera, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    An understanding of the ecological factors that regulate natural populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can improve control and reduce the incidence of dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in tropical areas. We investigated whether immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers from an urban area were under food limitation. We used starvation resistance (number of days alive without food) as an indicator of the feeding history in third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. Resistance to starvation and other measures of immature success, such as development time, survival, and adult mass, were investigated across a wide range of feeding conditions in the laboratory. Resistance to starvation of third-instar larvae and body mass of adults emerging from pupae collected in water-storage containers in an urban area were compared with the laboratory results. If resistance to starvation and adult mass of field-collected Ae. aegypti corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory, then food limitation could be inferred in field-collected larvae. Results showed that resistance to starvation was well correlated with previous feeding levels and with the other measures of immature success. Both resistance to starvation and adult body mass of field-collected specimens corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory. Therefore, it was concluded that food limitation or competition is likely to be a regulatory factor in water-storage containers in the urban area. It is recommended that any control measure applied to immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers should eliminate all or most of the individuals, otherwise unintended, undesirable results might occur, such as the production of more and larger adults.

  14. Experimental studies on seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    to transfer heat to and from the module have been tested. Further, a solidification start method, based on a strong cooling of a small part of the salt water mixture in the module by boiling CO2 in a small brass tank in good thermal contact to the outer side of the module wall, has been tested. Tests......Laboratory tests of a 230 l seasonal heat storage module with a sodium acetate water mixture have been carried out. The aim of the tests is to elucidate how best to design a seasonal heat storage based on the salt water mixture, which supercools in a stable way. The module can be a part...... of a seasonal heat storage, that will be suitable for solar heating systems which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of Danish low energy buildings. The tested module has approximately the dimensions 2020 mm x 1285 mm x 80 mm. The module material is steel and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Different methods...

  15. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects inCassia excelsa Schrad seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeller H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curvein Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distillad water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000 osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20ºC. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distillad water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20ºC, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5ºC. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5ºC, but were reverted by seed drying.

  16. Monitoring and modeling of water storage in karstic area (Larzac, France) with a continuous supraconducting gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Fores; Cédric, Champollion; Nicolas, Lemoigne; Jean, Chéry

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the groundwater storage and transfer in karstic area is crucial for water resources management and protection. As the karst hydro-geological properties are highly heterogeneous and scale dependent, geophysical observations such as time dependant gravity could be helpful to fill the gap between local (based on boreholes, moisture sensors, …) and global (based on chemistry, river flow, …) studies. Since more than 2 years, the iGrav #002 supraconducting gravimeter is continuously operating in the French GEK observatory(Géodésie de l'Environnement Karstique, OSU OREME, SNO H+) in the Larzac karstic plateau (south of France). The observatory is surrounding more than 250m karstified dolomite, with an unsaturated zone of ~150m thickness. First, the evaluation of the iGrav data (calibration, steps and drift) will be presented. Then a careful analysis of the global, topographic and building effects will be done to evaluate the local water storage only. The gravity data will be integrated with the water level data in nearby boreholes and petrophysical data from core samples. Finally, simple hydrological models will be presented to help the interpretation on the karst groundwater storage and transfer and to merge the whole dataset.

  17. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-07

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

  18. Water Storage Changes over the Tibetan Plateau Revealed by GRACE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyun; Mu, Dapeng; Liu, Xin; Yan, Haoming; Sun, Zhongchang; Guo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    We use GRACE gravity data released by the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the Groupe de Recherches en Geodesie Spatiale (GRGS) to detect the water storage changes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A combined filter strategy is put forward to process CSR RL05 data to remove the effect of striping errors. After the correction for GRACE by GLDAS and ICE-5G, we find that TP has been overall experiencing the water storage increase during 2003-2012. During the same time, the glacier over the Himalayas was sharply retreating. Interms of linear trends, CSR's results derived by the combined filter are close to GRGS RL03 with the Gaussian filter of 300-km window. The water storage increasing rates determined from CSR's RL05 products in the interior TP, Karakoram Mountain, Qaidam Basin, Hengduan Mountain, and middle Himalayas are 9.7, 6.2, 9.1,-18.6, and-20.2 mm/yr, respectively. These rates from GRGS's RL03 products are 8.6, 5.8, 10.5,-19.3 and-21.4 mm/yr, respectively.

  19. Continental water storage inferred from 3-D GPS coordinates in Danube Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, T. M.; Wang, L.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Tourian, M. J.; Chen, Q.; Sneeuw, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    GPS coordinates time series contain viable information about continental water storage (CWS) at global and regional scale. The permanent GPS network of GPS stations around the Earth recorded more than 15 years of data, which comprise the elastic response of the bed rock movements induced by mass loading. The inversion of the observed displacements, yields mass variations which can be interpreted as CWS under the condition that no other mass loading is interfering. GPS-derived CWS offers complimentary information to the widely used CWS determination by GRACE but is also able to mitigate a possible loss of data in case the GRACE mission ends before the launch of the GRACE Follow-On mission. GPS also allows increasing the temporal resolution (weekly from GPS versus monthly from GRACE) and the spatial resolution (especially in the regions with dense GPS networks). Here, we determine the weekly mass variations from GPS 3-D coordinates by using mass-loading Green's function in six Danube sub-basins. The results are validated against GRACE and hydro-meteorological models. We also demonstrate the contribution of GPS horizontals for regional water storage and provide insights into the benefits and limitations of 3-D GPS inversions for regional water storage.

  20. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. A major risk factor, potentially jeopardizing the safety of the water supply, is the presense of microorganisms. Historically, the challenge of controlling microbial proliferation has been addressed through the maintenance of residual biocide levels. While chemical biocides are effective, their use requires carefeul consideration towards materials selection for the water storage containers, as surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are passivated stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system, ionic silver, will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium alloy, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium alloys, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose

  1. Effect of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steak quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Miraglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A, 3 g/L (B, and water only as a control (CTR, packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system, phenolic composition, α- tocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙ assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS. A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere.

  2. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...... in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given....

  3. Experimental comparison of alternative convection suppression arrangements for concentrating integral collector storage solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; McGarrigle, P.; Eames, P.C. [Ulster Univ., School of the Built Environment, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Norton, B. [Dublin Inst. of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-02-01

    An experimental investigation of an inverted absorber integrated collector storage solar water heater mounted in the tertiary cavity of a compound parabolic concentrator with a secondary cylindrical reflector has been performed under simulated solar conditions. The solar water heaters performance was determined with the aperture parallel to the simulator for a range of transparent baffles positioned at different locations within the collector cavity. Results indicate that glass baffles located at the upper portion of the exit aperture of the CPC can reduce thermal losses through convection suppression without significantly increasing optical losses. (Author)

  4. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  5. Eutrophication investigation and assessment of the Daning River after water storage of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Chenghua; XING Zhiguo; ZHAO Wenqian; WANG Derui; DENG Chunguang; LI Yongjian; XING Mei

    2005-01-01

    The Daning River is a very important tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. It is also a famous scenic spot. Anomalies appeared after water storage of the reservoir in June, 2003. In September, 2003, eutrophication monitoring in the 135-m backwater reach of the Daning River was conducted and the data were simply analyzed. The assessment result is that water body in the segment from Shuanglong to Longmen was mesotrophic or eutrophic. At the same time, the causes of its nutritional change were discussed, and counter-measures have been proposed.

  6. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  7. Charging System Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Water Wave Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yanyan; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Limin; Chen, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhenliang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-24

    Ocean waves are one of the most promising renewable energy sources for large-scope applications due to the abundant water resources on the earth. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology could provide a new strategy for water wave energy harvesting. In this work, we investigated the charging characteristics of utilizing a wavy-structured TENG to charge a capacitor under direct water wave impact and under enclosed ball collision, by combination of theoretical calculations and experimental studies. The analytical equations of the charging characteristics were theoretically derived for the two cases, and they were calculated for various load capacitances, cycle numbers, and structural parameters such as compression deformation depth and ball size or mass. Under the direct water wave impact, the stored energy and maximum energy storage efficiency were found to be controlled by deformation depth, while the stored energy and maximum efficiency can be optimized by the ball size under the enclosed ball collision. Finally, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide strategies for improving the charging performance of TENGs toward effective water wave energy harvesting and storage.

  8. Color changes of dental resin composites before and after polymerization and storage in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelık, Esra Uzer; Aladağ, Akin; Türkün, L Şebnem; Yilmaz, Gökhan

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the A2 shades of various types and brands of resin composites to determine if any color differences occurred before and after polymerization and after 1 month of storage in water and (2) examine the correlation among the color changes and changes in Commission internationale de l'éclairage L*, a*, and b* values after polymerization and after 1 month of storage in water. One submicron-hybrid (Spectrum TPH3, DENTSPLY DeTrey, Milford, DE, USA), one nano-filled (Filtek Supreme XT, 3 M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), three micro-hybrid (Filtek Z250, 3 M ESPE; Esthet X, DENTSPLY DeTrey; and Gradia Direct, GC, Tokyo, Japan), and five nano-hybrid (Ceram X, DENTSPLY DeTrey; Clearfil Majesty Esthetics, Kuraray, Osaka, Japan; Premise, Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA, USA; Tetric Evo Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein and Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent) light-curing resin composites were tested. The specimens (N = 10 for each composite) were prepared as discs, 12 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness, using round molds. The measurements were performed "before polymerization,"after polymerization," and "after 1 month of storage in water" using a contact type dental spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade, Vident, Brea, CA, USA). The range of ΔE* values after polymerization (ΔE*1) and storage in water (ΔE*2) were 4.59 to 14.13 and 1.26 to 6.29, respectively. Nested analysis of variance and post hoc tests revealed that the type of resin composites significantly affected Δa*1, Δa*2, Δb*1, Δb*2, ΔE*2-values, whereas the brand of resin composites affected the changes in all color parameters (p compositions and fillers of the contemporary composites, color changes after polymerization were perceptible in all resin composites. However, color changes after storage in water were in the acceptable ranges for all resin composites except Clearfil Majesty Esthetic and Gradia Direct. In spite of many improvements in chemical compositions

  9. Monitoring water storage variations in the vadose zone with gravimeters - quantifying the influence of observatory buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Marvin; Güntner, Andreas; Mikolaj, Michal; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Time-lapse ground-based measurements of gravity have been shown to be sensitive to water storage variations in the surroundings of the gravimeter. They thus have the potential to serve as an integrative observation of storage changes in the vadose zone. However, in almost all cases of continuous gravity measurements, the gravimeter is located within a building which seals the soil beneath it from natural hydrological processes like infiltration and evapotranspiration. As water storage changes in close vicinity of the gravimeter have the strongest influence on the measured signal, it is important to understand the hydrology in the unsaturated soil zone just beneath the impervious building. For this reason, TDR soil moisture sensors were installed in several vertical profiles up to a depth of 2 m underneath the planned new gravimeter building at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell (southeast Germany). In this study, we assess the influence of the observatory building on infiltration and subsurface flow patterns and thus the damping effect on gravimeter data in a two-way approach. Firstly, soil moisture time series of sensors outside of the building area are correlated with corresponding sensors of the same depth beneath the building. The resulting correlation coefficients, time lags and signal to noise relationships are used to find out how and where infiltrating water moves laterally beneath the building and towards its centre. Secondly, a physically based hydrological model (HYDRUS) with high discretization in space and time is set up for the 20 by 20 m area around and beneath the gravimeter building. The simulated spatial distribution of soil moisture in combination with the observed point data help to identify where and to what extent water storage changes and thus mass transport occurs beneath the building and how much this differs to the dynamics of the surroundings. This allows to define the umbrella space, i.e., the volume of the vadose zone where no mass

  10. Potential effects of landscape change on water supplies in the presence of reservoir storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Hamel, Perrine; Dennedy-Frank, P. James

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a set of methods to evaluate the potential effects of landscape changes on water supplies. Potential impacts are a function of the seasonality of precipitation, losses of water to evapotranspiration and deep recharge, the flow-regulating ability of watersheds, and the availability of reservoir storage. For a given reservoir capacity, simple reservoir simulations with daily precipitation and streamflow enable the determination of the maximum steady supply of water for both the existing watershed and a hypothetical counter-factual that has neither flow-regulating benefits nor any losses. These two supply values, representing land use end-members, create an envelope that defines the water-supply service and bounds the effect of landscape change on water supply. These bounds can be used to discriminate between water supplies that may be vulnerable to landscape change and those that are unlikely to be affected. Two indices of the water-supply service exhibit substantial variability across 593 watersheds in the continental United States. Rcross, the reservoir capacity at which landscape change is unlikely to have any detrimental effect on water supply has an interquartile range of 0.14-4% of mean-annual-streamflow. Steep, forested watersheds with seasonal climates tend to have greater service values, and the indices of water-supply service are positively correlated with runoff ratios during the months with lowest flows.

  11. Measuring gravity change caused by water storage variations: Performance assessment under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Lund, Sanne; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface water content is an important state variable in hydrological systems. Established methods to measure subsurface water content have a small support scale which causes scaling problems in many applications. Time-lapse relative gravimetry can give an integrated measure of soil water storage...... a sensitivity of 1μGal, corresponding to a layer of 0.024 m of water in an infinitely extended horizontal sheet. For gravity surveys using relative gravity meters, the precision is highly dependent on the methods used to operate the gravimeter in the field. Systematic errors, which are difficult to detect, can...... changes over tens to hundreds of cubic meters. The use of time-lapse gravimetry in hydrology has until recent years been limited by the large efforts required to obtain precise and accurate gravity data at the 1μGal (10−8ms−2) scale. A typical modern relative gravimeter, the Scintrex CG-5, has...

  12. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  13. Modeling the effect of water activity and storage temperature on chemical stability of coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2007-08-08

    This work was addressed to study the chemical stability of coffee brew derivatives as a function of water activity (aw) and storage temperature. To this purpose, coffee brew was freeze-dried, equilibrated at increasing aw values, and stored for up to 10 months at different temperatures from -30 to 60 degrees C. The chemical stability of the samples was assessed by measuring H3O+ formation during storage. Independently of storage temperature, the rate of H3O+ formation was considerably low only when aw was reduced below 0.5 (94% w/w). Beyond this critical boundary, the rate increased, reaching a maximum value at ca. 0.8 aw (78% w/w). Further hydration up to the aw of the freshly prepared beverage significantly increased chemical stability. It was suggested that mechanisms other than lactones' hydrolysis, probably related to nonenzymatic browning pathways, could contribute to the observed increase in acidity during coffee staling. The temperature dependence of H3O+ formation was well-described by the Arrhenius equation in the entire aw range considered. However, aw affected the apparent activation energy and frequency factor. These effects were described by simple equations that were used to set up a modified Arrhenius equation. This model was validated by comparing experimental values, not used to generate the model, with those estimated by the model itself. The model allowed efficient prediction of the chemical stability of coffee derivatives on the basis of only the aw value and storage temperature.

  14. Fate of disinfection by-products in groundwater during aquifer storage and recovery with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelic, Paul; Nicholson, Brenton C; Dillon, Peter J; Barry, Karen E

    2005-05-01

    Knowledge on the behaviour of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is limited even though this can be an important consideration where recovered waters are used for potable purposes. A reclaimed water ASR trial in an anoxic aquifer in South Australia has provided some of the first quantitative information at field-scale on the fate and transport of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The results revealed that THM half-lives varied from storage phase of the trial, as compared to an observation well situated 4 m away, which remained nitrate-reducing. These findings agree with previous laboratory-based studies which also show persistence declining with increased bromination of THMs and reducing redox conditions. Modelling suggests that the chlorinated injectant has sufficient residual chlorine and natural organic matter for substantial increases in THMs to occur within the aquifer, however this is masked in some of the field observations due to concurrent attenuation, particularly for the more rapidly attenuated brominated compounds. The model is based on data taken from water distribution systems and may not be representative for ASR since bromide and ammonia concentrations in the injected water and the possible role of organic carbon in the aquifer were not taken into consideration. During the storage phase DBP formation potentials were reduced as a result of the removal of precursor material despite an increase in the THM formation potential per unit weight of total organic carbon. This suggests that water quality improvements with respect to THMs and HAAs can be achieved through ASR in anoxic aquifers.

  15. Changes in water storage in Australia as resolved using GRACE gravity field solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin; Awange, Joseph; Anjasmara, Ira; Kuhn, Michael; Featherstone, Will; Sarukkalige, Priyantha

    2010-05-01

    The GRACE gravity field solutions have been used in several studies to provide some constraint on how terrestrial water storage in Australia is changing, especially given the recent drought that has afflicted much of the country for most of the past decade. In this study we look at four regions of Australia, and compare/contrast how GRACE describes the behaviour of the terrestrial water storage. These areas are the Murray-Darling River Basin (MDRB) in the southeast corner of Australia, one of the primary agricultural regions that have been seriously afflicted by the drought, monsoonal Northern Australia, which has seen an increase in terrestrial water storage, the southwest corner of Western Australia (SWWA), another area of regional agricultural importance and the Lake Eyre district, an area that is usually extremely dry, but experiences occasional flooding. We make use of the mascon solutions from the Goddard Space Science Laboratory, and apply principle component analysis to identify the most important spatial and temporal trend variability in the GRACE solutions. These are in turn compared to other datasets, namely ground truth data such as groundwater levels and river gauges from various government agencies (e.g. the Western Australian Department of Water), as well as precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. Loss of mass, interpreted as a decrease in stored terrestrial water, is identified from the GRACE time series for the MRDB and SWWA, while an increase is seen in the monsoonal north, with significant mass fluctuations noted around Lake Eyre which are correlated with flooding events in other parts of Australia, e.g. Queensland.

  16. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  17. Soil water storage, mixing dynamics and resulting travel times through the critical zone in northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Weiler, Markus; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Water partitioning in the unsaturated zone into groundwater recharge, plant transpiration, and evaporation is fundamental for estimating storages and travel times. How water is mixed and routed through the soil is of broad interest to understand plant available water, contamination transport and weathering rates in the critical zone. Earlier work has shown how seasonal changes in hydroclimate influence the time variant character of travel times. A strong seasonality characterizes the northern latitudes which are particularly sensitive to climate and land use changes. It is crucial to understand how variation and change in hydroclimate and vegetation phenology impact time variant storage dynamics and flow path partitioning in the unsaturated zone. To better understand the influence of these ecohydrological processes on travel times of evaporative, transpiration and recharge fluxes in northern latitudes, we characterized soil physical properties, hydrometric conditions and soil water isotopic composition in the upper soil profile in two different land scape units in the long term experimental catchment, Bruntland Burn in the Scottish Highlands. Our two sampling locations are characterized by podzol soils with high organic matter content but they differ with regard to their vegetation cover with either Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) or heather (Calluna sp. and Erica Sp). To assess storage and mixing dynamics in the vadose zone, we parameterized a numerical 1-D flow model using the soil textural information along with soil moisture and soil water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O). The water flow and transport were simulated based on the Richards and the advection dispersion equation. Differences between water flows of mobile and tightly bound soil waters and the mixing between the two pore spaces were considered. Isotopic fractionation due to evaporation from soil and interception storage was taken into account, while plant water uptake did not alter the isotopic

  18. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  19. Development of space heating and domestic hot water systems with compact thermal energy storage. Compact thermal energy storage: Material development for System Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, J.H.; Quinnell, J.; Burch, J.; Zondag, H.A.; Boer, R. de; Finck, C.J.; Cuypers, R.; Cabeza, L.F.; Heinz, A.; Jahnig, D.; Furbo, S.; Bertsch, F.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term, compact thermal energy storage (TES) is essential to the development of cost-effective solar and passive building-integrated space heating systems and may enhance the annual technical and economic performance of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Systems should provide high energy st

  20. The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2001-01-01

    One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

  1. Effects of process conditions on chlorine generation and storage stability of electrolyzed deep ocean water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. We investigated the effects of platinum plating of electrode, electrode size, cell potential, and additional stirring on electrolysis properties of deep ocean water (DOW and DOW concentration products. We also studied the relationships between quality properties of electrolyzed DOW and their storage stability. Results indicated that concentrating DOW to 1.7 times increased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW without affecting electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Increasing magnesium and potassium levels in DOW decreased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW as well as electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Additional stirring could not increase electrolysis efficiency of small electrolyzer. Large electrode, high electric potential and/or small electrolyzing cell increased chlorine production rate but decreased electric and current efficiencies. High electrolysis intensity decreased storage stability of the electrolyzed seawater and the effects of electrolysis on DOW gradually subsided in storage. DOW has similar electrolysis properties to surface seawater, but its purity and stability are better. Therefore, electrolyzed DOW should have better potential for applications on postharvest cleaning and disinfection of ready-to-eat fresh produce.

  2. The Role of Water in the Storage of Hydrogen in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K.; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2001-01-01

    One major problem with the use of hydrogen is safe and efficient storage. In the pure form, bulky and heavy containers are required greatly reducing the efficiency of its use. Safety is also a great concern. Storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride offers distinct advantages both in terms of volumetric efficiency and in terms of safety. As a result, an enormous amount of research is currently being done on metal-hydrogen systems. Practical application of these systems to storage of hydrogen can only occur when they are very well understood. In this paper, the preliminary results of a study of the surfaces of magnesium nickel alloys will be presented. Alloys that have been rendered totally unreactive with hydrogen as well as those that have been activated with liquid water and with water vapor were studied. Data obtained from XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer) analysis, with samples held in vacuum for the shortest possible time to minimize the hydroxide degradation will be presented. Furthermore, TEM data on samples prepared in a new way that largely protects the surface from the high vacuum will be discussed.

  3. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001–2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth’s water...

  4. Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during

  5. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  6. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  7. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  8. [Preliminary study on the changes of bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Xie, Bing; Yuan, Qi; Huang, Zhi-Ting; Cui, Lu-Lu; Wang, Wen-Ting

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the changes in water quality and the bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage and supply period, the microorganisms in water body were studied by microbial culture counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DEEG) technique. Results showed that the water quality had been improved significantly and the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations significantly reduced after the Yangtze River water flowed into the reservoir. The number of culturable microorganisms in the influent and the reservoir changed with the seasons, and there were more microorganisms in the influent than these in the reservoir during spring and summer, and fewer in autumn and winter, and the precipitation of suspended microorganisms in the water caused the increase of organic matter content in the sediment. PCR-DGGE results showed that bacterial community structure in the reservoir changed with the seasons, and the microbial community diversity was the highest in summer and the lowest in autumn. The cluster analysis showed that the similarity of microbial community structure of water and sediment samples was 62% , which might be due to the contribution of the precipitation of the suspended microorganisms. The dominant microbial species in water had high similarity with alpha, beta-Proteobacteria, Flavobacterium, Rheinheimera, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and Marine metagenome, indicating that Qingcaosha Reservoir faced the risk of algae bloom and seawater intrusion. The results provide the fundamental understanding on reservoir operation and can be used as reference for future studies.

  9. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  10. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  11. Evaluating water storage variations in the MENA region using GRACE satellite data

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations over large river basins can be derived from temporal gravity field variations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. These signals are useful for determining accurate estimates of water storage and fluxes over areas covering a minimum of 150,000 km2 (length scales of a few hundred kilometers) and thus prove to be a valuable tool for regional water resources management, particularly for areas with a lack of in-situ data availability or inconsistent monitoring, such as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This already stressed arid region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and overdraft of its non-renewable freshwater sources, and thus direction in managing its resources is a valuable aid. An inter-comparison of different GRACE-derived TWS products was done in order to provide a quantitative assessment on their uncertainty and their utility for diagnosing spatio-temporal variability in water storage over the MENA region. Different processing approaches for the inter-satellite tracking data from the GRACE mission have resulted in the development of TWS products, with resolutions in time from 10 days to 1 month and in space from 0.5 to 1 degree global gridded data, while some of them use input from land surface models in order to restore the original signal amplitudes. These processing differences and the difficulties in recovering the mass change signals over arid regions will be addressed. Output from the different products will be evaluated and compared over basins inside the MENA region, and compared to output from land surface models.

  12. Evaluating Water Storage Variations in the MENA region using GRACE Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, O.; Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations over large river basins can be derived from temporal gravity field variations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. These signals are useful for determining accurate estimates of water storage and fluxes over areas covering a minimum of 150,000 km2 (length scales of a few hundred kilometers) and thus prove to be a valuable tool for regional water resources management, particularly for areas with a lack of in-situ data availability or inconsistent monitoring, such as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This already stressed arid region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and overdraft of its non-renewable freshwater sources, and thus direction in managing its resources is a valuable aid. An inter-comparison of different GRACE-derived TWS products was done in order to provide a quantitative assessment on their uncertainty and their utility for diagnosing spatio-temporal variability in water storage over the MENA region. Different processing approaches for the inter-satellite tracking data from the GRACE mission have resulted in the development of TWS products, with resolutions in time from 10 days to 1 month and in space from 0.5 to 1 degree global gridded data, while some of them use input from land surface models in order to restore the original signal amplitudes. These processing differences and the difficulties in recovering the mass change signals over arid regions will be addressed. Output from the different products will be evaluated and compared over basins inside the MENA region, and compared to output from land surface models.

  13. Numerical and experimental study on heat pump water heater with PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jian-You; Zhu, Dong-Sheng [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Chemistry and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2008-07-01

    An air source heat pump water heater with phase change material (PCM) for thermal storage was designed to take advantage of off-peak electrical energy. The heat transfer model of PCM was based upon a pure conduction formulation. Quasi-steady state method was used to calculate the temperature distribution and phase front location of PCM during thermal storage process. Temperature and thermal resistance iteration approach has been developed for the analysis of temperature variation of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and phase front location of PCM during thermal release process. To test the physical validity of the calculational results, experimental studies about storing heat and releasing heat of PCM were carried. Comparison between the calculational results and the experimental data shows good agreement. Graphical results including system pressure and input power of heat pump, time-wise variation of stored and released thermal energy of PCM were presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  16. Assessing Links Between Water and Carbon Storage in Indonesian Peatlands Using Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swails, E.; Reager, J. T., II; Randerson, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, K.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation and drainage of tropical peat swamp forests for conversion to other uses results in a loss of carbon storage through the clearing and burning of forest vegetation as well as decomposition of peat soils and increased frequency of fires following drainage. We used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage observations and a global forest cover change product to investigate trends in terrestrial water storage associated with land use conversion in Indonesian peatlands between 2002 and 2012. Our initial analysis indicated that secular trends in GRACE terrestrial water storage were consistent with the spatial distribution of peatlands drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations. A decreasing trend in GRACE terrestrial water storage measurements over the observation period indicated a substantial decrease in water table heights. Combining this information with measurements of bulk density and carbon content of surface peat layers, we estimated potential emissions from carbon stocks now vulnerable to oxidation. Independent measurements of fire carbon emissions were used to estimate the fraction of committed emission that was combusted. Our research represents the first known application of GRACE data to assess loss of soil carbon storage associated with depletion of soil water.

  17. Water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2011 and 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States--Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area. This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from the time before substantial groundwater irrigation development began (generally before 1950, and termed "predevelopment" in this report) to 2011 and from 2009-11. The report also presents total water in storage, 2011, and change in water in storage in the aquifer from predevelopment to 2011. The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in water in storage; and total water in storage for this report used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of about 62 acres. These methods were modified from methods used in previous reports in an attempt to improve estimates of water-level changes and change in water in storage.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2011, by well, ranged from a rise of 85 feet to a decline of 242 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 14.2 feet from predevelopment to 2011, and a decline of 0.1 foot from 2009-11. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2011 was about 2.96 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 246 million acre-feet since predevelopment.

  18. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  19. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  20. Chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant for Ralstonia solanacearum control in water, storage and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot or bacterial wilt caused by bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is the main limiting factor in potato production. Quarantine measures are necessary to avoid spread of disease to disease-free areas. R. solanacearum has been shown to contaminate watercourses from which crop irrigation is then prohibited causing further potential losses in yield and quality. The bacteria also spread via surfaces that diseased seed potatoes come into contact with. This study showed bactericidal activity of chlorine dioxide (CIO2 on R. solanacearum for disinfection of water, surface and equipment. The results showed that CIO2 solution at concentration of 2 ppm at 30 minutes of exposure time had bactericidal effect for disinfection of water. For surface and equipment disinfection, concentration of 50 ppm showed total efficacy at 30 min and 5 sec exposure time, respectively. Results suggest that use of CIO2 as a disinfectant has a potential for control of brown rot pathogen in water, storage and equipment.

  1. Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

  2. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolová M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region between the highest and the lowest seasonal water levels. Three eulittoral sub-zones could be distinguished: the upper eulittoral with a stable community of perennial species with high cover, the middle eulittoral with relatively high richness of emergent and amphibious species present at low cover values, and the lower eulittoral devoid of permanent vegetation. Cover and species composition in particular sub-zones were primarily influenced by the duration and timing of flooding, followed by nutrient limitation and strongly reducing conditions in the flooded organic sediment. Our results stress the ecological importance of eulittoral zone in reservoirs with fluctuating water levels where macrophyte growth can be supported by targeted management of water level, thus helping reservoir managers in improving the ecological potential of this type of water bodies.

  3. Neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict physicochemical and microbiological parameters of partially dried cherry tomato during storage: effects on water activity, temperature and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ruiyun; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Su, Lijuan; Han, Yongbin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    In the study, osmotically dehydrated cherry tomatoes were partially dried to water activity between 0.746 and 0.868, vacuum-packed and stored at 4-30 °C for 60 days. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was utilized to predict the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of these partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage. Satisfactory accuracies were obtained when ANFIS was used to predict the lycopene and total phenolic contents, color and microbial contamination. The coefficients of determination for all the ANFIS models were higher than 0.86 and showed better performance for prediction compared with models developed by response surface methodology. Through ANFIS modeling, the effects of storage conditions on the properties of partially dried cherry tomatoes were visualized. Generally, contents of lycopene and total phenolics decreased with the increase in water activity, temperature and storage time, while aerobic plate count and number of yeasts and molds increased at high water activities and temperatures. Overall, ANFIS approach can be used as an effective tool to study the quality decrease and microbial pollution of partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage, as well as identify the suitable preservation conditions.

  4. Quantification of peatland specific yield: toward a general peatland water storage indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Marc-André; Larocque, Marie; Garneau, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are water saturated environment that can be connected to rivers and aquifers. This connectivity is in part controlled by peat properties such as hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (SY). For the last twenty years, many studies have quantified these parameters in peatlands, contributing to better understand peatland hydrological functions such as water storage, river base flows, and groundwater recharge. Nonetheless, the understanding of peatland water storage capacity is still very limited both at local and global scale, in part due to the lack of unique and simple method to quantify the spatial variations of these properties. The objective of this project is to 1) develop a new in situ method to quantify vertical specific yield variations and 2) evaluate the use of this method to quantify storage capacity of peatland. Using an approach based on the water table fluctuation (WTF) method, a program was developed in R to quantify vertical variation of SY with depth for the hydrologically active layer of five southern ombrotrophic peatland complexes of the St. Lawrence Lowlands (southern Quebec, Canada). In each peatland, three water table wells (2 cm diameter and 1 m deep) were installed upgradient, mi-gradient, and downgradient. The wells were instrumented to measure water levels every 5 minutes during summer 2014 and 2015. The range of mean annual water table depths varies from 9.4 to 49.3 cm below the peat surface. Near each piezometer, a 1 m long peat core was sampled using a box corer. Each core was divided into 7 x 7 x 7 cm3 peat cubes and analysed using gravitational drainage experiments. In one of the peatland complexes, a 25 x 60 x 40 cm3 peat sample was collected in the upgradient location. Using a tension table, specific storage was measured on this peat sample at 1.0 cm intervals between 0-20 cm and 2.5 cm intervals between 20-36 cm. The WTF method and the gravitational drainage experiments show similar results, confirming the validity

  5. How Soil Water Storage Moderates Climate Change's Effects on Transpiration Across the Critical Zone Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C.; Tague, N.

    2016-12-01

    While the atmospheric water demand is predicted to increase under a warmer climate, actual evapotranspiration (AET) will be moderated by the supply of water available to vegetation. A key question is how will plant accessible water storage capacity (PAWSC) effect the partitioning of precipitation between AET and runoff. Our results indicate that whether and by how much AET increases or decreases with moderate warming is significantly based upon interactions between PAWSC and characteristics of precipitation such as the amount, frequency, and skew as well the partitioning between rain and snow. In snow dominated climates, if PAWSC cannot make up for the loss of storage as snowpack then AET may decrease despite warming temperatures. Even in rain dominated climates, PAWSC could significantly limit the increase in AET associated with higher atmospheric demand. Changes in AET will have significant impacts for forests vulnerability to drought, insect out breaks, and fire as well as for the amount of runoff that flows downstream for our use and management. Due to the highly heterogeneous nature of PAWSC and the difficulty of measuring it across large scales, we use a well-tested hydrologic model to estimate the impacts from a range of PAWSC on the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and AET. We completed this analysis for the range of precipitation and vegetation characteristics found across the 9 Critical Zone Observatories of the United States.

  6. Stochastic Management of the Open Large Water Reservoir with Storage Function with Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Described models are used random forecasting period of flow line with different length. The length is shorter than 1 year. Forecasting period of flow line is transformed to line of managing discharges with same length as forecast. Adaptive managing is used only first value of line of discharges. Stochastic management is worked with dispersion of controlling discharge value. Main advantage stochastic management is fun of possibilities. In article is described construction and evaluation of adaptive stochastic model base on genetic algorithm (classic optimization method). Model was used for stochastic management of open large water reservoir with storage function. Genetic algorithm is used as optimization algorithm. Forecasted inflow is given to model and controlling discharge value is computed by model for chosen probability of controlling discharge value. Model was tested and validated on made up large open water reservoir. Results of stochastic model were evaluated for given probability and were compared to results of same model for 100% forecast (forecasted values are real values). The management of the large open water reservoir with storage function was done logically and with increased sum number of forecast from 300 to 500 the results given by model were better, but another increased from 500 to 750 and 1000 did not get expected improvement. Influence on course of management was tested for different length forecasted inflow and their sum number. Classical optimization model is needed too much time for calculation, therefore stochastic model base on genetic algorithm was used parallel calculation on cluster.

  7. Water storage variations in the Poyang Lake Basin estimated from GRACE and satellite altimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhou; Shuanggen Jin; Robert Tenzer; Jialiang Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides a unique opportunity to quantitatively study terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. In this paper, the terrestrial water storage variations in the Poyang Lake Basin are recovered from the GRACE gravity data from January 2003 to March 2014 and compared with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) hydrological models and satellite altimetry. Further-more, the impact of soil moisture content from GLDAS and rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) on TWS variations are investigated. Our results indi-cate that the TWS variations from GRACE, GLDAS and satellite altimetry have a general consistency. The TWS trends in the Poyang Lake Basin determined from GRACE, GLDAS and satellite altimetry are increasing at 0.0141 km3/a, 0.0328 km3/a and 0.0238 km3/a, respectively during the investigated time period. The TWS is governed mainly by the soil moisture content and dominated primarily by the precipitation but also modulated by the flood season of the Yangtze River as well as the lake and river exchange water.

  8. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effect of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths formed by different bonding approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths [µTBS] using different adhesive bonding approaches. Materials and Methods: Flat superficial dentin surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars were exposed and polished to create a standardized smear layer. The teeth were randomly distributed into four different groups: Three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE - SBMP, two-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2, 3 M ESPE - SB; two-step self-etch (AdheSE, Ivoclar/Vivadent - AD; and self-etch 1 step (Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE - LP. Following the adhesive application (n = 6, resin composite was incrementally applied (Filtek™ Supreme XT - 3 M ESPE in order to obtain bonded sticks, with a cross-sectioned area of 0.81 mm 2 . The bonded sticks were randomly divided and assigned to be tested after one day [OD] (n 30 or six months [6 M] of water storage [6 M] (n = 30. Results: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey′s test showed that none of the adhesives showed degradation after 6 M. SB achieved the highest µTBS both in the [OD] (49.13 MPa and [6M] (40.27 MPa. Despite the highest values in both time evaluations, the µTBS of SB significantly reduced after 6M. LP showed the lowest µTBS in both periods of evaluation (18.35 and 18.34 MPa. Conclusions: Although a significant degradation was only observed for SB, this was the adhesive that showed the highest µTBS after 6 M of water storage.

  10. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    between GPP and T in the morning and the early decreases of both fluxes at midday suggest the existence of internal water storage mechanisms in oil palms both in the leaves and in the stem, which delayed the detection of water movement at the leaf petioles. The combination of our measured data with the model simulations suggest the existence of both external and internal trunk water storage mechanisms in mature oil palms contributing to ecosystem water fluxes. Oil palm plantations can lead to surface warming at early stages of development, but further assessments should be performed at landscape level to understand the climatic feedbacks of oil palm expansion.

  11. Effects of different water storage procedures on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically contrasted waters from the Amazon River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Daniel S; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo R

    2015-11-15

    Although recent studies have investigated the Fe isotopic composition of dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases from continental and oceanic natural waters, few efforts have been made to evaluate whether water sample storage and the separation of different pore-size fractions through filtration can cause any change to the Fe isotopic compositions. The present study investigates the possible biases introduced by different water storage conditions on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically different waters. Water samples were collected from an organic-rich river and from mineral particulate-rich rivers. Filtered and unfiltered water samples were stored either at room temperature or frozen at -18°C in order to assess possible biases due to (i) different water storage temperature, and (ii) storage of bulk (unfiltered) vs filtered water. Iron isotope measurements were performed by Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a Thermo Electron Neptune instrument, after Fe purification using anion-exchange resins. Our data reveal that bulk water storage at room temperature without filtration produces minor changes in the dissolved Fe isotopic composition of mineral particulate-rich waters, but significant isotopic composition changes in organic-rich waters. In both cases, however, the impact of the different procedures on the Fe concentrations was strong. On the other hand, the bulk water stored frozen without filtration produced more limited changes in the dissolved Fe concentrations, and also on isotopic compositions, relative to the samples filtered in the field. The largest effect was again observed for the organic-rich waters. These findings suggest that a time lag between water collection and filtration may cause isotopic exchanges between the dissolved and particulate Fe fractions. When it is not possible to filter the samples in the field immediately after collection, the less detrimental approach is to

  12. Understanding changes in terrestrial water storage over West Africa between 2002 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher; Awange, Joseph; Agutu, Nathan; Kuhn, Michael; Heck, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    With the vast water resources of West Africa coming under threat due to the impacts of climate variability and human influence, the need to understand its terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes becomes very important. Due to the lack of consistent in-situ hydrological data to assist in the monitoring of changes in TWS, this study takes advantage of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly gravity fields to provide estimates of vertically integrated changes in TWS over the period 2002-2014, in addition to satellite altimetry data for the period 1993-2014. In order to understand TWS variability over West Africa, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a second order statistical technique, and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA) are employed. Results show that dominant patterns of GRACE-derived TWS changes are observed mostly in the West Sahel, Guinea Coast, and Middle Belt regions of West Africa. This is probably caused by high precipitation rates at seasonal and inter-annual time scales induced by ocean circulations, altitude and physiographic features. While the linear trend for the spatially averaged GRACE-derived TWS changes over West Africa for the study period shows an increase of 6.85 ± 1.67 mm/yr, the PCA result indicates a significant increase of 20.2 ± 5.78 mm/yr in Guinea, a region with large inter-annual variability in seasonal rainfall, heavy river discharge, and huge groundwater potentials. The increase in GRACE-derived TWS during this period in Guinea, though inconsistent with the lack of a significant positive linear trend in TRMM based precipitation, is attributed to a large water surplus from prolonged wet seasons and lower evapotranspiration rates, leading to an increase in storage and inundated areas over the Guinea region. This increase in storage, which is also the aftermath of cumulative increase in the volume of water not involved in surface runoff, forms the huge freshwater availability in this region. However, the

  13. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24 days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30 mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21 days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6 days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12 days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction

  15. Comparing bioretention designs with and without an internal water storage layer for treating highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Han; Swapp, Mark; Kim, Myung Hee; Chu, Kung-Hui; Sung, Chan Yong

    2014-05-01

    This study compares the performance of a field bioretention cell with and without an internal water storage (IWS) layer for treating highway runoff. Both synthetic and natural runoff tests were conducted. Hydraulic performances on peak discharge reduction and detention time extension were measured. Pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated for total suspended solids (TSS), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate phosphorus. Pollutants in soil media were measured. Results reveal that both IWS and non-IWS designs reduced peak discharge and extended detention time, while the IWS design performed better. For water quality performance, the non-IWS design removed TSS, Cu, Pb, Zn, and total phosphorus to varying degrees of efficiency, but total nitrogen removal was minimal. The IWS layer significantly improved removal efficiencies for TSS, Cu, Zn, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Soil media accumulated some metals over time.

  16. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  17. Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anyana; McFarland, Deborah A; Singh, Ritu; Quick, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Providing safe water to >1 billion people in need is a major challenge. To address this need, the Safe Water System (SWS) - household water treatment with dilute bleach, safe water storage, and behavior change - has been implemented in >20 countries. To assess the potential sustainability of the SWS, we analyzed costs in Zambia of "Clorin" brand product sold in bottles sufficient for a month of water treatment at a price of $0.09. We analyzed production, marketing, distribution, and overhead costs of Clorin before and after sales reached nationwide scale, and analyzed Clorin sales revenue. The average cost per bottle of Clorin production, marketing and distribution at start-up in 1999 was $1.88 but decreased by 82% to $0.33 in 2003, when >1.7 million bottles were sold. The financial loss per bottle decreased from $1.72 in 1999 to $0.24 in 2003. Net program costs in 2003 were $428,984, or only $0.04 per person-month of protection. A sensitivity analysis showed that if the bottle price increased to $0.18, the project would be self-sustaining at maximum capacity. This analysis demonstrated that efficiencies in the SWS supply chain can be achieved through social marketing. Even with a subsidy, overall program costs per beneficiary are low.

  18. Estimating water storage changes and sink terms in Volta Basin from satellite missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner G. FERREIRA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The insufficiency of distributed in situ hydrological measurements is a major challenge for hydrological studies in many regions of the world. Satellite missions such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM can be used to improve our understanding of water resources beyond surface water in poorly gauged basins. In this study we combined GRACE and TRMM to investigate monthly estimates of evaporation plus runoff (sink terms using the water balance equation for the period from January 2005 to December 2010 within the Volta Basin. These estimates have been validated by comparison with time series of sink terms (evaporation plus surface and subsurface runoff from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS. The results, for the period under consideration, show strong agreement between both time series, with a root mean square error (RMSE of 20.2 mm/month (0.67 mm/d and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. This illustrates the ability of GRACE to predict hydrological quantities, e.g. evaporation, in the Volta Basin. The water storage change data from GRACE and precipitation data from TRMM all show qualitative agreement, with evidence of basin saturation at approximately 73 mm in the equivalent water column at the annual and semi-annual time scales.

  19. Wintertime storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Koenig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is increasing and estimated to account for half or more of the total mass loss. Little, however, is known about the hydrologic pathways that route surface melt within the ice sheet. In this study, we present over-winter storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes as one hydrologic pathway for surface melt, referred to as buried lakes. Airborne radar echograms are used to detect the buried lakes that are distributed extensively around the margin of the GrIS. The subsurface water can persist through multiple winters and is, on average, ~4.2 + 0.4 m below the surface. The few buried lakes that are visible at the surface of the GrIS have a~unique visible signature associated with a darker blue color where subsurface water is located. The volume of retained water in the buried lakes is likely insignificant compared to the total mass loss from the GrIS but the water will have important implications locally for the development of the englacial hydrologic network, ice temperature profiles and glacial dynamics. The buried lakes represent a small but year-round source of meltwater in the GrIS hydrologic system.

  20. Assimilation of Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE in a Snow-Dominated Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) information derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements is assimilated into a land surface model over the Mackenzie River basin located in northwest Canada. Assimilation is conducted using an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS). Model estimates with and without assimilation are compared against independent observational data sets of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. For SWE, modest improvements in mean difference (MD) and root mean squared difference (RMSD) are achieved as a result of the assimilation. No significant differences in temporal correlations of SWE resulted. Runoff statistics of MD remain relatively unchanged while RMSD statistics, in general, are improved in most of the sub-basins. Temporal correlations are degraded within the most upstream sub-basin, but are, in general, improved at the downstream locations, which are more representative of an integrated basin response. GRACE assimilation using an EnKS offers improvements in hydrologic state/flux estimation, though comparisons with observed runoff would be enhanced by the use of river routing and lake storage routines within the prognostic land surface model. Further, GRACE hydrology products would benefit from the inclusion of better constrained models of post-glacial rebound, which significantly affects GRACE estimates of interannual hydrologic variability in the Mackenzie River basin.

  1. Water chemical evolution in Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower plants and induced consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Jurado, Anna; Ayora, Carlos; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) using abandoned mines is an alternative to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of two reservoirs; the upper reservoir is located at the surface or at shallow depth, while the lower reservoir is underground. These plants have potentially less constraints that the classical Pumped Storage Hydropower plants because more sites are available and impacts on landscape, land use, environment and society seem lower. Still, it is needed to consider the consequences of the groundwater exchanges occurring between the underground reservoir and surrounding porous media. Previous studies have been focused on the influence of these groundwater exchanges on the efficiency and on groundwater flow impacts. However, hydrochemical variations induced by the surface exposure of pumped water and their consequences have not been yet addressed. The objective of this work is to evaluate the hydrochemical evolution of the water in UPSH plants and its effects on the environment and on the UPSH efficiency. The problem is studied numerically by means of reactive transport modelling. Different scenarios are considered varying the chemical properties of the surrounding porous medium and groundwater. Results show that the dissolution and/or precipitation of some compounds may affect (1) the groundwater quality, and (2) the efficiency and the useful life of the used pumps and turbines of the UPSH system.

  2. Influences of recent climate change and human activities on water storage variations in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haijun; Chen, Yaning

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change is an indicator of climate change. Therefore, it is helpful to understand how climate change impacts water systems. In this study, the influence of climate change on TWS in Central Asia over the past decade was analyzed using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites and Climatic Research Unit datasets. Results indicate that TWS experienced a decreasing trend in Central Asia from 2003 to 2013 at a rate of -4.44 ± 2.2 mm/a, and that the maximum positive anomaly for TWS (46 mm) occurred in July 2005, while the minimum negative anomaly (-32.5 mm) occurred in March 2008-August 2009. The decreasing trend of TWS in northern Central Asia (-3.86 ± 0.63 mm/a) is mainly attributed to soil moisture storage depletion, which is driven primarily by the increase in evapotranspiration. In the mountainous regions, climate change exerted an influence on TWS by affecting glaciers and snow cover change. However, human activities are now the dominant factor driving the decline of TWS in the Aral Sea region and the northern Tarim River Basin.

  3. Infiltration and water storage in forest soils at the plot and the micro- catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimm, Eva-Maria; Lange, Benjamin; Lüscher, Peter; Germann, Peter; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Tree roots generate and conserve hydrologically active macropores. We explored the influence of root density on infiltration and water storage at six 1-m2 plots along an 8-m transect between two mature trees (spruce). The soil is a Flysch-based stagnic Cambisol with a flow-impeding horizon at a depth of about 60 cm. At a plot the experimental set up consisted of a 1m x 1m sprinkler and five Decagon HS-10 soil-moisture probes that were horizontally mounted from a trench into the centre of each horizon. We irrigated each plot three times at 24-hour intervals during one hour with a rate of 70 mm h-1. Data logging was at 60-seconds intervals that produced time series of water contents due to irrigation and drainage. After irrigation, soil cores of 10 cm diameter were sampled. Roots were extracted from the cores and their densities were optically analysed with the program "whinRIZO". The application of a rivulet approach to the time series of water contents produced the thickness F (μm) and the specific contact length L (m m-2) per cross-sectional area of the water films that represent Stokes-flow. The procedure leads to estimates of storage capacity and hydraulic connectivity in the vertical and lateral directions along the transect. Extrapolation from the transect to the micro-catchment scale is based on maps showing the spatial arrangements of trees, shrubs and soil properties like thickness and hydrological parameters of horizons.

  4. Analysing the space-time distribution of soil water storage of a forest ecosystem using spatio-temporal kriging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jost, G.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Papritz, A.

    2005-01-01

    In forest the soil water balance is strongly influenced by tree species composition. For example, differences in transpiration rate lead to differences in soil water storage (SWS) and differences in canopy interception cause differences in infiltration. To analyse the influence of tree species

  5. Microbiological quality of surface water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds or cakes during the storage : case study of water reservoirs of Loumbila, Ziga and Ouaga 3 Dams in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabore, Aminata; Savadogo, Boubacar; Otoidobiga, Harmonie C.; Sawadogo, Adama; Rosillon, Francis; Traore, Alfred S.; Dianou, Dayéri

    2015-01-01

    Water purification with Moringa oleifera seeds has received a lot of attention because it reduces water turbidity and pathogenic microorganisms. However, it is important to define the optimum conditions of storage to preserve the treated water quality. The study aims to investigate microbial quality of water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds or cake coagulants inrelation to the storage temperature and shelf life in order to define the optimum conditions of storage. A total of 45 water sampl...

  6. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  7. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  8. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  9. Trends in Playa Inundation and Water Storage in the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ogallala Aquifer is an important source of irrigation water on the Texas High plains; however, significant decreases in saturated thickness threaten its future use for irrigation. A better understanding of the roles of playas, ephemeral surface ponds, in aquifer recharge is needed to establish levels of withdrawals that will meet either established desired future conditions or sustainability. In this study, data regarding playa inundation, depth to groundwater, precipitation and land cover from 2001 to 2011 were collected and analyzed to ascertain associations between these characteristics for four study areas on the Texas High plains. Each area covered 40,000–70,000 ha. Three of the study areas in Hockley, Floyd and Swisher counties were chosen because their center contained a playa instrumented to measure weather and depth of inundation. There were 20 distinct inundation events at the three instrumented playas between 2006 and 2010. For each of these inundations, water loss exceeded rates of potential evapotranspiration (ET by a factor of 1.6–15.7 times, implying that infiltration was occurring. Playa inundation in all four study areas was also assessed by analyzing images from the National Agricultural Imaginary program. Data on depth to groundwater were analyzed from 2000 to 2010 to determine annual changes of stored water. Annual changes in groundwater were weakly associated with surface area of inundated playas in late summer, but was strongly associated with annual rainfall. Rates of infiltration based on playa water loss versus potential ET, and volume of water in playas was more than sufficient to account for annual changes in groundwater. Land use adjoining the playas had less of influence on playa inundation than annual rainfall. These results strengthen the argument that water storage in playas on the Texas High Plains is an important source of water for aquifer recharge.

  10. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732

  11. Satellite Observations of Groundwater Storage Variations and Their Application for Water Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Li, B.; Kumar, S.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Fresh water demand is steadily increasing around the world due to population growth, economic development, and people's desire for a "western" lifestyle and diet. Where surface water availability is not sufficient or consistent, groundwater is often the resource of choice for agriculture, industry, and municipal and domestic uses. However, unlike lake levels, aquifer levels are unseen and are not easily measured. This can create the illusion of an infinite water source and impede efforts to monitor and conserve groundwater. Moreover, even where depth-to-water measurements do exist, they often are not digitized, centralized, and accessible. The GRACE satellites are a partial solution to this problem, enabling space-based estimates of groundwater variability at regional scales that are not limited by political boundaries. Here we discuss emerging trends in groundwater storage around the world based on GRACE observations and how they can be combined with other information in order attribute these apparent trends and support sub-regional scale analyses of changing groundwater availability.

  12. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haihe river basin (HRB in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI, precipitation anomaly index (PAI, and vegetation anomaly index (AVI were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB.

  13. The socioecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics across spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Kimberly J.; Steiff, Michael; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Basu, Nandita B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH tanks at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale, water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to-capacity ratio greater than 2. At the catchment scale, the presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by

  14. Seasonal Water Storage, the Resulting Deformation and Stress, and Occurrence of Earthquakes in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Burgmann, R.; Fu, Y.; Dutilleul, P.

    2015-12-01

    In California the accumulated winter snow pack in the Sierra Nevada, reservoirs and groundwater water storage in the Central Valley follow an annual periodic cycle and each contribute to the resulting surface deformation, which can be observed using GPS time series. The ongoing drought conditions in the western U.S. amplify the observed uplift signal as the Earth's crust responds to the mass changes associated with the water loss. The near surface hydrological mass loss can result in annual stress changes of ~1kPa at seismogenic depths. Similarly, small static stress perturbations have previously been associated with changes in earthquake activity. Periodicity analysis of earthquake catalog time series suggest that periods of 4-, 6-, 12-, and 14.24-months are statistically significant in regions of California, and provide documentation for the modulation of earthquake populations at periods of natural loading cycles. Knowledge of what governs the timing of earthquakes is essential to understanding the nature of the earthquake cycle. If small static stress changes influence the timing of earthquakes, then one could expect that events will occur more rapidly during periods of greater external load increases. To test this hypothesis we develop a loading model using GPS derived surface water storage for California and calculate the stress change at seismogenic depths for different faulting geometries. We then evaluate the degree of correlation between the stress models and the seismicity taking into consideration the variable amplitude of stress cycles, the orientation of transient load stress with respect to the background stress field, and the geometry of active faults revealed by focal mechanisms.

  15. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance carbon sequestration. Despite global recognition of wetlands as carbon sinks, information regarding carbon dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating carbon sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve carbon storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC), carbon sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of carbon sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective management of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance carbon sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.

  16. The biomonitoring and bioremediation of toxic water resulting from municipal waste storage of Somârd, Sibiu county

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information from the specialty literature and laboratory experimental results on biomonitoring, phytoextraction, biodegradation, and biotransformation of toxic water pollutants at the biotechnology laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering. The study was conducted in laboratory micro tanks with contaminated water from the municipal landfill water storage pit with toxic bund of Somârd/Medias, Sibiu County, in order to research and develo...

  17. Sensitivity of reservoir storage and outflow to climate change in a water-limited river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Gao, H.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Voisin, N.

    2015-12-01

    During the past several decades, numerous reservoirs have been built across the world for a variety of purposes such as flood control, irrigation, municipal water supplies, and hydropower. Consequently, streamflow timing and magnitude are altered significantly by reservoir operations. In addition, the hydrological cycle can be modified substantially by a changing climate. Therefore, a distributed hydrological model which has an embedded reservoir component is essential for representing these effects in future water management planning strategies. In this study, a multi-purpose reservoir module was integrated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The DHSVM model was selected because of its high spatial and temporal resolution and because of its explicit representation of the physical processes. Prescribed operating rules, which are designed to reduce flood risk and enhance water supply reliability, were adopted in this module. The integrated model was tested over a water-limited basin (i.e. the central Brazos River Basin, Texas). Both the calibration and validation results suggest that the model performed robustly at daily, weekly, and monthly levels. Subsequently, the effect of climate sensitivity on reservoir storage and outflow was assessed by perturbing precipitation within a range from -30% to 30% and temperature from -2 °C to 2 °C. Results suggest that both variables are more sensitive to precipitation than temperature. However, there are more uncertainties associated with future precipitation than temperature. It was also found that the sensitivities vary significantly by season. Enabled with the new reservoir component, the DHSVM model provides a platform for projecting future water availability estimations under flow regulation, climate change, and land cover/land use changes. We expect this integrated model to be beneficial for sustainable water resources management.

  18. Effect of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Tong, Qunyi; Zhang, Zipei; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage were investigated by low field-nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and texture profile analysis (TPA). The addition of pullulan reduced the transversal relaxation time of rice starch gels during cold storage. The microstructure of rice starch gel with 0.5% pullulan was denser and more uniform compared with that of rice starch without pullulan in each period of storage time. With regard to textural properties, 0.01% pullulan addition did not significantly change the texture of rice starch gels, while 0.5% pullulan addition appeared to reduce the hardness and retain the springiness of rice starch gels (P⩽0.05). The restriction effects of pullulan on water mobility and starch retrogradation were hypothesized to be mainly responsible for the water retention, gel structure maintenance, and modification of the textural attributes of rice starch gels.

  19. A semi-analytical model for predicting water quality from an aquifer storage and recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Ali; Klammler, Harald; Brown, Chris; Hatfield, Kirk

    2006-10-01

    SummaryAquifer storage and recovery (ASR) involves the injection of freshwater in an aquifer through wells for the purpose of creating a subsurface water supply that is recovered at a later time, often using the same wells, to meet seasonal, long-term, emergency, or other demands. In this paper a numerically efficient semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the quality of water recovered by an ASR system given data on the qualities of ambient and injected waters, hydraulic properties of the aquifer, ambient hydraulic gradient, and system operations. It is assumed the ASR well is installed in a stratified aquifer such that the semi-analytical ASR model (SASRM) simulates the fate of water injected under steady-state conditions into each stratum. It is also assumed that a sharp and mobile interface separates injected water from ambient groundwater such that in situ mixing of water within and between strata does not occur. SASRM assigns particles to define the location the interface in all strata and then follows the migration of these particles under ambient and induced flow conditions. During water recovery, the transient location of the interface is simulated in each stratum and this information is used to quantify the fractions of ambient and injected water extracted at the well-head and the quality of water recovered. To mimic the effects of dispersion, a Latin Hypercube sampling strategy is used to assign hydraulic conductivities according to a predefined probability distribution to the layers of a conceptually stratified aquifer. The volumetric fraction of water received or delivered from any given lithologic unit is assumed proportional to the transmissivity of the stratum normalized to the total aquifer transmissivity interrogated by the ASR well. SARSM is numerically verified against MT3DMS and then calibrated and validated using field data from an ASR system located in Boynton Beach, FL. The field demonstration shows SASRM is capable of predicting

  20. Experimental test of a hot water storage system including a macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Atrigna, M.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Risi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TESs) are of fundamental importance for many energetic systems, essentially because they permit a certain degree of decoupling between the heat or cold production and the use of the heat or cold produced. In the last years, many works have analysed the addition of a PCM inside a hot water storage tank, as it can allow a reduction of the size of the storage tank due to the possibility of storing thermal energy as latent heat, and as a consequence its cost and encumbrance. The present work focuses on experimental tests realized by means of an indoor facility in order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of a hot water storage tank including PCM modules during a charging phase. A commercial bio-based PCM has been used for the purpose, with a melting temperature of 58°C. The experimental results relative to the hot water tank including the PCM modules are presented in terms of temporal evolution of the axial temperature profile, heat transfer and stored energy, and are compared with the ones obtained by using only water as energy storage material. Interesting insights, relative to the estimation of the percentage of melted PCM at the end of the experimental test, are presented and discussed.

  1. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  2. The Role of Soya Oil Ester in Water-Based PCM for Low Temperature Cool Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Rasta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation of the water-based phase change material (PCM with very small soya oil solution for low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES. Soya oil ester is soluble very well in water and acts as nucleating agent for a novel solid-liquid PCM candidate that is suitable for low temperature cool storage in the range between −9°C and −6°C. Thermal energy storage properties of the water with very small soya oil ester solution were measured by T-history method. The experimental results show that very small amount of soya oil ester in water can lower the freezing point and trigger ice nucleation for elimination of the supercooling degree. The phase transition temperatures of the water-based PCMs with soya oil as nucleate agent were lower than those of individual water. The thermal properties make it potential PCM for LHTES systems used in low temperature cool energy storage applications.

  3. Improved water and child health in Egypt: impact of interrupted water supply and storage of household water on the prevalence of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushdy, R; Sieverding, M

    2016-04-19

    Egypt is approaching universal access to improved water supply, but the variable quality of improved water may have a measureable health impact. We investigated the impact of different measures of improved water access on the prevalence of diarrhoea among children aged under 5 years. Using data from the 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and propensity score matching techniques we compared children in households with improved water supplies, with/without interruptions to supplies and with/without in-home storage of water. Access to improved water that was not subject to cuts resulted in a significant 2.6 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of diarrhoea (4.7% reduction in rural areas), and access to improved water that was not stored prior to use resulted in a 3.5% reduction. Further research is needed to better understand the nature and causes of piped water interruptions in Egypt, in order to address potential infrastructure challenges that are leading to poorer health outcomes.

  4. Variations in water storage in China over recent decade from GRACE Observations and GLDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Mo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We applied GRACE Tellus products in combination with GLDAS simulations and data from reports, to analyze variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS in China and eight of its basins from 2003 to 2013. Amplitudes of TWS were well restored after scaling, and showed good correlations with those estimated from models at the basin scale. TWS generally followed variations in annual precipitation, it decreased linearly in Huai River basin (−0.564 cm yr−1 and increased with fluctuations in Changjiang River basin (0.348 cm yr−1, Zhujiang basin (0.552 cm yr−1 and Southeast Rivers basin (0.696 cm yr−1. In Hai River basin and Yellow River basin, groundwater exploitation may have altered TWS's response to climate, but it began to restore since 2012. Changes in soil moisture storage contributed over 50% in of variances in TWS in most basins. Precipitation and runoff showed large impact on TWS, with explained variances higher in TWS in the south than in the north. North China and Southwest Rivers region exhibited long-term TWS depletions. TWS increased significantly over the recent decade in the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang, southeastern coastal area, as well as the Hoh Xil, and headstream region of the Yellow River in Tibetan plateau. The findings in this study could be helpful to climate change impact research and disaster mitigation planning.

  5. Variations in water storage in China over recent decades from GRACE observations and GLDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, X.; Wu, J. J.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    We applied Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Tellus products in combination with Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) simulations and data from reports, to analyze variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in China as a whole and eight of its basins from 2003 to 2013. Amplitudes of TWS were well restored after scaling, and showed good correlations with those estimated from models at the basin scale. TWS generally followed variations in annual precipitation; it decreased linearly in the Huai River basin (-0.56 cm yr-1) and increased with fluctuations in the Changjiang River basin (0.35 cm yr-1), Zhujiang basin (0.55 cm yr-1) and southeast rivers basin (0.70 cm yr-1). In the Hai River basin and Yellow River basin, groundwater exploitation may have altered TWS's response to climate, and TWS kept decreasing until 2012. Changes in soil moisture storage contributed over 50 % of variance in TWS in most basins. Precipitation and runoff showed a large impact on TWS, with more explained TWS in the south than in the north. North China and southwest rivers region exhibited long-term TWS depletions. TWS has increased significantly over recent decades in the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River, southeastern coastal areas, as well as the Hoh Xil, and the headstream region of the Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau. The findings in this study could be helpful to climate change impact research and disaster mitigation planning.

  6. Delayed incubation as an alternative method to sample storage for enumeration of E. coli and culturable bacteria in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, L; Gravesen, J; Lund, C; Bagge, L; Dalsgaard, A

    2002-11-01

    The effects of sample storage on enumeration of Escherichia coli in marine bathing water and culturable bacteria in drinking water were evaluated. Results showed that overnight storage at 0-5 degrees C significantly reduced the counts of E. coli in bathing water (p = 0.0001) with a mean reduction of 25%. A similar effect of sample storage was observed for the enumeration of culturable bacteria in drinking water at 22 +/- 2 degrees C for 66 +/- 4 h (p = 0.0074; mean reduction = 25%) or at 36 +/- 2 degrees C for 44 +/- 4h (p = 0.0353; mean reduction = 6%). The use of a delayed incubation method, i.e. overnight storage at 0-5 degrees C of inoculated agar plates prior to incubation, did not significantly affect the counts of culturable bacteria when plates were incubated at 22 + 2 degrees C for 66 +/- 4 h, whereas it resulted in a significant increase of the bacterial numbers when plates were incubated at 36 +/- 2 degrees C for 44 +/- 4 h (p = 0.0002; mean increase = 32%). Based on these results, it is suggested to avoid the use of overnight or longer sample storage for the enumeration of E. coli in bathing water samples, as well as for the enumeration of culturable bacteria in drinking water. The delayed incubation method appears to be a reliable procedure for the enumeration of culturable bacteria and could represent a valid alternative to sample storage in order to overcome problems associated with the performance of bacteriological counts during weekends or statutory holidays. However, a multi-laboratory study is needed to evaluate the reproducibility of the delayed incubation method for the enumeration of culturable bacteria and its possible use for the enumeration of E. coli by membrane filtration.

  7. Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir

  9. First principles study on defectives BN nanotubes for water splitting and hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andressa C.; Rupp, Caroline J.; Baierle, Rogério J.

    2016-06-01

    First principles calculations within the spin polarized density functional approximation have been addressed to investigate the energetic stability, electronic and optical properties of defective BN nanotubes. Our results show that the presence of carbon impurities interacting with vacancies gives rise to defective electronic levels inside the nanotube band gap. By calculating the absorbance index, we have obtained a strong inter-band optical absorption in the visible region (around 2.1 eV) showing that defective BN nanotubes could be an efficient catalytic semiconductor material to be used within solar energy for water splitting. In addition, we observe that the adsorption energy for one and two H2 molecules on the defective surface is in the desired window for the system to be useful as a hydrogen storage medium.

  10. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  11. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2 geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO2 injection. CO2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number.

  12. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  13. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  14. Establishing the Framework for Land Data Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumura, C.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Yang, Z. L.; Save, H.; McCullough, C.

    2015-12-01

    Assimilation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission into current land surface models can correct model deficiencies due to errors in the model structure, atmospheric forcing datasets, parameters, etc. However, the assimilation process is complicated by spatial and temporal resolution discrepancies between the model and observational datasets, characterization of the error in each, and limitations of the algorithms used to calculate and update the model state. This study aims to establish a framework for hydrological data assimilation with GRACE. GRACE is an independent and accurate but coarse resolution terrestrial water storage dataset. While the models cannot attain the accuracy of GRACE, they are effective in interpretation and downscaling of the product and providing continuity over space and time. Accurate assimilation of GRACE TWS into LSMs thus will take the best characteristics of each and create a combined product that outperforms each individual source. More specifically, this framework entails a comprehensive analysis of the deficiencies and potential improvements of the satellite data products, the assimilation procedures and error characterization, and assimilation effectiveness. A daily sliding window mascon GRACE TWS product, presented previously, was developed to reduce smoothing in time and space during assimilation into the Community Land Model 4.0. The Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation algorithms are analyzed and adapted for use with the new products, GRACE error information, and model characteristics. Additional assimilation tools such as Gaspari-Cohn localization and ensemble inflation are implemented and tuned for the model and observation properties. Analysis of the observational data, model data, sensitivity and effectiveness of the assimilation routines, and the assimilated results is done through regional comparison with independent in-situ datasets and external model

  15. A Study on a Perfaormance of Water-Spray-Type Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel with Vertical Heat Exchange Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Koyama, Shigeru; Fukuda, Toshihito; Ohba, Hideki

    A system with a water -embedded-type ice storage vessel is widely used because of its simple structure compactness. However, this ice storage vessel has a disadvantage, that is, the melting rate is very small. The use of falling water film seems to be one of promising ways for solving this disadvantage. We have found in our previous study that the use of the falling water film is very effective, especially for high initial water temperatures. In the present study, we examined the melting performance of a falling-water-film-type ice thermal energy storage vessel with practical size, having vertical heat exchange plates. The results obtained are as follows : the quantity of melting ice increases with increase of the water film flow rate, the melting rate decreases with time because ice surface are decreases with time gradually, the heat transfer coefficient of melting increases with increase of the water film flow rate, and the melting rate increases with increase of the water-spray temperature.

  16. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  17. Seasonal water storage change of the Yangtze River basin detected by GRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    US-Germany co-sponsered satellite gravimetry mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment), launched in March 2002, has been producing monthly time series of Earth gravity models up to degree and order of 120. The GRACE mission consists of two identical satellites flying on an almost polar orbit with an altitude of about 300-500 km and satelite-to-satellite ranging of about 220 km. Thanks to the payloads of space-borne GPS receivers, accelerometers and high-precision K-band satelite-to-satellite ranging mesurements, GRACE gravity models are expected to achieve more than one order of magnitude of improvement over previous models at spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers or larger. Recovery of surface mass re-distribution based on GRACE's time-varying gravity models is applied to studies in solid Earth geophysics, oceanography, climatology and geodesy. At secular time scales, GRACE is expected to provide valuable information on global ice changes, whose variations have profound influences on global climate, and in particular, on sea level changes. At seasonal time scales, GRACE is expected to reveal surface water changes with an accuracy of less than 1 cm, or ocean bottom pressure changes with an accuracy of less than 1 mbar (1 mbar =102 Pa). These surface mass redistribution measurements would impove our understanding of the global and regional mass and energy cycles that are critical to human life. Using 15 GRACE monthly gravity models covering the period from April 2002 to December 2003, this study compares seasonal water storage changes recovered from GRACE data and hydrology models at global and regional scales, with particular focus on the Yangtze River basin of China. Annual amplitude of 3.4 cm of equivalent water height change is found for the Yangtze River basin with maximum in Spring and Autumn, agreeing with two state-of-the-art hydrology models. The differences between GRACE results and model predictions are less than 1-2 cm. We conclude

  18. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the

  19. How Much for Water? Economic Assessment and Mapping of Floodplain Water Storage as a Catchment-Scale Ecosystem Service of Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Chrzanowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of water management goals in protected wetland areas agriculturally managed in an intensive manner recalls the comparison of apples (ecological values and oranges (economic dimension of agriculture. Sustainable wetland management frequently fails if environmental features are not referred to as ecosystem services and quantified in economic terms. In our hydrological-economical study on floodplain wetlands located in the Lower Basin of the Biebrza Valley, we attempt to quantify the monetary value of water storage in the floodplain during flood phenomena as an important ecosystem service. The unit monetary value of water storage in the catchment of Biebrza Valley was assessed on the basis of small artificial water reservoirs, constructed in recent years and located in the area of research, and reached 0.53 EUR·m−3·year−1. In a GIS-based study on hydrological floodplain processes in the years 1995–2011, we assessed the average annual volume of active water storage in the floodplain which reached 10.36 M m3 year−1, giving a monetary value of EUR 5.49 million per annum. We propose that the methodology presented in our analysis could be applied as water storage subsidies in valuable floodplains, to prevent their deterioration originating from agriculture intensification.

  20. A Study on a Performance of Water-Spray-Type Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel with Vertical Heat Exchanger Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Sasaguchi, Kengo; Fukuda, Toshihito; Koyama, Shigeru

    A system with a water-embedded-trpe ice storage vessel is widely used because of its simple structure and compactness. However, the water-embedded-type ice storage vessel has a disadvantage, that is, the solidification rate is very small. The use of falling water film seems to be one of promising ways for solving this disadvantage. We have found in a previous study that the use of the falling water film is very effective, especially for high initial water temperatures. In the present study, we eexamined the performance of a faling-water-film-type ice thermal energy storage vessel with pratical size, having vertical heat exchanger plates. The ice making performance coefficient, η, increases with time, and it becomes am aximum value of 2.5, after that, it decreases gradually. In order to make ice efficiently, it is necessary to set a flow rate of refrigerant properly and to adjust a difference between the evaporating temperature of refrigerant and the freezing point of water so that the refrigerant evaporates in the heat exchanger plates overall.

  1. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  2. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  3. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected

  4. Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume previously lost during August 1940 to January 1993. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2008 ranged from a decline of 23.41 feet to a rise of 3.58 feet. The change in storage volume in the study area from August 1940 to July 2008 was a decrease of about 134,000 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 121,000 acre-feet, or about 47 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2008 in the central part of the study area, where city pumpage occurs, was a decrease of about 71,200 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 82,800 acre-feet, or about 54 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993 in the central part of the study area. The recovery in the central part of the study area probably was greater and more consistently maintained than in the study area as a whole because city pumpage has remained less than pre-1993 levels, whereas agricultural irrigation pumpage has been as much or more than pre-1993 levels in some years.

  5. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Linage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05 for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month. These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also

  6. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  7. Effect of water storage on the silanization in porcelain repair strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, T; Barghi, N; Chung, K

    1999-06-01

    This study examined the long-term water storage affect of silanization on shear bond strength of composite resin to porcelain. One hundred and sixty square-shaped specimens were fabricated and sanded flat sequentially with silicone carbide papers. The specimens were then placed into four groups and 16 subgroups of 10 specimens each randomly. Four commercially available silane systems, two one-mix and two two-mix, were tested in this study. Teflon tubes with an internal diameter of 2.97 mm and 2 mm in height were filled with a dual cure composite resin (Mirage FLC), placed on the silanated surfaces and light-cured for 120 s. Specimens were stored in room temperature water and subjected to shear bond strength testing after 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 3 month periods of immersion. An Instron Universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min was used for the testing. The mean values of the shear bond strengths ranged from 4.38 MPa (24-h period) to 23.90 MPa (3-month period). ANOVA and Scheffe' tests were used to analyse data with confidence level at 95%. All groups recorded an increase in bond strength after one week as compared with the 24-h period (Psilanization of porcelain increased during the experimental period. The bond strength also varied for different silanes used in this study.

  8. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Knoll, R.W. (Johnson Controls, Inc., Madison, WI (USA))

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.N.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1978-03-01

    Experiments are being conducted on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods, mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. Spacings between fuel clusters and the intervening material are being varied to provide a variety of benchmark loadings. (DLC)

  10. Fire protection in ammunition storage spaces on board naval craft: An evaluation of the water application rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, J.; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Boonacker, B.; Wal, R. van der; Haara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammunition storage spaces on naval vessels are commonly fitted with drencher systems that are designed to prevent ordnance reaching a temperature where it might explode due to fast or slow “cook‐off”. Many of these systems are traditional low pressure water spray systems that are required by the Nav

  11. Fire protection in ammunition storage spaces on board naval craft: An evaluation of the water application rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, J.; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Boonacker, B.; Wal, R. van der; Haara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammunition storage spaces on naval vessels are commonly fitted with drencher systems that are designed to prevent ordnance reaching a temperature where it might explode due to fast or slow “cook‐off”. Many of these systems are traditional low pressure water spray systems that are required by the

  12. Nitrogen bubbling in expansion vessels and storage tanks for makeup water; Kvaevgasbubbling i expansionskaerl och lagertankar foer spaedvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilgotson, Fredrik; Hansson, Helen [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Oxygen and carbon dioxide induced corrosion and biological growth are two problems associated with storage tanks for demineralised water as well as with atmospheric expansion vessels. The aim of this project was to investigate if it is possible to reduce or perhaps even eliminate those problems by bubbling nitrogen through the water. The investigation shows that the nitrogen flow is of great importance for the result.

  13. Storage stability of hen egg white powders in three protein/water dough model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in the intermediate-moisture food (IMF) market, such as high protein nutrition bars (HPNB), has significantly increased. Currently, no reported study is related to the storage stability of dried hen egg white (DEW) and its hydrolysates (HEW) in an IMF matrix. Therefore, three DEW/HEW dough model systems (100%HEW+0%DEW, 75%HEW+25%DEW and 50%HEW+50%DEW) were established using two commercial spray-dried egg white powders to study the effect of temperature and fraction of HEW on these IMF models (water activity (a(w)): ∼0.8). During storage at three different temperatures (23, 35 and 45°C) for 70 days, the selected physicochemical properties of the dough systems were compared. Overall, kinetic analysis showed an apparent zero-order model fit for the change in the colour (L(∗)), fluorescence intensity (FI) and hardness, as a function of time, for different dough model systems. As expected, the L(∗), FI and hardness increased as a function of time mainly due to the Maillard reaction. The amount of free amino groups decreased, with an increase in rate of loss, as temperature increased in the 100%HEW+0%DEW model. When DEW was substituted for some HEW, the regeneration of the free amino groups after loss was observed as a function of time. Furthermore, when the percentage of HEW was decreased, the incidence of mouldy samples occurred sooner, which indicates that HEW has some antimicrobial ability, especially in the 100%HEW+0%DEW system where mould growth did not occur. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 沼泽湿地生态储水量及生态需水量计算方法%Method for calculating ecological water storage and ecological water requirement of marsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽娟; 李九一; 粱丽乔; 柳玉梅

    2009-01-01

    As one of the most typical wetlands, marsh plays an important role in hydrological and economic aspects, especially in keeping biological diversity. In this study, the definition and connotation of the ecological water storage of marsh is discussed for the first time, and its distinction and relationship with ecological water requirement are also analyzed. Furthermore, the gist and method of calculating ecological water storage and ecological water requirement have been provided, and Momoge wetland has been given as an example of calculation of the two variables. Ecological water use of marsh can be ascertained according to ecological water storage and ecological water requirement. For reasonably spatial and temporal varia-tion of water storage and rational water resources planning, the suitable quantity of water supply to marsh can be calculated according to the hydrological conditions, ecological de-mand and actual water resources.

  15. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. The effects of water sample treatment, preparation, and storage prior to cyanotoxin analysis for cylindrospermopsin, microcystin and saxitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Lisa; Church, Jennifer L; Carpino, Justin; Faltin-Mara, Erin; Rubio, Fernando

    2016-02-25

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms occur in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs, and in brackish waters throughout the world. The wide variety of cyanotoxins and their congeners can lead to frequent exposure of humans through consumption of meat, fish, seafood, blue-green algal products and water, accidental ingestion of contaminated water and cyanobacterial scum during recreational activities, and inhalation of cyanobacterial aerosols. Cyanotoxins can also occur in the drinking water supply. In order to monitor human exposure, sensitive analytical methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are often used. Regardless of the analytical method of choice, some problems regularly occur during sample collection, treatment, storage, and preparation which cause toxin loss and therefore underestimation of the true concentration. To evaluate the potential influence of sample treatment, storage and preparation materials on surface and drinking water samples, the effects of different types of materials on toxin recovery were compared. Collection and storage materials included glass and various types of plastics. It was found that microcystin congeners LA and LF adsorbed to polystyrene, polypropylene, high density polyethylene and polycarbonate storage containers, leading to low recoveries (microcystins, and saxitoxin. This study also demonstrated that after 15 min chlorine decreased the concentration of microcystin LR to microcystin LA and saxitoxin to <15%, therefore quenching of drinking water samples immediately upon sample collection is critical for accurate analysis. In addition, the effect of various drinking water treatment chemicals on toxin recovery and the behavior of those chemicals in the enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were also studied and are summarized.

  17. Assimilation of gridded terrestrial water storage observations from GRACE into a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela; De Lannoy, Gabriëlle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have a coarse resolution in time (monthly) and space (roughly 150,000 km2 at midlatitudes) and vertically integrate all water storage components over land, including soil moisture and groundwater. Data assimilation can be used to horizontally downscale and vertically partition GRACE-TWS observations. This work proposes a variant of existing ensemble-based GRACE-TWS data assimilation schemes. The new algorithm differs in how the analysis increments are computed and applied. Existing schemes correlate the uncertainty in the modeled monthly TWS estimates with errors in the soil moisture profile state variables at a single instant in the month and then apply the increment either at the end of the month or gradually throughout the month. The proposed new scheme first computes increments for each day of the month and then applies the average of those increments at the beginning of the month. The new scheme therefore better reflects submonthly variations in TWS errors. The new and existing schemes are investigated here using gridded GRACE-TWS observations. The assimilation results are validated at the monthly time scale, using in situ measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture across the U.S. The new assimilation scheme yields improved (although not in a statistically significant sense) skill metrics for groundwater compared to the open-loop (no assimilation) simulations and compared to the existing assimilation schemes. A smaller impact is seen for surface and root-zone soil moisture, which have a shorter memory and receive smaller increments from TWS assimilation than groundwater. These results motivate future efforts to combine GRACE-TWS observations with observations that are more sensitive to surface soil moisture, such as L-band brightness temperature observations from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) or Soil Moisture Active Passive

  18. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  19. Water storages and fluxes within the small watershed in continuous permafrost zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Makarieva, Olga; Nesterova, Nataliya; Meyer, Hanno; Efremov, Vladimir; Ogonerov, Vasiliy

    2017-04-01

    values between -19‰ and -24‰, δD values between -150‰ and -175‰. Isotopic concentrations of groundwater are stable through the year. Field surveys and the analysis of isotopic concentrations showed that some surface flow occurs only in bogs. Subsurface flow forms in larch forests in seasonally thawing layer in July and August. Dry sandy deposits at some slopes in pine forests do not produce surface or shallow subsurface flow but could contain deeper groundwater in taliks. The results of simple two-component mixing model application has shown that in 2015 snowmelt water contributed only 54-70% of streamflow while 30-46% of freshet was supplied by pre-event water. In our opinion suprapermafrost talik water is the most feasible source of the pre-event water. The presence of groundwater in streamflow is indirectly confirmed by the fact that the correlation of total river runoff with last-year precipitation is stronger than with this-year precipitation. It suggests that large and slow water storages in the basins are important chain of hydrological cycle. Taliks could potentially be a significant source for the small rivers in permafrost environments that is not reflected in current process understanding and modelling approaches. The study is partially supported by Russian foundation of basic research, projects No 15-05-08144 and No 16-35-50151.

  20. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2014-07-28

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions. 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  2. Monitoring and comparison of terrestrial water storage changes in the northern high plains using GRACE and in-situ based integrated hydrologic model estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Wondwosen M.; Milewski, Adam M.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced measurement of the variation of the terrestrial water cycle are imperative to better understand the dynamics, water availability, and evaluate impacts of global changes on the water cycle. This study quantified storage in the various terrestrial water compartments using an integrated hydrologic model (IHM) - MIKE SHE that simulates the entire terrestrial water cycle and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data in the intensively irrigated Northern High Plains (area ∼ 250,000 km2). The IHM, mainly constructed using in-situ data, was evaluated using field measured groundwater level, stream flow, and soil moisture data. The model was first used to calculate the incremental water storage for each water balance component (e.g. storage in the saturated zone) and then the GRACE equivalent terrestrial water storage anomaly. In the study area, storage in the saturated zone is the major component of the terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly. The GRACE-derived TWS anomaly and the anomaly simulated from the model are generally in agreement on a monthly scale with few discrepancies. Generally, both GRACE and the IHM results displayed a statistically significant increasing trend in the total TWS and groundwater storage anomalies from 2002-2013 over the Northern High Plains. This study demonstrates the applicability of an integrated hydrologic model to monitor TWS variations in a large area, and GRACE data and IHMs are capable of reproducing observed trends in TWS.

  3. Quantifying impacts of coupled chemical and physical heterogeneity on water quality evolution during Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H.; Descourvieres, C.; Seibert, S.; Harris, B.; Atteia, O.; Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an important water management option in water-scarce regions. During wet periods surplus water is injected into suitable aquifers for storage and later recovery. ASR sites are, however, also ideal natural laboratories that provide opportunities for studying coupled physical and geochemical processes and water quality evolution at field-scale under well-controlled hydrological conditions. In this study, we use reactive transport modelling to assess the impacts of physical and chemical heterogeneities on the water quality evolution during the injection of oxic surface water into the anoxic, pyrite-bearing Leederville aquifer in Perth, Western Australia. Physical heterogeneity was identified from geophysical well logs and time lapse temperature logs. Those data were used to define the spatial, depth-varying alternation of three lithofacies (sandstone, siltstone and clay). Chemical heterogeneity was incorporated through distinct chemical zones, based on data derived from a comprehensive pre-trial geochemical characterization and from dedicated laboratory respirometer experiments. Calibration of flow and conservative transport parameters was constrained by the spatially varying measured chloride breakthrough behavior. Subsequent reactive transport modeling discerned the key geochemical processes that affected the water quality evolution during ASR. Clearly identified processes included oxidation of pyrite, mineralization of sedimentary organic carbon, ion exchange, dissolution of calcite and precipitation of ferrihydrite and siderite. We use the calibrated model to analyze the individual and the combined effects of the physical and chemical heterogeneities on the chemical composition of the recovered water during ASR.

  4. Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation.

  5. Faecal contamination of drinking water during collection and household storage: the need to extend protection to the point of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Bastable, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Paired water samples were collected and analysed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) from 20 sources (17 developed or rehabilitated by Oxfam and 3 others) and from the stored household water supplies of 100 households (5 from each source) in 13 towns and villages in the Kailahun District of Sierra Leone. In addition, the female head of the 85 households drawing water from Oxfam improved sources was interviewed and information recorded on demographics, hygiene instruction and practices, sanitation facilities and water collection and storage practices. At the non-improved sources, the arithmetic mean TTC load was 407/100 ml at the point of distribution, rising to a mean count of 882/100 ml at the household level. Water from the improved sources met WHO guidelines, with no faecal contamination. At the household level, however, even this safe water was subject to frequent and extensive faecal contamination; 92.9% of stored household samples contained some level of TTC, 76.5% contained more than the 10 TTC per 100 ml threshold set by the Sphere Project for emergency conditions. The arithmetic mean TTC count for all samples from the sampled households was 244 TTC per 100 ml (geometric mean was 77). These results are consistent with other studies that demonstrate substantial levels of faecal contamination of even safe water during collection, storage and access in the home. They point to the need to extend drinking water quality beyond the point of distribution to the point of consumption. The options for such extended protection, including improved collection and storage methods and household-based water treatment, are discussed.

  6. Globally gridded terrestrial water storage variations from GRACE satellite gravimetry for hydrometeorological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Thomas, Maik

    2016-07-01

    Globally gridded estimates of monthly-mean anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) are estimated from the most recent GRACE release 05a of GFZ Potsdam in order to provide non-geodetic users a convenient access to state-of-the-art GRACE monitoring data. We use an ensemble of five global land model simulations with different physics and different atmospheric forcing to obtain reliable gridded scaling factors required to correct for spatial leakage introduced during data processing. To allow for the application of this data-set for large-scale monitoring tasks, model validation efforts, and subsequently also data assimilation experiments, globally gridded estimates of TWS uncertainties that include (i) measurement, (ii) leakage and (iii) re-scaling errors are provided as well. The results are generally consistent with the gridded data provided by Tellus, but deviate in some basins which are largely affected by the uncertainties of the model information required for re-scaling, where the approach based on the median of a small ensemble of global land models introduced in this paper leads to more robust results.

  7. Effect of dentin location and long-term water storage on bonding effectiveness of dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Mine, Atsushi; Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; De Almeida Neves, Aline; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Dentin is a variable substrate with properties that change considerable in a single surface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding effectiveness to these different dentin locations and evaluate these differences over time. After bonding procedures with five different adhesives, small micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) beams were prepared and dichotomously divided in 'center' and 'periphery' dentin specimens. After 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months of water storage the µTBS of specimens of each group was determined, enabling a paired study design. The bond strengths of both etch&rinse adhesives were insensitive to regional variability. For the two-step self-etch adhesives, a marked increase in bond strengths was observed with increasing amount of intertubular dentin. Regional variability did not affect the long-term bonding effectiveness for any of the adhesives tested. In conclusion, only for the mild self-etch adhesives, µTBS to 'periphery' dentin was higher than for the 'center' specimens.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Han Young; Na, Eun Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Yoon, Hyunjin; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, Heebal; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticusis a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in humans who consumeV. parahaemolyticus-contaminated seafood.The FORC_023 strain was isolated from raw fish storage water, containing live fish at a sashimi restaurant. Here, we aimed to sequence and characterize the genome of the FORC_023 strain. The genome of the FORC_023 strain showed two circular chromosomes, which contained 4227 open reading frames (ORFs), 131 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. Although the genome of FORC_023 did not include major virulence genes, such as genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), it contained genes encoding other hemolysins, secretion systems, iron uptake-related proteins and severalV. parahaemolyticusislands. The highest average nucleotide identity value was obtained between the FORC_023 strain and UCM-V493 (CP007004-6). Comparative genomic analysis of FORC_023 with UCM-V493 revealed that FORC_023 carried an additional genomic region encoding virulence factors, such as repeats-in-toxin and type II secretion factors. Furthermore,in vitrocytotoxicity testing showed that FORC_023 exhibited a high level of cytotoxicity toward INT-407 human epithelial cells. These results suggested that the FORC_023 strain may be a food-borne pathogen.

  9. Field and laboratory studies of subsurface water injection: Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage program (STES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L. B.; Blair, S. C.; Peterson, E.

    1982-12-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) project office at the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has sponsored development of an Aquifer Properties Test Facility (APTF) to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling on reservoir properties. The APTF Laboratory apparatus for testing aquifer materials at elevated temperature and pressure (Figure 1) is now being used to evaluate aquifer material from the University of Minnesota Field Test Facility (FTF). Injection well impairment has been experienced at STES sites in Mobile, Alabama and Stony Brook, New York. Terra Tek Research, under contract to Battelle, PNL, performed a laboratory evaluation of impairment mechanisms that may have been involved in the failure of the injection well at the Stony Brook site. Terra Tek Research, again under contract to Battelle, PNL, designed, built and installed a portable Field Injectability Test Stand (FITS) at the STES Field Test Facility, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. The injectability apparatus uses membrane filters and core samples as injection formation analogs to evaluate the response of a representative porous matrix to injected water.

  10. Water-soluble polyaniline/graphene composites as materials for energy storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Solonaru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three water-dispersable composites have been synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline N-propanesulfonic acid (AnS in reduced graphene oxide (r-GO dispersion, in an ice bath at 0 °C and in the absence of any surfactant. The mass ratio between r-GO and aniline monomer have been established as (mr-GO:mAnS = 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 while in the composites, the mass ratio between r-GO and polyaniline was found: 1:0.3, 1:0.5 and 1:1, respectively. The molecular structure, morphology, and optical properties of the composites were analyzed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Electrochemical performances for energy storage were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte in a three-electrode cell. The composite with the mass ratio (mr-GO:mPAnS = 1:1 has showed good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 1019 F/g at scan rate of 1 mV/s calculated from integrated area of cyclic voltammogram curve and a retention life of 80% after 100 cycles. These results indicate that the composites prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization are promising materials for electrode supercapacitors.

  11. Global terrestrial water storage connectivity revealed using complex climate network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Sun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial water storage (TWS exerts a key control in global water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Although certain causal relationships exist between precipitation and TWS, the latter also reflects impacts of anthropogenic activities. Thus, quantification of the spatial patterns of TWS will not only help to understand feedbacks between climate dynamics and hydrologic cycle, but also provide new model calibration constraints for improving the current land surface models. In this work, the connectivity of TWS is quantified using the climate network theory, which has received broad attention in the climate modeling community in recent years. Complex networks of TWS anomalies are built using two global TWS datasets, a remote-sensing product that is obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission, and a model-generated dataset from the global land data assimilation system's NOAH model (GLDAS-NOAH. Both datasets have 1 ° × 1 ° resolutions and cover most global land areas except for permafrost regions. TWS networks are built by first quantifying pairwise correlation among all valid TWS anomaly time series, and then applying a statistical cutoff threshold to retain only the most important features in the network. Basinwise network connectivity maps are used to illuminate connectivity of individual river basins with other regions. The constructed network degree centrality maps show TWS hotspots around the globe and the patterns are consistent with recent GRACE studies. Parallel analyses of networks constructed using the two datasets indicate that the GLDAS-NOAH model captures many of the spatial patterns shown by GRACE, although significant discrepancies exist in some regions. Thus, our results provide important insights for constraining land surface models, especially in data sparse regions.

  12. Predicting Agricultural Drought using NOAH Land Surface Model, MODIS Evapotranspiration and GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    wu, J.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a major natural hazard in the world which costs 6-8 billion per year in the United States. Drought monitoring and prediction are difficult because it usually develops slowly and it is hard to be recognized until it becomes severe. The severity of agricultural drought was estimated by using Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI) based on soil moisture simulated by Noah land surface model. Based on general water balance and delayed response of soil moisture to the forcing of climate variables, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model for agricultural drought prediction was developed, the inputs of which included data at the previous one and two months of precipitation from Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), evapotranspiration from MODIS MOD 16 product and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). The stability of the MLR model is tested using different training datasets from 2003 to 2009 with time spans of one year to six years and the results indicated that the model is stable, with very limited changes in estimated parameters between different datasets. A sensitivity analysis shows that evapotranspiration is the most significant variable affecting soil moisture change compared to precipitation and TWS. The predicted SMDI was compared with U.S. drought monitor products to evaluate its performance for the period of 2010-2012 when a severe drought occurred in the U.S. (Fig.1). The predicted SMDI successfully forecasted the severe drought in the southern U.S. in early 2012 and its expansion in the following summer. The MLR model has a high predictive skill with short-term forecast (1-2 months), while less accuracy is observed for the long-term forecast (3-6 months) (Fig.2).

  13. Measurements of Water and B4C Content of Rackable Can Storage Boxes for HEU Storage at the HEUMF at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, JS

    2003-03-24

    Extensive measurements at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with BoroBond{trademark} blocks of varying thickness, natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) content, and water content, and with a simplified mockup of the Rackable Can Storage Box (RCSB) of fixed natural B{sub 4}C and water content, have led to a method of quantifying the water content of RCSBs by fast neutron time-of-flight transmission measurements (NMIS)* and quantifying the B{sub 4}C content with gamma ray spectrometry assuming the water content is known. The time-of-flight transmission measurements results can also be used to assess the uniformity of the BoroBond{trademark} in the RCSB. The data from both measurements will be stored for future comparisons to initial measurements. These methods can also be implemented at the RCSB production site, or subsequently at the Y-12 National Security Complex during the operating lifetime of the RCSBs at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility.

  14. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man

    2012-04-01

    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution.

  16. Validation of terrestrial water storage variations as simulated by different global numerical models with GRACE satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Stacke, Tobias; Güntner, Andreas; Dill, Robert; Thomas, Maik

    2017-02-01

    Estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are used to assess the accuracy of four global numerical model realizations that simulate the continental branch of the global water cycle. Based on four different validation metrics, we demonstrate that for the 31 largest discharge basins worldwide all model runs agree with the observations to a very limited degree only, together with large spreads among the models themselves. Since we apply a common atmospheric forcing data set to all hydrological models considered, we conclude that those discrepancies are not entirely related to uncertainties in meteorologic input, but instead to the model structure and parametrization, and in particular to the representation of individual storage components with different spatial characteristics in each of the models. TWS as monitored by the GRACE mission is therefore a valuable validation data set for global numerical simulations of the terrestrial water storage since it is sensitive to very different model physics in individual basins, which offers helpful insight to modellers for the future improvement of large-scale numerical models of the global terrestrial water cycle.

  17. Study on performance of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage unit integrated with solar water heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NALLUSAMY N.; SAMPATH S.; VELRAJ R.

    2006-01-01

    In thermal systems such as solar thermal and waste heat recovery systems, the available energy supply does not usually coincide in time with the process demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES) is necessary for the most effective utilization of the energy source. This study deals with the experimental evaluation of thermal performance of a packed bed latent heat TES unit integrated with solar flat plate collector. The TES unit contains paraffin as phase change material (PCM) filled in spherical capsules, which are packed in an insulated cylindrical storage tank. The water used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) to transfer heat from the solar collector to the storage tank also acts as sensible heat storage material. Charging experiments were carried out at varying inlet fluid temperatures to examine the effects of porosity and HTF flow rate on the storage unit performance. The performance parameters such as instantaneous heat stored, cumulative heat stored, charging rate and system efficiency are studied.Discharging experiments were carried out by both continuous and batchwise processes to recover the stored heat, and the results are presented.

  18. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high-resolution isotope data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C; Birkel, C; Geris, J; Dick, J; Tunaley, C; Tetzlaff, D

    2015-09-01

    To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time-variant stream water ages, we used a new long-term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ∼1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ∼1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments.

  19. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high‐resolution isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Dick, J.; Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time‐variant stream water ages, we used a new long‐term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer‐aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ∼1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ∼1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process‐based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments. PMID:27478255

  20. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Uribe, Catalina; Cortés, Sebastian; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot) and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information. Results Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3). The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins) is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking. Conclusions It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water

  1. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana García-Betancourt

    Full Text Available The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach.Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information.Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3. The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking.It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation.

  2. Enhanced Identification of hydrologic models using streamflow and satellite water storage data: a multi-objective calibration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, F. A.; Razavi, S.; Sapriza, G.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional procedure for parameter identification of hydrological processes through conditioning only to streamflow data is challenging in physically based distributed hydrologic modelling. The challenge increases for modeling the landscapes where vertical processes dominate horizontal processes, leading to high uncertainties in modelled state variables, vertical fluxes and hence parameter estimates. Such behavior is common in modeling the prairie region of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB, our case study), Canada, where hydrologic connectivity and vertical fluxes are mainly controlled by surface and sub-surface water storage. To address this challenge, we developed a novel multi-criteria framework that utilizes total column water storage derived from the GRACE satellite, in addition to streamflows. We used a multi-objective optimization algorithm (Borg) and a recently-developed global sensitivity analysis approach (VARS) to effectively identify the model parameters and characterize their significance in model performance. We applied this framework in the calibration of a Land Surface Scheme-Hydrology model, MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology) to a sub-watershed of SaskRB. Results showed that the developed framework is superior to the conventional approach of calibration to streamflows. The new framework allowed us to find optimal solutions that effectively constrain the posterior parameter space and are representative of storage and streamflow performance criteria, yielding more credible prediction with reduced uncertainty of modeled storage and evaporation.

  3. Mechanical properties and microstructure of frozen carrots during storage as affected by blanching in water and sugar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Raw carrots and carrots blanched in water and in 4% trehalose and maltose solutions at 75°C for 3 (A) and 10 min (C) and at 90°C for 3 (B) and 10 min (D) were frozen and stored at -18°C for eight months. The effects of heating conditions and exogenous added sugars on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the vegetable after blanching and during frozen storage were studied. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis no significant differences were observed among samples A and B water-blanched and raw carrot while a thermo-protective effect due to the sugars addition was evidenced in sample D, undergone to the most severe thermal treatment. Freezing and frozen storage determined several fractures on both raw and blanched carrots due to ice crystals formation and re-crystallisation. The cryo-protective effect of the sugars on the vegetable microstructure was observed only in the 'over-blanched' sample D. The mechanical properties of carrots were affected by blanching which caused a hardness decrease but after freezing and one month of frozen storage, all samples showed a further dramatic reduction of hardness. Only samples characterised by a pectinesterase residual activity showed a softening also after one month of frozen storage likely for a competitive effect of the thermo-protective ability of trehalose on this enzyme. The exogenous trehalose was able to limit the hardness loss of carrots undergone to B, C and D blanching pre-treatments.

  4. Water-level changes and change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2013 and 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (generally before 1950) to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013. The report also presents change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013.

  5. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  6. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  7. Satellite-derived surface and sub-surface water storage in the Ganges–Brahmaputra River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Papa

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights: Basin-scale monthly SWS variations for the period 2003–2007 show a mean annual amplitude of ∼410 km3, contributing to about 45% of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE-derived total water storage variations (TWS. During the drought-like conditions in 2006, we estimate that the SWS deficit over the entire GB basin in July–August–September was about 30% as compared to other years. The SWS variations are then used to decompose the GB GRACE-derived TWS and isolate the variations of SSWS whose mean annual amplitude is estimated to be ∼550 km3. This new dataset of water storage variations represent an unprecedented source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the ISC.

  8. Studies of a dynamic type ice storage system using supercooled water; Kareikyakusui riyo dainamikku gata shochikunetsu shisutemu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Hashimoto, A.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Inst. of Tech., Kanagawa (Japan); Ikemoto, Y.

    1999-11-25

    An ice storage system using supercooled water was constructed and the performance was tested. The system was consisted of a storage tank with the volume of 1.2 m{sup 3} in which slurry-ice was stared, a spiral double-tube heat exchanger 22 m long for making supercooled water by brine, a refrigerating machine of the rated capacity of 2.2 kW, reservoirs for cold and hot brine, heaters, and pumps. The system was able to be operated for more than 5 hours without freezing mostly if the degree of supercooling was less than about 2 degree C. The COPs based on the power of the refrigerating machine and system were about 1.3 and 0.7, respectively. (author)

  9. A System Dynamics Model to Conserve Arid Region Water Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Conjunction with a Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Niazi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater depletion poses a significant threat in arid and semi-arid areas where rivers are usually ephemeral and groundwater is the major source of water. The present study investigated whether an effective water resources management strategy, capable of minimizing evaporative water losses and groundwater depletion while providing water for expanded agricultural activities, can be achieved through aquifer storage and recovery (ASR implemented in conjunction with water storage in an ephemeral river. A regional development modeling framework, including both ASR and a dam design developed through system dynamics modeling, was validated using a case study for the Sirik region of Iran. The system dynamics model of groundwater flow and the comprehensive system dynamics model developed in this study showed that ASR was a beneficial strategy for the region’s farmers and the groundwater system, since the rate of groundwater depletion declined significantly (from 14.5 meters per 40 years to three meters over the same period. Furthermore, evaporation from the reservoir decreased by 50 million cubic meters over the simulation period. It was concluded that the proposed system dynamics model is an effective tool in helping to conserve water resources and reduce depletion in arid regions and semi-arid areas.

  10. Effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Cleci de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three acrylic resins (Dencor-De, Duralay-Du, and Vipi Cor-VC were selected and one composite resin (Opallis-Op was used as a parameter for comparison. The materials were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed in stainless steel moulds (20 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick. Thirty samples of each resin were made and divided into three groups (n = 10 according to the moment of Vickers hardness (VHN and roughness (Ra analyses: C (control group: immediately after specimen preparation; Sw: after storage in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 hours; Tc: after thermocycling (3000 cycles; 5-55 °C, 30 seconds dwell time. Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05. RESULTS: Op resin had higher surface hardness values (p 0.05 in roughness among materials (De = 0.31 ± 0.07; Du = 0.51 ± 0.20; VC = 0.41 ± 0.15; Op = 0.42 ± 0.18. Storage in water did not change hardness and roughness of the tested materials (p > 0.05. There was a significant increase in roughness after thermocycling (p < 0.05, except for material Du, which showed no significant change in roughness in any evaluated period (p = 0.99. CONCLUSION: Thermocycling increased the roughness in most tested materials without affecting hardness, while storage in water had no significant effect in the evaluated properties.

  11. Carbon storage, soil carbon dioxide efflux and water quality in three widths of piedmont streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica F. Wadl; William Lakel; Michael Aust; John Seiler

    2010-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are used to protect water quality. Monitoring carbon pools and fluxes in SMZs may a good indicator of the SMZ’s overall function and health. In this project we evaluated some of these pools and fluxes from three different SMZ widths (30.5, 15.3, and 7.6 m) in the Piedmont of Virginia. We quantified carbon storage in the soil (upper 10...

  12. Investigation of water adsorption on metal oxide surfaces under conditions representative of PuO2 storage containers

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Pat; Boxall, Colin; Taylor, Robin J

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) based method for direct gravimetric determination of water adsorption on PuO2 surrogate surfaces, especially CeO2, under conditions representative of those in a typical PuO2 storage can. In this application, the method of transduction of the QCM relies upon the linear relationship between the resonant frequency of piezoelectrically active quartz crystals and the mass adsorbed on the crystal surface. The spurious effect of high temperatures...

  13. Analysis of Long-term Terrestrial Water Storage Variations in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bob; Huang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Salama, Suhyb; Krol, Maaten; Hoekstra, Arjen; Zhou, Yunxuan; van der Velde, Rogier

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyze 32 years of TWS data obtained from Interim Reanalysis Data (ERA-Interim) and Noah model from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-Noah) for the period between 1979 and 2010. The accuracy of these datasets is validated against 26 years (1979-2004) of runoff dataset from Yichang gauging station and compared to 32 years of independent precipitation data obtained from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Full Data Reanalysis Version 6 (GPCC) and NOAA's PRECipitation REConstruction over Land (PREC/L). Spatial and temporal analysis of the TWS data shows that TWS in the Yangtze River basin is decreasing significantly since the year 1998. The driest period of the basin is noted from 2005 to 2010, especially in the middle and lower Yangtze reaches. The TWS changed abruptly into persistently high negative anomalies in the middle and lower Yangtze Reaches in 2004. From both basin and annual perspectives, 2006 is detected as the major inflection point at which the system exhibits a persistent decrease in TWS. Comparing these TWS trends to independent precipitation datasets shows that the recent decrease in TWS can mainly be attributed to a decrease in precipitation amount. Our finding is based on observation and modeling data sets and confirms previous results based on gauging station datasets. Reference: Huang, Y., Salama, M.S., Krol, M.S., van der Velde, R., Hoekstra, A.Y., Zhou, Y. and Su, Z. (2013) Analysis of long - term terrestrial water storage variations in the Yangtze River basin. In: Hydrology and earth system sciences (HESS): 17 (2013)5 pp. 1985-2000.

  14. Resin-dentin bond strength of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Silvia Terra; Cubas, Gloria Beatriz de Azevedo; Flores, Josiane Barcelos; Montemezzo, Murieli Leonor; Pinto, Marcia Bueno; Piva, Evandro

    2010-01-01

    To compare the resin-dentin bond degradation of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage, 100 bovine incisors were randomly separated into 10 groups and their superficial coronal dentin was exposed. According to manufacturers' instructions, dentin surfaces were bonded with one of seven two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives or one of three three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives. Composite buildups were constructed incrementally. Restored teeth were sectioned to obtain sticks (0.5 mm²). The specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond strength test after storage in distilled water (at 37°C) for one year. Data (MPa) were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests at α = 0.05. Of the adhesives tested, One Step, All Bond 2, and Optibond FL attained the highest bond strength to dentin after one year in water storage, while Magic Bond DE and Master Bond presented a high number of premature debonded flaws.

  15. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2 h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons.

  16. Effect of added water, sodium erythorbate and storage time on the functional properties of prerigor beef preblends in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, A; Reagan, J O; Carpenter, J A; Miller, M F

    1989-01-01

    Singular and combined effects of added water, sodium erythorbate and storage time on salt soluble protein extractability, bacteriological and chemical characteristics of preblended hot-boned beef were evaluated. Waterholding and gel forming capacities of preblended hot-boned beef containing either 0, 10 or 20% added water were determined. Significant interactions between added water level and storage time on microbial counts and between sodium erythorbate level and storage time on thiobarbituric acid values and residual nitrite levels were noted. The presence of sodium erythorbate resulted in a more (P 0·05) microbial counts. Salt-soluble protein extractability was not affected (P > 0·05) by added water, but more protein could be extracted with increasing storage time. A trend existed to suggest that the presence of added water in the meat preblends slightly improved the gel formation and waterholding capacities.

  17. Storage and Non-Payment: Persistent Informalities within the Formal Water Supply of Hubli-Dharwad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Burt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban water systems in Asia and Africa mostly provide intermittent rather than continuous water supplies; such systems compromise water quality and inconvenience the user. Starting in 2008, an upgrade to continuous (24/7 water services was provided for 10% of the twin cities of Hubli-Dharwad, India, through a process of privatisation and formalisation. The goals were to improve water quality, free consumers from collecting and storing water, and reduce non-revenue (i.e. unpaid for water. Drawing on household surveys (n = 1986 conducted in 2010-2011 in the 24/7 zones, as well as on a range of interviews, we find that, even with 'formal' 24/7 water service, most consumers continue the supposedly 'informal' practices of in-home storage and water use without payment of bills. We argue that multiple unaccounted-for factors – including a history of distrust between the consumer and the utility, seemingly small infrastructural details, resistance to higher tariffs, and valuing convenience above water quality – have kept these informal practices embedded within the formalised delivery system. Our research contributes to understanding why formalisation may only partially supplant informal practices even when the formal system is functional and reliable.

  18. Interpretation of hydrologic trends from a water balance perspective: The role of groundwater storage in the Budyko hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Wang, Tiejun; Wright, Olivia M.; Lenters, John D.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the observed positive trends in annual runoff in several basins in central Nebraska using the Budyko hypothesis as a diagnostic tool. In basins where runoff is dominated by base flow we found that the estimated annual evapotranspiration (ETa) to precipitation (P) ratio (ETa/P) from data is negatively related to the aridity index (ETp/P, where ETp is potential annual evapotranspiration). This observation is inconsistent with the Budyko hypothesis. We hypothesized that the observed negative trend results from significant interannual changes in basin water storage. This hypothesis is tested using data from groundwater monitoring wells in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska. Plots of the yearly changes in groundwater storage versus the annual aridity index revealed the mean annual aridity index as a critical climatological variable that controls basin storage gain-loss dynamics. For the same absolute deviation from the mean climate, we found that a wetter year leads to a larger gain in groundwater storage than the net loss in a drier year. We argue that this storage gain-loss behavior builds a climate memory in the hydrologic system, causing persistence and statistically significant trends in annual runoff. A parsimonious model was developed that couples the Budyko hypothesis with a linear reservoir equation for base flow and was used to examine the possible causes of observed positive trends of annual runoff. We found that subtle, statistically insignificant, increases in annual P have led to positive and statistically insignificant trends in annual ETa and P - ETa. Annual runoff, on the other hand, was predicted to have high persistence and statistical significance, consistent with observations. Further model sensitivity analyses showed that increasing the size of the groundwater reservoir is associated with increased long-term (multidecadal) persistence in annual runoff and translates high-frequency, high-amplitude variation in climate to low

  19. Characterizing Seasonal Drought, Water Supply Pattern and Their Impact on Vegetation Growth Using Satellite Soil Moisture Data, GRACE Water Storage and Precipitation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Kim, Y.; Njoku, E. G.; Colliander, A.

    2016-12-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E, AMSR-2 and SMAP, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE and precipitation measurements from GPCP to delineate and characterize drought and water supply pattern and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE TWS provides spatially continuous observations of total terrestrial water storage changes and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite derived soil moisture estimates provide enhanced delineation of plant-available soil moisture. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply and have important implications for water resource management. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from different water components in relation to satellite based vegetation productivity metrics from MODIS, before, during and following the major drought events observed in the continental US during the past 13 years. We observe consistent trends and significant correlations between monthly time series of TWS, SM, and vegetation productivity. In Texas and surrounding semi-arid areas, we find that the spatial pattern of the vegetation-moisture relation follows the gradient in mean annual precipitation. In Texas, GRACE TWS and surface SM show strong coupling and similar characteristic time scale in relatively normal years, while during the 2011 onward hydrological drought, GRACE TWS manifests a longer time scale than that of surface SM, implying stronger drought persistence in deeper water storage. In the Missouri watershed, we find a spatially varying vegetation-moisture relationship where in the drier northwestern portion of the basin, the inter-annual variability in summer vegetation productivity is closely associated with changes in carry-on GRACE TWS from spring, whereas in the moist southeastern portion of the basin, summer precipitation is the dominant controlling factor on vegetation growth.

  20. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  1. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  2. Simulation of groundwater recharge from an aquifer storage recovery well under shallow water-table condition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. Goyal; B. S. Jhorar; R. S. Malik; T. Streck

    2009-01-01

    .... Saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated through inverse modelling technique using experimental pressure head time pairs during the first aquifer storage recovery cycle from a piezometer and an observation well...

  3. 基于水资源再利用的自动蓄水循环系统%Automatic water storage and recycling system based on water reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    角文滨; 徐镇标; 林普靖; 严庆东; 温耀龙; 李克天

    2011-01-01

    Automatic water storage and recycling system for water reuse,as well as a new type of concept house were put forward.It was suggested to avoid rush hour of water use in summer,and make use of high water pressure at night to replenish the water tank automa%提出一种居民家庭自动蓄水循环系统和二次循环水利用及新型概念房的构想。通过错过夏天用水高峰时段,合理利用夜晚水压进行水箱日常用水的自动补给。中水回用和雨水收集使得在概念房的有限面积内达到最大的水循环利用效率。

  4. Ecological links between water storage behaviors and Aedes aegypti production: implications for dengue vector control in variable climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabha, H; Soto, E; Mosquera, M; Lord, C C; Lounibos, L P

    2010-08-01

    Understanding linkages between household behavior and Aedes aegypti (L.) larval ecology is essential for community-based dengue mitigation. Here we associate water storage behaviors with the rate of A. aegypti pupal production in three dengue-endemic Colombian cities with different mean temperatures. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews and pupal counts were conducted over a 7-15-day period in 235 households containing a water storage vessel infested with larvae. Emptying vessels more often than every 7 days strongly reduced pupal production in all three cities. Emptying every 7-15 days reduced production by a similar magnitude as emptying Barranquilla (29.0 degrees C). Lidding vessels reduced mosquito production and was most feasible in Barranquilla because of container structure. Vessel emptying strongly correlated with usage in Barranquilla, where many households stored water in case of interruptions in piped service rather than for regular use. In the cooler cities, >90% of households regularly used stored water for washing clothes, generating a weaker correlation between emptying and usage. Emptying was less frequent in the households surveyed in the dry season in all three cities. These results show that A. aegypti production and human behaviors are coupled in a temperature-dependent manner. In addition to biological effects on aquatic stages, climate change may impact A. aegypti production through human behavioral adaptations. Vector control programs should account for geographic variation in temperature and water usage behaviors in designing targeted interventions.

  5. Water Storage Changes in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; De Linage, C.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 ± 0.6 mm/year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. We use additional remote-sensing information and output from land-surface models to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach followed here provides an example of 'best current capabilities' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin region lost 15.6 ± 2.9 mm/year of groundwater during the study period, or 82.3 ± 15.4 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  6. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB₁ content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B₁ increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG₁ and AFG₂ contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed.

  7. GRACE Gravity Satellite Observations of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes for Drought Characterization in the Arid Land of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex natural hazard which can have negative effects on agriculture, economy, and human life. In this paper, the primary goal is to explore the application of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE gravity satellite data for the quantitative investigation of the recent drought dynamic over the arid land of northwestern China, a region with scarce hydrological and meteorological observation datasets. The spatiotemporal characteristics of terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC were first evaluated based on the GRACE satellite data, and then validated against hydrological model simulations and precipitation data. A drought index, the total storage deficit index (TSDI, was derived on the basis of GRACE-recovered TWSC. The spatiotemporal distributions of drought events from 2003 to 2012 in the study region were obtained using the GRACE-derived TSDI. Results derived from TSDI time series indicated that, apart from four short-term (three months drought events, the study region experienced a severe long-term drought from May 2008 to December 2009. As shown in the spatial distribution of TSDI-derived drought conditions, this long-term drought mainly concentrated in the northwestern area of the entire region, where the terrestrial water storage was in heavy deficit. These drought characteristics, which were detected by TSDI, were consistent with local news reports and other researchers’ results. Furthermore, a comparison between TSDI and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI implied that GRACE TSDI was a more reliable integrated drought indicator (monitoring agricultural and hydrological drought in terms of considering total terrestrial water storages for large regions. The GRACE-derived TSDI can therefore be used to characterize and monitor large-scale droughts in the arid regions, being of special value for areas with scarce observations.

  8. RELATIONS BETWEEN GRACE-DERIVED WATER STORAGE CHANGE WITH PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE OVER KAIDU RIVER BASIN, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for human survival and well-being, and important to virtually all sectors of the economy. In the aridzone of China’s west, water resource is the controlling factor on the distribution of human settlements. Water cycle variation is sensitive to temperature and precipitation, which are influenced by human activity and climate change. Satellite observations of Earth’s time-variable gravity field from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission, which enable direct measurement of changes of total terrestrial water storage, could be useful to aid this modelling. In this pilot study, TWS change from 2002 to 2013 obtained from GRACE satellite mission over the Kaidu River Basin in Xinjiang, China is presented. Precipitation and temperature data from in-situ station and National Satellite Meteorological Centre of China (NSMC are analysed to examine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between them.

  9. Effects of storage temperature on tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 μg/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 μg/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures.

  10. Geophysics in the Critical Zone: Constraints on Deep Weathering and Water Storage Potential in the Southern Sierra CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, W.; Riebe, C. S.; Hayes, J. L.; Reeder, K.; Harry, D. L.; Malazian, A. I.; Dosseto, A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the depth and degree of subsurface weathering in landscapes is crucial for quantitative understanding of the biogeochemistry of weathering, the mechanics of hillslope sediment transport, and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon over both short and long timescales. Although the degree of weathering can be readily measured from geochemical and physical properties of regolith and rock, many distributed samples are needed to measure it over broad spatial scales. Moreover, quantifying the thickness of subsurface weathering has remained challenging, in part because the interface between altered and unaltered rock is often buried at difficult to access depths. To overcome these challenges, we combined seismic refraction and resistivity surveys to estimate regolith thickness and generate representative hillslope-scale images of subsurface weathering and water storage at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Inferred seismic velocities and electrical resistivities of the subsurface provide evidence for a weathering zone with thickness ranging from 10 to 35 m (average = 23 m) along one intensively studied transect. This weathering zone consists of roughly equal thicknesses of saprolite (P-velocity < 2 km/s) and moderately weathered bedrock (P-velocity < 4 km/s). We use a rock physics model of seismic velocities, based on Hertz-Mindlin contact theory, to estimate lateral and vertical variations in porosity as a metric of water storage potential along the transect. Inferred porosities are as high as 55% near the surface and decrease to zero at the base of weathered rock. Model-predicted porosities are broadly consistent with values measured from physical properties of saprolite, suggesting that our analysis of the geophysical data provides realistic estimates of subsurface water storage potential. A major advantage of our geophysical approach is that it quickly and non-invasively quantifies porosity over broad vertical and lateral scales

  11. Whole Watershed Management to Maximize Total Water Storage: Case Study of the American-Cosumnes River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, E.; Gailey, R.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Maples, S.; Adams, L. E.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Dahlke, H. E.; Harter, T.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Drought and unrelenting water demands by urban, agricultural and ecological entities present a need to manage and perhaps maximize all the major stores of water, including mountain snowpack and soil moisture, surface reservoirs, and groundwater reservoirs for the future. During drought, the over-exploitations of groundwater, which supplies up to 60% of California's agricultural water demand, has caused serious overdraft in many areas. Moreover, owing to climate change, faster and earlier snowmelt in Mediterranean climate systems such as California dictates that less water can be stored in reservoirs. If we are to substantially compensate for this loss of stored water without drastically cutting back water supply, a new era of radically increased groundwater recharge will be needed. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has become a common and fast-growing management option, especially in areas with high water availability variation intra- and inter-annually. Enhancing the recharge by the use of peak runoff requires integrated river basin management to improve prospects to downstream users and ecology. This study implements a quantitative approach to assess the physical and economic feasibility of MAR for American-Cosumnes River basin, CA. For this purpose, two scenarios are considered, the pre-development condition which is represented by unimpaired flows, and the other one in which available peak flow releases from Folsom reservoir derived from the CalSim II hydrologic simulation model will be employed to estimated available water for recharge. Preliminary results show peak flows during winter (Dec-Feb) and extended winter (Nov-Mar) from the American River flow can be captured within a range of 64,000 to 198,000 af/month through the Folsom South Canal for recharge. Changes in groundwater storage are estimated by using California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSim). Results show increasing groundwater recharge benefits not only the regional

  12. Dynamics of depletion and replenishment of water storage in stem and roots of black spruce measured by dendrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eTurcotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short term, trees rely on the internal storage of water because it affects their ability to sustain photosynthesis and growth. However, water is not rapidly available for transpiration from all the compartments of the plant and the living tissues of the stem act as a buffer to preclude low water potentials during peaks of transpiration. In this paper, electronic dendrometers were used from mid-June to mid-September 2008 to compare the radius variations in stem and roots of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P.] in two sites of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada, with different soil characteristics and water retention. The duration of the daily cycles was similar between sites and measurement heights but greater amplitudes of contraction and expansion were observed on the stem and in the site with the shallowest soil organic layer. The expansion phase had higher amplitudes and lasted longer than contraction. On average, the contraction phase occurred between 07:00 and 16:30 (legal time, while expansion lasted 14.5 h. The roots in the site with the deepest organic layer showed a wider variation in the onset of contraction, which could be as late as 13:00. The probability of observing the contraction phase depended on precipitation. With a precipitation <0.5 mm h-1, the bivariate posterior probabilities estimated >60% probability of observing contraction between 05:00 and 21:00, decreasing to 20% with precipitation >1.1 mm h-1. These findings demonstrated that the depth of the organic layer plays an important role in maintaining the internal water reserve of trees. The dynamics of water depletion and replenishment can modify the water potential of xylem and cell turgor during the enlargement phase, thus affecting radial growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation regime could influence the dynamics of internal water storage in trees growing on shallower and drier soils.

  13. Monitoring and Characterizing Seasonal Drought, Water Supply Pattern and Their Impact on Vegetation Growth Using Satellite Soil Moisture Data, GRACE Water Storage and In-situ Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; Njoku, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E, AMSR-2 and SMAP, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE, in-situ groundwater measurements and atmospheric moisture data to delineate and characterize the evolution of drought and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE TWS provides spatially continuous observations of total terrestrial water storage changes and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite derived soil moisture estimates provide enhanced delineation of plant-available soil moisture. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from water components at different depth in relation to satellite based vegetation metrics, including vegetation greenness (NDVI) measures from MODIS and related higher order productivity (GPP) before, during and following the major drought events observed in the continental US for the past 14 years. We observe consistent trends and significant correlations between monthly time series of TWS, SM, NDVI and GPP. We study how changes in atmosphere moisture stress and coupling of water storage components at different depth impact on the spatial and temporal correlation between TWS, SM and vegetation metrics. In Texas, we find that surface SM and GRACE TWS agree with each other in general, and both capture the underlying water supply constraints to vegetation growth. Triggered by a transit increase in precipitation following the 2011 hydrological drought, vegetation productivity in Texas shows more sensitivity to surface SM than TWS. In the Great Plains, the correspondence between TWS and vegetation productivity is modulated by temperature-induced atmosphere moisture stress and by the coupling between surface soil moisture and groundwater through irrigation.

  14. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  15. GRACE-based validation of terrestrial water storage variations as simulated by 4 different hydrological models under WFDEI atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Dobslaw, Henryk; Stacke, Tobias; Güntner, Andreas; Dill, Robert; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Since its launch in 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides a unique way to monitor the terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations at large spatial scale (>300km) by measuring month-to-month changes of the Earth's gravity field. We apply TWS variations estimated from GRACE to assess the ability of four hydrological and land surface models to simulate the continental branch of the global water cycle. Based on four different validation metrics that focus on variability on sub-seasonal to inter-annual time scales, we demonstrate that for the 31 largest discharge basins worldwide all model runs agree with the observations to a very limited degree only, together with large spreads among the models themselves. In particular, we focus on selected basins with very different climatic conditions and discuss time series of individual water storage components such as surface water, soil moisture, and snow depth. Since we are applying a common atmospheric forcing data-set to all models considered, we conclude that the discrepancies found are not due to differences in the forcing, but are mainly related to the model structure and parametrization. By investigating the relative performance of these different models, we attempt to give directions for further development of global numerical models in the areas of large-scale hydrology and land-atmosphere interactions.

  16. Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Menezes de MENDONÇA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives: To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein, used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin, after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods: Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10 according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal and R (resin- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5 were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results: Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231. Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001 and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007. Conclusion: The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the

  17. Can Degradation of Adhesive Interfaces Due to Water Storage Affect Stress Distributions? A Finite-Element Stress Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Sema; Eraslan, Oğuz; Eskitaşcıoğlu, Gürcan

    The aim of this finite-element stress analysis (FEA) was to determine the effect of degradation due to water storage on stress distributions in root-filled premolar models restored with composite using either a self-etch (SE) or an etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesive. Four premolar FEA models including root filling, MOD cavity, and composite restorations were created. The cavities were assumed to be treated by SE or E&R adhesives and stored in water for 18 months. The elastic properties of the adhesive-dentin interface after 24-h and 18-month water storage were obtained from the literature and applied to the FEA models. A 300-N load was applied on the functional cusps of the models. The SolidWorks/Cosmosworks structural analysis program was used and the results were presented considering the von Mises stresses. Stresses in the cervical region increased over time on the load-application side of the main tooth models (SE: 84.11 MPa to 87.51 MPa; E&R: 100.24 MPa to 120.8 MPa). When the adhesive interfaces (hybrid layer, adhesive layer) and dentin were evaluated separately, the stresses near the root canal orifices increased over time in both models; however, this change was more noticeable in the E&R models. Stresses at the cavity corners decreased in the E&R model (within the adhesive layer), while SE models showed the opposite (within the hybrid layer). Change in the elastic modulus of the adhesive layer, hybrid layer, and dentin due to water storage has an effect on stresses in root-filled premolar models. The location and the level of the stresses differed depending on the adhesive used.

  18. Quality characteristics of raw and canned goat meat in water, brine, oil and Thai curry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoottana Polpara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality characteristics of three groups of goat meat obtained from one year and three years old Anglonubian crossed native, and culled Saanen crossed native were investigated. Significant differences in fat, ash and total collagen content, were observed among groups of goat meat (P0.05 during storage. The influence of groups of goat meat on TBARS value was significantly observed (P<0.05 when processed in water and brine. Massaman curry could reduce the change in TBARS value of canned goat meat during storage. The results based on texture, color and lipid oxidation suggested that there were no significant differences between the groups of goat meat from 3 years Anglonubian crossed native and 7 years Saanen crossed native for being processed in canned goat meat curry products.

  19. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2014-01-01

    By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for

  20. Use of GRACE data to monitor climate change-induced variations in water storage availability in the African continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. E.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Mohsen, F.; Chouinard, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data provides direct measurements of temporal mass variations; the latter is largely controlled by variations in water volumes in various reservoirs such as surface water (e.g., lakes and streams), groundwater (e.g., shallow and deep aquifers) and in the soil profile. Climatic changes impact the amounts of precipitation and its partitioning into each of these reservoirs. We explored the use of GRACE data for monitoring climate change-induced variations in water availability in the African continent over a period of nine years and used the identified trends to predict water storage availability across the continent over the next decade. Monthly GRACE gravity field solutions (Center of Space Research [CSR] RL04) in form of Spherical Harmonic Coefficients (SHC's) that span the period from April 2002 through November 2010 were processed (temporal mean was removed, de-striped, smoothed [250 km; Gaussian], and converted to 0.5 x 0.5 deg. equivalent water thicknesses). Several relevant GRACE bi-products (e.g., standard deviation, annual trend) were generated over time periods of six, seven, eight, and nine years and compared (in a GIS environment) with relevant co-registered data sets and derived products (e.g., precipitation, topography, geology, VNIR Landsat, NDVI, stream network distribution, water bodies distribution, watershed boundaries, and Community Climate System Model [CCSM-3] products). Spatial correlations of the co-registered data sets revealed the following: (1) persistent and increasingly pronounced linear annual trends (+ve: increasing mass; -ve: decreasing mass) over periods of six to nine years with the most pronounced trends detected over domains of high signal to noise ratios; (2) +ve trends over the source areas for the Blue Nile basin (4.2 mm/yr) and over the source areas of the Congo basin (7 mm/yr) and over the Zambezi basin (24 mm/yr), whereas -ve trends were detected over Central Africa (-7 mm

  1. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greifenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Greifenstein@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); White, Duvel W., E-mail: duvel.white@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Stubner, Alex, E-mail: alex.stubner@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Hout, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.hout@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Whelton, Andrew J., E-mail: ajwhelton@southalabama.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, 3021 Shelby Hall, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25 mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0 mg/L and < 0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. - Highlights: • Temperature and storage time impacted military bottled water quality up to 60 °C. • The chemical quality of water bottled in California and Afghanistan was affected. • Drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also

  2. A contribution to water hammer analysis in pumped-storage power plants; Ein Beitrag zur Druckstossberechnung von Pumpspeicheranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeller, Stefan; Jaberg, Helmut [TU Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    2013-03-01

    The operation of pumped-storage power plants induces a highly transient fluid flow in the penstock of high head water power plants. In the planning phase a reliable prediction of the transient plant behaviour in unsteady load cases such as e.g. machine start or switching load cases is necessary. Numerical simulation methods provide a tool to calculate the occurring pressure pulsations or mass oscillations as well as for the optimization of the transient behaviour. Commercial software-packages for water hammer simulations usually do not provide numerical models for a realistic calculation of complex components like surge tanks, turbines or emergency closing valves in a high head water power plant. But especially these components need to be modelled correctly in order to get a significant and reliable solution. This article shows the practice ofthe development of a custom-designed numerical model on the example of a pump turbine. (orig.)

  3. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  4. Predictive Time Series Analysis Linking Bengal Cholera with Terrestrial Water Storage Measured from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Akanda, Ali; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, including cholera, are related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. However, availability of data on water scarcity and abundance in transnational basins, are a prerequisite for developing cholera forecasting systems. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, conditions favorable for predicting cholera occurrence may now be determined. We explored lead–lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during spring and autumn seasons, two separate logistical models between TWS and disease time series (2002–2010) were developed. TWS representing water availability showed an asymmetrical, strong association with cholera prevalence in the spring (τ = −0.53; P < 0.001) and autumn (τ = 0.45; P < 0.001) up to 6 months in advance. One unit (centimeter of water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% (confidence interval [CI] = 20–31%; P < 0.05) in the spring, while an increase in regional water by 1 unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% (CI = 22–33%; P < 0.05). PMID:26526921

  5. Behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa cells during floc storage in drinking water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Xiao, Hongdi; Jin, Yan; Li, Xiuqing; Hu, Wenrong; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the different behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa in the sludges formed by AlCl3, FeCl3, and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) coagulants during storage. Results show that the viability of Microcystis aeruginosa in PAFC sludge was stronger than that of cells in either AlCl3 or FeCl3 sludge after the same storage time, while the cells’ viability in the latter two systems stayed at almost the same level. In AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges high concentrations of Al and Fe were toxic to Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas in PAFC sludge low levels of Al showed little toxic effect on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and moderate amounts of Fe were beneficial to growth. The lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa in AlCl3 sludge was more serious than that in PAFC sludge, for the same storage time. Although the cell viability in FeCl3 sludge was low (similar to AlCl3 sludge), the Microcystis aeruginosa cells remained basically intact after 10 d storage (similar to PAFC sludge). The maintenance of cellular integrity in FeCl3 sludge might be due to the large floc size and high density, which had a protective effect for Microcystis aeruginosa. PMID:27713525

  6. Behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa cells during floc storage in drinking water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Xiao, Hongdi; Jin, Yan; Li, Xiuqing; Hu, Wenrong; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the different behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa in the sludges formed by AlCl3, FeCl3, and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) coagulants during storage. Results show that the viability of Microcystis aeruginosa in PAFC sludge was stronger than that of cells in either AlCl3 or FeCl3 sludge after the same storage time, while the cells’ viability in the latter two systems stayed at almost the same level. In AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges high concentrations of Al and Fe were toxic to Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas in PAFC sludge low levels of Al showed little toxic effect on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and moderate amounts of Fe were beneficial to growth. The lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa in AlCl3 sludge was more serious than that in PAFC sludge, for the same storage time. Although the cell viability in FeCl3 sludge was low (similar to AlCl3 sludge), the Microcystis aeruginosa cells remained basically intact after 10 d storage (similar to PAFC sludge). The maintenance of cellular integrity in FeCl3 sludge might be due to the large floc size and high density, which had a protective effect for Microcystis aeruginosa.

  7. Behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa cells during floc storage in drinking water treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Xiao, Hongdi; Jin, Yan; Li, Xiuqing; Hu, Wenrong; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2016-10-07

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the different behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa in the sludges formed by AlCl3, FeCl3, and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) coagulants during storage. Results show that the viability of Microcystis aeruginosa in PAFC sludge was stronger than that of cells in either AlCl3 or FeCl3 sludge after the same storage time, while the cells' viability in the latter two systems stayed at almost the same level. In AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges high concentrations of Al and Fe were toxic to Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas in PAFC sludge low levels of Al showed little toxic effect on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and moderate amounts of Fe were beneficial to growth. The lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa in AlCl3 sludge was more serious than that in PAFC sludge, for the same storage time. Although the cell viability in FeCl3 sludge was low (similar to AlCl3 sludge), the Microcystis aeruginosa cells remained basically intact after 10 d storage (similar to PAFC sludge). The maintenance of cellular integrity in FeCl3 sludge might be due to the large floc size and high density, which had a protective effect for Microcystis aeruginosa.

  8. Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

  9. Validating hydro-meteorological fluxes using GRACE-derived water storage changes - a global and regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicker, Annette; Springer, Anne; Kusche, Jürgen; Jütten, Thomas; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric and terrestrial water budgets, which represent important boundary conditions for both climate modeling and hydrological studies, are linked by evapotranspiration (E) and precipitation (P). These fields are provided by numerical weather prediction models and atmospheric reanalyses such as ERA-Interim and MERRA-Land; yet, in particular the quality of E is still not well evaluated. Via the terrestrial water budget equation, water storage changes derived from products of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, combined with runoff (R) data can be used to assess the realism of atmospheric models. While on short temporal scales (inter-annual down to sub-seasonal) the modeled fluxes agree remarkably well with GRACE water storage changes, the models exhibit large biases and fail to capture the long-term flux trends in P-E-R corresponding to GRACE accelerations (Eicker et al. 2016). This leads to the assumption that despite the short time span of available gravity field observations, GRACE is able to provide new information for constraining the long-term evolution of water fluxes in future atmospheric reanalyses. In this contribution we will investigate the agreement of GRACE water storage changes with P-E-R flux time series from different (global and regional) atmospheric reanalyses, land surface models, as well as observation-based data sets. We will perform a global analyses and we will additionally focus on selected river basins. The investigations will be carried out for various temporal scales, focussing on the short-term fluxes (month-to-month variations), for which models and GRACE agree well with correlations of the de-trended and de-seasoned fluxes time series reaching up to 0.8 and more. We will furthermore extent the study towards even higher temporal frequencies, investigating whether the modeled and observed fluxes show sub-monthly variability that can be detected in daily GRACE time series. Eicker, A., E. Forootan, A. Springer

  10. Experimental study on depth of paraffin wax over floating absorber plate in built-in storage solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sivakumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the effect of depth of phase change material over the absorber surface of an integrated collector-storage type flat plate solar water heater. Flat plate solar water heaters are extensively used all over the world to utilize the natural source of solar energy. In order to utilize the solar energy during off-sunshine hours, it is inevitable to store and retain solar thermal energy as long as possible. Here, phase change material is not used for heat storage, but to minimize losses during day and night time only. The depth of phase change material over a fixed depth of water in a solar thermal collector is an important geometric parameter that influences the maximum temperature rise during peak solar irradiation and hence the losses. From the results of the studies for different masses of paraffin wax phase change material layers, the optimum depth corresponding to the maximum heat gain till evening is found to be 2 mm, and the heat retention till the next day morning is found to be 4 mm.

  11. Study on computation of optimal depth increase of embossed panels of stainless water tank for energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compute the optimal depth increase of the embossed panels of a stainless water tank used for an energy storage system. The pressing used to emboss the panels of the stainless water tank decreases their thickness. By assuming that the panels had the same volume before ( V o and after the change ( V c , we found an equation that computed how much the thickness of the panels decreased. According to the obtained thickness equation, the thickness of arch-embossed panels decreased by 50% relative to flat panels, and that of pyramid-embossed panels decreased by up to 30%. We also performed finite element method analyses of four flat panels, four arch-embossed panels, and four pyramid-embossed panels by applying the thickness equation for different depth increase. As a result, the optimal depth increase of the arch-embossed panels was 70–90 mm, and that of the pyramid-embossed panels was 150–200 mm. We concluded that these computed optimal depth increase could be useful in the economic design of a stainless water tank for an energy storage system.

  12. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, John T.; Thomas, Alys C.; Sproles, Eric A.; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Li, Bailing; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1) near-real time analysis; (2) a downscaling of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution; and (3) state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  13. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, John T.; Thomas, Alys C.; Sproles, Eric A.; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Li, Bailing; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1) near-real time analysis; (2) a downscaling of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution; and (3) state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  14. Adhesion of multimode adhesives to enamel and dentin after one year of water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermelho, Paulo Moreira; Reis, André Figueiredo; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Giannini, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultramorphological characteristics of tooth-resin interfaces and the bond strength (BS) of multimode adhesive systems to enamel and dentin. Multimode adhesives (Scotchbond Universal (SBU) and All-Bond Universal) were tested in both self-etch and etch-and-rinse modes and compared to control groups (Optibond FL and Clearfil SE Bond (CSB)). Adhesives were applied to human molars and composite blocks were incrementally built up. Teeth were sectioned to obtain specimens for microtensile BS and TEM analysis. Specimens were tested after storage for either 24 h or 1 year. SEM analyses were performed to classify the failure pattern of beam specimens after BS testing. Etching increased the enamel BS of multimode adhesives; however, BS decreased after storage for 1 year. No significant differences in dentin BS were noted between multimode and control in either evaluation period. Storage for 1 year only reduced the dentin BS for SBU in self-etch mode. TEM analysis identified hybridization and interaction zones in dentin and enamel for all adhesives. Silver impregnation was detected on dentin-resin interfaces after storage of specimens for 1 year only with the SBU and CSB. Storage for 1 year reduced enamel BS when adhesives are applied on etched surface; however, BS of multimode adhesives did not differ from those of the control group. In dentin, no significant difference was noted between the multimode and control group adhesives, regardless of etching mode. In general, multimode adhesives showed similar behavior when compared to traditional adhesive techniques. Multimode adhesives are one-step self-etching adhesives that can also be used after enamel/dentin phosphoric acid etching, but each product may work better in specific conditions.

  15. Monitoring and control of a hydrogen production and storage system consisting of water electrolysis and metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Herranz, V.; Perez-Page, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Beneito, R. [Area de Energia. Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion. Instituto Tecnologico del Juguete (AIJU). Avda. Industria 23, 03440 Ibi, Alicante (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic are energy sources that cannot generate continuous electric power. The seasonal storage of solar or wind energy in the form of hydrogen can provide the basis for a completely renewable energy system. In this way, water electrolysis is a convenient method for converting electrical energy into a chemical form. The power required for hydrogen generation can be supplied through a photovoltaic array. Hydrogen can be stored as metal hydrides and can be converted back into electricity using a fuel cell. The elements of these systems, i.e. the photovoltaic array, electrolyzer, fuel cell and hydrogen storage system in the form of metal hydrides, need a control and monitoring system for optimal operation. This work has been performed within a Research and Development contract on Hydrogen Production granted by Solar Iniciativas Tecnologicas, S.L. (SITEC), to the Politechnic University of Valencia and to the AIJU, and deals with the development of a system to control and monitor the operation parameters of an electrolyzer and a metal hydride storage system that allow to get a continuous production of hydrogen. (author)

  16. Thermal Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage Unit to Enhance a Workshop Heating System Driven by Industrial Residual Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various energy sources can be used for room heating, among which waste heat utilization has significantly improved in recent years. However, the majority of applicable waste heat resources are high-grade or stable thermal energy, while the low-grade or unstable waste heat resources, especially low-temperature industrial residual water (IRW, are insufficiently used. A thermal energy storage (TES unit with paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM is designed to solve this problem in a pharmaceutical plant. The mathematical models are developed to simulate the heat storage and release processes of the TES unit. The crucial parameters in the recurrence formulae are determined: the phase change temperature range of the paraffin wax used is 47 to 56 °C, and the latent heat is 171.4 kJ/kg. Several thermal behaviors, such as the changes of melting radius, solidification radius, and fluid temperature, are simulated. In addition, the amount of heat transferred, the heat transfer rate, and the heat storage efficiency are discussed. It is presented that the medicine production unit could save 10.25% of energy consumption in the investigated application.

  17. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  18. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  19. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  20. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krolová, M; Čížková, H; Hejzlar, J; Poláková, S

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive...

  1. Microbiologic effectiveness of boiling and safe water storage in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, Samir V; Menon, M; Trivedi, K; Ati, A; Figueroa, M E; Ainslie, R; Wannemuehler, K; Quick, R

    2011-09-01

    In Indonesia, where diarrhea remains a major cause of mortality among children water. We assessed the impact of boiling on water quality in South Sulawesi. We surveyed randomly selected households with at least one child water samples for Escherichia coli contamination. Among 242 households, 96% of source and 51% of stored water samples yielded E. coli. Unboiled water samples, obtained from 15% of households, were more likely to yield E. coli than boiled samples [prevalence ratios (PR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.5]. Water stored in wide-mouthed (PR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) or uncovered (PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.3-2.4) containers, or observed to be touched by the respondent's hands (PR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.1) was more likely to yield E. coli. A multivariable model showed that households that did not boil water were more likely to have contaminated stored water than households that did boil water (PR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.3). Although this study demonstrated the effectiveness of boiling in reducing contamination, overall impact on water quality was suboptimal. Future studies are needed to identify factors behind the success of boiling water in Indonesia to inform efforts to scale up other effective water treatment practices.

  2. Macro Scale Hydrologic Modeling for Water Management: Re-construction of Large Reservoir Storage Time Series in the Continental U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Nijssen, B.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Water management activities such as irrigation water withdrawal, hydropower generation, and flood control, substantially change water fluxes at the land surface and redistribute the storage of surface water in space and time. Although most developed countries have sophisticated observing systems for most variables in the surface water cycle, long-term and consistent records that focus on water management and human impacts on the water cycle are less available. We describe a continental-scale model of reservoir storage, which is combined with a soil moisture deficit-based irrigation scheme within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro scale hydrology model to simulate the effects of water management in the major river basins of the continental U.S. The model is forced with merged NCEP/NCAR and satellite meteorological data at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees latitude-longitude, for the period 1948 to 2008. A total of 120 of the largest reservoirs in the U.S. with a storage capacity greater than 1,000,000 acre feet are simulated. Two key variables, time series of monthly irrigation water consumption and monthly reservoir storage, which reflect the water management impacts, are extracted from the model results. The simulation results indicate that the model is able to estimate irrigation water demands successfully in comparison with observations and other inferences, and to accurately re-construct reservoir storage time series. We also discuss early results from global simulations, which allow us to assess human impacts on the global land surface water cycle in data-sparse regions.

  3. Soil water storage and groundwater behaviour in a catenary sequence beneath forest in central Amazonia: I. Comparisons between plateau, slope and valley floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hodnett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water storage was monitored in three landscape elements in the forest (plateau, slope and valley floor over a 3 year period to identify differences in sub-surface hydrological response. Under the plateau and slope, the changes of storage were very similar and there was no indication of surface runoff on the slope. The mean maximum seasonal storage change was 156 mm in the 2 m profile but it was clear that, in the dry season, the forest was able to take up water from below 3.6 m. Soil water availability was low. Soil water storage changes in the valley were dominated by the behaviour of a shallow water table which, in normal years, varied between 0.1 m below the surface at the end of the wet season and 0.8 m at the end of the dry season. Soil water storage changes were small because root uptake was largely replenished by groundwater flow towards the stream. The groundwater behaviour is controlled mainly by the deep drainage from beneath the plateau and slope areas. The groundwater gradient beneath the slope indicated that recharge beneath the plateau and slope commences only after the soil water deficits from the previous dry season have been replenished. Following a wet season with little recharge, the water table fell, ceasing to influence the valley soil water storage, and the stream dried up. The plateau and slope, a zone of very high porosity between 0.4 and 1.1 m, underlain by a less conductive layer, is a probable route for interflow during, and for a few hours after, heavy and prolonged rainfall.

  4. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  5. HYDROGRAV - Hydrological model calibration and terrestrial water storage monitoring from GRACE gravimetry and satellite altimetry, First results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O.B.; Krogh, P.E.; Michailovsky, C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration and terre......Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration...... and terrestrial water storage monitoring. Merging remote sensing data from GRACE with other remote sensing data like satellite altimetry and also ground based observations are important to hydrological model calibration and water balance monitoring of large regions and can serve as either supplement or as vital...... change from 2002 to 2008 along with in-situ gravity time-lapse observations and radar altimetry monitoring of surface water for the southern Africa river basins will be presented....

  6. Using Enhanced Grace Water Storage Data to Improve Drought Detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew; Lawrimore, Jay; Li, Bailing; Reichle, Rolf; Heim, Richard; Rosencrans, Matthew; Tinker, Rich; Famiglietti, James S.; Svoboda, Mark; Wardlow, Brian; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors by filling this observational gap. GRACE TWS data were assimilating into the Catchment Land Surface Model using an ensemble Kalman smoother enabling spatial and temporal downscaling and vertical decomposition into soil moisture and groundwater components. The Drought Monitors combine several short- and long-term drought indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence. To be consistent, we generated a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on a 60-year Catchment model simulation, which was used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into drought indicator percentiles. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of the GRACE assimilated moisture and indicator fields.

  7. Hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.J.; Sloan, E.D.

    2005-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of hydrogen. The invention relates especially to storing hydrogen in a clathrate hydrate. The clathrate hydrate according to the present invention originates from a composition, which comprises water and hydrogen, as well as a promotor compound. The promotor comp

  8. Water storage equity and safety assurance policy to mitigate potential 'dual-extreme cumulative threats' in agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2017-02-01

    Farm dams that are not managed properly at the individual level can create water storage equity and safety threats to downstream communities and the environment that aggregate at the catchment level: a potential 'dual-extreme cumulative' problem. The paper provides indicative evidence and develops understanding of this novel phenomenon and associated policy needs within the Australian setting comprising dual hydrologic extremes of floods and droughts, further exacerbated by climate change. This is achieved through comparative case studies involving surveys of both dam owner perceptions and dam management practices in four States representing a complete range of integrated policy approaches from weak to strong. Survey results find most farmers do not believe dam maintenance is important, will undertake spillway blocking and do not plan for emergencies. These results are supported by physical on-site findings of farmers neglecting dams and blocking or under-designing spillways, in turn storing more water than they are entitled and creating unsafe dams at both the individual and cumulative levels. From detailed cross-case comparative assessment against policy context, it emerges that on-farm perceptions and practices form a range of 'acceptability' of dam management that directly reflects policy strength and integration in each setting. The paper advances the international small dams policy, agricultural water management and hydrology literatures, evidencing the need for effective integrated policy to mitigate dual extreme cumulative threats. Importantly, guidance is provided to jurisdictions internationally with high inter-annual rainfall variation on how best to design integrated policy that can achieve both water storage equity and safety in agricultural catchments.

  9. Performance of a day/night water heat storage system for heating and cooling of semi-closed greenhouses in mild winter climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeza, E.J.; Pérez Parra, J.J.; López, J.C.; Gázquez, J.C.; Meca, D.E.; Stanghellini, C.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Montero, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel system for heating/cooling greenhouses based on air/water heat exchangers connected to a thermally stratified water storage tank was tested in a small greenhouse compartment at the Experimental Station of the Cajamar Foundation in Almería, Spain. The system maintained a closed greenhouse (no

  10. Safe household water treatment and storage using ceramic drip filters: a randomised controlled trial in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, T; Brown, J; Suntura, O; Collin, S

    2004-01-01

    A randomised controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ceramic drip filters to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water in a low-income community in rural Bolivia. In four rounds of water sampling over five months, 100% of the samples were free of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) compared to an arithmetic mean TTC count of 1517, 406, 167 and 245 among control households which continued to use their customary sources of drinking water. The filter systems produced water that consistently met WHO drinking-water standards despite levels of turbidity that presented a challenge to other low-cost POU treatment methods. The filter systems also demonstrated an ability to maintain the high quality of the treated water against subsequent re-contamination in the home.

  11. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  12. Water quality requirements for sustaining aquifer storage and recovery operations in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Dillon, Peter; Taylor, Russel; Wakelin, Steve; Levett, Kerry; Barry, Karen; Pavelic, Paul

    2011-10-01

    A changing climate and increasing urbanisation has driven interest in the use of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes as an environmental management tool to supplement conventional water resources. This study focuses on ASR with stormwater in a low permeability fractured rock aquifer and the selection of water treatment methods to prevent well clogging. In this study two different injection and recovery phases were trialed. In the first phase ~1380 m(3) of potable water was injected and recovered over four cycles. In the second phase ~3300 m(3) of treated stormwater was injected and ~2410 m(3) were subsequently recovered over three cycles. Due to the success of the potable water injection cycles, its water quality was used to set pre-treatment targets for harvested urban stormwater of ≤ 0.6 NTU turbidity, ≤ 1.7 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and ≤ 0.2 mg/L biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. A range of potential ASR pre-treatment options were subsequently evaluated resulting in the adoption of an ultrafiltration/granular activated carbon system to remove suspended solids and nutrients which cause physical and biological clogging. ASR cycle testing with potable water and treated stormwater demonstrated that urban stormwater containing variable turbidity (mean 5.5 NTU) and organic carbon (mean 8.3 mg/L) concentrations before treatment could be injected into a low transmissivity fractured rock aquifer and recovered for irrigation supplies. A small decline in permeability of the formation in the vicinity of the injection well was apparent even with high quality water that met turbidity and DOC but could not consistently achieve the BDOC criteria.

  13. Terrestrial Water Storage from GRACE and Satellite Altimetry in the Okavango Delta (Botswana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    New technology can for the first time enable the accurate retrieval of the global and regional water budgets from space-borne and ground-based gravity surveys. Water is mankind’s most critical natural resource, but it is being heavily used throughout the globe. The aim of this paper is to outline...

  14. Evaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Ayers, Tracy L; Knee, Jacqueline; Oremo, Jared; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Nyagol, Ronald O; Stauber, Christine E; Lantagne, Daniele S; Quick, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Process-based reactive transport model to quantify arsenic mobility during aquifer storage and recovery of potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Ilka; Prommer, Henning; Pichler, Thomas; Post, Vincent; Norton, Stuart B; Annable, Michael D; Simmons, Craig T

    2011-08-15

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an aquifer recharge technique in which water is injected in an aquifer during periods of surplus and withdrawn from the same well during periods of deficit. It is a critical component of the long-term water supply plan in various regions, including Florida, USA. Here, the viability of ASR as a safe and cost-effective water resource is currently being tested at a number of sites due to elevated arsenic concentrations detected during groundwater recovery. In this study, we developed a process-based reactive transport model of the coupled physical and geochemical mechanisms controlling the fate of arsenic during ASR. We analyzed multicycle hydrochemical data from a well-documented affected southwest Floridan site and evaluated a conceptual/numerical model in which (i) arsenic is initially released during pyrite oxidation triggered by the injection of oxygenated water (ii) then largely complexes to neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides before (iii) being remobilized during recovery as a result of both dissolution of hydrous ferric oxides and displacement from sorption sites by competing anions.

  16. Predictive Time Series Analysis Linking Bengal Cholera with Terrestrial Water Storage Measured from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Akanda, Ali; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, including cholera, are related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. However, availability of data on water scarcity and abundance in transnational basins, are a prerequisite for developing cholera forecasting systems. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, conditions favorable for predicting cholera occurrence may now be determined. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during spring and autumn seasons, two separate logistical models between TWS and disease time series (2002-2010) were developed. TWS representing water availability showed an asymmetrical, strong association with cholera prevalence in the spring (τ = -0.53; P cholera by 24% (confidence interval [CI] = 20-31%; P cholera in the autumn by 29% (CI = 22-33%; P < 0.05). © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Determining treatment requirements for turbid river water to avoid clogging of aquifer storage and recovery wells in siliceous alluvium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Miotliński, Konrad; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Lawrie, Ken; Brodie, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    The success of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) schemes relies on defining appropriate design and operational parameters in order to maintain high rates of recharge over the long term. The main contribution of this study was to define the water quality criteria and hence minimum pre-treatment requirements to allow sustained recharge at an acceptable rate in a medium-coarse sand aquifer. The source water was turbid, natural water from the River Darling, Australia. Three treatments were evaluated: bank filtration; coagulation and chlorine disinfection; and coagulation plus granular activated carbon and chlorine disinfection (GAC). Raw source water and the three treated waters were used in laboratory columns packed with aquifer material in replicate experiments in saturated conditions at constant temperature (19 °C) with light excluded for 37 days. Declines in hydraulic conductivity from a mean of 2.17 m/d occurred over the 37 days of the experiment. The GAC-treated water gave an 8% decline in hydraulic conductivity over the 16 cm length of columns, which was significantly different from the other three source waters, which had mean declines of 26-29%. Within the first 3 cm of column length, where most clogging occurred in each column, the mean hydraulic conductivity declined by 10% for GAC-treated water compared with 40-50% for the other source waters. There was very little difference between the columns until day 21, despite high turbidity (78 NTU) in the source water. Reducing turbidity by treatment was not sufficient to offset the reductions in hydraulic conductivity. Biological clogging was found to be most important as revealed by the accumulation of polysaccharides and bacterial numbers in columns when they were dissected and analysed at the end of the experiment. Further chemical clogging through precipitation of minerals was found not to occur within the laboratory columns, and dispersion of clay was also found to be negligible. Due to the low

  18. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  19. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Van Meter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13–22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by

  20. Protein carbonylation and water-holding capacity of pork subjected to frozen storage: effect of muscle type, premincing, and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Heinonen, Marina; Puolanne, Eero

    2011-05-25

    The present work aimed to study the relationship between protein carbonylation and the loss of water-holding capacity (WHC) occurring during frozen storage of porcine muscles. Pork samples corresponding to two different muscle types, glycolytic M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and oxidative M. psoas major (PM), and subjected to two different premincing, minced (MINCED) and intact pork pieces (INTACT), and packaging, vacuum packaged (VACUUM) and packed in oxygen-permeable bags (OXYGEN), procedures were frozen (-18 °C/12 weeks) and analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12) for the relative amount of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (AAS and GGS, respectively), and their ability to hold water using two different techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with the loss of WHC, and both phenomena were found to be more intense in LD muscles and in MINCED and OXYGEN pork samples. The loss in WHC was from ca. 10 to 30% in 12 weeks, depending on the method of determination. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may decrease the WHC of pork samples are thoroughly discussed in the present paper. Besides the likely impact of protein carbonylation in the water-myofibrillar protein relationships, the implication of AAS and GGS in further reactions including plausible cross-linking would explain the decrease of these semialdehydes by the end of frozen storage and would reinforce their liability in the loss of WHC of porcine muscles. The exact nature of these reactions, however, should be investigated in further studies.

  1. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the

  2. Comparison of techniques for estimating evaporation from an irrigation water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, D. L.; Cook, F. J.; Burn, S.

    2013-03-01

    With the emergence of water supply and food security issues as a result of increasing population and climate change pressures, the need for efficient use of available water supplies is paramount. Management of available resources and improved efficiency require accurate specification of evaporation, which is a major water loss pathway, yet evaporation remains difficult to accurately quantify. This study uses scintillometry-derived measurements of evaporation to test the performance of water balance, pan coefficient, and combination modeling techniques, which might commonly be used by resource managers. Both pan coefficient and water balance techniques performed poorly, but the Penman-Monteith model with local site data and site-specific wind function produced estimates within 2% of those measured. Recognizing that such a model parameterization would rarely be a possibility in most environments, further testing involving the range of data sets that might be available for a location was undertaken. Modeling using over-water measurements and, generally, applicable wind functions from the literature produced estimates 26% greater than those measured. Estimates within 12% of those measured were made for the equivalent model setup using over-land meteorological data; however, when data from the nearest meteorological station was used, this difference increased to 27%. The different evaporation estimation techniques tested were shown to produce a range of estimates of water availability, which varied by nearly 30%. The large differences between measured and predicted evaporation highlight the uncertainty that still exists in evaporation estimation and the sensitivity of predictions to the source of input data.

  3. Estimation of the possible flood discharge and volume of stormwater for designing water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzhner, Felix; Kadmon, Avri

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of good-quality water resources is an important issue in arid and semiarid zones. Stormwater-harvesting systems that are capable of delivering good-quality wastewater for non-potable uses while taking into account environmental and health requirements must be developed. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, like stormwater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. Current stormwater management practices in the world require the creation of control systems that monitor quality and quantity of the water and the development of stormwater basins to store increased runoff volumes. Public health and safety considerations should be considered. Urban and suburban development, with the creation of buildings and roads and innumerable related activities, turns rain and snow into unwitting agents of damage to our nation's waterways. This urban and suburban runoff, legally known as stormwater, is one of the most significant sources of water pollution in the world. Based on various factors like water quality, runoff flow rate and speed, and the topography involved, stormwater can be directed into basins, purification plants, or to the sea. Accurate floodplain maps are the key to better floodplain management. The aim of this work is to use geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor and control the effect of stormwater. The graphic and mapping capabilities of GIS provide strong tools for conveying information and forecasts of different storm-water flow and buildup scenarios. Analyses of hydrologic processes, rainfall simulations, and spatial patterns of water resources were performed with GIS, which means, based on integrated data set, the flow of the water was introduced into the GIS. Two cases in Israel were analyzed--the Hula Project (the Jordan River floods over the peat soil area) and the Kishon River floodplains as it existed in the Yizrael Valley.

  4. Boundary conditions of an active West Antarctic subglacial lake: implications for storage of water beneath the ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Siegert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeat-pass IceSat altimetry has revealed 124 discrete surface height changes across the Antarctic Ice Sheet, interpreted to be caused by subglacial lake discharges (surface lowering and inputs (surface uplift. Few of these active lakes have been confirmed by radio-echo sounding (RES despite several attempts (notable exceptions are Lake Whillans and three in the Adventure Subglacial Trench. Here we present targeted RES and radar altimeter data from an "active lake" location within the upstream Institute Ice Stream, into which 0.12 km3 of water is calculated to have flowed between October 2003 and February 2008. We use a series of transects to establish an accurate appreciation of the influences of bed topography and ice-surface elevation on water storage potential. The location of surface height change is over the downslope flank of a distinct topographic hollow, where RES reveals no obvious evidence for deep (> 10 m water. The regional hydropotential reveals a sink coincident with the surface change, however. Governed by the location of the hydrological sink, basal water will likely "drape" over existing topography in a manner dissimilar to subglacial lakes where flat strong specular RES reflections are measured. The inability of RES to detect the active lake means that more of the Antarctic ice sheet bed may contain stored water than is currently appreciated. Variation in ice surface elevation datasets leads to significant alteration in calculations of the local flow of basal water indicating the value of, and need for, high resolution RES datasets in both space and time to establish and characterise subglacial hydrological processes.

  5. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Dragana D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gravimetric (SO2-4, suspended solids, total dry residue at 180°C, conductometry (electric conductivity, volumetric (Al3+, spectrometric (SiO2 and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, K+, Ca2+, Na+ i Cu2+. Obtained results of water analysis, after retaining water in PET (polyethylentereftalate and glass bottles, in certain time intervals, show that significant changes of concentration of Fe2+, Al3+, K+, Ca2+, pH value and electric conductivity occurred. Concentration of iron Fe2+ has been slightly changed after 120 days, in sample stabilized with 0,2 g ascorbic acid, while concentrations of Al and K+ were changing the same as without adding of stabilizer. Samples of water in glass packaging without added stabilizer are less stable compared to samples which were retained in PET packaging.

  6. Coupling landscape water storage and supplemental irrigation to increase productivity and improve environmental stewardship in the U.S. Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Ochsner, Tyson E.

    2012-05-01

    Agriculture must increase production for a growing population while simultaneously reducing its environmental impacts. These goals need not be in tension with one another. Here we outline a vision for improving both the productivity and environmental performance of agriculture in the U.S. Midwest, also known as the Corn Belt. Mean annual precipitation has increased throughout the region over the past 50 years, consistent with climate models that attribute the increase to a warming troposphere. Stream gauge data indicate that higher precipitation has been matched or exceeded by higher stream flows, contributing to flooding, soil loss, and excessive nutrient flux to the Gulf of Mexico. We propose increasing landscape hydrologic storage through construction of ponds and restoration of wetlands to retain water for supplemental irrigation while also reducing flood risks. Primary productivity is proportional to transpiration, and analysis shows that in the U.S. Midwest both can be sustainably increased with supplemental irrigation. The proposed strategy should reduce interannual yield variability by limiting losses due to transient drought, while facilitating adoption of cropping systems that "perennialize" the landscape to take advantage of the full potential growing season. When implemented in concert, these practices should reduce the riverine nitrogen export that is a primary cause of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Erosive sediment losses should also be reduced through the combination of enhanced hydrologic storage and increased vegetative cover. Successful implementation would require watershed-scale coordination among producers and landowners. An obvious mechanism to encourage this is governmental farm policy.

  7. Numerical simulation of the solar thermal energy storage system for domestic hot water supply located in south Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tores Ledesma Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to increase in energy consumption, a great deal of fossil fuels is being used. This latter is a consequence of the present environmental problems, such as global warming, acid rain, etc. In order to decrease these problems, the use of renewable energy sources is being promoted. But the renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy, present the drawback that there is a mismatch between the energy demand and supply. To cover this mismatch, the use of phase change thermal energy storage systems is required. In this work, the behavior of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage system cooperating with solar collector located in south Spain was analyzed by using a numerical method which based on Finite Volume discretization and Enthalpy Method. The model was validated by comparing obtained results with experimental data reported in the literature. The packed bed was composed of spherical capsules filled with phase change materials usable for a solar water heating system. The system was designed according to the conditions in the south Spain and by using commercial components available on the market. A series of numerical simulations were conducted applying meteorological data for several months in south Spain, particularly in Málaga.

  8. The stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamin in dentifrices according to pH level and storage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ki-Eun; Choi, Yong-Jun; Park, Yong-Duk; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vitamin stabilities in dentifrices by analyzing various vitamins according to the level and storage temperature. The stabilities of water- and fat-soluble vitamins were investigated in buffer solution at different pH values (4, 7, 8, 10 and 11) for 14 days and in dentifrices at different pH (7 and 10) for 5 months at two temperature conditions (room and refrigeration temperature) by analyzing the remaining amounts using HPLC methods. In the buffer solution, the stability of vitamins B1 , B6 and C was increased as the pH values increased. Vitamins E and K showed poor stability at pH 4, and vitamin B3 showed poor stability at pH 11. In dentifrices, the storage temperature highly influenced vitamin stability, especially vitamins C and E, but the stabilities of vitamins B1 and C according to pH values did not correspond to the buffer solution tests. Vitamin B group was relatively stable in dentifrices, but vitamin C completely disappeared after 5 months. Vitamin K showed the least initial preservation rates. Vitamins were not detected in commercial dentifrices for adults and detected amounts were less than the advertised contents in dentifrices for children.

  9. Discovery of Rapid and Reversible Water Insertion in Rare Earth Sulfates: A New Process for Thermochemical Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, Naoyuki; Shizume, Kunihiko; Uda, Tetsuya

    2017-07-01

    Thermal energy storage based on chemical reactions is a prospective technology for the reduction of fossil-fuel consumption by storing and using waste heat. For widespread application, a critical challenge is to identify appropriate reversible reactions that occur below 250 °C, where abundant low-grade waste heat and solar energy might be available. Here, it is shown that lanthanum sulfate monohydrate La2 (SO4 )3 ⋅H2 O undergoes rapid and reversible dehydration/hydration reactions in the temperature range from 50 to 250 °C upon heating/cooling with remarkably small thermal hysteresis (system for thermal energy storage. Thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the reactions proceed through an unusual mechanism for sulfates: water is removed from, or inserted in La2 (SO4 )3 ⋅H2 O with progressive change in hydration number x without phase change. It is also revealed that only a specific structural modification of La2 (SO4 )3 exhibits this reversible dehydration/hydration behavior. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comprehensive, Process-based Identification of Hydrologic Models using Satellite and In-situ Water Storage Data: A Multi-objective calibration Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo Yassin, Fuad; Wheater, Howard; Razavi, Saman; Sapriza, Gonzalo; Davison, Bruce; Pietroniro, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The credible identification of vertical and horizontal hydrological components and their associated parameters is very challenging (if not impossible) by only constraining the model to streamflow data, especially in regions where the vertical processes significantly dominate the horizontal processes. The prairie areas of the Saskatchewan River basin, a major water system in Canada, demonstrate such behavior, where the hydrologic connectivity and vertical fluxes are mainly controlled by the amount of surface and sub-surface water storages. In this study, we develop a framework for distributed hydrologic model identification and calibration that jointly constrains the model response (i.e., streamflows) as well as a set of model state variables (i.e., water storages) to observations. This framework is set up in the form of multi-objective optimization, where multiple performance criteria are defined and used to simultaneously evaluate the fidelity of the model to streamflow observations and observed (estimated) changes of water storage in the gridded landscape over daily and monthly time scales. The time series of estimated changes in total water storage (including soil, canopy, snow and pond storages) used in this study were derived from an experimental study enhanced by the information obtained from the GRACE satellite. We test this framework on the calibration of a Land Surface Scheme-Hydrology model, called MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology), for the Saskatchewan River basin. Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS) is used as the multi-objective optimization engine. The significance of using the developed framework is demonstrated in comparison with the results obtained through a conventional calibration approach to streamflow observations. The approach of incorporating water storage data into the model identification process can more potentially constrain the posterior parameter space, more comprehensively

  11. Technical review of managed underground storage of water study of the upper Catherine Creek watershed, Union County, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Because of water diversions during summer, flow in Catherine Creek, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon, is insufficient to sustain several aquatic species for which the stream is listed as critical habitat. A feasibility study for managed underground storage (MUS) in the upper Catherine Creek watershed in Union County, Oregon, was undertaken by Anderson Perry and Associates, Inc., to address the issue of low flows in summer. The results of the study were released as a report titled “Upper Catherine Creek Storage Feasibility Study for Grande Ronde Model Watershed,” which evaluated the possibility of diverting Catherine Creek streamflow during winter (when stream discharge is high), storing the water by infiltration or injection into an aquifer adjacent to the stream, and discharging the water back to the stream in summer to augment low flows. The method of MUS would be accomplished using either (1) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that allows for the injection of water that meets drinking-water-quality standards into an aquifer for later recovery and use, or (2) artificial recharge (AR) that involves the intentional addition of water diverted from another source to a groundwater reservoir. Concerns by resource managers that the actions taken to improve water availability for upper Catherine Creek be effective, cost-efficient, long-term, and based on sound analysis led the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to request that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent review and evaluation of the feasibility study. This report contains the results of that review. The primary objectives of the Anderson Perry and Associates study reviewed here included (1) identifying potentially fatal flaws with the concept of using AR and (or) ASR to augment the streamflow of Catherine Creek, (2) identifying potentially favorable locations for augmenting streamflow, (3) developing and evaluating alternatives for implementing AR and (or) ASR, and

  12. Characterizing Regional and Transient Groundwater Storage in Order to Address Water Balance Discrepancies in Salar de Atacama Basin, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, B. J.; Munk, L.; Hynek, S. A.; Boutt, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Salar de Atacama is an endorheic basin with a watershed encompassing over 17,000 km2of significant topographic relief that has been hydrographically closed for at least 7 to 10 Ma. It hosts a brine and fresh water aquifer that is subject to substantial and increasing resource demand. Brines within the Salar nucleus have some of the highest know concentrations of lithium in the world. Despite this demand, fundamental questions still exist regarding the nature of ground water flowpaths responsible for transporting this water and its provenance; recent work has shown a large imbalance exists in the water budget of the basin. In order to address these questions, a detailed characterization of the physical, geochemical and isotopic attributes of waters emerging at perennial springs on the southeastern slope of the basin is done and analyzed within the hydrogeologic context leading to their existence. A robust conceptual model was developed building off previous work done in the region supported by hydrogeologic, geochemistry and isotope data taken across a large regional area. A large portion of this data is our own, supplemented by a compilation of all data collected to date in the region. These results suggests these waters are anomalous with respect to both the potential source waters at higher elevations of the topographic watershed, on the expansive Altiplano/Puna Plateau adjacent to the watershed and springs emerging to the north at similar elevation. Since this region is extremely arid, receiving very little rainfall except at very high elevation, these perennial springs are a primary expression of the groundwater system. The distinctive and anomalous nature of groundwater emerging at these springs precludes employment of a relatively simple or classic fluid transport model to fully explain these discrepancies. Therefore, a groundwater system of regional extent or one which includes water drawn from transient storage recharged thousands of years ago during

  13. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  14. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) subsystems and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs.

  15. A Spaceborne Multisensory, Multitemporal Approach to Monitor Water Level and Storage Variations of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Taravat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia, the second largest saline Lake on earth and a highly endangered ecosystem, is on the brink of a serious environmental disaster similar to the catastrophic death of the Aral Sea. Progressive drying has been observed during the last decade, causing dramatic changes to Lake Urmia’s surface and its regional water supplies. The present study aims to improve monitoring of spatiotemporal changes of Lake Urmia in the period 1975–2015 using the multi-temporal satellite altimetry and Landsat (5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images. In order to demonstrate the impacts of climate change and human pressure on the variations in surface extent and water level, Lake Sevan and Van Lake with different characteristics were studied along with the Urmia Lake. Normalized Difference Water Index-Principal Components Index (NDWI-PCs, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, Water Ratio Index (WRI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI, and MultiLayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP NNs classifier were investigated for the extraction of surface water from Landsat data. The presented results revealed that MLP NNs has a better performance in the cases where the other models generate poor accuracy. The results show that the area of Lake Sevan and Van Lake have increased while the area of Lake Urmia has decreased by ~65.23% in the past decades, far more than previously reported (~25% to 50%. Urmia Lake’s shoreline has been receding severely between 2010 and 2015 with no sign of recovery, which has been partly blamed on prolonged droughts, aggressive regional water resources development plans, intensive agricultural activities, and anthropogenic changes to the system. The results also indicated that (among the proposed factors changes in inflows due to overuse of surface water resources and constructing dams (mostly during 1995–2005 are the main reasons

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of Lake Level and Water Storage Changes over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash from Satellite Altimetry and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are two of the world¡¦s major lakes affecting fresh water supplies in their catchments. Measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and -2, satellite gravimetry (GRACE and a hydrological model (LDAS are used to see the relationship between lake level change (LLC and water storage change in these two lakes. At Lake Baikal, the average rate of LLC is negative for 1992 - 1998 and positive for 1998 - 2007, and the reversal of the LLC trend concurs with that of the temperature trend during the 1997 - 1998 El Nino. The rate of gravity change ranges from -0.5 to 0.5 ugal yr-1 with a low over the Tian Shan and a high over western Lake Baikal. Due to the climates over the two lakes, the phases of the annual gravity changes differ by up to 100 days. Using the rates of LLC and gravity changes, the ratios between the mass changes of the lake and its catchment over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are estimated to 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. The result may help to establish water balance models over these two lakes.

  17. The Impact of Integrated Aquifer Storage and Recovery and Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (ASRRO on a Coastal Groundwater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Eugenius Marijnus Ros

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR of local, freshwater surpluses is a potential solution for freshwater supply in coastal areas, as is brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO of relatively shallow groundwater in combination with deeper membrane concentrate disposal. A more sustainable and reliable freshwater supply may be achieved by combining both techniques in one ASRRO system using multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW. The impact of widespread use of ASRRO on a coastal groundwater system was limited based on regional groundwater modelling but it was shown that ASRRO decreased the average chloride concentration with respect to the autonomous scenario and the use of BWRO. ASRRO was successful in mitigating the local negative impact (saltwater plume formation caused by the deep disposal of membrane concentrate during BWRO. The positive impacts of ASRRO with respect to BWRO were observed in the aquifer targeted for ASR and brackish water abstraction (Aquifer 1, but foremost in the deeper aquifer targeted for membrane concentrate disposal (Aquifer 2. The formation of a horizontal freshwater barrier was found at the top of both aquifers, reducing saline seepage. The disposal of relatively fresh concentrate in Aquifer 2 led to brackish water outflow towards the sea. The net abstraction in Aquifer 1 enforced saltwater intrusion, especially when BWRO was applied. The conclusion of this study is that ASRRO can provide a sustainable alternative for BWRO.

  18. Past terrestrial water storage (1980–2008 in the Amazon Basin reconstructed from GRACE and in situ river gauging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Becker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial water storage (TWS composed of surface waters, soil moisture, groundwater and snow where appropriate, is a key element of global and continental water cycle. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE space gravimetry mission provides a new tool to measure large-scale TWS variations. However, for the past few decades, direct estimate of TWS variability is accessible from hydrological modeling only. Here we propose a novel approach that combines GRACE-based TWS spatial patterns with multi-decadal-long in situ river level records, to reconstruct past 2-D TWS over a river basin. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin for the period 1980–2008, focusing on the interannual time scale. Results are compared with past TWS estimated by the global hydrological model ISBA-TRIP. Correlations between reconstructed past interannual TWS variability and known climate forcing modes over the region (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation are also estimated. This method offers new perspective for improving our knowledge of past interannual TWS in world river basins where natural climate variability (as opposed to direct anthropogenic forcing drives TWS variations.

  19. Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of Phase Change Material Energy Storage Floor in Solar Water Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ruo-lang; WANG Xin; ZHANG Yin-ping; DI Hong-fa; ZHANG Qun-li

    2009-01-01

    The conventional solar heating floor system contains a big water tank to store energy in the day time for heating at night,which takes much building space and is very heavy.In order to reduce the water tank velume even to cancel the tank,a novel structure of integrated water pipe floor heating system using shape-stabi-lized phase change materials (SSPCM) for thermal energy storage was developed.A numerical model was devel-oped to analyze the performance of SSPCM floor heating system under the intermittent heating condition,which was verified by our experimental data.The thermal performance of the heating system and the effects of various factors on it were analyzed numerically.The factors including phase transition temperature,heat of fusion,ther-real conductivity of SSPCM and thermal conductivity of the decoration material were analyzed.The results show that tm and kd are the most import influencing factors on the thermal performance of SSPCM floor heating sys-tem,since they determine the heat source temperature and thermal resistance between SSPCM plates and indoor air,respectively.Hm should be large to store enough thermal energy in the day time for nighttimes heating.The effects of KP can be ignored in this system.The SSPCM floor heating system has potential of making use of the daytime solar energy for heating at night efficiently in various climates when its structure is properly designed.

  20. Storage and recycling of water and carbon dioxide in the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J.

    1994-01-01

    The stabilities and properties of water- and carbon-bearing phases in the earth have been determined from phase equilibrium measurements, combined with new data on the equations of state of water, carbon dioxide, carbonates and hydrates. The data have then been used to predict the fate of calcite and hydrous phases in subducting oceanic lithosphere. From the compositions of MORB's one can estimate concentrations of water and carbon of around 200 ppm and 80 ppm respectively in the upper mantle. Lower mantle estimates are very uncertain, but 1900 ppm water and 2000 ppm C are plausible concentrations. Measurements of the density of supercritical water to 3 GPa demonstrate that this phase is less compressible than anticipated from the equations of state of Haar et al. or Saul and Wagner and is closer to predictions based on molecular dynamics simulations. Conversely, fugacity measurements on carbon dioxide to 7 GPa show that this fluid is more compressible than predicted from the MRK equation of state. The results imply that hydrates are relatively more stable and carbonates less stable at pressures greater than 5 GPa than would be predicted from simple extrapolation of the low pressure data. Nevertheless, carbonates remain extremely refractory phases within both the upper and lower mantle.

  1. A century-long simulation of terrestrial water storage change and its contribution to global sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Bosmans, Joyce; de Graaf, Inge; Sutandjaja, Edwin; Schmitz, Oliver; Wada, Yoshihide; Wanders, Niko; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.

    2016-04-01

    Although limited, the contribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) change to sea-level change is significant enough to be taken into account in sea-level attribution studies. Thus, after being absent in a previous report, TWS was again one of the components taken into account in IPCC assessment report 5. TWS can be effectively observed by analysing gravity anomalies from the GRACE mission or by observing individual components with lidar (surface water level), geodetic surveys (groundwater) and space borne passive and active microwave sensors (soil moisture, snow water equivalent). However, these observation only yield time series of limited length making it difficult to estimate long term trends in TWS as multi-decadal variations. We present the results of a century-long (1900-2014) simulation of TWS change with PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 that is fully coupled with a global two-layer groundwater model. In this simulation we include the effects of land cover change, the building of reservoirs and human water use (abstraction from surface and groundwater, water consumption and return flows). The effects of wetland drainage and siltation of reservoirs is corrected for afterwards. We validate TWS estimates for the period 2003-2010 with GRACE estimates. Trends of TWS and its effects on sea-level change are estimated and the main contributions (humans and climate)identified. Similarly, we examine multi-year variability in TWS and sea-level change in relation to climate variability. Our results show a significant positive trend in TWS due to a trend in precipitation over the first half of the 20th century. In the second part of the 20th century trends in TWS due to dam impoundment and groundwater depletion are evident. Finally, large anomalies, in the order of 5 cm sea-level equivalent, can be seen as a result of interannual climate variability.

  2. Terrestrial water storage changes over the Pearl River Basin from GRACE and connections with Pacific climate variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhicai Luo; Chaolong Yao; Qiong Li; Zhengkai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Time-variable gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)satellite mission are used to study terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes over the Pearl River Basin (PRB) for the period 2003-Nov.2014.TWS estimates from GRACE generally show good agreement with those from two hydrological models GLDAS and WGHM.But they show different capability of detecting significant TWS changes over the PRB.Among them,WGHM is likely to underestimate the seasonal variability of TWS,while GRACE detects longterm water depletions over the upper PRB as was done by hydrological models,and observes significant water increases around the Longtan Reservoir (LTR) due to water impoundment.The heavy drought in 2011 caused by the persistent precipitation deficit has resulted in extreme low surface runoff and water level of the LTR.Moreover,large variability of summer and autumn precipitation may easily trigger floods and droughts in the rainy season in the PRB,especially for summer,as a high correlation of 0.89 was found between precipitation and surface runoff.Generally,the PRB TWS was negatively correlated with El Ni(n)o-Southem Oscillation (ENSO) events.However,the modulation of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) may impact this relationship,and the significant TWS anomaly was likely to occur in the peak of PDO phase as they agree well in both of the magnitude and timing of peaks.This indicates that GRACE-based TWS could be a valuable parameter for studying climatic influences in the PRB.

  3. An Improved GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Assimilation System For Estimating Large-Scale Soil Moisture and Shallow Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, M.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission is unique because it provides highly accurate column integrated estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. Major limitations of GRACE-based TWS observations are related to their monthly temporal and coarse spatial resolution (around 330 km at the equator), and to the vertical integration of the water storage components. These challenges can be addressed through data assimilation. To date, it is still not obvious how best to assimilate GRACE-TWS observations into a land surface model, in order to improve hydrological variables, and many details have yet to be worked out. This presentation discusses specific recent features of the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Catchment land surface model to improve soil moisture and shallow groundwater estimates at the continental scale. The major recent advancements introduced by the presented work with respect to earlier systems include: 1) the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data product with scaling factors that are specifically derived for data assimilation purposes only; 2) the assimilation is performed through a 3D assimilation scheme, in which reasonable spatial and temporal error standard deviations and correlations are exploited; 3) the analysis step uses an optimized calculation and application of the analysis increments; 4) a poor-man's adaptive estimation of a spatially variable measurement error. This work shows that even if they are characterized by a coarse spatial and temporal resolution, the observed column integrated GRACE-TWS data have potential for improving our understanding of soil moisture and shallow groundwater variations.

  4. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  5. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  6. Effect of deboning time and cold storage on water-holding capacity of chicken breast meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is a very important qualitative characteristic of meat and directly affects the yield of further processed meat and consumer acceptance of bagged pre-packaged fresh meat. Boneless skinless chicken breast meat for further processing and consumer usage is commonly deboned...

  7. A study of water electrolysis using ionic polymer-metal composite for solar energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keow, Alicia; Chen, Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen gas can be harvested via the electrolysis of water. The gas is then fed into a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to produce electricity with clean emission. Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC), which is made from electroplating a proton-conductive polymer film called Nafion encourages ion migration and dissociation of water under application of external voltage. This property has been proven to be able to act as catalyst for the electrolysis of pure water. This renewable energy system is inspired by photosynthesis. By using solar panels to gather sunlight as the source of energy, the generation of electricity required to activate the IPMC electrolyser is acquired. The hydrogen gas is collected as storable fuel and can be converted back into energy using a commercial fuel cell. The goal of this research is to create a round-trip energy efficient system which can harvest solar energy, store them in the form of hydrogen gas and convert the stored hydrogen back to electricity through the use of fuel cell with minimal overall losses. The effect of increasing the surface area of contact is explored through etching of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) with argon plasma or manually sanding the surface and how it affects the increase of energy conversion efficiency of the electrolyser. In addition, the relationship between temperature and the IPMC is studied. Experimental results demonstrated that increases in temperature of water and changes in surface area contact correlate with gas generation.

  8. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  9. Sensory Crispness of Crispy Rolls: Effect of Formulation, Storage Conditions, an Water Distribution in the Crust.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo Martin, C.; Vliet, van T.

    2009-01-01

    Crispness is an important sensory quality parameter that strongly influences the acceptability of cellular solid foods such as the crust of many types of breads. Crispness of the bread crust depends particularly on its water content. In this study, the relationship between sensory crispness of crisp

  10. 坑道水库储水防霉消毒对比研究%Comparative Study on Mildew Resistance and Disinfection of Tunnel Reservoir Water Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永良; 侯小平; 苏青平; 周聚中

    2011-01-01

    Objective On the basis of the fungi pollution of the tunnel reservoir water storage, the effects of mildew resistance and disinfection on the water storage between sodium dichloroisocyanurate and chlorine dioxide disinfector were compared to provide a basis for water storage health security in wartime or under some special conditions. Methods Sodium dichloroisocyanurate and chlorine dioxide as mildew resistance disinfector for tunnel reservoir water storage were chosen to conduct laboratory tests, on - site simulation experirnents and on - site reservoir water storage mildew resistance and disinfection. Results Disinfecting water storage with sodium dichloroisocyanurate containing a concentration of available chlorine 20 mg/L based on the water storage capacity, the remained chlorine was 10.9 mg/L in the 24th month after disinfection.Disinfecting water storage with 5 mg/L chlorine dioxide, the concentration of chlorine dioxide was 0.01 mg/L in the third month after disinfection. Conclusion Sodium dichloroisocyanurate which has a good stability in the tunnel environment is suitable for long- time mildew resistance and disinfection of tunnel reservoir water storage. Disinfecting water storage with chlorine dioxide which has an ideal disinfectant effect in tunnel environment in 3 months is suitable for rapid and short - term disinfection of tunnel reservoir water storage.%目的 根据坑道水库储水真菌污染状况,对比观察二氯异氰尿酸钠和二氧化氯消毒剂对储水的防霉消毒效果,为战时或特殊情况下储水卫生保障提供依据.方法 选择二氯异氰尿酸钠和二氧化氯作为坑道水库储水防霉消毒剂,进行实验室试验、现场模拟试验以及现场水库储水防霉消毒.结果 根据储水量按有效氯20 mg/L二氯异氰尿酸钠消毒储水,消毒后24个月余氯量为10.9 mg/L.按5 mg/L二氧化氯消毒储水,消毒后3个月二氧化氯浓度为0.01mg/L.结论 二氯异氰尿酸钠在坑道环境中

  11. The dynamics of supraglacial water storage in the Everest region, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. Scott; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of supraglacial pond development in the Everest region are not well constrained at a glacier scale, despite their known importance for meltwater storage, promoting ablation, and transmitting thermal energy englacially during drainage events. Here, we use fine-resolution (~ 0.5-2 m) satellite imagery to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of 9340 supraglacial ponds across nine glaciers in the Everest region, ~ 2000-2015. Six of our nine study glaciers displayed a net increase in ponded area over their observation periods. However, large inter- and intra-annual changes in ponded area were observed of up to 17% (Khumbu Glacier), and 52% (Ama Dablam) respectively. Additionally, two of the fastest expanding lakes (Spillway and Rongbuk) partially drained over our study period. The Khumbu Glacier is developing a chain of connected ponds in the lower ablation area, which is indicative of a trajectory towards large lake development. We show that use of medium-resolution imagery (e.g. 30 m Landsat) is likely to lead to large classification omissions of supraglacial ponds, on the order of 15-88% of ponded area, and 77-99% of the total number of ponds. Fine-resolution imagery is therefore required if the full spectrum of ponds that exist on the surface of debris-covered glaciers are to be analysed.

  12. Porous boron nitride with a high surface area: hydrogen storage and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xuewen; Zhang, Xinghua; Xue, Yanming; Mi, Jiao; Mo, Zhaojun; Fan, Ying; Hu, Long; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Fanbin; Yuan, Songdong; Tang, Chengchun

    2013-04-19

    We report on the synthesis of high-quality microporous/mesoporous BN material via a facile two-step approach. An extremely high surface area of 1687 m(2) g(-1) and a large pore volume of 0.99 cm(3) g(-1) have been observed in the synthesized BN porous whiskers. The formation of the porous structure was attributed to the group elimination of organic species in a BN precursor, melamine diborate molecular crystal. This elimination method maintained the ordered pore structure and numerous structural defects. The features including high surface area, pore volume and structural defects make the BN whiskers highly suitable for hydrogen storage and wastewater treatment applications. We demonstrate excellent hydrogen uptake capacity of the BN whiskers with high weight adsorption up to 5.6% at room temperature and at the relatively low pressure of 3 MPa. Furthermore, the BN whiskers also exhibit excellent adsorption capacity of methyl orange and copper ions, with the maximum removal capacity of 298.3 and 373 mg g(-1) at 298 K, respectively.

  13. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  14. Water chemistry, seepage investigation, streamflow, reservoir storage, and annual availability of water for the San Juan-Chama Project, northern New Mexico, 1942-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    at Azotea Tunnel Outlet occurred from May through June, with a median duration of slightly longer than a month. Years with higher maximum daily streamflow generally are associated with higher annual streamflow than years with lower maximum daily streamflow. The amount of water that can be diverted for the SJCP is controlled by the availability of streamflow and is limited by several factors including legal limits for diversion, limits from the SJCP infrastructure including the size of the diversion dams and tunnels, the capacity of Heron Reservoir, and operational constraints that limit when water can be diverted. The average annual streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet was 94,710 acre-feet, and the annual streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet was approximately 75 percent of the annual streamflow available for the SJCP. The average annual percentage of available streamflow not diverted for the SJCP was 14 percent because of structural limitations of the capacity of infrastructure, 1 percent because of limitations of the reservoir storage capacity, and 29 percent because of the limitations from operations. For most years, the annual available streamflow not diverted for unknown reasons exceeded the sum of the water not diverted because of structural, capacity, and operational limitations.

  15. Decommissioning strategy for liquid low-level radioactive waste surface storage water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, S S; Linge, I I

    2016-11-22

    The Techa Cascade of water reservoirs (TCR) is one of the most environmentally challenging facilities resulted from FSUE "PA "Mayak" operations. Its reservoirs hold over 360 mln m(3) of liquid radioactive waste with a total activity of some 5 × 10(15) Bq. A set of actions implemented under a special State program involving the development of a strategic plan aimed at complete elimination of TCR challenges (Strategic Master-Plan for the Techa Cascade of water reservoirs) resulted in considerable reduction of potential hazards associated with this facility. The paper summarizes the key elements of this master-plan: defining TCR final state, feasibility study of the main strategies aimed at its attainment, evaluation of relevant long-term decommissioning strategy, development of computational tools enabling the long-term forecast of TCR behavior depending on various engineering solutions and different weather conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bonding durability of custom-made mouthpiece for scuba diving after water storage under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Chie; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Matsui, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Takuto; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of laminated thermoforming materials in an underwater environment to understand the durability of mouthpieces for scuba diving. Two thermoforming materials, polyolefin (PO) and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EV), were laminated and stored in air, 37 degrees C water, and 37 degrees C water under 0.2-MPa pressure for 1 and 4 weeks . The load/ bonding width (bonding strength: BS) and displacement at the start of delamination (SD) and fracture (FR) were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA. BS values at SD and FR in air were significantly greater than those under the other conditions, and the BS at SD of EV was significantly greater than that of PO, though the effects of materials, duration and their interactions were not significantly different. The displacements at SD and FR were significantly influenced by the material. These results suggest that both materials can be employed for making a diving custom mouthpiece.

  17. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger; Binning, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters are determined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical...... polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing....... Nowak: Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 106 (2012) 179–190....

  18. Collection, storage and management of high-water marks data: praxis and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Piotte Olivier; Boura Céline; Cazaubon Anaïs; Chaléon Carine; Chambon Dominique; Guillevic Gwenaël; Pasquet Fabien; Perherin Céline; Raimbault Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    High-water marks data, in its most general definition, is a precious source of information for the many stakeholders involved in risk culture, inundation mapping, river, estuarine or coastal studies, etc. Although there have already been many initiatives to collect and exploit existing data, as well as collecting new marks after flood events, a lack of harmonization and coordination remains. The French flood forecasting services, together with Cerema, decided to provide technical and organiza...

  19. Collection, storage and management of high-water marks data: praxis and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotte Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-water marks data, in its most general definition, is a precious source of information for the many stakeholders involved in risk culture, inundation mapping, river, estuarine or coastal studies, etc. Although there have already been many initiatives to collect and exploit existing data, as well as collecting new marks after flood events, a lack of harmonization and coordination remains. The French flood forecasting services, together with Cerema, decided to provide technical and organizational solutions in order to set up a collaborative management approach of high-water marks data. On the one hand, a methodological handbook has been produced, giving recommendations for post-flood field investigations. It comes with a dedicated PDA tool and a PC desktop software. On the other hand, a national repository has been built, making it possible to gather the large range of informations usually needed. This repository is combined with a collaborative web platform, which aims to be a way of public access to the available information, a working tool for technical users, and a front door to contribute to the inventory. The last step of this approach is the setting of an organization blue-print including all the stakeholders directly or indirectly involved in high-water marks knowledge.

  20. Effects of inlet momentum and orientation on the hydraulic performance of water storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Manoel Lucas Machado; Janzen, Johannes Gérson

    2017-09-01

    The influence of inlet momentum and inlet orientation on hydraulic performance of cylindrical water process tanks were investigated using a factorial design strategy. The hydraulic performance of the tanks was assessed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, which calculated the flow fields and the residence time distribution (RTD). RTDs were used to quantify the tanks hydraulic performance using hydraulic indexes that represent short-circuiting, mixing, and moment. These indexes were later associated with the effluent fraction of disinfectant (inlet and outlet disinfectant ratio). For small depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation and the inlet momentum were the most important factors regarding the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, respectively. A poor correlation was obtained between the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, indicating that they are not good predictors for water quality. For large depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation had the most significant effect on both the hydraulic indexes and effluent fraction of disinfectant. The short-circuiting and mixing indexes presented a good correlation with water quality for this case.

  1. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Analysis and Application of Three Different Computational Methods for Solar Heating System with Seasonal Water Tank Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze and compare three different computational methods for a solar heating system with seasonal water tank heat storage (SHS-SWTHS. These methods are accurate numerical method, temperature stratification method, and uniform temperature method. The accurate numerical method can accurately predict the performance of the system, but it takes about 4 to 5 weeks, which is too long and hard for the performance analysis of this system. The temperature stratification method obtains relatively accurate computation results and takes a relatively short computation time, which is about 2 to 3 hours. Therefore, this method is most suitable for the performance analysis of this system. The deviation of the computational results of the uniform temperature method is great, and the time consumed is similar to that of the temperature stratification method. Therefore, this method is not recommended herein. Based on the above analyses, the temperature stratification method is applied to analyze the influence of the embedded depth of water tank, the thickness of thermal insulation material, and the collection area on the performance of this system. The results will provide a design basis for the related demonstration projects.

  3. Sustainability and scale-up of household water treatment and safe storage practices: Enablers and barriers to effective implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojomo, Edema; Elliott, Mark; Goodyear, Lorelei; Forson, Michael; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) provides a solution, when employed correctly and consistently, for managing water safety at home. However, despite years of promotion by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), governments and others, boiling is the only method to achieve scale. Many HWTS programs have reported strong initial uptake and use that then decreases over time. This study maps out enablers and barriers to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices. Interviews were carried out with 79 practitioners who had experience with HWTS programs in over 25 countries. A total of 47 enablers and barriers important to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices were identified. These were grouped into six domains: user guidance on HWTS products; resource availability; standards, certification and regulations; integration and collaboration; user preferences; and market strategies. Collectively, the six domains cover the major aspects of moving products from development to the consumers. It is important that each domain is considered in all programs that aim to sustain and scale-up HWTS practices. Our findings can assist governments, NGOs, and other organizations involved in HWTS to approach programs more effectively and efficiently. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Adhesive luting of all-ceramic restorations--the impact of cementation variables and short-term water storage on the strength of a feldspathic dental ceramic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the impact of resin cement luting variables and short-term water storage on the strength of an adhesively luted all-ceramic restorative material. An understanding of the strengthening mechanisms will result in optimisation of operative techniques and materials selection criteria.

  5. African water storage pots for the delivery of the Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the Malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, M.; Farina, D.; Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Hunt, R.H.; Coetzee, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the use of African water storage pots for point source application of Metarhizium anisopliae against the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. funestus. Clay pots were shown to be attractive resting sites for male and female An. gambiae s.s. and were not repellent after impregnat

  6. A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

  7. Thermal assessment of Shippingport pressurized water reactor blanket fuel assemblies within a multi-canister overpack within the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEARD, F.J.

    1999-04-09

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the thermal performance characteristics of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies as loaded within a Multi-Canister Overpack within the Canister Storage Building. A two-dimensional finite element was developed, with enough detail to model the individual fuel plates: including the fuel wafers, cladding, and flow channels.

  8. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  9. African water storage pots for the delivery of the Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the Malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, M.; Farina, D.; Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Hunt, R.H.; Coetzee, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the use of African water storage pots for point source application of Metarhizium anisopliae against the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. funestus. Clay pots were shown to be attractive resting sites for male and female An. gambiae s.s. and were not repellent after

  10. Measures analysis of inhibition water collection of waste storage structures RBMA; Analisis de medidas de inhibicion de la recogida de agua en estructuras de almacenamiento de residuos RBMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. R.; Ordonez Alvarez, M.; Lopez Diez, I.

    2010-07-01

    In concrete structures storage in closed containers which are located separate from the concrete walls of the walls by an air chamber occurs, periodically, the water collection network seepage control thereof. This phenomenon is caused by the thermal insulating performance of said air chamber, which causes temperature gradients between opposing concrete walls (walls and containers), diffusive flow of water vapor and processes of evaporation / condensation on the concrete.

  11. Revised shallow and deep water-level and storage-volume changes in the Equus Beds Aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, predevelopment to 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the 1940s, the Wichita well field was developed in the Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County to supply water to the city of Wichita. The decline of water levels in the aquifer was noted soon after the development of the Wichita well field began. Development of irrigation wells began in the 1960s. City and agricultural withdrawals led to substantial water-level declines. Water-level declines enhanced movement of brines from past oil and gas activities near Burrton, Kansas and enhanced movement of natural saline water from the Arkansas River into the well field area. Large chloride concentrations may limit use or require the treatment of water from the well field for irrigation or public supply. In 1993, the city of Wichita adopted the Integrated Local Water Supply Program (ILWSP) to ensure an adequate water supply for the city through 2050 and as part of its effort to effectively manage the part of the Equus Beds aquifer it uses. ILWSP uses several strategies to do this including the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project. The purpose of the ASR project is to store water in the aquifer for later recovery and to help protect the aquifer from encroachment of a known oilfield brine plume near Burrton and saline water from the Arkansas River. As part of Wichita’s ASR permits, Wichita is prohibited from artificially recharging water into the aquifer in a Basin Storage area (BSA) grid cell if water levels in that cell are above the January 1940 water levels or are less than 10 feet below land surface. The map previously used for this purpose did not provide an accurate representation of the shallow water table. The revised predevelopment water-level altitude map of the shallow part of the aquifer is presented in this report. The city of Wichita’s ASR permits specify that the January 1993 water-level altitudes will be used as a lower baseline for regulating the withdrawal of artificial rechage

  12. Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Water Storage with GRACE and Future Gravimetry Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matt; Watkins, Mike; Famiglietti, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated that satellite gravimetry can be a valuable tool for regional to global water cycle observation. Studies of ice sheet and glacier mass losses, ocean bottom pressure and circulation, and variability of water stored on and in the land including groundwater all have benefited from GRACE observations, and the list of applications and discoveries continues to grow. As the mission approaches its tenth anniversary of launch on March 12,2012, it has nearly doubled its proposed lifetime but is showing some signs of age. In particular, degraded battery capacity limits the availability of power in certain orbital configurations, so that the accelerometers must be turned off for approximately one month out of six. The mission managers have decided to operate the spacecrafts in a manner that maximizes the remaining lifetime, so that the longest possible climate data record is available from GRACE. Nevertheless, it is not unlikely that there will be a data gap between GRACE and the GRACE Follow On mission, currently proposed for launch in 2016. In this presentation we will describe recent GRACE enabled science, GRACE mission health, and plans for GRACE Follow On and other future satellite gravimetry missions.

  13. Seasonal, Episodic and Periodic Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Recorded By DEEP Piezometric Monitoring in the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna DELTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Ahmed, K. M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.; Zahid, A.

    2014-12-01

    Piezometric monitoring in vertical profile at sites across the southern and coastal floodplains of the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna (GBM) delta confirms gravitational flow in sediments of the Bengal Aquifer System (BAS) to a depth of at least 320 m (the maximum depth of measurement). Individual and paired records of groundwater head indicate seasonal recovery and recession of water storage, periodic and episodic ground surface loading, and earth tide responses. Lunar periodicity in groundwater head fluctuation coincident with tide height at one coastal site is consistent with tidal surface loading/unloading. Diurnal tidal fluctuations in the same record change amplitude and shift phase with depth, also indicative of surface loading/unloading. Transience in the surface loading signals with depth is governed by the vertically integrated hydraulic properties of the thick BAS sedimentary sequence. Inland, earth tide responses of smaller amplitude and lacking phase shift with depth are ubiquitous in the background signal. Most records include clearly resolvable episodic deflections in the order of 0.1 m water head and up to 0.5 m water head, near simultaneous with depth, corresponding to individual episodes of rainfall. The episodic head deflections provide a record of change in terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS) comprising undifferentiated surface water flooding, soil moisture and shallow groundwater recharge - a direct land-based equivalent of satellite estimates of ΔTWS. Enigmatic short-term recession from individual deflection peaks may be related to elastic deformation and ground surface lowering under terrestrial water storage loading.

  14. RCC Arch Dam Structure on the Taxi River and Water Storage Measure During Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光廷; 李鹏辉; 胡昱; 张富德; 谢树南

    2002-01-01

    The new structure of roller compacted concrete (RCC) arch dams is presented for extremely cold and earthquake prone areas. The influence of construction plans and improved materials on the stresses in the Taxi River dam is also given. Earlier impoundment of water is shown to not only benefit the engineering design but also improve the stresses during construction in winter. Low cement content in the concrete and artificial short joints improved the monolithic structure and the transmitted forces. The concrete plug installed in the first cooled part of the arch dam provides excellent force transmission in the arch, which increases the monolith of the earlier arch, reduces the increasing thermal stresses that occur later, and improves the deformation flexibility of the dam.

  15. Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Hubbard, A. L.; Doyle, S. H.; As, D.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Fitzpatrick, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Meltwater drainage across the surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is well constrained by measurements and modeling, yet despite its critical role, knowledge of its transit through the subglacial environment remains limited. Here we present a subglacial hydrological analysis of a land-terminating sector of the GrIS at unprecedented resolution that predicts the routing of surface-derived meltwater once it has entered the basal drainage system. Our analysis indicates the probable existence of small subglacial lakes that remain undetectable by methods using surface elevation change or radar techniques. Furthermore, the analysis suggests transient behavior with rapid switching of subglacial drainage between competing catchments driven by seasonal changes in the basal water pressure. Our findings provide a cautionary note that should be considered in studies that attempt to relate and infer future response from surface temperature, melt, and runoff from point measurements and/or modeling with measurements of proglacial discharge and ice dynamics.

  16. The effect of direct and indirect water storage on the microtensile dentin bond strength of a total-etch and two self-etching adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ali I; El Eraki, Magda; Feilzer, Albert J

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of direct and indirect water storage on the microtensile dentin bond strength of one total-etch and two self-etching adhesives. The adhesive materials were: one total-etch adhesive; Admira Bond and two self-etch adhesives; Clearfil SE Bond and Hybrid Bond. Freshly extracted human third molar teeth were used. In each tooth, a Class I cavity (4 x 4 mm) was prepared in the occlusal surface with the pulpal floor extending approximately 1 mm into dentin. The teeth were divided into three groups (n = 12). Each group was restored with the resin composite Clearfil APX using one of the tested adhesives. For each experimental group three test procedures (n = 10) were carried out: Procedure A: the teeth were stored in water for 24 hours, then sectioned longitudinally, buccolingually and mesiodistally to get rectangular slabs of 1.0 - 1.2 mm thickness on which a microtensile test was carried out; Procedure B: the teeth were also sectioned, however the slabs were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 1 year before microtensile testing; Procedure C: the teeth were kept in water at 37 degrees C for 1 year before sectioning and microtensile testing. During microtensile testing the slabs were placed in a universal testing machine and load was applied at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. For the 24-hour water storage groups there was no significant difference in bond strength between the three adhesives. After 1 year of indirect water storage, the bond strength decreased but the reduction was not significantly different from those of 24 hours. After 1 year of direct water storage, the mean bond strengths of Admira Bond and Hybrid Bond were significantly reduced compared to their 24-hour results. In contrast the average value of Clearfil SE Bond was not significantly affected.

  17. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  18. Effect of Air Cooling and Vacuum Cooling Storage on the β-Carotene Content and Proximate Analysis (Water Content, pH, Total Protein and Content of Sugar) in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Martini, T.; Rini, K. S.; Okstafiyanti, L.

    2017-04-01

    The study of air cooling and vacuum cooling storage effect on the β-carotene content and proximate analysis in carrot has been studied. The aim of the research to determine the effective storage in carrot to improve the quality and the shelf life. Parameters measured during the 12 weeks of storage process were β-carotene, pH, water, sugar and protein content. Validation analysis for β-carotene method showed a good linearity (r 2 = 0.997) in a range of 0-8 mg/L and (r 2 = 0.999) in a range of 0-1 mg/L. The precision was exemplified by %RSD of 0.88%-7.48%. Mean recovery was 100.66% during accuracy studied. UV analysis revealed the LOD values were 0.009 mg/L and LOQ values were 0.032 mg/L. The decreased content of β-carotene, water, protein, and pH from carrot during vacuum cooling storage were higher than in the air cooling storage period. The sugar content for air cooling storage increased up to eight weeks and decreased at the end of storage while the vacuum cooling storage decreased from the beginning of the storage period. All the data indicates that the air cooling storage was more effective storage techniques for extending the shelf life of carrot compared to the vacuum cooling storage.

  19. Effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage and grain protein accumulation of dryland wheat and its regulatory effect by nitrogen application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    Full Text Available To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0-300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60-160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40-160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N applic